National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bagasse rice hulls

  1. Hull | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Hull Place: Dublin, Ohio Sector: Biomass, Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: US-based company that develop renewable energy projects using solar,...

  2. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hull Municipal Light Plant Name: Hull Municipal Light Plant Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: 781-925-0051 Website:...

  3. Hull Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hull Wind Farm Facility Hull Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Hull Municipal Light...

  4. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  5. Hull, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hull, Massachusetts: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.3020436, -70.9078243 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  6. Hull Wind II Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    II Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hull Wind II Wind Farm Facility Hull II Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Hull...

  7. Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Christine Hull |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Christine Hull Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Christine Hull PDF icon fewm13_army_hull_highres.pdf PDF icon fewm13_army_hull.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Sandrine Schultz Hull Wind: A Community Gets Green Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Ronald Allard, Joseph Eberly, Amy Hudson, James B. Shaffer

  8. Fast pyrolysis of sweet soghum bagasse in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palm, M.; Peacocke, C.; Bridgewater, A.V.; Piskorz, J.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-12-31

    Samples of Italian sorghum bagasse were dried and ground and then pyrolyzed in the Waterloo Fast Pyrolysis bench scale reactor unit. Results were typical of agricultural grasses of this kind, and resembled those obtained from similar tests of sugar cane bagasse. A maximum liquid yield (dry feed basis) of 68% by weight of dry feed was achieved, with a corresponding char yield (ash included) of 16%. The high ash content of the bagasse (9.2%) gave a char with a very high ash content ({approx}50%), with calcium as the most abundant cation. Yields of hydroxyacetaldehyde were comparable to those obtained from softwoods. Deionized bagasse gave significant yields of anhydrosugars on pyrolysis. Sorghum bagasse appears to be a suitable feedstock, either for pyrolysis to yield an alternative fuel oil, or after pretreatment and pyrolysis, to yield a solution of fermentable sugars.

  9. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  10. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  11. Hull Wind: A Community Gets Green

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Community and Renewable Energy Success Stories webinar series titled Wind Energy in Urban Environments. This presentation describes two wind turbine installations and plans for an off-shore development in Hull, Massachusetts, at the entrance to Boston Harbor.

  12. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination process by obstructing the removal of contamination. The thermal decomposition of this material is also undesirable if the cladding hulls are melted for volume reduction or to produce waste forms. Handling and disposal of the corrosive off-gas stream and ZrO{sub 2}-containing dross must be addressed. The stability of Zr{sup 4+} in the NHF{sub 4}/NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution is also a concern. Precipitation of ammonium zirconium fluorides upon cooling of the dissolving solution was observed in the feasibility experiments. Precipitation of the solids was attributed to the high fluoride to Zr ratios used in the experiments. The solubility of Zr{sup 4+} in NH{sub 4}F solutions decreases as the free fluoride concentration increases. The removal of the ZrO{sub 2} layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons with HF showed a strong dependence on both the concentration and temperature. Very rapid dissolution of the oxide layer and significant amounts of metal was observed in experiments using HF concentrations {ge} 2.5 M. Treatment of the coupons using HF concentrations {le} 1.0 M was very effective in removing the oxide layer. The most effective conditions resulted in dissolution rates which were less than approximately 2 mg/cm{sup 2}-min. With dissolution rates in this range, uniform removal of the oxide layer was obtained and a minimal amount of Zircaloy metal was dissolved. Future HF dissolution studies should focus on the decontamination of actual spent fuel cladding hulls to determine if the treated hulls meet criteria for disposal as a LLW.

  13. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  14. MEASUREMENT OF TRITIUM DURING VOLOXIDATION OF ZIRCALOY-2 FUEL HULLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowder, M.; Laurinat, J.; Stillman, J.

    2010-10-14

    A straightforward method to evaluate the tritium content of Zircaloy-2 cladding hulls via oxidation of the hull and capture of the volatilized tritium in liquids has been demonstrated. Hull samples were heated in air inside a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The TGA was rapidly heated to 1000 C to oxidize the hulls and release absorbed tritium. To capture tritium, the TGA off-gas was bubbled through a series of liquid traps. The concentrations of tritium in bubbler solutions indicated that tritiated water vapor was captured nearly quantitatively. The average tritium content measured in the hulls was 19% of the amount of tritium produced by the fuel, according to ORIGEN2 isotope generation and depletion calculations. Published experimental data show that Zircaloy-2 oxidation follows an Arrhenius model, and that an initial, nonlinear oxidation rate is followed by a faster, linear rate after 'breakaway' of the oxide film. This study demonstrates that the linear oxidation rate of Zircaloy samples at 974 C is faster than predicted by the extrapolation of data from lower temperatures.

  15. Rice, Bryan Joseph

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The (4)He(gamma,dd) reaction at E(gamma) 150--250 MeV Rice, Bryan Joseph ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; 1998; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT) pg. na Reproduced with...

  16. Design of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems for U.S. Navy hulls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, K.E.; Thomas, E.D.; Kaznoff, A.I.; Hogan, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The goal of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) design for ship hulls, under the Navy Ship's Technical Manual (NSTM, Chapter 633), is to provide a uniform potential distribution at {minus}0.85 V, {+-}0.05 V, versus a silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) reference cell, over the wetted hull surface during all operational aspects of an active ship. To accomplish this, the physical scale modeling (PSM) technique, combined with a rigid design protocol, has been used extensively by the US Navy to provide optimal and retrofit upgrade designs of ICCP systems for hulls. The ICCP design guidance, provided by the protocol, defines the hull properties, hull damage and general power supply requirements. PSM is utilized to determine optimal placement of ICCP components (anodes and reference cells) and to evaluate performance for up to a 15% wetted hull coatings loss under static (pierside) and dynamic (underway) conditions. Data are provided which illustrate the use of the design protocol criteria, along with the integrated PSM technique, to determine ICCP system design and evaluate performance.

  17. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  18. Far West Rice | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Rice Jump to: navigation, search Name: Far West Rice Place: Nelson, California Zip: 95958 Sector: Solar Product: California-based family-owned rice mill. Owns a solar farm...

  19. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  20. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  1. Rice Lake Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 715-234-7004 Website: www.ricelakeutilities.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCity-of-Rice-Lake-Utilities162786740407997 Outage...

  2. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA_Appendix 4_Geophysical Survey Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    CR Environmental, Inc. (CR) was contracted by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) to perform hydrographic and geophysical surveys of an approximately 3.35 square mile area off the eastern shore of Hull, Massachusetts. Survey components included: • Single-beam bathymetry; • 100-kHz and 500-kHz side scan sonar; • Magnetometry; and • Low to mid-frequency sub-bottom profiling.

  3. An overview of agriforestry waste production and use in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleit, S.; Hoop, C.F. de; Chang, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Agriculture and forestry are the second largest employers in the state of Louisiana. Natural by-products of these industries are biomass waste in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. Disposing of these wastes poses problems for the air and water. One popular waste management solution is to use them for fuel. To measure the potential for using biomass waste for fuel and other uses, a study was conducted of sugar cane processors, cotton ginners, rice processors and the primary and secondary wood processors in Louisiana. The study revealed that while some firms use waste for their own boilers, or sell it to others for fuel, there is still unused waste. There are many reasons for this including the cost of competing energy sources, lack of marketing innovation and the economies of scale. The study`s mission includes identifying new areas for utilizing waste. To facilitate these innovations, and bridge buyers with sellers of biomass waste, a geographic information system (GIS) was developed to map all sites claiming to produce and/or consume wood waste, as well as processors of cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. These data are layered with timber supply data from the U.S. Forest Service.

  4. VEE-0035- In the Matter of Rice Oil Company, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 22, 1996, Rice Oil Company, Inc. (Rice) of Greenfield, Massachusetts filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE)....

  5. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA March 29, 2010 EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an ...

  6. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA, Appendix 2: LaCapra Financial Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    The financial analysis and summary results presented in this document represent a first cut at an economic assessment of the proposed Hull Offshore Wind Project. Wind turbine price increases have outpaced the materials and labor price pressures faced by nonrenewable power plant developers due to increased demands on a limited pool of turbine manufacturers and offshore installation companies. Moreover, given the size of the proposed offshore facility, it may be difficult to contract with turbine manufacturers and/or foundation companies given the size and scope of competing worldwide demand. The results described in this report assume that such conditions will not significantly impact the prices that will have to be received from the output of the project; rather, the project size may require as a prerequisite that Hull be able to piggyback on other offshore efforts. The financial estimates provided here necessarily feature a range due to uncertainty in a number of project assumptions as well as overall uncertainty in offshore wind costs. Nevertheless, taken together, the analysis provides a ballpark revenue requirement of approximately $157/MWh for the municipal financing option, with higher estimates possible assuming escalation in costs to levels higher than assumed here.

  7. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S.; Bjorklund, E. A.; Burns, M. J.; Carr, G.; Carr, G.; Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J.; Lusk, M. D.; Merl, R. B.; Potter, J. M.; Reynolds, J. A.; Romero, D. B.; Shelley, F. E.

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  8. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  9. John Rice Irwin, part 1 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 John Rice Irwin, part 1 Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript John Rice

  10. John Rice Irwin, part 2 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 John Rice Irwin, part 2 Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript John Rice

  11. VBZ-0062- In the Matter of Sue Rice Gossett

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Initial Agency Decision concerns a whistleblower complaint filed by Sue Rice Gossett (Gossett) against her former employer, the Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC), under the Department of...

  12. VBH-0062- In the Matter of Sue Rice Gossett

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Initial Agency Decision concerns a whistleblower complaint filed by Sue Rice Gossett (Gossett) against her former employer, the Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC), under the Department of...

  13. Rice County, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rice County, Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 38.2808698, -98.2212979 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  14. International Experience in Standards and Labeling Programs for Rice Cookers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina

    2008-05-01

    China has had an active program on energy efficiency standards for household appliances since the mid-1990s. Rice cooker is among the first to be subject to such mandatory regulation, since it is one of the most prevalent electric appliances in Chinese households. Since first introduced in 1989, the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers has not been revised. Therefore, the potential for energy saving is considerable. Initial analysis from CNIS indicates that potential carbon savings is likely to reach 7.6 million tons of CO2 by the 10th year of the standard implementation. Since September 2007, CNIS has been working with various groups to develop the new standard for rice cookers. With The Energy Foundation's support, LBNL has assisted CNIS in the revision of the minimum energy efficiency standard for rice cookers that is expected to be effective in 2009. Specifically, work has been in the following areas: assistance in developing consumer survey on usage pattern of rice cookers, review of international standards, review of international test procedures, comparison of the international standards and test procedures, and assessment of technical options of reducing energy use. This report particularly summarizes the findings of reviewing international standards and technical options of reducing energy consumption. The report consists of an overview of rice cooker standards and labeling programs and testing procedures in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Thailand, and Japan's case study in developing energy efficiency rice cooker technologies and rice cooker efficiency programs. The results from the analysis can be summarized as the follows: Hong Kong has a Voluntary Energy Efficiency Labeling scheme for electric rice cookers initiated in 2001, with revision implemented in 2007; South Korea has both MEPS and Mandatory Energy Efficiency Label targeting the same category of rice cookers as Hong Kong; Thailand's voluntary endorsement labeling program is similar to Hong Kong in program design but has 5 efficiency grades; Japan's program is distinct in its adoption of the 'Top Runner' approach, in which, the future efficiency standards is set based on the efficiency levels of the most efficient product in the current domestic market. Although the standards are voluntary, penalties can still be evoked if the average efficiency target is not met. Both Hong Kong and South Korea's tests involve pouring water into the inner pot equal to 80% of its rated volume; however, white rice is used as a load for its tests in Hong Kong whereas no rice is used for tests in South Korea. In Japan's case, water level specified by the manufactures is used and milled rice is used as a load only partially in the tests. Moreover, Japan does not conduct heat efficiency test but its energy consumption measurements tests are much more complex, with 4 different tests are conducted to determine the annual average energy consumption. Hong Kong and Thailand both set Minimum Allowable Heat Efficiency for different rated wattages. The energy efficiency requirements are identical except that the minimum heat efficiency in Thailand is 1 percentage point higher for all rated power categories. In South Korea, MEPS and label's energy efficiency grades are determined by the rice cooker's Rated Energy Efficiency for induction, non-induction, pressure, nonpressure rice cookers. Japan's target standard values are set for electromagnetic induction heating products and non-electromagnetic induction heating products by different size of rice cookers. Specific formulas are used by type and size depending on the mass of water evaporation of the rice cookers. Japan has been the leading country in technology development of various types of rice cookers, and developed concrete energy efficiency standards for rice cookers. However, as consumers in Japan emphasize the deliciousness of cooked rice over other factors, many types of models were developed to improve the taste of cooked rice. Nonetheless, the efficiency of electromagnetic induction heating (IH) rice cook

  15. VBA-0062- In the Matter of Susan Rice Gossett

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Decision considers an Appeal of an Initial Agency Decision (IAD) issued on May 8, 2002, involving a Complaint filed by Susan Rice Gossett (Gossett or the Complainant) under the Department of...

  16. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 9: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project in Riverside County, CA March 29, 2010 EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Construction and Operation of the Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA October 22, 2010 EIS-0439: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California October 22, 2010 EIS-0439: Draft

  17. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane emissions from paddies.

  18. membrane-rice-university | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined Pressure, Temperature Contrast, and Surface-Enhanced Separation of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007531 Rice University is investigating CO2-capture cost-reduction opportunities by developing a novel gas absorption process. Specific project research topics include the following: Combining the absorber and stripper columns into a single, integrated unit. The use of vacuum stripping in combination with waste heatfor regeneration of carbon

  19. Methane emission from single cropping rice paddies amended different manures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Daodeng; Tao Zhan

    1996-12-31

    Methane emission fluxes were determined from single cropping rice paddies amended with different manures through a productively comparative experiment. The average fluxes in the whole growth season ranged from 3.92 to 10.96 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The compost amended paddies gave the highest emission fluxes of 10.26 mg/m{sup 2}.hr, while the fluxes from the other manure amended paddies ranked as follows: horse dung biogas digester sediment 10.02, chemical fertilizer only 8.81, nightsoil biogas sediment 7.76, chicken dropping biogas digester sediment 4.48 and pig dung biogas digester sediment 3.92 mg/m{sup 2}.hr. The latter 3 sediments gave the significant less ({alpha} < 0.05) fluxes than compost. The highest fluxes peaks of all treated paddies appeared unanimously between the stages of the midtillering and the earing, with a half of total CH{sub 4} emissions were produced in this period which could be chosen as the key period for control of CH{sub 4} emission from the single cropping rice paddies. The positive correlation of the fluxes with the temperatures in 5 cm soil layers and the negative correlation of the fluxes with the rice yields, the soil N and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} contents were also observed.

  20. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G. E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  1. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  2. RAPID FUSION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF PLUTONIUM ISOTOPES IN LARGE RICE SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2013-03-01

    A new rapid fusion method for the determination of plutonium in large rice samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used to determine very low levels of plutonium isotopes in rice. The recent accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 reinforces the need to have rapid, reliable radiochemical analyses for radionuclides in environmental and food samples. Public concern regarding foods, particularly foods such as rice in Japan, highlights the need for analytical techniques that will allow very large sample aliquots of rice to be used for analysis so that very low levels of plutonium isotopes may be detected. The new method to determine plutonium isotopes in large rice samples utilizes a furnace ashing step, a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with TEVA Resin? cartridges. The method can be applied to rice sample aliquots as large as 5 kg. Plutonium isotopes can be determined using alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory plutonium particles are effectively digested. The MDA for a 5 kg rice sample using alpha spectrometry is 7E-5 mBq g{sup -1}. The method can easily be adapted for use by ICP-MS to allow detection of plutonium isotopic ratios.

  3. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, Kazuei Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  4. EIS-0439: Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental review was prepared by DOE’s Western Area Power Administration with the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) as a cooperating agency. This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of the Rice Solar Energy Project, a 150-megawatt solar concentrating electric powerplant proposed to be constructed on private land in the Sonoran Desert. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration actions under this proposal include building and operating a new substation to interconnect the solar project to Western’s transmission system. DOE may also use this EIS as part of its decision whether to issue a Federal loan guarantee to support the proposal. BLM’s actions under this proposal includes amending California Desert Conservation Area Plan to designate a new corridor for a 161-kV transmission line, which would facilitate the development of solar energy on private lands.

  5. Transgenic expression of the dicotyledonous pattern recognition receptor EFR in rice leads to ligand-dependent activation of defense responses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Bahar, Ofir; Thomas, Nicolas; Holton, Nicolas; Nekrasov, Vladimir; Ruan, Deling; Canlas, Patrick E.; Daudi, Arsalan; Petzold, Christopher J.; Singan, Vasanth R.; et al

    2015-03-30

    Plant plasma membrane localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect extracellular pathogen-associated molecules. PRRs such as Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21 are taxonomically restricted and are absent from most plant genomes. Here we show that rice plants expressing EFR or the chimeric receptor EFR::XA21, containing the EFR ectodomain and the XA21 intracellular domain, sense both Escherichia coli- and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)-derived elf18 peptides at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Treatment of EFR and EFR::XA21 rice leaf tissue with elf18 leads to MAP kinase activation, reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression. Although expression of EFR does not lead to robust enhanced resistancemore » to fully virulent Xoo isolates, it does lead to quantitatively enhanced resistance to weakly virulent Xoo isolates. EFR interacts with OsSERK2 and the XA21 binding protein 24 (XB24), two key components of the rice XA21-mediated immune response. Rice-EFR plants silenced for OsSERK2, or overexpressing rice XB24 are compromised in elf18-induced reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression indicating that these proteins are also important for EFR-mediated signaling in transgenic rice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential feasibility of enhancing disease resistance in rice and possibly other monocotyledonous crop species by expression of dicotyledonous PRRs. Our results also suggest that Arabidopsis EFR utilizes at least a subset of the known endogenous rice XA21 signaling components.« less

  6. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  7. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  8. Hyliion Wins U.S. Department of Energy Clean Tech Prize at 2015 Rice

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business Plan Competition | Department of Energy Hyliion Wins U.S. Department of Energy Clean Tech Prize at 2015 Rice Business Plan Competition Hyliion Wins U.S. Department of Energy Clean Tech Prize at 2015 Rice Business Plan Competition April 22, 2015 - 10:10am Addthis Mario Avila (left), Hayden Cardiff (center), and Thomas Healy of Hyliion have developed an add-on hybrid module for tractor trailers that is installed underneath the trailer and is estimated to have a fuel savings upwards of

  9. Transgenic expression of the dicotyledonous pattern recognition receptor EFR in rice leads to ligand-dependent activation of defense responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Bahar, Ofir; Thomas, Nicolas; Holton, Nicolas; Nekrasov, Vladimir; Ruan, Deling; Canlas, Patrick E.; Daudi, Arsalan; Petzold, Christopher J.; Singan, Vasanth R.; Kuo, Rita; Chovatia, Mansi; Daum, Christopher; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Zipfel, Cyril; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-03-30

    Plant plasma membrane localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect extracellular pathogen-associated molecules. PRRs such as Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21 are taxonomically restricted and are absent from most plant genomes. Here we show that rice plants expressing EFR or the chimeric receptor EFR::XA21, containing the EFR ectodomain and the XA21 intracellular domain, sense both Escherichia coli- and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo)-derived elf18 peptides at sub-nanomolar concentrations. Treatment of EFR and EFR::XA21 rice leaf tissue with elf18 leads to MAP kinase activation, reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression. Although expression of EFR does not lead to robust enhanced resistance to fully virulent Xoo isolates, it does lead to quantitatively enhanced resistance to weakly virulent Xoo isolates. EFR interacts with OsSERK2 and the XA21 binding protein 24 (XB24), two key components of the rice XA21-mediated immune response. Rice-EFR plants silenced for OsSERK2, or overexpressing rice XB24 are compromised in elf18-induced reactive oxygen production and defense gene expression indicating that these proteins are also important for EFR-mediated signaling in transgenic rice. Taken together, our results demonstrate the potential feasibility of enhancing disease resistance in rice and possibly other monocotyledonous crop species by expression of dicotyledonous PRRs. Our results also suggest that Arabidopsis EFR utilizes at least a subset of the known endogenous rice XA21 signaling components.

  10. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  11. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. • The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. • The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. • VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. • The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.9–70.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  12. Rice straw burning in Southeast Asia as a source of CO and COS to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, B.C.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Putaud, J.P. [Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-08-20

    This paper discusses the results of aerosol monitoring field tests conducted in four locations in Viet Nam during 1992 and 1993. Atmospheric samples were collected during the dry and wet seasons during the time when rice straw burning was taking place in the agricultural rangelands. The samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide. Experimental methods and implications of the analytical results are described. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  14. Catalytic gasification studies in a pressurized fluid-bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Brown, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing specific gas products via the catalytic gasification of biomass. This report presents the results of research conducted from October 1980 to November 1982. In the laboratory scale studis, active catalysts were developed for generation of synthesis gases from wood by steam gasification. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Co-Mo on silica-alumina doped with 2 wt % Na, was found to retain activity indefinitely for generation of a methanol synthesis gas from wood at 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C) and 1 atm (100 kPa) absolute pressure. Catalysts for generation of a methane-rich gas were deactivated rapidly and could not be regenerated as required for economic application. Sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate were effective as catalysts for conversion of wood to synthesis gases and methane-rich gas and should be economically viable. Catalytic gasification conditions were found to be suitable for processing of alternative feedstocks: bagasse, alfalfa, rice hulls, and almond hulls. The PDU was operated successfully at absolute pressures of up to 10 atm (1000 kPa) and temperatures of up to 1380/sup 0/F (750/sup 0/C). Yields of synthesis gases at elevated pressure were greater than those used for previous economic evaluations. A trimetallic catalyst, Ni-Cu-Mo on silica-alumina, did not display a long life as did the doped trimetallic catalyst used in laboratory studies. A computer program for a Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I microcomputer was developed to evaluate rapidly the economics of producing either methane or methanol from wood. The program is based on economic evaluations reported in previous studies. Improved yields from the PDU studies were found to result in a reduction of about 9 cents/gal in methanol cost.

  15. Temporal patterns of methane emissions from wetland rice fields treated by different modes of N application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wassmann, R.; Neue, H.U.; Lantin, R.S.; Aduna, J.B.; Alberto, M.C.R.; Andales, M.J.; Tan, M.J.; Hoffmann, H.; Papen, H.; Gon, H.A.C. D. van der

    1994-08-20

    Methane emission rates from wetland rice fields were determined in Los Banos (Philipppines) using an automatic system that allows continuous measurements over time. Methane emission was monitored in an irrigated Aquandic Epiaqualf planted to rice cultivar IR72. Urea fertilizer was applied using four modes: (1) broadcast 10 days after transplanting, (2) broadcast at transplanting, (3) broadcast and incorporated at final harrowing, and (4) deep placement as sulfur-coated granules. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. Measurements were done in the 1991 wet season, 1992 dry season (four treatments), and the 1992 wet season (only treatment 3). Methane emission rates from the experimental plots showed pronounced season and diel variations. The diel pattern of methane emission rates followed a consistent pattern, with highest rates observed in the early afternoon and lowest rates in the early morning. Methane emission rate was generally highest at the ripening stage. The average methane emission rate during the 1992 dry season (190 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}) exceeded the average flux rates of the 1992 wet season (79 mg CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}) by a factor of 2.4. The total methane emitted from these flooded rice fields amounted to 19 g CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} in the dry season with rice yields of 5.2-6.3 ha{sup {minus}1} and 7 g CH{sub 4} m{sup {minus}2} in the wet season with rice yields of 2.4-3.3 t ha{sup {minus}1} regardless of the mode of N application. Significant amounts corresponding to 20% of the methane released under waterlogged conditions were released when the soil was drained after harvest. Emission rates increased sharply when the floodwater receded and macropores started to drain. Emission of methane stopped only when the soil became fully aerated. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogusław

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to usemore » in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.« less

  17. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogus?aw

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.

  18. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  19. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; Paterson, Andrew H

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures of selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.

  20. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H.; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; et al

    2015-04-19

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures ofmore »selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.« less

  1. Genetic analysis of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum (Panicoidae) and comparative genetics with rice (Oryzoidae)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Dong; Kong, Wenqian; Robertson, Jon; Goff, Valorie H; Epps, Ethan; Kerr, Alexandra; Mills, Gabriel; Cromwell, Jay; Lugin, Yelena; Phillips, Christine; et al

    2015-12-01

    Domestication has played an important role in shaping characteristics of the inflorescence and plant height in cultivated cereals. Taking advantage of meta-analysis of QTLs, phylogenetic analyses in 502 diverse sorghum accessions, GWAS in a sorghum association panel (n = 354) and comparative data, we provide insight into the genetic basis of the domestication traits in sorghum and rice. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 6 traits related to inflorescence morphology and 6 traits related to plant height in sorghum, comparing the genomic regions implicated in these traits by GWAS and QTL mapping, respectively. In a search for signatures ofmore » selection, we identify genomic regions that may contribute to sorghum domestication regarding plant height, flowering time and pericarp color. Comparative studies across taxa show functionally conserved ‘hotspots’ in sorghum and rice for awn presence and pericarp color that do not appear to reflect corresponding single genes but may indicate co-regulated clusters of genes. We also reveal homoeologous regions retaining similar functions for plant height and flowering time since genome duplication an estimated 70 million years ago or more in a common ancestor of cereals. In most such homoeologous QTL pairs, only one QTL interval exhibits strong selection signals in modern sorghum. Intersections among QTL, GWAS and comparative data advance knowledge of genetic determinants of inflorescence and plant height components in sorghum, and add new dimensions to comparisons between sorghum and rice.« less

  2. Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  4. Ethanol Production from Rice-Straw Hydrolysate Using Zymomonas Mobilis in a Continuous Fluidized-Bed Reactor (FBR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    deJesus, D.; Nghiem, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Rice-straw hydrolysate obtained by the Arkenol's concentrated acid hydrolysis process was fermented to ethanol using a recombinant Zymomonas mobilis strain capable of utilizing both glucose and xylose in a continuous fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). The parameters studied included biocatalyst stability with and without antibiotic, feed composition, and retention time. Xylose utilization in the presence of tetracycline remained stable for at least 17 days. This was a significant improvement over the old strain, Z. mobilis CP4 (pZB5), which started to lose xylose utilization capability after seven days. In the absence of tetracycline, the xylose utilization rate started to decrease almost immediately. With tetracycline in the feed for the first six days, stability of xylose utilization was maintained for four days after the antibiotic was removed from the feed. The xylose utilization rate started to decrease on day 11. In the presence of tetracycline using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 48 g/L glucose and 13 g/L xylose at a retention time of 4.5 h, 95% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion occurred. The ethanol concentration was 29 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.48 g/g sugar consumed or 94% of the theoretical yield. Using the Arkenol's hydrolysate diluted to 83 g/L glucose and 28 g/L xylose, 92% xylose conversion and complete glucose conversion were obtained. The ethanol concentration was 48 g/L, which gave a yield of 0.45 g/ g sugar consumed or 88% of the theoretical yield. Maximum productivity of 25.5 g/L-h was obtained at a retention time of 1.9 h. In this case, 84% xylose conversion was obtained.

  5. Investigation of the chemical interface in the soybean–aphid and rice–bacteria interactions using MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Adam T.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; Hohenstein, Jessica D.; Ji, Zhiyuan; Zi, Jiachen; Reichert, Malinda D.; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.; Yang, Bing; Peters, Reuben J.; Vela, Javier; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-04-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an emerging technology for high-resolution plant biology. It has been utilized to study plant–pest interactions, but limited to the surface interfaces. Here we expand the technology to explore the chemical interactions occurring inside the plant tissues. Two sample preparation methods, imprinting and fracturing, were developed and applied, for the first time, to visualize internal metabolites of leaves in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)-MSI. This is also the first time nanoparticle-based ionization was implemented to ionize diterpenoid phytochemicals that were difficult to analyze with traditional organic matrices. The interactions between rice–bacterium and soybean–aphid were investigated as two model systems to demonstrate the capability of high-resolution MSI based on MALDI. Localized molecular information on various plant- or pest-derived chemicals provided valuable insight for the molecular processes occurring during the plant–pest interactions. Basically, salicylic acid and isoflavone based resistance was visualized in the soybean–aphid system and antibiotic diterpenoids in rice–bacterium interactions.

  6. Commercialization of the Conversion of Bagasse to Ethanol. Summary quarterly report for the period January-September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    These studies were intended to further refine sugar yield parameters which effect sugar yield such as feedstock particle size, debris, acid soak time, temperature, dewatering, and pretreatment conditions (such as temperature, reaction time, percentage solids concentration, acid concentration), liquid-solids separation, and detoxification parameters (such as time temperature and mixing of detoxification ingredients). Validate and refine parameters, which affect ethanol yield such as detoxification conditions mentioned above, and to fermenter conditions such as temperature, pH adjustment, aeration, nutrients, and charging sequence. Materials of construction will be evaluated also. Evaluate stillage to determine clarification process and suitability for recycle; evaluate lignocellulosic cake for thermal energy recovery to produce heat and electricity for the process; and Support Studies at UF - Toxin Amelioration and Fermentation; TVA work will provide pre-hydroylsates for the evaluation of BCI proprietary methods of toxin amelioration. Pre-hydrolysates from batch studies will allow the determination of the range of allowable hydrolyze conditions that can be used to produce a fermentable sugar stream. This information is essential to guide selection of process parameters for refinement and validation in the continuous pretreatment reactor, and for overall process design. Additional work will be conducted at UFRFI to develop improved strains that are resistant to inhibitors. The authors are quite optimistic about the long-term prospects for this advancement having recently developed strains with a 25%--50% increase in ethanol production. The biocatalyst platform selected originally, genetically engineered Escherichia coli B, has proven to be quite robust and adaptable.

  7. A small scale biomass fueled gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWd) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth materials (such as rice hulls, cotton gin trash, nut shells, and various straws, grasses, and animal manures) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. This paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  8. Small scale biomass fueled gas turbine power plant. Report for February 1992--October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, C.R.; Craig, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses a new-generation, small-scale (<20 MWe) biomass-fueled power plant that is being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. Such power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The new power plants are also expected to economically utilize annual plant growth material (e.g., straw, grass, rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, and nut shells) that are not normally considered as fuel for power plants. The paper summarizes the new power generation concept with emphasis on the engineering challenges presented by the gas turbine component.

  9. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA_Appendix 1_MEPA Certificate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    This appendix consists of the CERTIFICATE OF THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATION FORM.

  10. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA_Appendix 3_LaCapra Update 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    This presentation covers an objective, market-based, review of the financial assessment of building offshore facilities of 15 or 25 MW.

  11. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  12. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  13. Biofuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    process requires significant energy input for heat (often unsustainable natural gas fossil fuel, but cellulosic biomass such as bagasse, the waste left after sugar cane is...

  14. Cosan Bioenergia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cosan Bioenergia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cosan Bioenergia Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Product: Sao Paulo-based Cosan subsidiary to develop cogeneration plants from bagasse...

  15. Central Energetica do Rio Pardo Ltda CERPA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    do Rio Pardo Ltda CERPA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Energetica do Rio Pardo Ltda (CERPA) Place: Serrana, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 14150000 Product: A bagasse...

  16. Shandong Yucheng Xinyuan Heat Power Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Xinyuan Heat & Power Co Ltd Place: Yucheng, China Zip: 251200 Product: Yucheng-based Bagasse powered project developer. Coordinates: 34.389011, 115.851723 Show Map Loading...

  17. NREL and Colombian Oil Firm Unlocking Agricultural Waste Feedstocks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Colombian Oil Firm Unlocking Agricultural Waste Feedstocks for Biofuel Collaboration with Ecopetrol examines converting sugar cane bagasse to biofuel August 7, 2013 The ...

  18. MHK Technologies/Green Flagship | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    pentamaran hull design will contribute to the improved utilisation of energy and to the clean flow of water around vessel Compared to today s vessels the pentamaran hull shape of...

  19. CX-005200: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hull Offshore Wind Research and DevelopmentCX(s) Applied: A9Date: 02/16/2011Location(s): Hull, MassachusettsOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  20. Portage County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Almond, Wisconsin Amherst Junction, Wisconsin Amherst, Wisconsin Carson, Wisconsin Eau Pleine, Wisconsin Hull, Wisconsin Junction City, Wisconsin Lanark, Wisconsin Linwood,...

  1. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profiling with Rice HPCToolkit Mark W. Krentel Department of Computer Science Rice University krentel@rice.edu http:hpctoolkit.org Mira Performance Boot Camp May 20, 2015...

  3. Dairyland_DOE_EPA_RICE_Rulings_11-01-10.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  4. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rix Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rix Biodiesel Limited Place: Hull, United Kingdom Zip: HU8 7JR Product: Manufacture, blends and resells biodiesel....

  5. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects...

  6. MHK Technologies/Hydrokinetic Power Barge | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    design and assembly mounted on a horizontal shaft on a twin hull pontoon or barge CAT or SWATH combines reaction and impulse technologies which can efficiently harvest...

  7. Madison County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 3 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Madison County, Georgia Carlton, Georgia Colbert, Georgia Comer, Georgia Danielsville, Georgia Hull, Georgia Ila, Georgia Royston,...

  8. CTVI-1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the "Cumberland...

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Engineering Process Workflow Using ExtraView Hull, T.R., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, ARM Engineering Group Fourteenth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science...

  10. Dublin, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohio's 15th congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Dublin, Ohio Hull References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division population...

  11. USAJobs Search | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to both announcements . Where is this position located? Washington Navy Yard 1240 Isaac Hull Avenue Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 Naval Reactors Mission: Provide the Nation with...

  12. Pike County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Florence, Illinois Griggsville, Illinois Hull, Illinois Kinderhook, Illinois Milton, Illinois Nebo, Illinois New Canton, Illinois New Salem, Illinois Pearl, Illinois...

  13. EIS-0439: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0439: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Rice Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, CA Rice Solar Energy (RSE) has submitted an...

  14. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  15. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  16. CX-009014: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Offshore Wind Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 08/02/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  17. CX-009130: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hull Municipal Light Plant Offshore Wind Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 08/02/2012 Location(s): Massachusetts Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  18. Raft River geoscience case study | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authors Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis and J. A. Published DOE Information Bridge, 1111981 DOI 10.21726098820...

  19. Conceptual Model At Raft River Geothermal Area (1981) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis, J. A. (1 November 1981) Raft River geoscience case study Dolenc, M. R.;...

  20. Raft River geoscience case study- appendixes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Authors Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis and J. A. Published DOE Information Bridge, 1111981 DOI 10.21725988071...

  1. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documentation of INL's In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model","Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull","2012-12-01T05:00:00Z",1070124,"10.21721070124","INL...

  2. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model","Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty","2012-12-01T05:00:00Z",1061001,"10.21721061001","INL...

  3. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty 02 PETROLEUM Water Water A system dynamic model was construction...

  4. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In Situ Oil Shale Retorting A Systems Dynamics Model Earl D Mattson Larry Hull Kara Cafferty PETROLEUM Water Water A system dynamic model was construction to...

  5. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documentation of INL s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model Earl D Mattson Larry Hull PETROLEUM water water A system dynamic model was construction to...

  6. Documentation of INL's In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documentation of INL's In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull 02 PETROLEUM water water A system dynamic model was construction to...

  7. Solar Thermochemical Energy Storage; Lessons from 40 Years of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Integrated making one thing do multiple jobs High O&M elements like receivers are ... Vant-Hull, Wolfgang Schiel, Thomas Keck, Steve Horne, Wolf Steinmann, H G Jin, Hui Hong, ...

  8. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Increasing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Artifact? Li, Zhanqing University of Maryland Yuan, Tianle University of Maryland Vant-Hull, Brian University of Maryland Since the Twomey effect was proposed in 1977, it has been...

  9. Pulse Tidal formerly Pulse Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formerly Pulse Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pulse Tidal (formerly Pulse Generation) Place: Hull, England, United Kingdom Zip: HU5 3LP Product: UK-based developer of...

  10. Government Affairs Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This vacancy may be filled at: U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Washington Navy Yard 1240 Isaac Hull, SE Washington, DC 20376 Naval Reactors Mission: Provide the...

  11. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution conductivity, pH and analytical concentration measured as a function of time decrease exponentially. In some cases nitrate, sulfate, chloride and fluoride ion concentrations increased with time and processing temperature with respect to the reference sample. The increasing concentration of these ions was due to the lack of formation of crystalline phases that can incorporate them in their structures, especially cancrinite. Another plausible explanations for their increase was due to the continuous withdrawal of cations with time, for example sodium to form zeolites, thereby increase their concentrations.

  12. Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rodosta Carbon Storage Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-1345 traci.rodosta@netl.doe.gov Joshua Hull Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507 304-285-0906 joshua.hull@netl.doe.gov Dr. Brenda Bowen Principal Investigator Associate Director, Global Change and Sustainability Center Associate Research Professor, Geology and Geophysics

  13. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Person, Abraham (Los Alamitos, CA)

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  14. Whole Genome Sequencing of Rice Mutants to identify Genes Controlling Cell Wall Saccharification and Response to Biotic Stress (2014 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald, Pamela [UC Davis

    2014-03-20

    Pamela Ronald of the University of California Davis speaks at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 20, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  16. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biotechnolog...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Ben (Ben Marzeion) - Institut fr Geographie, Universitt Innsbruck Masiello, Carrie (Carrie Masiello) - Department of Earth Science, Rice University Maslowski, Wieslaw ...

  17. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  18. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  19. Data Report on Post-Irradiation Dimensional Change of AGC-1 Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Windes

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the initial dimensional changes for loaded and unloaded AGC-1 samples. The dimensional change for all samples is presented as a function of dose. The data is further presented by graphite type and applied load levels to illustrate the differences between graphite forming processes and stress levels within the graphite components. While the three different loads placed on the samples have been verified [ ref: Larry Hull’s report] verification of the AGC-1 sample temperatures and dose levels are expected in the summer of 2012. Only estimated dose and temperature values for the samples are presented in this report to allow a partial analysis of the results.

  20. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Natural gas: Marine transportation. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, and operation of ships for the transport of liquified natural gas. Topics include safety devices, materials handling equipment for loading and unloading liquified natural gas, new hull and vessel designs, gas turbine propulsion systems, cargo tank designs and requirements, and liguid load dynamics. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  3. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  4. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Sandrine Schultz |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Sandrine Schultz 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Sandrine Schultz PDF icon fewm13_schultz_highres.pdf PDF icon fewm13_schultz.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Exchange Speaker Biographies 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Commander Fleet Activities Yokosuka Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Christine Hull

  5. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  6. ARM04.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ebinger Ebinger M N Miller Mlawer A B Ghan Ghan A B Jensen Miller C D Makienko Vant-Hull C D Wang Vogelmann E F Ma E F Guo G H DeSlover Takara G H Deng Chen I J Wang Tobin I J...

  7. CX-100023: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New England Aqua Ventus I - 100% Hull Design CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B3.16 Date: 09/03/2014 Location(s): Maine Offices(s): Golden Field Office Technology Office: Wind Program Award Number: DE-EE0006713

  8. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control 1 st Annual Technical Report Reporting Period Start Date: July 2003 Reporting Period End Date: June 2004 Principal Authors: George J. Hirasaki, Rice University Clarence A. Miller, Rice University Gary A. Pope, The University of Texas Richard E. Jackson, INTERA Date Report was Issued: July 2004 DE-FC26-03NT15406 Rice University Department of Chemical Engineering, MS-362 6100 Main Street Houston, TX 77005-1892 The University of Texas

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sciences (232) physics (225) atomic and molecular physics (213) classical and quantum ... (170) experimental data (170) design (169) gases (169) Filter by Author Rice, ...

  10. NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-FE0026392 NITEC LLC Boulder, CO FESCCStorage Division Mary Kylee Rice Offshore Storage Resource Assessment Databases will be searched to locate information concerning offshore...

  11. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    breast sandwich - Egyptian barbecue chicken breast - Country fried steak - California turkey panino - Shrimp and crab scampi - Chef's choice soup - Minnesota chicken and rice soup...

  12. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    breast sandwich - Pork piccata with lemon sauce - Polish cabbage roll - California turkey panino - Shrimp and crab scampi - Minnesota chicken and rice soup - Chef's choice soup...

  13. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marinated pork tenderloin with pineapple salsa - Green rice - Margarita cake with key lime cream cheese frosting Friday, March 6 Dinner - Avgolemono soup - Herb-crusted lamb...

  14. BPA-2012-00412-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Written andor electronic documentation relating to - 1. The rate BPA pays to contracting agency Teksystems for contract employee Michael J Rice (myself) 2. The official...

  15. Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics | Members

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plexcitons Prof. Peter Nordlander Laboratory for Nanophotonics, Department of Physics and Astronomy and Electrical and Computer Engineering Rice University, Houston TX 77005, USA...

  16. Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kansas Ethanol LLC Place: Lyons, Kansas Zip: 67554 Product: Constructing a 55m gallon ethanol plant in Rice County, Kansas...

  17. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    von Ballmoos, P. ; Toulouse, CESR ; Takahashi, T. ; JAXA, Sagamihara ; Gehrels, N. ; NASA, Goddard ; Tueller, J. ; NASA, Goddard ; Baring, M. ; Rice U. ; Beacom, J. ; Ohio...

  18. Microsoft Word - Puerto Rican Cooking Demonstration final.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arroz Blanco (White Rice) Habichuelas Rosadas (Red Beans) Ensalada de Bacalao (Cod Fish Salad) Ensalada de Aguacate y Tomate (Tomato and Avocado Salad) Flan de Jugo de Pina...

  19. SHOCK-ENHANCED C{sup +} EMISSION AND THE DETECTION OF H{sub 2...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa) Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain) University of Wisconsin-Barron County, Rice Lake, WI 54868 (United States) Iowa State...

  20. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bobi Garrett, Stuart Macmillan, Brent Rice, and Connie Komomua National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mark O'Malley University College Dublin Dan Zimmerle Colorado State...

  1. News | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Researchers at Argonne, Scripps Research Institute, and Rice University provide greater insight into the process of manipulating nature's biosynthetic machinery to produce...

  2. Bill Wilcox, part 3 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  3. Patrick Case | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  4. Alice Piercey | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  5. Bill Wilcox, part 1 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  6. Bill Wilcox, part 2 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  7. Oral History Videos | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  8. Blake Case | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  9. Wilma Brooks | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  10. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  11. Willard Brock | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice...

  12. Warm Bavarian-Style Pretzels 6. Raye's Mustard & Smoked Cheddar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cappuccino or Latte 6 Espresso 5 TACOS...16 3 - Served with Rice and Beans BAJA FISH TACO Salsa Fresca, Chipotle, Cabbage MAHI MAHI TACO Cilantro, Queso Fresco, Cilantro...

  13. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Foam Mobility Control 1 st Annual Technical Report Reporting Period Start Date: July 2003 Reporting Period End Date: June 2004 Principal Authors: George J. Hirasaki, Rice...

  14. EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0439: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Proposed Construction and Operation of the Rice Solar Energy Project,...

  15. Richard E. Smalley, Buckminsterfullerene (the Buckyball), and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (the Buckyball), and Nanotubes Resources with Additional Information Richard E. Smalley Courtesy Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory at Rice University and Prof. Richard...

  16. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D; Monticello, D; Neilson, H; Reiman, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J E 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY Diagnostics, Helical Devices,X-ray Spectroscoppy Diagnostics, Helical...

  17. NERSC-Mar-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sarkar (Rice) Ph.D. Students Muthu Baskaran Uday Bondhugula Jim Dinan Xiaoyang Gao Albert Hartono Justin Holewinski Sriram Krishnamoorthy Qingda Lu Mohammad Arafat Tom Henretty...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (ARPA-E) USDOE Energy Information Administration (EI) ... States) USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy ... ; Rice, Stuart A. August 2015 The Quasi-One-Dimensional ...

  19. Burleigh County, North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Dakota Lincoln, North Dakota Lincoln-Fort Rice, North Dakota Lyman, North Dakota Phoenix, North Dakota Regan, North Dakota Wilton, North Dakota Wing, North Dakota Retrieved...

  20. Smart Grid Request for Information and Public Comments | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    RICE Ruling Water Heater Ruling Demand Response and Smart Grid Coalition (DRSG) District of Columbia Office of the People's Counsel (DC OPC) Comments Attachment Divan, Deepak, ...

  1. Las Pailas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Information Name Las Pailas Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Guanacaste, Costa Rice Coordinates 10.7869295,...

  2. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_020315_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  3. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_120314_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  4. CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, September 3, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  5. CNMS UEC Agenda, Tuesday, July 7, 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  6. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_040715_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  7. CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, February 5, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  8. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Welcome to the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    State U.) - 2016 Megan Robertson (U. Houston) - 2016 Evgheni Strelcov (NIST) - 2017 Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) - 2016 Past Chair, ex officio member:Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb (Georgia...

  9. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_010615_min.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  10. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_100215_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  11. CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, July 2, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  12. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_060414_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  13. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_030514_min.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  14. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_050515_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  15. CNMS UEC Agenda, Thursday, January 9, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  16. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_040214_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  17. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_050714_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  18. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_080415_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  19. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_030315_min_TEH.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Vivek Prabhu (NIST) CNMS...

  20. CNMS UEC Agenda, Wednesday, August 6, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  1. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_111714_min.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Imperial College, London); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Ray Unocic (ORNLCNMS); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Tony Hmelo (Vanderbilt U.) CNMS...

  2. Okeelanta Cogeneration Project: Electricity and steam from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaberg, D.

    1994-12-31

    The Okeelanta Cogeneration Project is a Bagasse- and wood chip-fired cogeneration project with a net electrical output of approximately 70MW, located at the Okeelanta Corporation`s sugar mill in South Bay, Florida. The Project is comprised of three stoker type boilers each capable of producing 440,000 lbs/hr of steam at 1455 psia, 955F, and a single extraction/condensing steam turbine with a gross output of 75 MW. The electrical output will be sold to Florida Power and Light under the terms of an executed power purchase agreement and delivered at 138kV.

  3. Clearance detector and method for motion and distance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09

    A method for correct and efficient detection of clearances between three-dimensional bodies in computer-based simulations, where one or both of the volumes is subject to translation and/or rotations. The method conservatively determines of the size of such clearances and whether there is a collision between the bodies. Given two bodies, each of which is undergoing separate motions, the method utilizes bounding-volume hierarchy representations for the two bodies and, mappings and inverse mappings for the motions of the two bodies. The method uses the representations, mappings and direction vectors to determine the directionally furthest locations of points on the convex hulls of the volumes virtually swept by the bodies and hence the clearance between the bodies, without having to calculate the convex hulls of the bodies. The method includes clearance detection for bodies comprising convex geometrical primitives and more specific techniques for bodies comprising convex polyhedra.

  4. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 4th Civil Engineering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Squadron | Department of Energy 4th Civil Engineering Squadron 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner 4th Civil Engineering Squadron PDF icon fewm13_seymourjohnson_highres.pdf PDF icon fewm13_seymourjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Ronald Allard, Joseph Eberly, Amy Hudson, James B. Shaffer Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners Christine Hull 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner

  5. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CBR-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers Electric Corporation and the City of Henderson, Kentucky (hereinafter called the Customer). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and sold in

  6. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CC-1-J Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives served through the facilities of Duke Energy Progress (formerly known as Carolina Power & Light Company), Western Division (hereinafter called the Customers). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects

  7. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CEK-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to East Kentucky Power Cooperative (hereinafter called the Customer). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and power available from the Laurel Project and sold in

  8. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CSI-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to Southern Illinois Power Cooperative (hereinafter the Customer). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the

  9. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CTV-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA) on behalf of members of the Tennessee Valley Public Power Association (hereinafter called TVPPA). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the

  10. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CTVI-1-B Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to customers (hereinafter called the Customer) who are or were formerly in the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA) service area. Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the "Cumberland

  11. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rate Schedule Replacement-3 Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives (any one of whom is hereinafter called the Customer) in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, North Carolina, Mississippi, Tennessee and Virginia to whom power is provided pursuant to contracts between the Government and the customer from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, Cordell Hull, and Laurel Projects (all of such projects

  12. United States Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CK-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies served through the facilities of Kentucky Utilities Company, (hereinafter called the Customers.) Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland Projects") and sold in

  13. Board of Directors - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Board of Directors Georgia Robert Bennett Development Authority of Columbia County Sanford Loyd, Vice Chair Sanford Loyd, CPA, PC Dr. Marc D. Miller, Immediate Past Chair Georgia Regents University-Augusta James M. Hull College of Business Chris Noah Dr. J. Christopher Noah, Executive Committee Member @ Large Dr. Lisa Palmer, Secretary Augusta Technical College Sue Parr Augusta Metro Chamber of Commerce John Ray WRDW - TV Tammy Shepherd Columbia County Chamber of Commerce Walter C. Sprouse Jr.

  14. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CBR-1-H Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers Electric Corporation and includes the City of Henderson, Kentucky (hereinafter called the Customer). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all

  15. United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 United States Department of Energy Southeastern Power Administration Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CTV-1-H Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the

  16. CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CBR-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers Electric Corporation and includes the City of Henderson, Kentucky. This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called

  17. CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CEK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: East Kentucky System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to East Kentucky Power Cooperative (hereinafter called the Customer). This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland

  18. CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CK-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Kentucky Utilities System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies served through the facilities of Kentucky Utilities Company, (hereinafter called the Customers.) This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being

  19. CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CM-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: MEAM, MDEA, and SMEPA System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency. This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such

  20. CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CSI-1-H Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Southern Illinois System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Southern Illinois Power Cooperative (hereinafter the Customer). This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the "Cumberland

  1. The rate schedule below was approved on a final basis by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on March 17, 2000, for the p

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CM-1-I Availability: This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency (hereinafter called the Customers). Applicability: This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called

  2. Slide 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Operations Update David Mistakovich September 2015 BUILDING STRONG ® Nashville District Plant Staffing BARKLEY RET. ELG. YEAR CHEATHAM RET. ELG. YEAR OLD HICKORY RET. ELG. YEAR CORDELL HULL RET. ELG. YEAR CENTER HILL RET. ELG. YEAR DALE HOLLOW RET. ELG. YEAR WOLF CREEK RET. ELG. YEAR LAUREL RET. ELG. YEAR ESS RET. ELG. YEAR DISTRICT OFFICE RET. ELG. YEAR PPM CRABTREE 2001 CONATSER - TA 2009 FLOWERS 2013 MARLOW 2033 RIEGER 2016 MISTAKOVICH 2005 SUPT. HOLT 2034 TIESLER 2027 KENNEDY - TA 2018

  3. CU-CBR-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CBR-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CBR-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Big Rivers and Henderson, KY System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Big Rivers Electric Corporation and includes the City of Henderson, Kentucky. This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called

  4. CU-CEK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CEK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CEK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: East Kentucky System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to East Kentucky Power Cooperative (hereinafter called the Customer). This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the

  5. CU-CK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CK-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Kentucky Utilities System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies served through the facilities of Kentucky Utilities Company, (hereinafter called the Customers.) This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being

  6. CU-CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CM-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: MEAM, MDEA, and SMEPA System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to the South Mississippi Electric Power Association, Municipal Energy Agency of Mississippi, and Mississippi Delta Energy Agency. This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such

  7. CU-CSI-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CSI-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CSI-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Southern Illinois System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to Southern Illinois Power Cooperative (hereinafter the Customer). This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy available from the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Cheatham, Old Hickory, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereinafter called collectively the

  8. CU-CTV-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CTV-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule CU-CTV-1-I Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Tennessee Valley Authority System: CU This rate schedule shall be available to the Tennessee Valley Authority (hereinafter called TVA). This rate schedule shall be applicable to electric capacity and energy generated at the Dale Hollow, Center Hill, Wolf Creek, Old Hickory, Cheatham, Barkley, J. Percy Priest, and Cordell Hull Projects (all of such projects being hereafter called collectively the "Cumberland

  9. Multi-tiered sensing and data processing for monitoring ship structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWCCD; Lynch, Jerome [UNIV. OF MICHIGAN; Brady, Thomas [NSWCCD

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive structural health monitoring (SHM) system is a critical mechanism to ensure hull integrity and evaluate structural performance over the life of a ship, especially for lightweight high-speed ships. One of the most important functions of a SHM system is to provide real-time performance guidance and reduce the risk of structural damage during operations at sea. This is done by continuous feedback from onboard sensors providing measurements of seaway loads and structural responses. Applications of SHM should also include diagnostic capabilities such as identifying the presence of damage, assessing the location and extent of damage when it does occur in order to plan for future inspection and maintenance. The development of such SHM systems is extremely challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with the missions of high performance ships, the lack of data from known damage conditions, the limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, the management of the vast amounts of data, and the need for continued, real-time data processing. This paper will discuss some of these challenges and several outstanding issues that need to be addressed in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum high-speed catamaran, the HSV-2 Swift. A multi-tiered approach for sensing and data processing will be discussed as potential SHM architecture for future shipboard application. This approach will involve application of low cost and dense sensor arrays such as wireless communications in selected areas of the ship hull in addition to conventional sensors measuring global structural response of the ship. A recent wireless hull monitoring demo on FSF-I SeaFighter will be discussed as an example to show how this proposed architecture is a viable approach for long-term and real-time hull monitoring.

  10. A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage March 23, 2012 - 2:17pm Addthis Brookhaven researchers Etsuko Fujita, Jonathan Hull, and James Muckerman developed a new catalyst that reversibly converts hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide to a liquid under very mild conditions. Their findings were published in the March 18th issue of Nature Chemistry. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Lab. Brookhaven researchers

  11. Modular OTEC platforms, SKSS designs. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-02-29

    One of the possible options for generating electrical energy from ocean thermal gradients requires the use of a floating offshore platform. The platform would contain all OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) systems and power cycle components and consist of the hull, seawater, station-keeping, platform service, and mission support subsystems. It would be stationed at one of the designated OTEC sites, and would transmit the generated electricity to the shore power networks by means of an electrical transmission cable. The objective of the present study is to investigate the station-keeping subsystem (SKSS) requirements and develop preliminary SKSS designs for the two Modular Experiment Plant (MEP) candidates of 10/40 MW/sub e/ capacity for deployment at a specific site. The two MEP hull candidates are a Barge type platform and a Spar shaped hull with external heat exchangers. The specific site assigned for this study is Puerto Rico. The preliminary SKSS designs are developed for both platforms as follows: (1) an 8-leg spread catenary mooring system for the Spar, and (2) a 12-leg spread catenary mooring system for the Barge. Applicability of these designs to larger capacity commercial OTEC platforms is also investigated.

  12. Characterization of Irradiated Metal Waste from the Pyrometallurgical Treatment of Used EBR-II Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; W.M. McCartin; S.M. Frank; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; T.S. Yoo; D. Vaden; D.G. Cummings; K.J. Bateman; J. J. Giglio; T. P. O'Holleran; P. A. Hahn; M. N. Patterson

    2013-03-01

    As part of the pyrometallurgical treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a metal waste stream is generated consisting primarily of cladding hulls laden with fission products noble to the electrorefining process. Consolidation by melting at high temperature [1873 K (1600 degrees C)] has been developed to sequester the noble metal fission products (Zr, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Te, and Pd) which remain in the iron-based cladding hulls. Zirconium from the uranium fuel alloy (U-10Zr) is also deposited on the hulls and forms Fe-Zr intermetallics which incorporate the noble metals as well as residual actinides during processing. Hence, Zr has been chosen as the primary indicator for consistency of the metal waste. Recently, the first production-scale metal waste ingot was generated and sampled to monitor Zr content for Fe-Zr intermetallic phase formation and validation of processing conditions. Chemical assay of the metal waste ingot revealed a homogeneous distribution of the noble metal fission products as well as the primary fuel constituents U and Zr. Microstructural characterization of the ingot confirmed the immobilization of the noble metals in the Fe-Zr intermetallic phase.

  13. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Ahmed, Misonara (1) Cruz, Anthony C. (1) Damko, Ermelinda (1) Jang, Se Bok (1) Kabaleeswaran, Venkataraman (1) Lenardo, Michael J. (1) Park, Ah Young (1) Raunser, Stefan (1) Rice, ...

  15. BPA-2012-00412-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Act (FOIA) 5 U.S. 552. You rea nested a con y of: 1. Rate 13PA pays contracting agency, TEKSystems, for contract employee Michael J. Rice (myself) 2. The official...

  16. Accelerator on a Chip: How It Works

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice.

  17. Rf2a and rf2b transcription factors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beachy, Roger N. (St. Louis, MO); Petruccelli, Silvana (La Plata, AR); Dai, Shunhong (St. Louis, MO)

    2007-10-02

    A method of activating the rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) promoter in vivo is disclosed. The RTBV promoter is activated by exposure to at least one protein selected from the group consisting of Rf2a and Rf2b.

  18. CX-009205: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rice Flats Electrode Site Maintenance and Inspection Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 09/12/2012 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  19. Accelerator on a Chip: How It Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-30

    In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice.

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    JAXA, SagamiharaTokyo U.Rice U.Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.New Hampshire U.NASA, GoddardArizona State U.SLACNaval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.UC, Berkeley, Space Sci....

  1. Subject:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotation reversals, poloidal impurity asymmetries and "non-local" heat transport Gao thesis 2015, Rice NF 2013). We are not yet certain if our RF L-mode target plasmas will...

  2. Nanotechnology: Its Promise and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicki Colvin

    2009-05-14

    Vicki Colvin of Rice University talks about how nanotechnology-enabled systems, with dimensions on the scale of a billionth of a meter, offer great promise for solving difficult social problems and creating enormous possibilities.

  3. Hyliion Wins 2015 National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... U.S. Department of Energy Clean Tech Prize at 2015 Rice Business Plan Competition Hyliion from Carnegie Mellon University won the 2015 top student DOE cleantech entrepreneur prize. ...

  4. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  5. qryFairAct2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    301-903-8642 0 0 Southeastern Power Administration GA SEPA 1.0 S731 B 1999 Carol+Rice Human+Resources+Officer 0 0 Southeastern Power Administration GA SEPA 2.0 C300 A 1999...

  6. Test of New Master

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orlando, Florida, November 14 th , 2007 A. Ince-Cushman 1 , J.E. Rice 1 , M. Reinke 1 , M. Bitter 2 , K. Hill 2 , M.F.Gu 3 1 MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center 2 Princeton Plasma...

  7. No Slide Title

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    m 125 < D < 960 m HVPS PSDs, N t , LWC IWC, images 400 - 40000 m D > 960 m DMT CSI TWC Bulk measure King LWC Bulk measure RICE Supercooled H 2 O Presence Bullet...

  8. Paving the Way to Nanoelectronics 16 nm and Smaller

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N. Smith, G. Jones, and S. Rekawa (Berkeley Lab); B. Rice, S. Wurm, C. Koh, and W. Montgomery (SEMATECH); B. McClinton and R. Miyakawa (University of California, Berkeley); and...

  9. Help:Sandbox/Chicken Recipes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    optionally add your favorite cheese (if cheaper than hamburger) SandboxKung Pao Chicken red pepper onion and garlic chicken peanuts rice can be left out, but not recommended -...

  10. 1997 APS Abstracts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Pedestal Region on Alcator C-Mod Oral Presentations Marmar, E. - Alcator C-Mod Physics Program Rice, J.- Observations of Central Toroidal Rotation in ICRF Heated Alcator...

  11. Recruitment Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOJO Washington D.C. 91015 Colorado School of Mines 91415 Rice University 91515 New Mexico Tech 91515 Penn State 91515 New Mexico State (Bus) 91515 New Mexico State...

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A L Gates D Monticello D Neilson H Reiman A Reinke M Rice J E PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY Diagnostics Helical Devices X ray Spectroscoppy Diagnostics Helical Devices...

  13. Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics | Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Members Publications News & Press Releases Job Ads Advanced optical spectroscopy Nanoscale synthesis Exploratory device structures Contacts Facilities Jobs Education Colloquia U.S. Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory Rice University

  14. Subject:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    e p e rf n I T P V MP No. Subject: ICRF mode conversion flow drive at 8 Tesla From: Y. Lin, J. Rice, S. Wukitch, M. Reinke, N. Tsujii, Y. Podpaly, M. Greenwald, A....

  15. IUIM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Stoecker Dave Fulk J. T. Oden Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Department of Aerospace Eng. ... of California Columbia, MD 21045 Davis, CA 95616-5294 Ted Carney J. S. (Gus) Rice ...

  16. Robert Curl, Jr. and the Discovery of Fullerenes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tommy LaVergne Rice University The 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Robert F. Curl, Jr., Richard E. Smalley and Sir Harold Kroto 'for their 1985 discovery of...

  17. RWGTM Presentation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Discussion of US LNG Exports in an International Context Kenneth B Medlock III James A Baker III and Susan G Baker Fellow in Energy and Resource Economics, and Deputy Director, Energy Forum, James A Baker III Institute for Public Policy Adjunct Professor, Department of Economics Rice University August 23, 2012 James A Baker III Institute for Public Policy Rice University Presentation at EIA International Natural Gas Workshop LNG Exports and the Future International Natural Gas Market

  18. jwang | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jwang Ames Laboratory Profile Jigang Wang Associate Division of Materials Science & Engineering B15 Spedding Phone Number: 515-294-2964 Email Address: jgwang@iastate.edu Ames Laboratory Research Projects: Metamaterials Education: Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, 2005 M.S. Electrical Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, 2002 B.S. Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China, 2000 Professional Appointments: Associate Scientist, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State

  19. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  20. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  1. Integrated Biorefinery Project: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-390

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapeaux, A.; Schell, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Amyris-NREL CRADA is a sub-project of Amyris?s DOE-funded pilot-scale Integrated Biorefinery (IBR). The primary product of the Amyris IBR is Amyris Renewable Diesel. Secondary products will include lubricants, polymers and other petro-chemical substitutes. Amyris and its project partners will execute on a rapid project to integrate and leverage their collective expertise to enable the conversion of high-impact biomass feedstocks to these advanced, infrastructure-compatible products. The scope of the Amyris-NREL CRADA includes the laboratory development and pilot scale-up of bagasse pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification conditions by NREL for subsequent conversion of lignocellulosic sugar streams to Amyris Diesel and chemical products by Amyris. The CRADA scope also includes a techno-economic analysis of the overall production process of Amyris products from high-impact biomass feedstocks.

  2. Skimming' a reservoir for trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenman, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Several hydropower facilities are using a new technology for removing floating trash in reservoirs. Representatives from the facilities say the boat, called a trashskimmer, is efficient, easy to maneuver, and transportable. Designed by United Marine International, Inc., the pontoon boat features an operators cab that straddles an open hull between the skis of the pontoon, and uses dual propellers to maneuver through the water. The Marineskimmer allows the operator to approach the trash from the water side upstream of the plant. The Tennessee Valley Authority has used the boat since 1990.

  3. 2009 Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strasik Flywheel Program Manager J R Hull, J A Mittleider, J F Gonder, P E Johnson, K E McCrary, and C R McIver 2009 Energy Storage Peer Review, October 8, Seattle, WA This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories Energy Storage Program Contract 598172. Design, Fabrication, and Test of a 5 kWh Flywheel Energy Storage System Utilizing a High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Bearing - Phase III Engineering, Operations & Technology | Boeing Research

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Larry Hull" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Next » Everything7 Electronic Full Text4 Citations3 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject - geosciences (2) aquifers (2) monitoring (2) petroleum water (2) radioactive wastes (2) sediments (2) simulation (2) snake

  5. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-08

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  6. Layout 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This year ends my first year of a two-year term as Chair of the SRS Community Reuse Organization (SRSCRO). We have made tremendous progress on the three focus areas the Board and I wanted to concentrate on when I took office. Since the space in this Annual Report limits us on what we can cover, I would like to emphasize just two of those areas: * Education, and * Asset Revitalization In addition to my role as Chair of the SRSCRO, my real job is Dean of the Hull Business College at Augusta State

  7. Superhydrophobics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schaeffer, Daniel; Winter, Kyle

    2014-05-23

    A water repellent developed by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory outperforms nature at its best and could open a floodgate of commercial possibilities. The super-water repellent (superhydrophobic) material, developed by John Simpson, is easy to fabricate and uses inexpensive base materials. The process could lead to the creation of a new class of water repellant products, including windshields, eyewear, clothing, building materials, road surfaces, ship hulls and self-cleaning coatings. The list of likely applications is virtually endless.

  8. Dynamic Vision: 1663 Science and Technology Magazine | Los National Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory November, 2009. Wendy Vogan McNeil stood in the control room of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility as the machine operators began their countdown for experiment H3837. McNeil and fellow experimenters Matthew Briggs and Lawrence Hull had spent about 10 months preparing for this moment. They had chosen the target material-a newly developed alloy-and had it fashioned into a miniature hockey puck that McNeil later set atop 31 grams of high explosive. They

  9. Agricultural approaches of remediation in the outside of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Saso, Michitaka; Umeda, Miki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines agricultural approaches of remediation activity done in contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. About the decontamination examination of contaminated areas, we have tried the land scale test of a rice field before and after planting by the use of currently recommended methods. Since farmers would carry out the land preparation by themselves, generation of secondary radioactive waste should be as low as possible through the decontamination works. For the radioactive nuclide migration control of rice by wet rice production, several types of decontamination methods such as zeolite addition and potassium fertilization in the soil have been examined. The results are summarized in the 4 following points. 1) Plowing and water discharge are effective for removing radioactive cesium from rice field. 2) Additional potassium fertilization is effective for reducing cesium radioactivity in the product. 3) No significant difference is observed with or without the zeolite addition. 4) Very low transfer factor of cesium from soil to brown rice has been obtained compared with literature values.

  10. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  11. Final Report: Correctness Tools for Petascale Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    2014-10-27

    In the course of developing parallel programs for leadership computing systems, subtle programming errors often arise that are extremely difficult to diagnose without tools. To meet this challenge, University of Maryland, the University of Wisconsin—Madison, and Rice University worked to develop lightweight tools to help code developers pinpoint a variety of program correctness errors that plague parallel scientific codes. The aim of this project was to develop software tools that help diagnose program errors including memory leaks, memory access errors, round-off errors, and data races. Research at Rice University focused on developing algorithms and data structures to support efficient monitoring of multithreaded programs for memory access errors and data races. This is a final report about research and development work at Rice University as part of this project.

  12. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, J.O.; Remenyik, C.J.

    1994-08-09

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure is disclosed. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel. 5 figs.

  13. Thermal reclamation of spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.G. ); Thomas, W.; Adema, C. )

    1990-01-01

    Abrasive blasting media is used to remove anticorrosive and antifoulant coatings from the hulls and tanks of US Navy ships. The total production of paint-contaminated spent abrasives from the eight US. Navy shipyards ranges from 75,000 to 100,000 tons per year. Most of this spent abrasive is disposed in landfills. Organic paint binders and heavy metals are present in the spent abrasives in concentrations sufficient to classify them as hazardous wastes in some states. In an effort to avoid the rising costs an long-term environmental liability associated with landfilling this waste, the US Navy has investigated various methods of reclaiming spent abrasives for reuse in hull- and tank-blasting operations. This paper discusses the results of a research and development project conducted under the Navy's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program to test a fluidized-bed sloped-grid (FBSG) reclaimer to determine if it could be used to recycle spent abrasive. Thirty tons of abrasive were processed and a product meeting military specifications for new abrasives was reclaimed. Blasting performance was also comparable to new abrasives. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  15. Device for accurately measuring mass flow of gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hylton, James O. (Clinton, TN); Remenyik, Carl J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring mass flow of gases which utilizes a substantially buoyant pressure vessel suspended within a fluid/liquid in an enclosure. The pressure vessel is connected to a weighing device for continuously determining weight change of the vessel as a function of the amount of gas within the pressure vessel. In the preferred embodiment, this pressure vessel is formed from inner and outer right circular cylindrical hulls, with a volume between the hulls being vented to the atmosphere external the enclosure. The fluid/liquid, normally in the form of water typically with an added detergent, is contained within an enclosure with the fluid/liquid being at a level such that the pressure vessel is suspended beneath this level but above a bottom of the enclosure. The buoyant pressure vessel can be interconnected with selected valves to an auxiliary pressure vessel so that initial flow can be established to or from the auxiliary pressure vessel prior to flow to or from the buoyant pressure vessel.

  16. Deployment, release and recovery of ocean riser pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Person, Abraham; Wetmore, Sherman B.; McNary, James F.

    1980-11-18

    An ocean thermal energy conversion facility includes a long pipe assembly which is supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. Cold water flows to the facility from deep in the ocean. The pipe assembly comprises an elongate pipe construction and a weight connected to the lower end of the construction by a line of selected length. A floatation collar is connected to the construction at its upper end to cause the construction to have positive buoyancy and a center of buoyancy closer to the upper end of the construction than its center of mass. The weight renders the entire pipe assembly negatively buoyant. In the event that support of the pipe assembly should be lost, as by release of the assembly from the facility hull in an emergency, the assembly sinks to the ocean floor where it is moored by the weight. The pipe construction floats submerged above the ocean floor in a substantially vertical attitude which facilitates recovery of the assembly.

  17. Final Report: Performance Engineering Research Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    2014-10-27

    This document is a final report about the work performed for cooperative agreement DE-FC02-06ER25764, the Rice University effort of Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI was an Enabling Technologies Institute of the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-2) program supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program. The PERI effort at Rice University focused on (1) research and development of tools for measurement and analysis of application program performance, and (2) engagement with SciDAC-2 application teams.

  18. TITLE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RIDOH NArnONAL LABORATORY c- Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey I.* K . . . . 1 A . T I r n * at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio - (FOH001) D . E . Rice M . E . Murray K. S . Brown EEALTH SCIENCES RESEARCH DMSION E ' * I ~ m d w a s k M ~ t ~ ~ ~ ( ~ N o . E X Z D 2 0 0 1 O; AB131DM) Aircraft ~ o o l and Manrlaet~ring Company Site, Fiirfleld, Oh10 (FOH001) D. E. Rice, M. E. Mumy, K:S. Brown . . . . lmza@am Tam R D.

  19. ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel ARPA-E Q&A: Transforming How We Get Our Fuel October 23, 2013 - 12:13pm Addthis ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. ARPA-E Program Director Dr. Ramon Gonzalez focuses on using microorganisms to convert natural gas into liquid fuel. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Fitlow, Rice University. Mark D. Mitchell Communications Support

  20. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-13

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  1. Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Francois

    2014-06-11

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

  2. Biogas systems in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtman, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to an analysis of household energy consumption, three scenarios are presented for the economic analysis of energy systems used for cooking, lighting, irrigation, and rice husk-cement manufacture. Digester design and feedstock variations are discussed. Problems such as gas pricing, sociological problems of distribution to diverse ethnic groups, and the complexity of technology transfer are mentioned. (CKK)

  3. Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Marks Black History Month Each February Americans celebrate Black History Month, also known as African American History Month, to recognize the importance of Black history in American history. We profile three employees - Jackie Scoggins, Matt Rice, and Thierry Nouidui - who tell their stories of how they came to Berkeley Lab.

  4. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users - Media Publications and Information The Invisible Neutron Threat Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices Nuclear Science Research at the LANSCE-WNR Facility Links About WNR Industrial Users 4FP30L-A/ICE House 4FP30R/ICE II Media

  5. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  6. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  7. Career Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Career Opportunities Career Opportunities It is the policy of Southeastern Power Administration to provide equal employment opportunities for all persons, and to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability. Current Vacancy Announcement None Contact Information Please contact: Carol Rice Phone: 706.213.3822 Related Links Jobs at Energy USAJobs.gov

  8. Solar Power. Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Sadie; Walters, Terri; Esterly, Sean; Booth, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    As global electricity demand increases, governments are designing and implementing policies to scale up and catalyze renewable energy, which now meets 22% of global electricity demand (REN21 2014). Solar technologies are a critical component of this expanded deployment, and they have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. As presented in Figure 1, solar prices have decreased significantly over the last decade (REN21 2014) and in 2013, new capacity installation of solar electricity from photovoltaics (PV) 1 surpassed all other renewable energy technologies worldwide—excluding hydropower—with 39 gigawatts installed that year. Concentrating solar thermal power,2 although it still represents a fairly nascent market, also continues to expand as installed capacity increased by 36% in 2013 compared to 2012. In addition to meeting energy demand in an increasingly cost-effective manner, solar deployment can also support critical economic, social, and environmental development goals (Flavin and Hull Aeck, n.d.).

  9. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  10. PANTHER. Trajectory Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Wilson, Andrew T.; Valicka, Christopher G.; Kegelmeyer, W. Philip; Shead, Timothy M.; Newton, Benjamin D.; Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez

    2015-09-01

    We want to organize a body of trajectories in order to identify, search for, classify and predict behavior among objects such as aircraft and ships. Existing compari- son functions such as the Fr'echet distance are computationally expensive and yield counterintuitive results in some cases. We propose an approach using feature vectors whose components represent succinctly the salient information in trajectories. These features incorporate basic information such as total distance traveled and distance be- tween start/stop points as well as geometric features related to the properties of the convex hull, trajectory curvature and general distance geometry. Additionally, these features can generally be mapped easily to behaviors of interest to humans that are searching large databases. Most of these geometric features are invariant under rigid transformation. We demonstrate the use of different subsets of these features to iden- tify trajectories similar to an exemplar, cluster a database of several hundred thousand trajectories, predict destination and apply unsupervised machine learning algorithms.

  11. Investigation of Electrochemical Recovery of Zirconium from Spent Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Simpson; II-Soon Hwang

    2014-06-01

    This project uses both modeling and experimental studies to design optimal electrochemical technology methods for recovery of zirconium from used nuclear fuel rods for more effective waste management. The objectives are to provide a means of efficiently separating zirconium into metallic high-level waste forms and to support development of a process for decontamination of zircaloy hulls to enable their disposal as low- and intermediate-level waste. Modeling work includes extension of a 3D model previously developed by Seoul National University for uranium electrorefining by adding the ability to predict zirconium behavior. Experimental validation activities include tests for recovery of zirconium from molten salt solutions and aqueous tests using surrogate materials. *This is a summary of the FY 2013 progress for I-NERI project # 2010-001-K provided to the I-NERI office.

  12. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  13. I

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n s'tellnr nucleosynthesis, neutron capture a t a r a t e which i s slow con- pared t o t h a t of Since t h e e a r l y quantitative s t u d i e s of t h e g-process by Clayton, Fowler, HULL, and Zimemaan (1961), considerable e f f o r t has been mc?e t o determine t h e possible distributions of neutron exposures which d g h t have led Lo the observed r e h solar-system abudances of those r u e l e i p r d u c e d i n t h e 2-process. g beta-decays has been designated as t h e s-process. I n p

  14. Microsoft Word - MaryRose.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Figure 1. The starboard side of the Mary Rose (about ⅓ of the hull, ~280 tons oak timbers) is since 1994 being sprayed with an aqueous solution of PEG 200. Figure 2. Sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum of Mary Rose oak core surface (0-3 mm). Standard spectra used for model fitting: 1 (solution), 1´(solid) disulfides R-SS-R (cystine with peaks at 2472.7 and 2474.4 eV); 45%; 2: Thiols R-SH (cysteine, 2473.6 eV) 23%; 3: Elemental sulfur (S 8 in xylene 2473.0 eV) 10%; 4: Sulfoxide R(SO)R´ (methionine

  15. An algorithm to unveil the inner structure of objects concealed by beam divergence in radiographic image acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, G. L.; Silvani, M. I.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-11

    Two main parameters rule the performance of an Image Acquisition System, namely, spatial resolution and contrast. For radiographic systems using cone beam arrangements, the farther the source, the better the resolution, but the contrast would diminish due to the lower statistics. A closer source would yield a higher contrast but it would no longer reproduce the attenuation map of the object, as the incoming beam flux would be reduced by unequal large divergences and attenuation factors. This work proposes a procedure to correct these effects when the object is comprised of a hull - or encased in it - possessing a shape capable to be described in analytical geometry terms. Such a description allows the construction of a matrix containing the attenuation factors undergone by the beam from the source until its final destination at each coordinate on the 2D detector. Each matrix element incorporates the attenuation suffered by the beam after its travel through the hull wall, as well as its reduction due to the square of distance to the source and the angle it hits the detector surface. When the pixel intensities of the original image are corrected by these factors, the image contrast, reduced by the overall attenuation in the exposure phase, are recovered, allowing one to see details otherwise concealed due to the low contrast. In order to verify the soundness of this approach, synthetic images of objects of different shapes, such as plates and tubes, incorporating defects and statistical fluctuation, have been generated, recorded for further comparison and afterwards processed to improve their contrast. The developed algorithm which, generates processes and plots the images has been written in Fortran 90 language. As the resulting final images exhibit the expected improvements, it therefore seemed worthwhile to carry out further tests with actual experimental radiographies.

  16. Pahoa geothermal industrial park. Engineering and economic analysis for direct applications of geothermal energy in an industrial park at Pahoa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreau, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    This engineering and economic study evaluated the potential for developing a geothermal industrial park in the Puna District near Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii. Direct heat industrial applications were analyzed from a marketing, engineering, economic, environmental, and sociological standpoint to determine the most viable industries for the park. An extensive literature search produced 31 existing processes currently using geothermal heat. An additional list was compiled indicating industrial processes that require heat that could be provided by geothermal energy. From this information, 17 possible processes were selected for consideration. Careful scrutiny and analysis of these 17 processes revealed three that justified detailed economic workups. The three processes chosen for detailed analysis were: an ethanol plant using bagasse and wood as feedstock; a cattle feed mill using sugar cane leaf trash as feedstock; and a papaya processing facility providing both fresh and processed fruit. In addition, a research facility to assess and develop other processes was treated as a concept. Consideration was given to the impediments to development, the engineering process requirements and the governmental support for each process. The study describes the geothermal well site chosen, the pipeline to transmit the hydrothermal fluid, and the infrastructure required for the industrial park. A conceptual development plan for the ethanol plant, the feedmill and the papaya processing facility was prepared. The study concluded that a direct heat industrial park in Pahoa, Hawaii, involves considerable risks.

  17. Victorias energy efficiency and cogeneration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-31

    This report describes a two-phase energy project currently contemplated for joint implementation at the Victorias Milling Company, a large sugar mill and refinery on the island of Negros in the Visayas region of the Philippines. The Energy Efficiency (EE) phase is expected to reduce of eliminate VMC`s fossil fuel consumption, which will have a direct and substantial impact on carbon emissions. Phase I is an EE project which involves the installation of equipment to reduce steam and electricity demand in the factories. Phase II, will involve retrofitting and increasing the capacity of the steam and power generation systems, and selling power to the grid. By increasing efficiency and output, the cogeneration project will allow the factory to use only bagasse sugar cane fiber waste as fuel for energy needs. The cogeneration project will also eliminate VMC`s electricity purchases and supply additional power for the island, which will offset generation capacity expansion on the island and the Visayas region.

  18. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-18

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. At least 80% of the particles pass through a 1/4 inch screen having a 6.3 mm nominal sieve opening but are retained by a No. 10 screen having a 2 mm nominal sieve opening. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  19. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2011-10-11

    A novel class of flowable biomass feedstock particles with unusually large surface areas that can be manufactured in remarkably uniform sizes using low-energy comminution techniques. The feedstock particles are roughly parallelepiped in shape and characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially with the grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. The particles exhibit a disrupted grain structure with prominent end and surface checks that greatly enhances their skeletal surface area as compared to their envelope surface area. The L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers. The W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers. The L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top surfaces characterized by some surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The feedstock particles are manufactured from a variety of plant biomass materials including wood, crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  20. Engineered plant biomass feedstock particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H. (Federal Way, WA); Lanning, David N. (Federal Way, WA); Broderick, Thomas F. (Lake Forest Park, WA)

    2012-04-17

    A new class of plant biomass feedstock particles characterized by consistent piece size and shape uniformity, high skeletal surface area, and good flow properties. The particles of plant biomass material having fibers aligned in a grain are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces. The L.times.W surfaces of particles with L/H dimension ratios of 4:1 or less are further elaborated by surface checking between longitudinally arrayed fibers. The length dimension L is preferably aligned within 30.degree. parallel to the grain, and more preferably within 10.degree. parallel to the grain. The plant biomass material is preferably selected from among wood, agricultural crop residues, plantation grasses, hemp, bagasse, and bamboo.

  1. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  2. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    2014-10-26

    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  3. Interactions of CO{sub 2} with temperature and other climate variables: response of vegetation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knipling, E.B.

    1995-02-28

    The overall objectives of this project were: (1) to examine experimentally, for major crop species, the interacting effects of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and water availability on plant growth and development, (2) to model these interactions, and (3) to continue developing physiologically-based mechanistic models for predicting crop response to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and future global climate change. To meet these objectives, controlled-environment studies were conducted on cotton, lemon, rice, and soybean and a long-term open-top chamber study was continued on orange. Much progress was made on development of plant growth models for cotton, wheat, rice, and soybean. In addition, there were two special modeling efforts which have the potential for contributing to all of the crop models. These efforts are concerned with modeling root growth and physical and chemical processes in soil and with modeling the effect of stomatal aperture on photosynthesis and transpiration rates as a function of CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit. The root growth and soil process modeling is important because it enables us to estimate the water available to the plant. The modeling of effects of stomatal aperture on photosynthesis and transpiration rates enables them to estimate dry weight gain and water use by the plant. These are both important components of the interaction of CO{sub 2} concentration with temperature and water availability. The work on stomatal aperture, photosynthesis, and transpiration has the added benefit of allowing us to improve predictions of energy partitioning by the terrestrial biosphere. The lack of realistic energy partitioning is a serious deficiency of the present general circulation models which are used to predict how climate will change. An additional important aspect of the rice experiments is a study of methane emissions of paddy-grown (i.e., flooded) rice grown under two levels of CO{sub 2} and three temperature regimes.

  4. CNMS UEC Agenda, Thursday, February 4, 2016

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February 4, 2016 12:00 pm Eastern Time Participants (attendees in blue) Chair - Molly Kennedy (Clemson U.) Vice-Chair - Lane Martin (U. California, Berkeley) Secretary - Yang Zhang (U. Illinois) At-Large Members: Alex Belianinov (ORNL/CNMS); Kathrin Dörr, (MLU Halle-Wittenberg); Eric Formo (U. Georgia); Enrique Gomez (Penn State U.); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Evgheni Strelcov (NIST); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb (Georgia Tech) CNMS

  5. Agnes Houser | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agnes Houser Agnes Houser Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Agnes Houser A

  6. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conditions Range from Classic to Record-Breaking as Field Campaign Concludes Bookmark and Share Closely resembling a rice paddy, this soggy cotton field near Chickasha, Oklahoma, on June 27 exemplifies the atypical surface conditions throughout the CLASIC experiment domain as the campaign drew to a close. (Photo courtesy Tom Jackson, USDA.) Not even record-setting precipitation could dampen the spirits of the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team as the campaign at

  7. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2015 Time: 11:00 am Speaker: Doug Natelson, Rice University Title: Vibrational and Electronic Heating in Atomic-Scale Junctions Location: 67-3111 Chemla Room Bio: My research group focuses on the electronic, magnetic, and (recently) optical properties of nanoscale structures. Over the last twenty years there has been tremendous progress in the ability to manipulate matter at levels approaching the atomic scale. By constructing model nanosystems (nanoparticle, nanowires, atomic-scale

  8. 2015 Transmission Reliability Program Peer Review - Day 1 Presentations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 Presentations 2015 Transmission Reliability Program Peer Review - Day 1 Presentations The 2015 Transmission Reliability Program Peer Review included 8 sessions over 2 days on June 10 - 11, 2015, in Washington, DC. Presentations from Day 1 (Sessions I through IV) are available below. Session I: Dan Trudnowski (Montana Tech), Bernie Lesieutre (U Wisconsin), Mani Venkatasubramanian (WSU) Session II: Jim Follum (PNNL), Mark Rice (PNNL), Paul Ewing (ORNL), Yilu Liu (ORNL)

  9. Bites and B-Roll: Announcments of the Architecture Contest Winners

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01

    Broadcast-quality downloads of this video are available free and unrestricted at http://stratacomm.net/solar-decathlon... Video contains announcements of the architecture awards announcement at the 2009 Solar Decathlon. Includes announcement and house b-roll of 1st place winner Team California and 2nd place winner Rice University's houses, general Solar Village b-roll, and bites from students and architecture experts

  10. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, S.L. . Cancer Center); Welch, A.J. ); Motamedi, M. . Medical Branch); Rastegar, S. ); Tittel, F. ); Esterowitz, L. )

    1992-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the colloborating engineering centers at Rice University, UT-Austin, and Texas A M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the Naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  11. Harvey Kite | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harvey Kite Harvey Kite Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Harvey Kite Fondly

  12. Gordon Fee, part 1 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Gordon Fee, part 1 Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Gordon FeePart 1 |

  13. Gordon Fee, part 2 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Gordon Fee, part 2 Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Gordon FeePart 1 |

  14. AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 August 12, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: ANGELINA LAROSE TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on July 25, 2013) Attendees: Anas Alhajji (NGP)* Samuel Andrus (IHS)* Emil Attanasi (USGS)* Andre Barbe (Rice University) David J. Barden (self) Joseph

  15. Mechanisms of leiomodin 2-mediated regulation of actin filament in muscle

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mechanisms of leiomodin 2-mediated regulation of actin filament in muscle cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanisms of leiomodin 2-mediated regulation of actin filament in muscle cells Authors: Chen, Xiaorui ; Ni, Fengyun ; Kondrashkina, Elena ; Ma, Jianpeng ; Wang, Qinghua [1] ; NWU) [2] ; Rice) [2] + Show Author Affiliations Baylor ( Publication Date: 2015-12-04 OSTI Identifier: 1228088 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource

  16. Robert Curl, Jr. and the Discovery of Fullerenes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Robert Curl, Jr. and the Discovery of Fullerenes Resources with Additional Information Robert Curl, Jr. Courtesy Tommy LaVergne/ Rice University The 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Robert F. Curl, Jr., Richard E. Smalley and Sir Harold Kroto 'for their 1985 discovery of "fullerenes," geometric carbon clusters shaped in the pattern of soccer balls. Though initially a subject of controversy, the discovery of spherical carbon molecules, also called "buckyballs,"

  17. Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas Authors: Delgado-Aparicio, L. ; Sugiyama, L. ; Granetz, R. ; Gates, D. A. ; Rice, J. E. ; Reinke, M. L. ; Bitter, M. ; Fredrickson, E. ; Gao, C. ; Greenwald, M. ; Hill, K. ; Hubbard, A. ; Hughes, J. W. ; Marmar, E. ; Pablant, N. ; Podpaly, Y. ; Scott, S. ; Wilson, R. ;

  18. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Mathematics --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Z Zhai, John Z. (John Z. Zhai) - Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Zhao, Tianshou (Tianshou Zhao) - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Zhong, Lin (Lin Zhong) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University

  19. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: 2014 Regional Winners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: 2014 Regional Winners National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: 2014 Regional Winners Addthis Western Southwest Region Winner 1 of 5 Western Southwest Region Winner KAir Battery won the Rice Business Plan Competition for its cost-effective large-scale stationary potassium-air battery. Image: Courtesy of KAir Battery Southeastern Region Winner 2 of 5 Southeastern Region Winner Energy Internet won the ACC Clean Energy

  20. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  1. UNCLASSIFIED Institute for Materials Science Lecture Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Edwin L. Thomas Dean of Engineering Professor of Materials Science and NanoEngineering Rice University - Houston, Texas Indistinguishable from Magic? (A Perspective on Some Aspects of Materials Research in the Next Decade) Tuesday, March 22, 2016 10am - 11am MSL Auditorium (TA-03 - Bldg 1698 - Room A103) Addressing multifunctional materials: The mighty electron, the cool photon and the lowly phonon...how waves in periodic materials lead to interesting properties. Problem Driven Research:

  2. Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Researchers have found a way to magnetize this material using light, an effect that persists for hours at a time. March 27, 2014 Los Alamos postdoctoral fellow William Rice holds a crystal of strontium titanate up to the light. This crystal, previously thought to be nonmagnetic, turns out to have surprising magnetic features when treated with special "circularly polarized"

  3. DRAFT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Opportunities Abound in Nuclear Technology By Anne Rice From technologists to engineers, radiologists to doctors of nuclear medicine, there are many exciting and challenging fields associated with careers in nuclear science. As we observe National Nuclear Science Week, local educators - working with the SRS Community Reuse Organization (SRSCRO) - are underscoring to their students the multitude of nuclear-related job opportunities that loom on the horizon in our region over the next decade. From

  4. Biographical sketch - Kevin Redding | Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production Kevin Redding a. Professional Preparation Rice University Biochemistry B. S., 1987 Stanford University Biochemistry Ph. D., 1993 University of Geneva Mol. Biology Postdoctoral studies, 1994 - 1998 b. Area of Specialization: Structure/function analysis of biological electron transfer c. Appointments Arizona State University, Associate Professor of Chemistry (1/1/08 - present) Chercheur associé (CNRS), Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris (8/15/07-7/20/08) and Fulbright

  5. Consortium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consortium Institutions: Baylor College of Medicine Texas A&M University Louisiana State University University of Houston Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation University of Texas at Austin Rice University University of Texas Medical Branch Faculty Listing Baylor College of Medicine Biochemistry Department Cell & Molecular Biology Department Molecular Physiology & Biophysics Structural & Computational Biology & Molecular Biophysics Program W. M. Keck Center for Computation

  6. Jack Rains | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jack Rains Jack Rains Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Jack Rains Recalls

  7. Elmer Brummitt | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Elmer Brummitt Elmer Brummitt Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Elmer

  8. Energy Systems Integration: A Convergence of Ideas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas July 2012 Ben Kroposki, Bobi Garrett, Stuart Macmillan, Brent Rice, and Connie Komomua National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mark O'Malley University College Dublin Dan Zimmerle Colorado State University NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 1 Energy Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas Benjamin Kroposki, Bobi Garrett,

  9. Donald Raby | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Donald Raby Donald Raby Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Donald Raby Don's

  10. Dorothy Coker | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dorothy Coker Dorothy Coker Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Dorothy Coker

  11. Ed Bailey | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ed Bailey Ed Bailey Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Ed Bailey A close

  12. Jim Bailey | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jim Bailey Jim Bailey Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Jim Bailey Gives a

  13. Naomi Brummit | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Naomi Brummit Naomi Brummit Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Naomi Brummitt

  14. Nathan Henry | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nathan Henry Nathan Henry Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Nathan Henry A

  15. Larry Case | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Larry Case Larry Case Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Larry Case Jack

  16. Linda Fellers | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linda Fellers Linda Fellers Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Linda Fellers

  17. Louis Freels | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Louis Freels Louis Freels Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Louis Freels A

  18. Kay Bailey | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bailey Kay Bailey Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Kay Bailey Housekeeper

  19. Kay Steed | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steed Kay Steed Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Kay Steed Secretary to Jack

  20. Ken Bernander | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bernander Ken Bernander Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Ken Bernander Tells

  1. Ken Sommerfeld | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sommerfeld Ken Sommerfeld Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Ken Sommerfeld

  2. Sergey Maximoff | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Sergey Maximoff Previous Next List Maximoff Sergey Maximoff Formerly: Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Chemical, Engineering University of California, Berkeley BA M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia MS M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia PhD Rice University, Houston TX EFRC research: Dr. Maximoff's interest within this EFRC centers on theory of adsorption, desorption, and chemical conversion of small molecules within

  3. Gridley Biofuels Project Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review 1 Gridley Biofuels Project Technology Area Review: Thermochemical Conversion Dennis Schuetzle, REI International (REII), Sacramento, CA Matt Michaelis, City of Gridley, Gridley CA Alexandria, VA March 26, 2015 A Rice Field near the Sutter Butte Mountains in Northern CA Gridley Biofuels Project Gridley Sacramento Gridley is Centrally Located in the Northern Sacramento Valley 3 Project Goal The primary goal of this final phase (BP2) of the Gridley Biofuels Project during 2015

  4. Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_rice.pdf More Documents & Publications Components for Optimized SCR

  5. Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rotation Reversal Bifurcation and Energy Confinement Saturation in Tokamak Ohmic L -Mode Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Cziegler, I. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Duval, B. P. ; Podpaly, Y. A. ; Reinke, M. L. ; Ennever, P. C. ; Greenwald, M. J. ; Hughes, J. W. ; Ma, Y. ; Marmar, E. S. ; Porkolab, M. ;

  6. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_010716_min_TEH_MSK.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 7, 2016 12:00 pm Eastern Time Participants (attendees in blue) Chair - Molly Kennedy (Clemson U.) Vice-Chair - Lane Martin (U. California, Berkeley) Secretary - Yang Zhang (U. Illinois) At-Large Members: Alex Belianinov (ORNL/CNMS); Kathrin Dörr, (MLU Halle-Wittenberg); Eric Formo (U. Georgia); Enrique Gomez (Penn State U.); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Evgheni Strelcov (NIST); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb (Georgia Tech) CNMS

  7. Microsoft Word - UEC-CC_030316_min.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2016 12:00 pm Eastern Time Participants (attendees in blue) Chair - Molly Kennedy (Clemson U.) Vice-Chair - Lane Martin (U. California, Berkeley) Secretary - Yang Zhang (U. Illinois) At-Large Members: Alex Belianinov (ORNL/CNMS); Kathrin Dörr, (MLU Halle-Wittenberg); Eric Formo (U. Georgia); Enrique Gomez (Penn State U.); Megan Robertson (U. Houston); Evgheni Strelcov (NIST); Rafael Verduzco (Rice U.) Past Chair, ex officio member - Nazanin Bassiri-Gharb (Georgia Tech) CNMS

  8. Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 138 Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann (2007) 51 Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United

  9. Marie Guy | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marie Guy Marie Guy Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake Case Larry Case Patrick Case Dorothy Coker Gordon Fee Linda Fellers Louis Freels Marie Guy Nathan Henry Agnes Houser John Rice Irwin Harvey Kite Charlie Manning Alice Piercey Donald Raby Jack Rains Ray Smith Ken Sommerfeld Kay Steed Bill Wilcox Beverly Woods more ... Options Hide Chapters Show Transcript Marie Guy One of the

  10. TITLE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue, A q o m e , Illinob 60159 ACTION DESCRIPTION MEMORANDUM PROPOSED DECONTAMINATION OF THE ALBANY RESEARCH CENTER, ALBANY, OREGON June 1987 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Oak Rice Operatlorn Technical Services Division Oak Ridge, Tennessee 1 SUMMARYOFPROPOSEDACTION ........................................ 1 2 f I l S M R Y AND NEED FOR ACTION ....................................... 2 1 GeneralSttti np ...................................................... 2 2.3 History

  11. The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions The Use of Humidity Sensors to Develop BIPV Packaging Solutions Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado PDF icon pvmrw13_ps4_tata_rice.pdf More Documents & Publications Agenda for the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004 Energy Savings

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, S.L.; Welch, A.J.; Motamedi, M.; Rastegar, S.; Tittel, F.; Esterowitz, L.

    1993-05-01

    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.

  13. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Six Regional Winners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advance to Final Round | Department of Energy Six Regional Winners Advance to Final Round National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Six Regional Winners Advance to Final Round May 16, 2014 - 1:14pm Addthis Western Southwest Region Winner 1 of 5 Western Southwest Region Winner KAir Battery won the Rice Business Plan Competition for its cost-effective large-scale stationary potassium-air battery. Image: Courtesy of KAir Battery Southeastern Region Winner 2 of 5 Southeastern Region

  14. Photo of the Week: Tiny Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tiny Batteries Photo of the Week: Tiny Batteries April 25, 2014 - 12:56pm Addthis For years, scientists have tracked the movements of salmon through rivers in the Pacific Northwest and around the world. Now a smaller, more powerful battery will allow them to track even younger, smaller fish over longer distances. Slightly larger than grains of rice, the new batteries power a transmitter small enough to inject into these fish -- rather than surgically implant them. The result is less stressful

  15. Menominee Tribal Enterprises

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Menominee Nation once occupied 9.5 million acres of land * The present Menominee Reservation was established in 1854 with 234,000 acres. * The Menominee hunted, fished and harvested wild rice on their reservation. MTE Menominee Tribal Enterprises The Menominee Nation * The Menominee retained their island of timber & community by dint of their own tenacity, federal protection and fortuitous circumstance. MTE Menominee Tribal Enterprises The Menominee Nation * 95% of the reservation

  16. Menominee Tribal Enterprises (MTE) Biomass CHP District Energy System

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Menominee Nation once occupied 9.5 million acres of land * The present Menominee Reservation was established in 1854 with 234,000 acres. * The Menominee hunted, fished and harvested wild rice on their reservation. MTE Menominee Tribal Enterprises The Menominee Nation * The Menominee retained their island of timber & community by perseverance of their own tenacity, federal protection and fortuitous circumstance. MTE Menominee Tribal Enterprises The Menominee Nation * 95% of the

  17. Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Annual

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2012 DOE/NA-0018 Stewardship Science Academic Alliances National Laser Users' Facility High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas A color composite (red=H2, green=HI, blue=OIII) of a small portion of Carina shows the spectacular structures that result when radiation from massive stars interacts with molecular globules that harbour newborn stars. Image Courtesy of Patrick Hartigan, Rice University, taken with the 4-m NOAO telescope at Cerro Tololo, Chile On the cover This report was prepared as an

  18. Increase of available phosphorus by fly-ash application in paddy soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.; Lee, Y.B.; Chang, H.H.; Ali, M.A.; Min, W.; Kim, S.; Kim, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash from the coal- burning industry may be a potential inorganic soil amendment to increase rice productivity and to restore the soil nutrient balance in paddy soil. In this study, fly ash was applied at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg ha{sup -1} in two paddy soils (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). During rice cultivation, available phosphorus (P) increased significantly with fly ash application, as there was high content of P (786 mg kg{sup -1}) in the applied fly ash. In addition, high content of silicon (Si) and high pH of fly ash contributed to increased available-P content by ion competition between phosphate and silicate and by neutralization of soil acidity, respectively. With fly-ash application, water-soluble P (W-P) content increased significantly together with increasing aluminum- bound P (Al- P) and calcium- bound P (Ca- P) fractions. By contrast, iron- bound P (Fe- P) decreased significantly because of reduction of iron under the flooded paddy soil during rice cultivation. The present experiment indicated that addition of fly ash had a positive benefit on increasing the P availability.

  19. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  20. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with themore » use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.« less

  1. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielenz, Jonathan R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Rodriguez Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  2. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  3. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H; McMahon, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  4. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  5. International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Development of Computational Models for Pyrochemical Electrorefiners of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Simpson; K.-R. Kim

    2010-12-01

    In support of closing the nuclear fuel cycle using non-aqueous separations technology, this project aims to develop computational models of electrorefiners based on fundamental chemical and physical processes. Spent driver fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being electrorefined in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). And Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing electrorefining technology for future application to spent fuel treatment and management in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Electrorefining is a critical component of pyroprocessing, a non-aqueous chemical process which separates spent fuel into four streams: (1) uranium metal, (2) U/TRU metal, (3) metallic high-level waste containing cladding hulls and noble metal fission products, and (4) ceramic high-level waste containing sodium and active metal fission products. Having rigorous yet flexible electrorefiner models will facilitate process optimization and assist in trouble-shooting as necessary. To attain such models, INL/UI has focused on approaches to develop a computationally-light and portable two-dimensional (2D) model, while KAERI/SNU has investigated approaches to develop a computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) model for detailed and fine-tuned simulation.

  6. New applications of X-ray tomography in pyrolysis of biomass: Biochar imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, Keith; Ramakrishnan, Girish; Uchimiya, Minori; Orlov, Alexander

    2015-01-30

    We report on the first ever use of non-destructive micrometer-scale synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT) for biochar material characterization as a function of pyrolysis temperature. This innovative approach demonstrated an increase in micron-sized marcropore fraction of the Cotton Hull (CH) sample, resulting in up to 29% sample porosity. We have also found that initial porosity development occurred at low temperatures (below 350°C) of pyrolysis, consistent with chemical composition of CH. This innovative technique can be highly complementary to traditional BET measurements, considering that Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analysis of pore size distribution cannot detect these macropores. Such information can be of substantial relevance tomore » environmental applications, given that water retention by biochars added to soils is controlled by macropore characteristic among the other factors. In addition, complementing our data with SEM, EDX, and XRF characterization techniques allowed us to develop a better understanding of evolution of biochar properties during its production, such presence of metals and initial morphological features of biochar before pyrolysis. These results have significant implications for using biochar as a soil additive and for clarifying the mechanisms of biofuel production by pyrolysis.« less

  7. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Angel, Marian; Bement, Matthew; Salvino, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  8. Overview of crash and impact analysis at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1993-08-05

    This work provides a brief overview of past and ongoing efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of finite-element modeling of crash and impact problems. The process has been one of evolution in several respects. One aspect of the evolution has been the continual upgrading and refinement of the DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ family of finite-element codes. The major missions of these codes involve problems where the dominant factors are high-rate dynamics, quasi-statics, and heat transfer, respectively. However, analysis of a total event, whether it be a shipping container drop or an automobile/barrier collision, may require use or coupling or two or more of these codes. Along with refinements in speed, contact capability, and element technology, material model complexity continues to evolve as more detail is demanded from the analyses. A more recent evolution has involved the mix of problems addressed at LLNL and the direction of the technology thrusts. A pronounced increase in collaborative efforts with the civilian and private sector has resulted in a mix of complex problems involving synergism between weapons applications (shipping container, earth penetrator, missile carrier, ship hull damage) and a more broad base of problems such as vehicle impacts as discussed herein.

  9. Conceptual design of a submerged power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J.S. )

    1992-01-01

    Providing safe and sustainable energy to the world's increasing population will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is developing the concept of a submerged power stations (SPS). The reactor is located in the forward part of the vessel, while the turbine and generator are in the midsection, and the control and crew quarters are located at the opposite end of the vessel. The current design of the SPS has a 22.5-m o.d., is 146 m long, and has a total mass, including seawater in the annular region between the hulls, of 47,000 t. The SPS would be operated in 20 to 100 m of water at a distance of 10 to 30 km from the shore and would generate 300 to 600 MW(electric) transmitted to shore by undersea cables. The SPS has the advantages of centralized fabrication and maintenance. The author believes that the SPS has significant safety and environmental advantages.

  10. Observation manipulator bell proves worth in Transmediterranean pipeline construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.

    1981-10-26

    In constructing the trans-Mediterranean undersea pipeline between Tunisia and Sicily, Perry Oceanographics used a manned, tethered vehicle called an observation manipulator bell (OMB), which has proven itself in deepwater pipelaying operations. The OMB carries a crew of two inside a pressure hull with an internal diameter of 76 in. Its overall diameter is 102 in. and it weighs 17,500 lb. The vehicle has two 5-hp port- and starboard-mounted electric thrusters. Its vertical position can be controlled by either the bell operator using a clump-weight haul-down winch or the surface operator with the umbilical winch. The OMB is fitted with video cameras and voice communication. The vehicle has reached depths of 3000 ft within 30 min with only a 10-ft overshoot. The OMB's single and/or dual manipulator-arm systems can operate its onboard impact wrenches, cut-off saws, water jets, and cable cutters. In addition, the manipulator claws can operate valve wheels and levers, attach anodes, and connect of disconnect cables and hydraulic systems. The versatility of the OMB was demonstrated recently when the vehicle rescued a PC-1602 submarine that had become entangled at 1740 ft.

  11. A CAD system for nodule detection in low-dose lung CTs based on region growing and a new active contour model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellotti, R.; De Carlo, F.; Gargano, G.; Tangaro, S.; Cascio, D.; Catanzariti, E.; Cerello, P.; Cheran, S. C.; Delogu, P.; De Mitri, I.; Fulcheri, C.; Grosso, D.; Retico, A.; Squarcia, S.; Tommasi, E.; Golosio, Bruno

    2007-12-15

    A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the selection of lung nodules in computer tomography (CT) images is presented. The system is based on region growing (RG) algorithms and a new active contour model (ACM), implementing a local convex hull, able to draw the correct contour of the lung parenchyma and to include the pleural nodules. The CAD consists of three steps: (1) the lung parenchymal volume is segmented by means of a RG algorithm; the pleural nodules are included through the new ACM technique; (2) a RG algorithm is iteratively applied to the previously segmented volume in order to detect the candidate nodules; (3) a double-threshold cut and a neural network are applied to reduce the false positives (FPs). After having set the parameters on a clinical CT, the system works on whole scans, without the need for any manual selection. The CT database was recorded at the Pisa center of the ITALUNG-CT trial, the first Italian randomized controlled trial for the screening of the lung cancer. The detection rate of the system is 88.5% with 6.6 FPs/CT on 15 CT scans (about 4700 sectional images) with 26 nodules: 15 internal and 11 pleural. A reduction to 2.47 FPs/CT is achieved at 80% efficiency.

  12. Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, J.

    2012-05-23

    The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

  13. Method and apparatus for modeling interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-08-08

    A method and apparatus for modeling interactions between bodies. The method comprises representing two bodies undergoing translations and rotations by two hierarchical swept volume representations. Interactions such as nearest approach and collision can be modeled based on the swept body representations. The present invention can serve as a practical tool in motion planning, CAD systems, simulation systems, safety analysis, and applications that require modeling time-based interactions. A body can be represented in the present invention by a union of convex polygons and convex polyhedra. As used generally herein, polyhedron includes polygon, and polyhedra includes polygons. The body undergoing translation can be represented by a swept body representation, where the swept body representation comprises a hierarchical bounding volume representation whose leaves each contain a representation of the region swept by a section of the body during the translation, and where the union of the regions is a superset of the region swept by the surface of the body during translation. Interactions between two bodies thus represented can be modeled by modeling interactions between the convex hulls of the finite sets of discrete points in the swept body representations.

  14. Mooring system optimization with application to a weather vane ship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, C.A.; Aranha, J.A.P.; Leite, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a software that allows one to choose the optimal mooring line system of a weather vane ship. It uses a frequency domain analysis of the ship motion in the horizontal plane employing recently developed analytic expressions for the low frequency sea spectrum, the related wave damping factor and an algebraic approximation for the dynamic tension in the line due to the first order ship motion. The dampings due to the ship hull and mooring lines are incorporated in the model and the only hydrodynamic information needed are the standard ones, namely: the force coefficients for unitary wind and ocean current velocities, the surge added mass at zero frequency, the RAO of the floating system in a certain range of frequencies together with the drift force coefficients for regular waves. Selecting the pre-tension in a specified line as a control parameter, one can determine the total offset of the ocean unit (steady and quasi-steady) together with the maximum tension in all lines, as a function of this control parameters. It has been observed then that the offset of the unit decreases monotonically, as expected, with the pre-tension but the maximum tension in the most loaded line does not increase steadily; this result has been explained with the help of a simplified model and it opens the possibility for one to choose the best pre-tension to fit some design criteria.

  15. New applications of X-ray tomography in pyrolysis of biomass: Biochar imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Keith; Ramakrishnan, Girish; Uchimiya, Minori; Orlov, Alexander

    2015-01-30

    We report on the first ever use of non-destructive micrometer-scale synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT) for biochar material characterization as a function of pyrolysis temperature. This innovative approach demonstrated an increase in micron-sized marcropore fraction of the Cotton Hull (CH) sample, resulting in up to 29% sample porosity. We have also found that initial porosity development occurred at low temperatures (below 350°C) of pyrolysis, consistent with chemical composition of CH. This innovative technique can be highly complementary to traditional BET measurements, considering that Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) analysis of pore size distribution cannot detect these macropores. Such information can be of substantial relevance to environmental applications, given that water retention by biochars added to soils is controlled by macropore characteristic among the other factors. In addition, complementing our data with SEM, EDX, and XRF characterization techniques allowed us to develop a better understanding of evolution of biochar properties during its production, such presence of metals and initial morphological features of biochar before pyrolysis. These results have significant implications for using biochar as a soil additive and for clarifying the mechanisms of biofuel production by pyrolysis.

  16. Radiation Shielding Design and Orientation Considerations for a 1 kWe Heat Pipe Cooled Reactor Utilized to Bore Through the Ice Caps of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael L.; Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2006-01-20

    The goal in designing any space power system is to develop a system able to meet the mission requirements for success while minimizing the overall costs. The mission requirements for the this study was to develop a reactor (with Stirling engine power conversion) and shielding configuration able to fit, along with all the other necessary science equipment, in a Cryobot 3 m high with {approx}0.5 m diameter hull, produce 1 kWe for 5yrs, and not adversely affect the mission science by keeping the total integrated dose to the science equipment below 150 krad. Since in most space power missions the overall system mass dictates the mission cost, the shielding designs in this study incorporated Martian water extracted at the startup site in order to minimize the tungsten and LiH mass loading at launch. Different reliability and mass minimization concerns led to three design configuration evolutions. With the help of implementing Martian water and configuring the reactor as far from the science equipment as possible, the needed tungsten and LiH shield mass was minimized. This study further characterizes the startup dose and the necessary mission requirements in order to ensure integrity of the surface equipment during reactor startup phase.

  17. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  19. High energy. Progress report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, B.E.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    The Bonner Lab High Energy Group at Rice University has major hardware and software design and construction responsibilities in three of the flagship experiments of US High Energy Physics: D0, CMS, and KTeV. These commitments were undertaken after managing boards of the collaborations had evaluated the unique capabilities that Bonner Lab has to offer. Although fiscal constraints prohibited their participation in the final year of the SMC experiment (1996) on the spin dependent structure functions of nucleons, they played a major role there since it was proposed in 1988. The new results from the SMC data taken in previous years continue to generate a buzz of theoretical activity--and to increase understanding of the nucleon structure functions and their behavior as a function of Q{sup 2} and x. They have also spawned large new experimental spin physics programs at HERA and at RHIC that ultimately will provide answers to these fundamental questions. This is a direct result of the unprecedented precision and kinematic range of the SMC results. Such precision would not have been possible without the improvement in the knowledge of the muon beam polarization using the Rice-designed beam polarimeter. In D0 Bonner Lab has been active in data taking, data analysis, upgrade design, and upgrade construction projects. In CMS they are responsible for the design and construction of the trigger electronics for one of the crucial subsystems: the end cap muon detectors. Other responsibilities are fully expected as the US commitment to LHC projects becomes clearer. The technical capabilities are well matched to the enormous challenges posed by the physics measurements being contemplated for the CMS detector. KTeV will be taking data shortly. Rice made major contributions to the construction and commissioning of this experiment. The long list of publications and presentations during the past five years attests to the fact that the group has been working hard and productively.

  20. Methane sources and emissions in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, G.R.; Castagnola, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    Methane emissions in Italy were assessed in the framework of the measures taken to follow out the commitments undertaken at the 1992 U.N. Conference for Environment and Development. Methane emissions of anthropic origin were estimated to be in the range of 1.6 to 2.3 million ton of methane per year. Some of these methane sources (natural gas production, transmission and distribution; rice paddies; managed livestock enteric fermentation and waste; solid waste landfills) are given here particular care as they mainly contribute to the total methane emission budget.

  1. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  2. 2013 - 08 | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 2013 Tue, 08/27/2013 - 11:23am Jefferson Lab Graphic Identity Standards & Style Guide Now Available Fri, 08/23/2013 - 11:53pm JLab mourns Robert W. (Bob) Rice Thu, 08/15/2013 - 8:41am TIAA-CREF INDIVIDUAL COUNSELING - September 2013 Tue, 08/06/2013 - 11:13am HCO Training REQUIRED for 12 GeV Accelerator Operations; Live Session on Aug. 7 Tue, 08/06/2013 - 11:11am Agilent Seminar DATE CHANGED: Training Set for Aug. 14 MOVED to Sept. 11 Tue, 08/06/2013 - 11:10am JLab-Wide Phone Outage:

  3. Microsoft Word - Document8

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plant B iomass C onversion ISBN: 9 78---0---8138---1694---4 March 2 011 Book S ection: B iofuel E conomics Klein---Marcuschamer, D .; H olmes, B .; S immons, B . A .; B lanch, H . W . As c oncerns r egarding i ncreasing e nergy p rices, g lobal w arming a nd r enewable resources c ontinue t o g row, s o h as s cientific d iscovery i nto a gricultural b iomass conversion. Plant B iomass C onversion a ddresses b oth t he d evelopment o f p lant biomass a nd c onversion t echnology, i n a ddition t

  4. Grain Drier Project Report for task 2 dated July 1990 edited 1991, 1992. Follow up report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, S.; Hall, R.; Lee, Myoung; Ouyang, Chieh

    1990-07-01

    One of the original projects undertaken under the cooperative agreement No. DE-FC04-87AL42558 between the Massachusetts Photovoltaic Program and the United States Department of Energy was to design, build, and test a grain drier which utilized solar energy effectively. Different grains have different drying requirements, and the grain drier team chose to design the drier for rice because of the worldwide economic importance of this staple food and also because of the challenges that drying rice presents. Rice loses much of its market value if it is exposed to large temperature changes while drying; therefore, a solar rice drier must be designed so as to try to level the temperature variations which naturally arise from the intermittency of the solar source. The design team committed itself early in the project to a hybrid concept, where solar energy is utilized in two ways: it is captured {open_quote}thermally{close_quote} in a rock-bed which acts at the same time as thermal storage and buffer, and it is converted {open_quote}directly{close_quote} in a small photovoltaic panel which generates electricity to power a small fan to circulate air through the rock-bed and the grain during daylight hours. At night, natural convection drives the air flow. The design of most of the system is flexible, in that the drier can be built with materials available at the intended site, with non-specialized labor. The team has purposely avoided any {open_quote}high tech{close_quote} solution which would increase the drier cost for third-world users. Therefore, the drier design does not incorporate selective surfaces or a vacuum, two common methods of enhancing solar thermal performance. The design does incorporate a small but relatively high value element, the PV panel and fan package. A major part of the group effort was devoted to data acquisition, to analyze the effects of different modifications on the drier performance. The results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  5. Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C -Mod

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tokamak Plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C -Mod Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C -Mod Tokamak Plasmas Authors: Rice, J. E. ; Hughes, J. W. ; Diamond, P. H. ; Kosuga, Y. ; Podpaly, Y. A. ; Reinke, M. L. ; Greenwald, M. J. ; Gürcan, Ö. D. ; Hahm, T. S. ; Hubbard, A. E. ; Marmar, E. S. ; McDevitt, C. J. ; Whyte, D. G.

  6. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Ideker, Trey G.(Trey G.Ideker).- Department of Bioengineering, University of California at San Diego Igoshin, Oleg (Oleg Igoshin) - Department of Bioengineering, Rice University Ikura, Mitsuhiko (Mitsuhiko Ikura) - Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, University of Toronto Imoto, Seiya (Seiya Imoto) -

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 7 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Rice, J E" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Select page number Go to page: 1 of 7 1 » Next » Everything67 Electronic Full Text9 Citations58 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject alcator device (37) plasma physics and fusion technology (37) plasma (29) ion

  8. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Plasma Physics

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Fusion -- Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Alvarez, Pedro J. (Pedro J. Alvarez) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa (Lisa Alvarez-Cohen) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley Anderson, Larry G.(Larry G.Anderson).-

  9. DE-FC26-06NT42960 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate DE-FC26-06NT42960 Last Reviewed 5/15/2012 Project Goal The goal of this project is to improve the understanding of regional and local differences in gas hydrate systems from three perspectives: as an energy resource, as a geohazard, and as a long-term influence on global climate. Performers Rice University, Houston, TX University of Texas, Austin, TX Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK Background Heterogeneity in the distribution of gas hydrate

  10. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Engineering --

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Engineering Go to Research Groups Preprints Provided by Individual Scientists: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Aamodt, Tor (Tor Aamodt) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia Aazhang, Behnaam (Behnaam Aazhang) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University

  11. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Environmental

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Management and Restoration Technologies -- Energy, science, and technology for the research community -- hosted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy Management and Restoration Technologies Go to Research Groups Preprints Provided by Individual Scientists: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Alvarez, Pedro J. (Pedro J. Alvarez) - Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa (Lisa

  12. James Franck and the “Franck Report”

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    James Franck and the “Franck Report” Resources with Additional Information * Research Highlights James Franck Courtesy of Stuart Rice, the James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago "James Franck was one of Germany's leading experimental physicists in the 1920s and early 1930s. He is remembered by physicists today primarily because of the Franck-Hertz experiment, for which he and Gustav Hertz were awarded the 1925 Nobel Prize in Physics, and for the Franck-Condon principle. Franck

  13. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Archived News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEWS "New material could lead to longer-lasting batteries," PC World (October 24, 2014) "Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium batteries," ChemEurope (October 23, 2014) "Novel approach to magnetic measurements atom-by-atom," Uppsala University (October 1, 2014) "Pixel Engineered Electronics Have Growth Potential," Rice University (September 29, 2014) "Interface surprises may motivate novel oxide electronic devices,"

  14. Components for Optimized SCR Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Optimized SCR Systems Components for Optimized SCR Systems Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_rice.pdf More Documents & Publications Design Potential of Metal Foil Substrates for Optimized DOC Performance Application of SCR and PM-METALIT for Non-Road Applications: SCRi Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control

  15. Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) Wayne Reedy Oak Ridge National Laboratory wreedy2@comcast.net 574-583-5487 April 2, 2013 Develop Standard Method of Test (MOT) for IHP 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: * IHP → ≥50% savings in energy used for space conditioning and water heating - C. K. Rice, V. D. Baxter, S. A. Hern, T. P. McDowell, J. D. Munk, and B. Shen, 2013. "Development of a Residential Ground- Source Integrated Heat Pump",

  16. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 375 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Rice)" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Select page number Go to page: 1 of 375 1 » Next » Everything3,747 Electronic Full Text564 Citations3,179 Multimedia3 Datasets0 Software1 Filter Results Filter by Subject materials science (446) elements (361) organic compounds (312) oxygen

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 2 of 7 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Rice, J E" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Select page number Go to page: 2 of 7 2 » Next » Everything67 Electronic Full Text9 Citations58 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject alcator device (37) plasma physics and fusion technology (37) plasma (29) ion

  19. OAK RIDG:E NATlOlNAL

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RIDG:E NATlOlNAL - - ~ I ~ O , R A T O I R Y - -~ Results of the Independent L O C J I H E g D Y A u . T I n , Radiological Verification Survey of the Remedial Action Performed at 525 S. Main Street Oxford, Ohio (0x0002) K. R. Kleinhans D. E. Rice M. E. Murray R. F. Carrier DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

  20. Accelerator on a Chip | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Accelerator on a Chip Accelerator on a Chip February 4, 2016 - 5:24pm Addthis Scientists at SLAC are attempting to build a particle accelerator the size of a shoe box. | Video courtesy of SLAC. Andrew Gordon SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Could tiny chips no bigger than grains of rice do the job of a huge particle accelerator? At full potential, a series of these "accelerators on a chip" could boost electrons to the same high energies achieved in SLAC National Accelerator

  1. OFtNL/TM-12390

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    cl 2-8 OFtNL/TM-12390 Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey at the former Bridgeport Brass Company Facility, Seymour, Connecticut (sscool) R. D. Foley D. E. Rice J. F. Allred K. S. Brown This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Techni- cal Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; prices available from (615) 576640 1, FTS 626-840 1. Available to the public from the

  2. Removal of Radiocesium from Food by Processing: Data Collected after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident - 13167

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2013-07-01

    Removal of radiocesium from food by processing is of great concern following the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Foods in markets are monitored and recent monitoring results have shown that almost all food materials were under the standard limit concentration levels for radiocesium (Cs-134+137), that is, 100 Bq kg{sup -1} in raw foods, 50 Bq kg{sup -1} in baby foods, and 10 Bq kg{sup -1} in drinking water; those food materials above the limit cannot be sold. However, one of the most frequently asked questions from the public is how much radiocesium in food would be removed by processing. Hence, information about radioactivity removal by processing of food crops native to Japan is actively sought by consumers. In this study, the food processing retention factor, F{sub r}, which is expressed as total activity in processed food divided by total activity in raw food, is reported for various types of corps. For white rice at a typical polishing yield of 90-92% from brown rice, the F{sub r} value range was 0.42-0.47. For leafy vegetable (indirect contamination), the average F{sub r} values were 0.92 (range: 0.27-1.2) after washing and 0.55 (range: 0.22-0.93) after washing and boiling. The data for some fruits are also reported. (authors)

  3. Interaction of carbon nanohorns with plants: Uptake and biological effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Chen, Jihua; Irin, Fahmida; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Green, Micah J.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2014-10-07

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns (SWCNHs) are a unique carbon-based nanomaterial with promising application in different fields including, medicine, genetic engineering and horticulture. Here, we investigated the biological response of six crop species (barley, corn, rice, soybean, switchgrass, tomato) and tobacco cell culture to the exposure of SWCNHs. We found that SWCNHs can activate seed germination of selected crops and enhance growth of different organs of corn, tomato, rice and soybean. At cellular level, growth of tobacco cells was increased in response to exposure of SWCNHs (78% increase compared to control). Uptake of SWCNHs by exposed crops and tobacco cells was confirmedmore » by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantified by microwave induced heating (MIH) technique. At genetic level, SWCNHs were able to affect expression of a number of tomato genes that are involved in stress responses, cellular responses and metabolic processes. Our conclusion is that SWCNHs can be used as plant growth regulators and have the potential for plant-related applications.« less

  4. Interaction of carbon nanohorns with plants: Uptake and biological effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Chen, Jihua; Irin, Fahmida; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Green, Micah J.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2014-10-07

    Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns (SWCNHs) are a unique carbon-based nanomaterial with promising application in different fields including, medicine, genetic engineering and horticulture. Here, we investigated the biological response of six crop species (barley, corn, rice, soybean, switchgrass, tomato) and tobacco cell culture to the exposure of SWCNHs. We found that SWCNHs can activate seed germination of selected crops and enhance growth of different organs of corn, tomato, rice and soybean. At cellular level, growth of tobacco cells was increased in response to exposure of SWCNHs (78% increase compared to control). Uptake of SWCNHs by exposed crops and tobacco cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantified by microwave induced heating (MIH) technique. At genetic level, SWCNHs were able to affect expression of a number of tomato genes that are involved in stress responses, cellular responses and metabolic processes. Our conclusion is that SWCNHs can be used as plant growth regulators and have the potential for plant-related applications.

  5. Biofuel Production Initiative at Claflin University Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Kamal

    2011-07-20

    For US transportation fuel independence or reduced dependence on foreign oil, the Federal Government has mandated that the country produce 36 billion gallons (bg) of renewable transportation fuel per year for its transportation fuel supply by 2022. This can be achieved only if development of efficient technology for second generation biofuel from ligno-cellulosic sources is feasible. To be successful in this area, development of a widely available, renewable, cost-effective ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock that can be easily and efficiently converted biochemically by bacteria or other fast-growing organisms is required. Moreover, if the biofuel type is butanol, then the existing infrastructure to deliver fuel to the customer can be used without additional costs and retrofits. The Claflin Biofuel Initiative project is focused on helping the US meet the above-mentioned targets. With support from this grant, Claflin University (CU) scientists have created over 50 new strains of microorganisms that are producing butanol from complex carbohydrates and cellulosic compounds. Laboratory analysis shows that a number of these strains are producing higher percentages of butanol than other methods currently in use. All of these recombinant bacterial strains are producing relatively high concentrations of acetone and numerous other byproducts as well. Therefore, we are carrying out intense mutations in the selected strains to reduce undesirable byproducts and increase the desired butanol production to further maximize the yield of butanol. We are testing the proof of concept of producing pre-industrial large scale biobutanol production by utilizing modifications of currently commercially available fermentation technology and instrumentation. We have already developed an initial process flow diagram (PFD) and selected a site for a biobutanol pilot scale facility in Orangeburg, SC. With the recent success in engineering new strains of various biofuel producing bacteria at CU, it will soon be possible to provide other technical information for the development of process flow diagrams (PFD’s) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID’s). This information can be used for the equipment layout and general arrangement drawings for the proposed process and eventual plant. An efficient bio-butanol pilot plant to convert ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock from bagasse and wood chips will create significant number of green jobs for the Orangeburg, SC community that will be environmentally-friendly and generate much-needed income for farmers in the area.

  6. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, J. D.; Collins, E. D.; Crum, J. V.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Garn, T. G.; Gombert, D.; Jones, R.; Jubin, R. T.; Maio, V. C.; Marra, J. C.; Matyas, J.; Nenoff, T. M.; Riley, B. J.; Sevigny, G. J.; Soelberg, N. R.; Strachan, D. M.; Thallapally, P. K.; Westsik, J. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form with encapsulated nano-sized AgI crystals; Carbon-14 immobilized as a CaCO3 in a cement waste form; Krypton-85 stored as a compressed gas; An aqueous reprocessing high-level waste (HLW) raffinate waste immobilized by the vitrification process; An undissolved solids (UDS) fraction from aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel either included in the borosilicate HLW glass or immobilized in the form of a metal alloy or titanate ceramics; Zirconium-based LWR fuel cladding hulls and stainless steel (SS) fuel assembly hardware super-compacted for disposal or purified for reuse (or disposal as low-level waste, LLW) of Zr by reactive gas separations; Electrochemical process salt HLW incorporated into a glass bonded Sodalite waste form; and Electrochemical process UDS and SS cladding hulls melted into an iron based alloy waste form. Mass and volume estimates for each of the recommended waste forms based on the source terms from a representative flowsheet are reported. In addition to the above listed primary waste streams, a range of secondary process wastes are generated by aqueous reprocessing of LWR fuel, metal SFR fuel fabrication, and electrochemical reprocessing of SFR fuel. These secondary wastes have been summarized and volumes estimated by type and classification. The important waste management data gaps and research needs have been summarized for each primary waste stream and selected waste process.

  7. Enhancing the quality of radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources through correction of the beam divergence and attenuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-11-11

    Radiographic images acquired with point-like gamma-ray sources exhibit a desirable low penumbra effects specially when positioned far away from the set object-detector. Such an arrangement frequently is not affordable due to the limited flux provided by a distant source. A closer source, however, has two main drawbacks, namely the degradation of the spatial resolution - as actual sources are only approximately punctual - and the non-homogeneity of the beam hitting the detector, which creates a false attenuation map of the object being inspected. This non-homogeneity is caused by the beam divergence itself and by the different thicknesses traversed the beam even if the object were an homogeneous flat plate. In this work, radiographic images of objects with different geometries, such as flat plates and pipes have undergone a correction of beam divergence and attenuation addressing the experimental verification of the capability and soundness of an algorithm formerly developed to generate and process synthetic images. The impact of other parameters, including source-detector gap, attenuation coefficient, ratio defective-to-main hull thickness and counting statistics have been assessed for specifically tailored test-objects aiming at the evaluation of the ability of the proposed method to deal with different boundary conditions. All experiments have been carried out with an X-ray sensitive Imaging Plate and reactor-produced {sup 198}Au and {sup 165}Dy sources. The results have been compared with other technique showing a better capability to correct the attenuation map of inspected objects unveiling their inner structure otherwise concealed by the poor contrast caused by the beam divergence and attenuation, in particular for those regions far apart from the vertical of the source.

  8. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.L.; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Jenkins, B.M.; Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.; Bryers, R.W.; Oden, L.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  9. AGR-2 Data Qualification Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott

    2010-09-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to manage and document VHTR data qualification, for storage of the data in a readily accessible electronic form, and to assist in the analysis and presentation of the data. This document gives the status of NDMAS processing and qualification of data associated with the initial reactor cycle (147A) of the second Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-2) experiment which began on June 21, 2010. Because it is early in the AGR-2 experiment, data from only two AGR-2 data streams are reported on: Fuel Fabrication and Fuel Irradiation data. As of August 1, 2010, approximately 311,000 irradiation data records have been stored in NDMAS, and qualification tests are in progress. Preliminary information indicates that TC 2 in Capsule 2 failed prior to start of the experiment, and NDMAS testing has thus far identified only two invalid data values from the METSO data collection system Data from the Fission Product Monitoring System (FPMS) are not currently processed until after reactor cycle shutdown and have not yet been received. A description of the ATR operating conditions data associated with the AGR-2 experiment (e.g., power levels) are summarized in the AGR-1 data qualification report (INL/EXT-09-16460). Since ATR data are collected under ATR program data quality requirements (i.e., outside the VHTR program), the NGNP program and NDMAS do not take additional actions to qualify these data other than NDMAS capture testing. Data qualification of graphite characterization data collected under the Graphite Technology Development Project is reported in a separate status report (Hull 2010).

  10. Fate of Noble Metals during the Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; D. Vaden; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; R.D. Mariani

    2009-09-01

    During the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by electrochemical techniques, fission products are separated as the fuel is oxidized at the anode and refined uranium is deposited at the cathode. Those fission products that are oxidized into the molten salt electrolyte are considered active metals while those that do not react are considered noble metals. The primary noble metals encountered during pyroprocessing are molybdenum, zirconium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, and technetium. Pyroprocessing of spent fuel to date has involved two distinctly different electrorefiner designs, in particular the anode to cathode configuration. For one electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are horizontally displaced such that uranium is transported across the electrolyte medium. As expected, the noble metal removal from the uranium during refining is very high, typically in excess of 99%. For the other electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are vertically collocated to maximize uranium throughput. This arrangement results in significantly less noble metals removal from the uranium during refining, typically no better than 20%. In addition to electrorefiner design, operating parameters can also influence the retention of noble metals, albeit at the cost of uranium recovery. Experiments performed to date have shown that as much as 100% of the noble metals can be retained by the cladding hulls while affecting the uranium recovery by only 6%. However, it is likely that commercial pyroprocessing of spent fuel will require the uranium recovery to be much closer to 100%. The above mentioned design and operational issues will likely be driven by the effects of noble metal contamination on fuel fabrication and performance. These effects will be presented in terms of thermal properties (expansion, conductivity, and fusion) and radioactivity considerations. Ultimately, the incorporation of minor amounts of noble metals from pyroprocessing into fast reactor metallic fuel will be shown to be of no consequence to reactor performance.

  11. Geography-based structural analysis of the Internet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Yan, Guanhua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study some geographic aspects of the Internet. We base our analysis on a large set of geolocated IP hop-level session data (including about 300,000 backbone routers, 150 million end hosts, and 1 billion sessions) that we synthesized from a variety of different input sources such as US census data, computer usage statistics, Internet market share data, IP geolocation data sets, CAJDA's Skitter data set for backbone connectivity, and BGP routing tables. We use this model to perform a nationwide and statewide geographic analysis of the Internet. Our main observations are: (1) There is a dominant coast-to-coast pattern in the US Internet traffic. In fact, in many instances even if the end-devices are not near either coast, still the traffic between them takes a long detour through the coasts. (2) More than half of the Internet paths are inflated by 100% or more compared to their corresponding geometric straight-line distance. This circuitousness makes the average ratio between the routing distance and geometric distance big (around 10). (3) The weighted mean hop count is around 5, but the hop counts are very loosely correlated with the distances. The weighted mean AS count (number of ASes traversed) is around 3. (4) The AS size and the AS location number distributions are heavy-tailed and strongly correlated. Most of the ASes are medium sized and there is a wide variability in the geographic dispersion size (measured in terms of the convex hull area) of these ASes.

  12. UNDERWATER COATINGS FOR CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) deactivated several aging nuclear fuel storage basins. Planners for this effort were greatly concerned that radioactive contamination present on the basin walls could become airborne as the sides of the basins became exposed during deactivation and allowed to dry after water removal. One way to control this airborne contamination was to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls were still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market for marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives were easily applied and adhered well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INL fuel pools. Lab-scale experiments were conducted by applying fourteen different commercial underwater coatings to four substrate materials representative of the storage basin construction materials, and evaluating their performance. The coupons included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The evaluation criteria included ease of application, adherence to the four surfaces of interest, no change on water clarity or chemistry, non-hazardous in final applied form and be proven in underwater applications. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected from the underwater coatings tested for application to all four pools. Divers scrubbed loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuumed up the sludge. The divers then applied the coating using a special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pools with no detectable airborne contamination releases.

  13. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  14. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  15. Final Report: Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    2011-09-13

    As part of the Center for Programming Models for Scalable Parallel Computing, Rice University collaborated with project partners in the design, development and deployment of language, compiler, and runtime support for parallel programming models to support application development for the “leadership-class” computer systems at DOE national laboratories. Work over the course of this project has focused on the design, implementation, and evaluation of a second-generation version of Coarray Fortran. Research and development efforts of the project have focused on the CAF 2.0 language, compiler, runtime system, and supporting infrastructure. This has involved working with the teams that provide infrastructure for CAF that we rely on, implementing new language and runtime features, producing an open source compiler that enabled us to evaluate our ideas, and evaluating our design and implementation through the use of benchmarks. The report details the research, development, findings, and conclusions from this work.

  16. 3D Seismic Experimentation and Advanced Processing/Inversion Development for Investigations of the Shallow Subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levander, Alan Richard; Zelt, Colin A.

    2015-03-17

    The work plan for this project was to develop and apply advanced seismic reflection and wide-angle processing and inversion techniques to high resolution seismic data for the shallow subsurface to seismically characterize the shallow subsurface at hazardous waste sites as an aid to containment and cleanup activities. We proposed to continue work on seismic data that we had already acquired under a previous DoE grant, as well as to acquire additional new datasets for analysis. The project successfully developed and/or implemented the use of 3D reflection seismology algorithms, waveform tomography and finite-frequency tomography using compressional and shear waves for high resolution characterization of the shallow subsurface at two waste sites. These two sites have markedly different near-surface structures, groundwater flow patterns, and hazardous waste problems. This is documented in the list of refereed documents, conference proceedings, and Rice graduate theses, listed below.

  17. Final Report for DOE Grant Number DE-SC0001481

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Edison

    2013-12-02

    This report covers research activities, major results and publications supported by DE-SC-000-1481. This project was funded by the DOE OFES-NNSA HEDLP program. It was a joint research program between Rice University and the University of Texas at Austin. The physics of relativistic plasmas was investigated in the context of ultra-intense laser irradiation of high-Z solid targets. Laser experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser were performed in the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Numerical simulations of laser-plasma interactions were performed using Monte Carlo and Particle-in-Cell codes to design and support these experiments. Astrophysical applications of these results were also investigated.

  18. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81

  19. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  20. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS User Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalently Bonded Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Solids via Boron-Induced Nanojunctions D.P. Hashim,1 N.T. Narayanan,1 J.M. Romo-Herrera,2 D.A. Cullen,3 M.G. Hahm,1 P. Lezzi,4 J. R. Suttle,1 D. Kelkhoff,5 E. Munoz-Sandoval,6 S. Ganguli,7 A.K. Roy,7 D.J. Smith,8 R. Vajtai,1 B.G. Sumpter,3 V. Meunier,4 H. Terrones,3,9 M. Terrones,10 P.M. Ajayan1 1-Rice University, Houston, TX 2-Universidade de Vigo, Spain 3-Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 4-Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy,

  1. Structures and functions of oligosaccharins. Progress report, June 15, 1993--March 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albersheim, P.

    1995-03-01

    This research focuses on the following: Purification, characterization, and cell wall localization of an {alpha}-fucosidase that inactivates a xyloglucan oligosaccharin; Oligogalacturonides inhibit the formation of roots on tobacco explants; Activation of a tobacco glycine-rich protein gene by a fungal glucan preparation; Fusarium moniliforme secretes four endopolygalacturonases derived from a single gene product; Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein accumulates in Phaseolus vulgaris L. in response to wounding, elicitors and fungal infection; Generation of {beta}-glucan elicitors by plant enzymes and inhibition of the enzymes by a fungal protein; Polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum): Immunological relatedness and specificity of polygalacturonase inhibition; Fungi protect themselves against plant pathogenesis-related glycanases; Purification, cloning, and characterization of two xylanases from Magnaporthe grisea, the rice blast fungus; and Molecular cloning and expression pattern of an {alpha}-fucosidase gene from pea seedlings.

  2. OAK FMSXSE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    d x-' . J ' T* ,I, fJ&w h5z8 - ornl r* OAK FMSXSE ~A~,O~A~ L tABORblTORY r c LI I C L * I _ CII II c I -hw LV tlilAm@ ENEROY 8YwEMs, lr4c. ~T~~~~~T~~$ W EkUD%GY I uauws79~fm ORNL/RASA-95115 Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio (FOHOOl) D. E. Rice M. E. Murray K. S. Brown Thii report has been reproduced directly from the best avaitable ccpy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from

  3. Kinetics for Tautomerizations and Dissociations of Triglycine Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siu, Chi-Kit; Zhao, Junfang; Laskin, Julia; Chu, Ivan K.; Hopkinson, Alan C.; Siu , K W Michael

    2009-06-01

    Fragmentations of tautomers of the α-centered radical triglycine radical cation, [GGG*]+, [GG*G]+, and [G*GG]+, are charge-driven, giving b-type ions; these are processes that are facilitated by a mobile proton, as in the fragmentation of protonated triglycine (Rodriquez, C.F. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3006 - 3012). By contrast, radical centers are less mobile. Two mechanisms have been examined theoretically utilizing density functional theory and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus modeling: (1) a direct hydrogen-atom migration between two α-carbons, and (2) a two-step proton migration involving a canonical [GGG]*+ as an intermediate. Predictions employing the latter mechanism are in good agreement with results of recent CID experiments (Chu, I.K. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7862 - 7872).

  4. Autyomatic Differentiation of C/C++

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-14

    Automatic differentiation (AD) tools mechanize the process of developing code for the computation of derivatives. AD avoids the inaccuracies inherent in numerical approximations. Furthermore, sophisticated AD algoirthms can often produce c ode that is more reliable and more efficient than code written by an expert programmer. ADIC is the first and only AD tool for C and C++ based on compiler technology. This compiler foundation makes possible analyses and optimizations not available in toos basedmore » on operator overloading. The earliest implementations of ADIC included support for ANSI C applications, ADIC 2.0 lverages EDG, a commercial C/C++ parser, to provide robust C++ differentiation support. Modern AD tools, including ADIC are implemented in a modular way, aiming to isolate language-dependent program analyses and semantic transformations. The component design leads to much higher implementation quality because the different components can be implemented by experts in each of the different domains involved. For example, a compiler expert can focus on parsing, canonicalizing, and unparising C and C++, while an expert in graph theory and algorithms can produce new differentiation modules without having to worry about the complexity of parsing and generating C++ code. Thsi separation of concerns was achieved through the use of language-independent program analysis interfaces (in collaboration with researcgers at Rice University) and a language-independent XML representation of the computational portions of programs (XAIF). In addition to improved robustness and faster development times, this design naturally enables the reuse of program analysis algorithms and differentiation modules in compiler-based AD tools for other languages. In fact, the analysis and differention components are used in both ADIC and the Open AD Fortran front-end (based on Rice's Open64 compiler.« less

  5. Closing the Gaps in the Budgets of Methane and Nitrous Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Aslam; Rice, Andrew; Rasmussen, Reinhold

    2013-11-22

    Together methane and nitrous oxide contribute almost 40% of the estimated increase in radiative forcing caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases during the last 250 years (IPCC, 2007). These increases are attributed to human activities. Since the emissions of these gases are from biogenic sources and closely associated with living things in the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world, climate change is expected to cause feedbacks that may further increase emissions even from systems normally classified as natural. Our results support the idea that while past increases of methane were driven by direct emissions from human activities, some of these have reached their limits and that the future of methane changes may be determined by feedbacks from warming temperatures. The greatly increased current focus on the arctic and the fate of the carbon frozen in its permafrost is an example of such a feedback that could exceed the direct increases caused by future human activities (Zimov et al. 2006). Our research was aimed at three broad areas to address open questions about the global budgets of methane and nitrous oxide. These areas of inquiry were: The processes by which methane and nitrous oxide are emitted, new sources such as trees and plants, and integration of results to refine the global budgets both at present and of the past decades. For the process studies the main research was to quantify the effect of changes in the ambient temperature on the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from rice agriculture. Additionally, the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide under present conditions were estimated using the experimental data on how fertilizer applications and water management affect emissions. Rice was chosen for detailed study because it is a prototype system of the wider terrestrial source, its role in methane emissions is well established, it is easy to cultivate and it represents a major anthropogenic source. Here we will discuss the highlights of the results that were obtained.

  6. The dog originated south of Yangtse river less than 16,000 years ago, from numerous wolves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, Thomas; Pang, Jun - Feng; Kluetsch, Cornelya

    2009-01-01

    We here present a detailed picture of the origins of the dog, giving strong and precise evidence for 'where and when', and thereby also a first tentative picture of 'how, why and by whom' the wolf was domesticated. Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have failed to definitely establish the time and place of origin because of lack in phylogenetic resolution for the so far studied 582 bp region, and inadequate sampling across the world. We therefore analysed 169 mtDNA genomes, selected from partial sequences (582 bp) from 1,576 dogs worldwide. This shows that dogs universally share a common gene pool, but the three earlier identified universally occurring phylogenetic clades ofhigh age consist often much younger subclades, which originated 5,000-16,000 ya from at least 48 wolf founders. The full range of genetic diversity, all 10 subclades, is found only in south-eastern Asia south of Yangtze River, and the diversity decreases gradually across Eurasia down to only four sub clades in Europe. This establishes that the dog has a single origin in time and space from a large number ofwolves, less than 16,000 ya, probably in China south of Y angtzeRiver. The place and time coincide with the origin of rice agriculture, suggesting an origin among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early rice farmers. The numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important cultural trait, and it is noticeable that in this region dogs are since ancient times used as food, offering a possible reason for the wolf domestication.

  7. Autyomatic Differentiation of C/C++

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-14

    Automatic differentiation (AD) tools mechanize the process of developing code for the computation of derivatives. AD avoids the inaccuracies inherent in numerical approximations. Furthermore, sophisticated AD algoirthms can often produce c ode that is more reliable and more efficient than code written by an expert programmer. ADIC is the first and only AD tool for C and C++ based on compiler technology. This compiler foundation makes possible analyses and optimizations not available in toos basedmore »on operator overloading. The earliest implementations of ADIC included support for ANSI C applications, ADIC 2.0 lverages EDG, a commercial C/C++ parser, to provide robust C++ differentiation support. Modern AD tools, including ADIC are implemented in a modular way, aiming to isolate language-dependent program analyses and semantic transformations. The component design leads to much higher implementation quality because the different components can be implemented by experts in each of the different domains involved. For example, a compiler expert can focus on parsing, canonicalizing, and unparising C and C++, while an expert in graph theory and algorithms can produce new differentiation modules without having to worry about the complexity of parsing and generating C++ code. Thsi separation of concerns was achieved through the use of language-independent program analysis interfaces (in collaboration with researcgers at Rice University) and a language-independent XML representation of the computational portions of programs (XAIF). In addition to improved robustness and faster development times, this design naturally enables the reuse of program analysis algorithms and differentiation modules in compiler-based AD tools for other languages. In fact, the analysis and differention components are used in both ADIC and the Open AD Fortran front-end (based on Rice's Open64 compiler.« less

  8. The future of methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce ca. 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions steming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. Until all these aspects of methane are better understood, its future role in the world`s energy mix will remain uncertain. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity and importance of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  9. The future of energy gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    Natural gas, mainly methane, produces lower CO {sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, SO {sub 2} and particulate emissions than either oil or coal; thus further substitutions of methane for these fuels could help mitigate air pollution. Methane is, however, a potent greenhouse gas and the domestication of ruminants, cultivation of rice, mining of coal, drilling for oil, and transportation of natural gas have all contributed to a doubling of the amount of atmospheric methane since 1800. Today nearly 300,000 wells yearly produce each 21 trillion cubic feet of methane. Known reserves suggest about a 10 year supply at the above rates of recovery; and the potential for undiscovered resources is obscured by uncertainty involving price, new technologies, and environmental restrictions stemming from the need to drill an enormous number of wells, many in ecologically sensitive areas. The atomic simplicity of methane, composed of one carbon and four hydrogen atoms, may mask the complexity of this, the most basic of organic molecules. Within the Earth, methane is produced through thermochemical alteration of organic materials, and by biochemical reactions mediated by metabolic processes of archaebacteria; some methane may even be primordial, a residue of planetary accretion. Methane is known to exist in the mantle and lower crust. Near the Earth`s surface, methane occurs in enormous oil and/or gas reservoirs in rock, and is absorbed in coal, dissolved in water, and trapped in a latticework of ice-like material called gas hydrate. Methane also occurs in smaller volumes in landfills, rice paddies, termite complexes, ruminants, and even many humans. As an energy source, methane accounts for roughly 25 percent of current U.S. consumption, but its full energy potential is controversial. Methane is touted by some as a viable bridge to future energy systems, fueled by the sun and uranium and carried by electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  11. GTI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTI

    2003-07-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys. design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  12. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and sunflower hulls for the biomass material to be carbonized. The ability to remove mercury from a bituminous coal's derived flue gas was low. Removals of only 15% were attained while injecting 6 lb/Macf of activated carbon upstream of an electrostatic precipitator. Poisoning of sites on the activated carbon by SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} contributed to the poor mercury capture performance.

  13. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated charcoal, 3) selective sorption on chemical modified zeolites, or 4) diffusion through membranes with selective permeability are potential technologies to retain the gas.

  14. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

  15. Underwater Coatings for Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julia L. Tripp; Kip Archibald; Ann-Marie Phillips; Joseph Campbell

    2004-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included 1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; 2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; 3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and 4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55oF to 80oF dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature. The following criteria were used during this evaluation. The underwater coating must: · Be easy to apply · Adhere well to the four surfaces of interest · Not change or have a negative impact on water chemistry or clarity · Not be hazardous in final applied form · Be proven in other underwater applications. In addition, it is desirable for the coating to have a high pigment or high cross-link density to prevent radiation from penetrating. This paper will detail the testing completed and the test results. A proprietary two-part, underwater epoxy owned by S. G. Pinney and Associates was selected to be applied by divers after scrubbing loose contamination off the basin walls and floors using a ship hull scrubber and vacuuming up the sludge. A special powered roller with two separate heated hoses that allowed the epoxy to mix at the roller surface was used to eliminate pot time concerns. The walls were successfully coated and water was removed from the pool with no airborne contamination problems.

  16. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  17. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Liu, Tianqing; Zhao, Jun; Na, Liyan; Chen, Baojiu

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu{sup 2+} was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaAlF{sub 5} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu{sup 2+} at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu{sup 2+} can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, spectrometer calibration and solid-state lasers.

  18. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  19. Secretion of clostridium cellulase by E. coli

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Ida Kuo

    1998-01-01

    A gene, encoding an endocellulase from a newly isolated mesophilic Clostridium strain IY-2 which can digest bamboo fibers, cellulose, rice straw, and sawdust, was isolated by shotgun cloning in an E. coli expression plasmid pLC2833. E. coli positive clones were selected based on their ability to hydrolyze milled bamboo fibers and cellulose present in agar plates. One clone contained a 2.8 kb DNA fragment that was responsible for cellulase activity. Western blot analyses indicated that the positive clone produced a secreted cellulase with a mass of about 58,000 daltons that was identical in size to the subunit of one of the three major Clostridium cellulases. The products of cellulose digestion by this cloned cellulase were cellotetraose and soluble higher polymers. The cloned DNA contained signal sequences capable of directing the secretion of heterologous proteins from an E. coli host. The invention describes a bioprocess for the treatment of cellulosic plant materials to produce cellular growth substrates and fermentation end products suitable for production of liquid fuels, solvents, and acids.

  20. Correlation ECE diagnostic in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung, C.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Mikkelsen, D.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Oi, C.; Rice, J.; Reinke, M.; Gao, C.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Churchill, R.; Theiler, C.; Walk, J.; Hughes, J.; Hubbard, A.; Greenwald, M.

    2015-03-12

    Correlation ECE (CECE) is a diagnostic technique that allows measurement of small amplitude electron temperature, Te, fluctuations through standard cross-correlation analysis methods. In Alcator C-Mod, a new CECE diagnostic has been installed[Sung RSI 2012], and interesting phenomena have been observed in various plasma conditions. We find that local Te fluctuations near the edge (ρ ~ 0:8) decrease across the linearto- saturated ohmic confinement transition, with fluctuations decreasing with increasing plasma density[Sung NF 2013], which occurs simultaneously with rotation reversals[Rice NF 2011]. Te fluctuations are also reduced across core rotation reversals with an increase of plasma density in RF heated L-mode plasmas, which implies that the same physics related to the reduction of Te fluctuations may be applied to both ohmic and RF heated L-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, we observe the reduction of core Te fluctuations, which indicates changes of turbulence occur not only in the pedestal region but also in the core across the L/I transition[White NF 2014]. The present CECE diagnostic system in C-Mod and these experimental results are described in this paper.

  1. Review of Test Procedure for Determining HSPFs of Residential Variable-Speed Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.

    2015-08-01

    This report reviews the suitability of the existing Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings and testing requirements for the current generation of variable-speed (VS) air-source heat pumps. Recent field test results indicate larger discrepancies between rated HSPF and field-observed HSPF for VS models than for single-speed models in the same houses. These findings suggest that the heating season test and ratings procedure should be revisited for VS heat pumps. The ratings and testing procedures are described in ANSI/AHRI 210/240 (2008) for single-speed, two-capacity, and variable-speed units. Analysis of manufacturer and independent test performance data on VS units reveals why the current VS testing/ratings procedure results in overly optimistic HSPF ratings for some VS units relative to other types of heat pumps. This is due to a combination of extrapolation of low speed test data beyond the originally anticipated ambient temperature operating range and the constraints of unit controls, which prevent low speed operation over the range of ambient temperatures assumed in the procedure for low speed. As a result, the HSPFs of such units are being overpredicted relative to those for single- and two-capacity designs. This overprediction has been found to be significantly reduced by use in the HSPF ratings procedure of an alternative higher-load heating load line, described in a companion report (Rice et al., 2015).

  2. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  3. Department of Petroleum Engineering and Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering annual report, 1990--1991 academic year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin is one of more than 20 such departments in the United States and more than 40 worldwide. The department has more than 20 faculty members and, as of the fall of 1990, 146 undergraduate and 156 graduate students. During the 1990--91 academic year, undergraduate enrollment is up slightly from the several downturns that began in 1986; graduate enrollment continues to increase, significantly in the number of Ph.D. candidates enrolled. The 1990--91 academic year was one of consolidation of gains. A remote teaching program in the Midland-Odessa area was initiated. During 1991, the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (CPGE) continued its large, diversified research activities related to oil, gas and geopressured/geothermal energy production, energy and mineral resources analysis, and added new research projects in other areas such as groundwater remediation. Many of these research projects included interdisciplinary efforts involving faculty, research scientists and graduate students in chemistry, mathematics, geology, geophysics, engineering mechanics, chemical engineering, microbiology and other disciplines. Several projects were undertaken in cooperation with either the Bureau of Economic Geology or the Institute for Geophysics at The University of Texas at Austin. Collaborative research projects with scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rice University, and Sandia National Laboratory were also initiated. About 43 companies from seven countries around the world continued to provide the largest portion of research funding to CPGE.

  4. Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E.; Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J.

    1996-12-01

    The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Tracy; Krol, Adam; Campanaro, Danielle; Malkowski, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The heme-containing membrane-associated fatty-acid ?-dioxygenase pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from O. sativa has been crystallized and a data set collected to 3.0 Å using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector. Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) is a heme-containing membrane-associated protein found in monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants that utilizes molecular oxygen to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX is a member of a larger family of fatty-acid ?-dioxygenases that includes the mammalian cyclooxygenase enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). Single crystals of PIOX from rice (Oryza sativa) have been grown from MPD using recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently extracted utilizing decyl maltoside as the solubilizing detergent. Crystals diffract to 3.0 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector, and belong to space group P1. Based on the Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function analyses, there are presumed to be four molecules in the asymmetric unit related by noncrystallographic 222 symmetry.

  6. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  7. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martirena, Fernando . E-mail: f.martirena@enet.cu; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air.

  8. The structure of the catalytic domain of a plant cellulose synthase and its assembly into dimers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olek, Anna T.; Rayon, Catherine; Makowski, Lee; Kim, Hyung Rae; Ciesielski, Peter; Badger, John; Paul, Lake N.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Kihara, Daisuke; Crowley, Michael; et al

    2014-07-10

    Cellulose microfibrils are para-crystalline arrays of several dozen linear (1→4)-β-d-glucan chains synthesized at the surface of the cell membrane by large, multimeric complexes of synthase proteins. Recombinant catalytic domains of rice (Oryza sativa) CesA8 cellulose synthase form dimers reversibly as the fundamental scaffold units of architecture in the synthase complex. Specificity of binding to UDP and UDP-Glc indicates a properly folded protein, and binding kinetics indicate that each monomer independently synthesizes single glucan chains of cellulose, i.e., two chains per dimer pair. In contrast to structure modeling predictions, solution x-ray scattering studies demonstrate that the monomer is a two-domain, elongatedmore » structure, with the smaller domain coupling two monomers into a dimer. The catalytic core of the monomer is accommodated only near its center, with the plant-specific sequences occupying the small domain and an extension distal to the catalytic domain. This configuration is in stark contrast to the domain organization obtained in predicted structures of plant CesA. As a result, the arrangement of the catalytic domain within the CesA monomer and dimer provides a foundation for constructing structural models of the synthase complex and defining the relationship between the rosette structure and the cellulose microfibrils they synthesize.« less

  9. Increasing biogas yield of rural biogas digester by addition of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, G.C.; Chen, G.Q.; Chen, M.; Liu, K.X.; Zhou, S.Y.

    1983-12-01

    By addition of 0.3% NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ instead of animal manure into rural biogas digester in which the rotted rice straw was the major feedstock, the biogas yield doubled in comparison with the check digester (0.1 m/sup 3//m/sup 3//d) and the fertility of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ did not decrease because of biogas fermentation. Many digesters have been built in China. But, owing to the problems of improper management, unsuitable influent mixing, etc., neither digesters nor feedstock were fully utilized. In order to solve these problems, adding NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ into digester instead of animal manure was tried. Its results showed that the suitable C/N ratio of influent mixing was obtained, the fertility of effluent went up, and biogas producing rate increased. The concentration of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ is 0.2-0.6%, but the optimal is 0.3%.

  10. Is the resilience of C{sub 60}{sup +} towards decomposition a question of time?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshitz, C.; Sandler, P.; Gotkis, I.; Laskin, J.

    1993-12-31

    The authors have measured kinetic energy release distributions (KERDs) for the evaporation of C{sub 2} from C{sub 60}{sup +} and other fullerene cations. Through analysis of the KERDs by Klot`s theory the authors determined binding energies -- the C{sub 2} binding energy in C{sub 60}{sup +} is 5.23 eV. A thermochemical cycle gave 5.77 eV as the C{sub 2} binding energy in C{sub 60} neutral. Once these binding energies were known, it enabled calculations of time resolved breakdown curves for parent and daughter ions. These calculations included the option of energy relaxation through emission in the infra-red. It was found that C{sub 60}{sup +} is almost completely undissociated at t = 1 {mu}s at an internal energy of 30 eV. However, at t = 1s, it is completely dissociated. An intrinsic shift (IS) of 16.2 eV is predicted. These results explain SID (Surface Induced Decomposition) data by Whetten and coworkers. The applicability of Trouton`s Rule and evaporation to fullerene decompositions will be discussed. Alternative mechanisms, including the Rice {open_quotes}shrink wrap{close_quotes} mechanism, will be discussed in view of the apparent universality of the Gspann parameter, {gamma}=23.5.

  11. Correlation ECE diagnostic in Alcator C-Mod

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sung, C.; White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Mikkelsen, D.; Irby, J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Vieira, R.; Oi, C.; Rice, J.; Reinke, M.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Correlation ECE (CECE) is a diagnostic technique that allows measurement of small amplitude electron temperature, Te, fluctuations through standard cross-correlation analysis methods. In Alcator C-Mod, a new CECE diagnostic has been installed[Sung RSI 2012], and interesting phenomena have been observed in various plasma conditions. We find that local Te fluctuations near the edge (ρ ~ 0:8) decrease across the linearto- saturated ohmic confinement transition, with fluctuations decreasing with increasing plasma density[Sung NF 2013], which occurs simultaneously with rotation reversals[Rice NF 2011]. Te fluctuations are also reduced across core rotation reversals with an increase of plasma density in RF heated L-modemore » plasmas, which implies that the same physics related to the reduction of Te fluctuations may be applied to both ohmic and RF heated L-mode plasmas. In I-mode plasmas, we observe the reduction of core Te fluctuations, which indicates changes of turbulence occur not only in the pedestal region but also in the core across the L/I transition[White NF 2014]. The present CECE diagnostic system in C-Mod and these experimental results are described in this paper.« less

  12. WNR Monthly Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home WNR Schedule Text and Schedule Bar Color Key Previous Next March 2016 Flight Path S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S 28 29 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 WNR 4FP15L-A/20m 4FP15L-B/90m 4FP15R 4FP30L-A/ICE House 4FP30L-B 4FP30R/ICE II 4FP60R/GEANIE 4FP90L/TPC Miscellaneous 7008Proposal: NS-2015-7008-F PI: Matthew Devlin Institution: Los Alamos National Laboratory Title:

  13. Comparison of crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te nanocrystalline thin films: Effects of homogeneous irradiation with an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp; Imai, Kazuo; Uyama, Masato; Nishi, Yoshitake [Department of Materials Science, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Tanaka, Saburo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642 (Japan)

    2014-06-07

    The effects of homogenous electron beam (EB) irradiation on the crystal growth and thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi-Se-Te and p-type Bi-Sb-Te thin films were investigated. Both types of thin films were prepared by flash evaporation, after which homogeneous EB irradiation was performed at an acceleration voltage of 0.17?MeV. For the n-type thin films, nanodots with a diameter of less than 10?nm were observed on the surface of rice-like nanostructures, and crystallization and crystal orientation were improved by EB irradiation. The resulting enhancement of mobility led to increased electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factor for the n-type thin films. In contrast, the crystallization and crystal orientation of the p-type thin films were not influenced by EB irradiation. The carrier concentration increased and mobility decreased with increased EB irradiation dose, possibly because of the generation of defects. As a result, the thermoelectric power factor of p-type thin films was not improved by EB irradiation. The different crystallization behavior of the n-type and p-type thin films is attributed to atomic rearrangement during EB irradiation. Selenium in the n-type thin films is more likely to undergo atomic rearrangement than the other atoms present, so only the crystallinity of the n-type Bi-Se-Te thin films was enhanced.

  14. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or other industries are interested in lignin as a potential fuel or feedstock but need more information on properties.

  15. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    Hydrogen power park experiments in Hawai‘i produced real-world data on the performance of commercialized electrochemical components and power systems integrating renewable and hydrogen technologies. By analyzing the different losses associated with the various equipment items involved, this work identifies the different improvements necessary to increase the viability of these technologies for commercial deployment. The stand-alone power system installed at Kahua Ranch on the Big Island of Hawaii required the development of the necessary tools to connect, manage and monitor such a system. It also helped the electrolyzer supplier to adapt its unit to the stand-alone power system application. Hydrogen fuel purity assessments conducted at the Hawai‘i Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) fuel cell test facility yielded additional knowledge regarding fuel cell performance degradation due to exposure to several different fuel contaminants. In addition, a novel fitting strategy was developed to permit accurate separation of the degradation of fuel cell performance due to fuel impurities from other losses. A specific standard MEA and a standard flow field were selected for use in future small-scale fuel cell experiments. Renewable hydrogen production research was conducted using photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices, hydrogen production from biomass, and biohydrogen analysis. PEC device activities explored novel configurations of ‘traditional’ photovoltaic materials for application in high-efficiency photoelectrolysis for solar hydrogen production. The model systems investigated involved combinations of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). A key result of this work was the establishment of a robust “three-stage” fabrication process at HNEI for high-efficiency CIGS thin film solar cells. The other key accomplishment was the development of models, designs and prototypes of novel ‘four-terminal’ devices integrating high-efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world applications. The extra revenues hydrogen can provide to these multi-product systems can improve profitability. The fact of the matter, though, is that the focused commercialization of hydrogen from biological processes awaits some necessary scientific breakthroughs and much higher conventional energy prices.

  16. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  17. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  18. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  19. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  20. Supersonic Bare Metal Cluster Beams. Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smalley, R. E.

    1997-10-14

    A major portion of the project involved elucidating the relation between reactivity and the electronic structure of transition-metal (TM) clusters of 2--200 atoms, which required the construction and continuous development of two principal apparati; the Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) apparatus, and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS). Together, these machines have enabled the most detailed probing of the structure and chemical reactivity of TM clusters. Clusters of all the transition metals were included in these studies. Fundamental aspects in chemisorption, reactivity, and heterogeneous catalysis have also become better understood as a result of these experiments for important classes of systems such as H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} adsorbed onto clusters of many of the metals listed above. In particular, a correlation was found between reactivity of H{sub 2} with Fe, Co, and Ni clusters and differences between the cluster IP and EA. As recounted in a previous technical report, the DOE`s role in the initial discovery of fullerenes at Rice was central, and from the start investigations were made into metal atoms trapped in the fullerenes cage. More recently, the authors have discovered that 2--4 atoms of La, Y, or Sc can be produced by laser vaporization of composite graphite/metal-oxide disks. This work was largely motivated by the prospects of using such endohedral TM metals for their catalytic activity without the well-known difficulties of effective support media and lack of control over particle size. Thus, while it will certainly be important to discover ways to efficiently scale up production (e.g., the solar generation method explored with DOE support), the efforts have concentrated more on characterization, purification, and manipulation of doped fullerenes. For the past two years, much of the group`s effort has involved the production, purification, and characterization of carbon nanotubes.

  1. A P-loop Mutation in G[alpha] Subunits Prevents Transition to the Active State: Implications for G-protein Signaling in Fungal Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Kimple, Adam J.; Willard, Melinda D.; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-10-23

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active G{alpha}{beta}{gamma} heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the G{alpha} subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates G{alpha}, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting G{alpha} to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of G{alpha} subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that G{alpha}(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon G{alpha}{sub i1}(G42R) binding to GDP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -} or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. G{alpha}(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with G{beta}{gamma} and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding G{alpha}{sub q}(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the G{alpha} subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two G{alpha} mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.

  2. The relationship between constraint and ductile fracture initiation as defined by micromechanical analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panontin, T.L.; Sheppard, S.D.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study is to provide a proven methodology to allow the transfer of ductile fracture initiation properties measured in standard laboratory specimens to large, complex, flawed structures. A significant part of this work involved specifically addressing the effects of constrain on transferability under large scale yielding conditions. The approach taken was to quantify constrain effects through micromechanical fracture models coupled with finite element generated crack tip stress-strain fields to identify the local condition corresponding to fracture initiation. Detailed finite element models predicted the influence of specimen geometry, loading mode, and material flow properties on the crack tip fields. The ability of two local, ductile fracture models (the Rice and Tracey void growth model (VGM) and the stress-modified, critical strain (SMCS) criterion of Mackenzie et al. and Hancock and Cowling) to predict fracture initiation were investigated. Predictions were made using experimentally verified, two- and three-dimensional, finite strain, large deformation, finite element analyses. Two, high toughness pressure vessel steels were investigated: A516 Gr70, a ferritic, carbon-manganese mild steel demonstrating high hardening behavior, and HY-80, a martensitic, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel possessing medium hardening ability. Experimental verification of the ductile fracture initiation predictions was performed in a variety of crack geometries possessing a range of a/w ratios from 0.15 to 0.70 and experiencing a range of load conditions from three point bending to nearly pure tension. The predicted constrain dependence of global ductile fracture parameters in the two materials is shown.

  3. The addition of hydrogen atoms to diacetylene and the heats of formation of i-C4H3 and n-C4H3.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Miller, James A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we discuss in detail the addition of hydrogen atoms to diacetylene and the reverse dissociation reactions, H + C{sub 4}H{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} (R1) and H + C{sub 4}H{sub 2} n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} (R2). The theory utilizes high-level electronic structure methodology to characterize the potential energy surface, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory to calculate microcanonical/J-resolved rate coefficients, and a two-dimensional master-equation approach to extract phenomenological (thermal) rate coefficients. Comparison is made with experimental results where they are available. The rate coefficients k{sub 1}(T, p) and k{sub 2}(T, p) are cast in forms that can be used in chemical kinetic modeling. In addition, we predict values of the heats of formation of i-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and discuss their importance in flame chemistry. Our basis-set extrapolated, quadratic-configuration-interaction with single and double excitations (and triple excitations added perturbatively), QCISD(T), predictions of these heats of formation at 298 K are 130.8 kcal/mol for n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3} and 119.3 kcal/mol for the i-isomer; multireference CI calculations with a nine-electron, nine-orbital, complete-active-space (CAS) reference wavefunction give just slightly larger values for these parameters. Our results are in good agreement with the recent focal-point analysis of Wheeler et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 8800-8813), but they differ substantially for {Delta} H{sub f 298}{sup 0}(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 3}) with the earlier diffusion Monte Carlo predictions of Krokidis et al.

  4. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  5. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  6. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  7. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogiyama, S.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, S.; Suzuki, H.; Inubushi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t{sub 1/2} = 5.73x10{sup 3} yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  8. US - India Partnership in Science and Technology, Environment and Health: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Satish V.

    2010-10-06

    Today, the US – India strategic partnership is rooted in shared values and is broad in nature and scope, with our two countries working together on global and energy security, climate change and clean environment, life sciences and public health, economic prosperity and trade, and education. A key outcome of this partnership has been the signing of the historic Indo-US Civil Nuclear Deal. Science and technology (S&T) have always been important elements of this partnership, and US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and Indian S&T Minister Kapil Sibal signed an agreement on S&T Cooperation between the two countries in October 2005. In March 2006, recognizing the expanding role of S&T, President George Bush and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh formed a Bi-National S&T Commission and established a Joint S&T Endowment Fund focused on innovation, entrepreneurship and commercialization. In July 2009, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Indian Foreign Minister Krishna signed the Endowment Agreement with a total equivalent funding of $30M (equal contribution from US and India). While these steps take our engagement to new heights, US-India collaboration in S&T is not new and has been ongoing for several decades, principally through agencies like NSF, NIH, EPA, DOE, NASA, NOAA, the PL480 US-India Fund, and the Indian Diaspora. However, acting as a damper, especially during the cold war days, this engagement has been plagued by sanctions and the resulting tensions and mistrust which continue to linger on even today. In this context, several ongoing activities in energy, space, climate change and education will be highlighted. Also, with the S&T and the Civil Nuclear Agreements and climate change as examples, the interplay of science, policy and politics will be discussed.

  9. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. )

    1994-10-01

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Performance of Evapotranspirative Covers Under Enhanced Precipitation: Preliminary Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-02-01

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-water potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation. An irrigation valve failure caused an additional 50.8 cm of irrigation to be applied to the irrigated native plant lysimeter. There has been 29.3 cm of drainage from this lysimeter, which is 11.5 percent of the total applied water. Approximately 40 percent of the drainage from the irrigated native plant lysimeter occurred within four weeks of the valve failure.

  11. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-10-03

    The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10{sup 11} neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells The radioisotope {sup 252}Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6- year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory(ORNL). DOE sells {sup 252}Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed {sup 252}Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of {sup 252}Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations.

  12. Final Scientific/Technical Report. A closed path methane and water vapor gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liukang, Xu; Dayle, McDermitt; Tyler, Anderson; Brad, Riensche; Anatoly, Komissarov; Julie, Howe

    2012-05-01

    Robust, economical, low-power and reliable closed-path methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O) analyzers suitable for long-term measurements are not readily available commercially. Such analyzers are essential for quantifying the amount of CH4 and CO2 released from various ecosystems (wetlands, rice paddies, forests, etc.) and other surface contexts (e.g. landfills, animal husbandry lots, etc.), and for understanding the dynamics of the atmospheric CH4 and CO2 budget and their impact on climate change and global warming. The purpose of this project is to develop a closed-path methane, carbon dioxide gas and water vapor analyzer capable of long-term measurements in remote areas for global climate change and environmental research. The analyzer will be capable of being deployed over a wide range of ecosystems to understand methane and carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and the surface. Measurements of methane and carbon dioxide exchange need to be made all year-round with limited maintenance requirements. During this Phase II effort, we successfully completed the design of the electronics, optical bench, trace gas detection method and mechanical infrastructure. We are using the technologies of two vertical cavity surface emitting lasers, a multiple-pass Herriott optical cell, wavelength modulation spectroscopy and direct absorption to measure methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. We also have designed the instrument application software, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), along with partial completion of the embedded software. The optical bench has been tested in a lab setting with very good results. Major sources of optical noise have been identified and through design, the optical noise floor is approaching -60dB. Both laser modules can be temperature controlled to help maximize the stability of the analyzer. Additionally, a piezo electric transducer has been utilized to randomize the noise introduced from potential etalons. It is expected that all original specifications contained within the initial proposal will be met. We are currently in the beginning stages of assembling the first generation prototypes and finalizing the remaining design elements. The first prototypes will initially be tested in our environmental calibration chamber in which specific gas concentrations, temperature and humidity levels can be controlled. Once operation in this controlled setting is verified, the prototypes will be deployed at LI-COR�¢����s Experimental Research Station (LERS). Deployment at the LERS site will test the instrument�¢����s robustness in a real-world situation.

  13. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  14. Theoretical study of isomerization and decomposition of propenal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2011-01-28

    We investigated the dynamics of isomerization and multi-channel dissociation of propenal (CH{sub 2}CHCHO), methyl ketene (CH{sub 3}CHCO), hydroxyl propadiene (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CHOH), and hydroxyl cyclopropene (cyclic-C{sub 3}H{sub 3}-OH) in the ground potential-energy surface using quantum-chemical calculations. Optimized structures and vibrational frequencies of molecular species were computed with method B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). Total energies of molecules at optimized structures were computed at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. We established the potential-energy surface for decomposition to CH{sub 2}CHCO + H, CH{sub 2}CH + HCO, CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}CH + CO, CHCH/CH{sub 2}C + H{sub 2}CO, CHCCHO/CH{sub 2}CCO + H{sub 2}, CHCH + CO + H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}+ HCCO, CH{sub 2}CCH + OH, and CH{sub 2}CC/cyclic-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}+ H{sub 2}O. Microcanonical rate coefficients of various reactions of trans-propenal with internal energies 148 and 182 kcal mol{sup -1} were calculated using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus and Variational transition state theories. Product branching ratios were derivable using numerical integration of kinetic master equations and the steady-state approximation. The concerted three-body dissociation of trans-propenal to fragments C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+ CO + H{sub 2} is the prevailing channel in present calculations. In contrast, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}O + H, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}+ HCO and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}+ CO were identified as major channels in the photolysis of trans-propenal. The discrepancy between calculations and experiments in product branching ratios indicates that the three major photodissociation channels occur mainly on an excited potential-energy surface whereas the other channels occur mainly on the ground potential-energy surface. This work provides profound insight in the mechanisms of isomerization and multichannel dissociation of the system C{sub 3}H{sub 4}O.

  15. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands. 

  16. Ab Initio Kinetics and Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Mononitrobiuret and 1,5- Dinitrobiuret

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Hongyan; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam G.

    2015-05-26

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV? Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH2 group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C2v symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the formation of (NO2 + H2O) to be the major decomposition path. Furthermore, we provide fundamental interpretations for the experimental results of Klapötke et al. [Combust. Flame 139, 358–366 (2004)] regarding the thermal stability of MNB and DNB, and their decomposition products. Notably, a fundamental understanding of fuel stability, decomposition mechanism, and key reactions leading to ignition is essential in the design and manipulation of molecular systems for the development of new energetic materials for advanced propulsion applications.

  17. Ab initio kinetics and thermal decomposition mechanism of mononitrobiuret and 1,5-dinitrobiuret

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Hongyan E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L. E-mail: ghanshyam.vaghjiani@us.af.mil

    2015-05-28

    Mononitrobiuret (MNB) and 1,5-dinitrobiuret (DNB) are tetrazole-free, nitrogen-rich, energetic compounds. For the first time, a comprehensive ab initio kinetics study on the thermal decomposition mechanisms of MNB and DNB is reported here. In particular, the intramolecular interactions of amine H-atom with electronegative nitro O-atom and carbonyl O-atom have been analyzed for biuret, MNB, and DNB at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The results show that the MNB and DNB molecules are stabilized through six-member-ring moieties via intramolecular H-bonding with interatomic distances between 1.8 and 2.0 Å, due to electrostatic as well as polarization and dispersion interactions. Furthermore, it was found that the stable molecules in the solid state have the smallest dipole moment amongst all the conformers in the nitrobiuret series of compounds, thus revealing a simple way for evaluating reactivity of fuel conformers. The potential energy surface for thermal decomposition of MNB was characterized by spin restricted coupled cluster theory at the RCCSD(T)/cc-pV? Z//M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level. It was found that the thermal decomposition of MNB is initiated by the elimination of HNCO and HNN(O)OH intermediates. Intramolecular transfer of a H-atom, respectively, from the terminal NH{sub 2} group to the adjacent carbonyl O-atom via a six-member-ring transition state eliminates HNCO with an energy barrier of 35 kcal/mol and from the central NH group to the adjacent nitro O-atom eliminates HNN(O)OH with an energy barrier of 34 kcal/mol. Elimination of HNN(O)OH is also the primary process involved in the thermal decomposition of DNB, which processes C{sub 2v} symmetry. The rate coefficients for the primary decomposition channels for MNB and DNB were quantified as functions of temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermal decomposition of HNN(O)OH was analyzed via Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus/multi-well master equation simulations, the results of which reveal the formation of (NO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) to be the major decomposition path. Furthermore, we provide fundamental interpretations for the experimental results of Klapötke et al. [Combust. Flame 139, 358–366 (2004)] regarding the thermal stability of MNB and DNB, and their decomposition products. Notably, a fundamental understanding of fuel stability, decomposition mechanism, and key reactions leading to ignition is essential in the design and manipulation of molecular systems for the development of new energetic materials for advanced propulsion applications.

  18. An Overview of High Performance Computing and Challenges for the Future

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Google Tech Talks

    2009-09-01

    In this talk we examine how high performance computing has changed over the last 10-year and look toward the future in terms of trends. These changes have had and will continue to have a major impact on our software. A new generation of software libraries and lgorithms are needed for the effective and reliable use of (wide area) dynamic, distributed and parallel environments. Some of the software and algorithm challenges have already been encountered, such as management of communication and memory hierarchies through a combination of compile--time and run--time techniques, but the increased scale of computation, depth of memory hierarchies, range of latencies, and increased run--time environment variability will make these problems much harder. We will focus on the redesign of software to fit multicore architectures. Speaker: Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee Oak Ridge National Laboratory University of Manchester Jack Dongarra received a Bachelor of Science in Mathematics from Chicago State University in 1972 and a Master of Science in Computer Science from the Illinois Institute of Technology in 1973. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from the University of New Mexico in 1980. He worked at the Argonne National Laboratory until 1989, becoming a senior scientist. He now holds an appointment as University Distinguished Professor of Computer Science in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at the University of Tennessee, has the position of a Distinguished Research Staff member in the Computer Science and Mathematics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Turing Fellow in the Computer Science and Mathematics Schools at the University of Manchester, and an Adjunct Professor in the Computer Science Department at Rice University. He specializes in numerical algorithms in linear algebra, parallel computing, the use of advanced-computer architectures, programming methodology, and tools for parallel computers. His research includes the development, testing and documentation of high quality mathematical software. He has contributed to the design and implementation of the following open source software packages and systems: EISPACK, LINPACK, the BLAS, LAPACK, ScaLAPACK, Netlib, PVM, MPI, NetSolve, Top500, ATLAS, and PAPI. He has published approximately 200 articles, papers, reports and technical memoranda and he is coauthor of several books. He was awarded the IEEE Sid Fernbach Award in 2004 for his contributions in the application of high performance computers using innovative approaches. He is a Fellow of the AAAS, ACM, and the IEEE and a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  20. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand processes that control production potential of hydrates in marine settings, Mallik was included because of the extensive data collected in a producible hydrate accumulation. To date, such a location had not been studied in the oceanic environment. The project worked closely with ongoing projects (e.g. GOM JIP and offshore India) that are actively investigating potentially economic hydrate accumulations in marine settings. The overall approach was fivefold: (1) collect key data concerning hydrocarbon fluxes which is currently missing at all locations to be included in the study, (2) use this and existing data to build numerical models that can explain gas hydrate variance at all four locations, (3) simulate how natural gas could be produced from each location with different production strategies, (4) collect new sediment property data at these locations that are required for constraining fluxes, production simulations and assessing sediment stability, and (5) develop a method for remotely quantifying heterogeneities in gas hydrate and free gas distributions. While we generally restricted our efforts to the locations where key parameters can be measured or constrained, our ultimate aim was to make our efforts universally applicable to any hydrate accumulation.

  1. Environmental Remediation Activities in Japan Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Reactor Incident - 12603

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lively, J.W.; Kelley, J.L.; Marcial, M.R.; Yashio, Shoko; Kuriu, Nobou; Kamijo, Hiroaki; Jotatsu, Kato

    2012-07-01

    In March 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor power plant was crippled by the Great Pacific earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Much of the focus in the news was on the reactor site itself as the utility company (TEPCO), the Japanese government, and experts from around the world worked to bring the damaged plants into a safe shutdown condition and stem the release of radioactivity to the environment. Most of the radioactivity released was carried out to sea with the prevailing winds. Still, as weather patterns changed and winds shifted, a significant plume of radioactive materials released from the plant deposited in the environment surrounding the plant, contaminating large land areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. The magnitude of the radiological impact to the surrounding environmental is so large that the Japanese government has had to reevaluate the meaning of 'acceptably clean'. In many respects, 'acceptably clean' cannot be a one-size-fits-all standard. The economics costs of such an approach would make impossible what is already an enormous and costly environmental response and remediation task. Thus, the Japanese government has embarked upon an approach that is both situation-specific and reasonably achievable. For example, the determination of acceptably clean for a nursery school or kindergarten play yard may be different from that for a parking lot. The acceptably clean level of residual radioactivity in the surface soil of a rice paddy is different from that in a forested area. The recognized exposure situation (scenario) thus plays a large role in the decision process. While sometimes complicated to grasp or implement, such an approach does prioritize national resources to address environment remediation based upon immediate and significant risks. In addition, the Japanese government is testing means and methods, including advanced or promising technologies, that could be proven to be effective in reducing the amount of radioactivity in the environment beyond a fixed, concentration based limit. Essentially, the definition of acceptably clean includes the concept of reasonably achievable, given the available technology, means and methods, and the cost to implement such. The Japanese government recently issued three technology demonstration contracts expressly designed to test and evaluate the available technologies, means, and methods, which, if implemented, might produce the greatest risk reduction from environmental contamination for the best value. One of the Japanese contract holders, Obayashi JV, has teamed with AMEC to demonstrate the applicability and capabilities of the Orion ScanPlot{sup SM} and ScanSort{sup SM} technologies in radiologically impacted towns both inside and immediately outside the 20 km restricted zone. This presentation provides some unique images and informative insight into the environmental radioactive impacts in and around the exclusion zone. It will provide a look at one element of the Japanese government?s efforts to achieve the greatest risk reduction that is reasonably achievable. The Orion ScanPlot{sup SM} and ScanSort{sup SM} are being used with success on the Japan Town Demonstration Project to assess pre-remedial action contamination levels, document the post-remedial action contamination levels and to precisely measure and segregate excavated soils based on their radioactive content and the prescribed segregation limits (DCS). Initial results suggest that these technologies could provide capabilities to the remedial action efforts that would result in considerable improvements in field data certainty and compliance with remedial objectives while reducing overall costs. (authors)

  2. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, Daniel D.; Collis, Ken; Lyons, Donald E.

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a statistically significant change in the size of the Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island since 2000. Tern nesting success averaged 0.72 fledglings per breeding pair in 2006, significantly higher than in 2005 (0.37 fledglings per breeding pair), a year of poor ocean conditions. Despite the presumably higher availability of marine forage fishes in 2006, the proportion of juvenile salmonids in diets of Caspian terns (32% of prey items) averaged higher than in 2005 (23% of prey items) and 2004 (18% of prey items). Steelhead smolts were particular vulnerable to predation by East Sand Island terns in 2006, with predation rates as high as 20% on particular groups of PIT-tagged fish reaching the estuary. Consumption of juvenile salmonids by terns nesting at the East Sand Island colony in 2006 was approximately 5.3 million smolts (95% c.i. = 4.4-6.2 million), significantly higher than the estimated 3.6 million smolts consumed in 2005, but still roughly 7 million fewer smolts consumed compared to 1998 (when all terns nested on Rice Island in the upper estuary). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continue to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply, even in 2005 when availability of marine forage fishes declined due to poor ocean conditions. Further management of Caspian terns to reduce losses of juvenile salmonids would be implemented under the Caspian Tern Management Plan for the Columbia River Estuary; the Records of Decision (RODs) authorizing implementation of the plan were signed in November 2006. The ROD lists as the management goal the redistribution of approximately half of the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony to alternative colony sites in interior Oregon and San Francisco Bay, California (USFWS 2006). Implementation of the management plan is stalled, however, because of the lack of appropriated funds.

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS AND RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY TC; JOHNSON KI; DEIBLER JE; PILLI SP; RINKER MW; KARRI NK

    2009-01-14

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double-shell waste tanks (DSTs), which is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raised by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review of work performed on the double-shell tank farms and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system. The current buckling review focuses on the following tasks: (1) Evaluate the potential for progressive anchor bolt failure and the appropriateness of the safety factors that were used for evaluating local and global buckling. The analysis will specifically answer the following questions: (a) Can the EH-22 scenario develop if the vacuum is limited to -6.6-inch water gage (w.g.) by a relief valve? (b) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario can develop? (c) What is the appropriate factor of safety required to protect against buckling if the EH-22 scenario cannot develop? (2) Develop influence functions to estimate the axial stresses in the primary tanks for all reasonable combinations of tank loads based on detailed finite element analysis. The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions between the different DSTs. The analysis must also address the imperfection sensitivity of the primary tank to buckling. (3) Perform a detailed buckling analysis to determine the maximum allowable differential pressure for each of the DST primary tanks at the current specified limits on waste temperature, height, and specific gravity. Based on the concrete anchor bolt loads analysis and the small deformations that are predicted at the unfactored limits on vacuum and axial loads, it is very unlikely that the EH-22 scenario (i.e., progressive anchor bolt failure leading to global buckling of the tank under increased vacuum) could occur. After releasing Revision 0 of this report, an independent review of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis was conducted by Dr. Robert P. Kennedy of RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting and Dr. Anestis S. Veletsos of Rice University. Revision I was then issued to address their review comments (included in Appendix D). Additional concerns involving the evaluation of concrete anchor loads and allowables were found during a second review by Drs. Kennedy and Veletsos (see Appendix G). Extensive additional analysis was performed on the anchors, which is detailed by Deibler et al. (2008a, 2008b). The current report (Revision 2) references this recent work, and additional analysis is presented to show that anchor loads do not concentrate significantly in the presence of a local buckle.

  4. Modeling quasi-static poroelastic propagation using an asymptotic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.

    2007-11-01

    Since the formulation of poroelasticity (Biot(1941)) and its reformulation (Rice & Cleary(1976)), there have been many efforts to solve the coupled system of equations. Perhaps because of the complexity of the governing equations, most of the work has been directed towards finding numerical solutions. For example, Lewis and co-workers published early papers (Lewis & Schrefler(1978); Lewis et al.(1991)Lewis, Schrefler, & Simoni) concerned with finite-element methods for computing consolidation, subsidence, and examining the importance of coupling. Other early work dealt with flow in a deformable fractured medium (Narasimhan & Witherspoon 1976); Noorishad et al.(1984)Noorishad, Tsang, & Witherspoon. This effort eventually evolved into a general numerical approach for modeling fluid flow and deformation (Rutqvist et al.(2002)Rutqvist, Wu, Tsang, & Bodvarsson). As a result of this and other work, numerous coupled, computer-based algorithms have emerged, typically falling into one of three categories: one-way coupling, loose coupling, and full coupling (Minkoff et al.(2003)Minkoff, Stone, Bryant, Peszynska, & Wheeler). In one-way coupling the fluid flow is modeled using a conventional numerical simulator and the resulting change in fluid pressures simply drives the deformation. In loosely coupled modeling distinct geomechanical and fluid flow simulators are run for a sequence of time steps and at the conclusion of each step information is passed between the simulators. In full coupling, the fluid flow and geomechanics equations are solved simultaneously at each time step (Lewis & Sukirman(1993); Lewis & Ghafouri(1997); Gutierrez & Lewis(2002)). One disadvantage of a purely numerical approach to solving the governing equations of poroelasticity is that it is not clear how the various parameters interact and influence the solution. Analytic solutions have an advantage in that respect; the relationship between the medium and fluid properties is clear from the form of the solution. Unfortunately, analytic solutions are only available for highly idealized conditions, such as a uniform (Rudnicki(1986)) or one-dimensional (Simon et al.(1984)Simon, Zienkiewicz, & Paul; Gajo & Mongiovi(1995); Wang & Kumpel(2003)) medium. In this paper I derive an asymptotic, semi-analytic solution for coupled deformation and flow. The approach is similar to trajectory- or ray-based methods used to model elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation (Aki & Richards(1980); Kline & Kay(1979); Kravtsov & Orlov(1990); Keller & Lewis(1995)) and, more recently, diffusive propagation (Virieux et al.(1994)Virieux, Flores-Luna, & Gibert; Vasco et al.(2000)Vasco, Karasaki, & Keers; Shapiro et al.(2002)Shapiro, Rothert, Rath, & Rindschwentner; Vasco(2007)). The asymptotic solution is valid in the presence of smoothly-varying, heterogeneous flow properties. The situation I am modeling is that of a formation with heterogeneous flow properties and uniform mechanical properties. The boundaries of the layer may vary arbitrary and can define discontinuities in both flow and mechanical properties. Thus, using the techniques presented here, it is possible to model a stack of irregular layers with differing mechanical properties. Within each layer the hydraulic conductivity and porosity can vary smoothly but with an arbitrarily large magnitude. The advantages of this approach are that it produces explicit, semi-analytic expressions for the arrival time and amplitude of the Biot slow and fast waves, expressions which are valid in a medium with heterogeneous properties. As shown here, the semi-analytic expressions provide insight into the nature of pressure and deformation signals recorded at an observation point. Finally, the technique requires considerably fewer computer resources than does a fully numerical treatment.

  5. RAPID RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2012-11-07

    There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response, including emergency soil and air filter samples. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed analyses on samples received from Japan in April, 2011 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to provide assistance to the government of Japan, following the nuclear event at Fukushima Daiichi, resulting from the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Of particular concern was whether it was safe to plant rice in certain areas (prefectures) near Fukushima. The primary objectives of the sample collection, sample analysis, and data assessment teams were to evaluate personnel exposure hazards, identify the nuclear power plant radiological source term and plume deposition, and assist the government of Japan in assessing any environmental and agricultural impacts associated with the nuclear event. SRNL analyzed approximately 250 samples and reported approximately 500 analytical method determinations. Samples included soil from farmland surrounding the Fukushima reactors and air monitoring samples of national interest, including those collected at the U.S. Embassy and American military bases. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of radionuclides, including strontium-89, strontium-90, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes. Technical aspects of the rapid soil and air filter analyses will be described. The extent of radiostrontium contamination was a significant concern. For {sup 89,90}Sr analyses on soil samples, a rapid fusion technique using 1.5 gram soil aliquots to enable a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of <1 pCi {sup 89,90} Sr /g of soil was employed. This sequential technique has been published recently by this laboratory for actinides and radiostrontium in soil and vegetation. It consists of a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion, pre-concentration steps using iron hydroxide and calcium fluoride precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ~0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA. Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were reported within twenty-four (24) hours of receipt using rapid techniques published previously. The rapid reporting of high quality analytical data arranged through the U.S. Department of Energy Consequence Management Home Team was critical to allow the government of Japan to readily evaluate radiological impacts from the nuclear reactor incident to both personnel and the environment. SRNL employed unique rapid methods capability for radionuclides to support Japan that can also be applied to environmental, bioassay and waste management samples. New rapid radiochemical techniques for radionuclides in soil and other environmental matrices as well as some of the unique challenges associated with this work will be presented that can be used for application to environmental monitoring, environmental remediation, decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  6. Rapid Radiochemical Analyses in Support of Fukushima Nuclear Accident - 13196

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing need to develop faster analytical methods for emergency response, including emergency soil and air filter samples [1, 2]. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed analyses on samples received from Japan in April, 2011 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to provide assistance to the government of Japan, following the nuclear event at Fukushima Daiichi, resulting from the earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Of particular concern was whether it was safe to plant rice in certain areas (prefectures) near Fukushima. The primary objectives of the sample collection, sample analysis, and data assessment teams were to evaluate personnel exposure hazards, identify the nuclear power plant radiological source term and plume deposition, and assist the government of Japan in assessing any environmental and agricultural impacts associated with the nuclear event. SRNL analyzed approximately 250 samples and reported approximately 500 analytical method determinations. Samples included soil from farmland surrounding the Fukushima reactors and air monitoring samples of national interest, including those collected at the U.S. Embassy and American military bases. Samples were analyzed for a wide range of radionuclides, including strontium-89, strontium-90, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes. Technical aspects of the rapid soil and air filter analyses will be described. The extent of radiostrontium contamination was a significant concern. For {sup 89,90}Sr analyses on soil samples, a rapid fusion technique using 1.5 gram soil aliquots to enable a Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) of <1 pCi {sup 89,90}Sr /g of soil was employed. This sequential technique has been published recently by this laboratory for actinides and radiostrontium in soil and vegetation [3, 4]. It consists of a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion, pre-concentration steps using iron hydroxide and calcium fluoride precipitations, followed by Sr-Resin separation and gas flow proportional counting. To achieve a lower detection limit for analysis of some of the Japanese soil samples, a 10 gram aliquot of soil was taken, acid-leached and processed with similar preconcentration chemistry. The MDA using this approach was ∼0.03 pCi/g (1.1 mBq/g)/, which is less than the 0.05-0.10 pCi/g {sup 90}Sr levels found in soil as a result of global fallout. The chemical yields observed for the Japanese soil samples was typically 75-80% and the laboratory control sample (LCS) and matrix spike (MS) results looked very good for this work Individual QC results were well within the ± 25% acceptable range and the average of these results does not show significant bias. Additional data for a radiostrontium in soil method for 50 gram samples will also be presented, which appears to be a significant step forward based on looking at the current literature, with higher chemical yields for even larger sample aliquots and lower MDA [5, 6, 7] Hou et al surveyed a wide range of separation methods for Pu in waters and environmental solid samples [8]. While there are many actinide methods in the scientific literature, few would be considered rapid due to the tedious and time-consuming steps involved. For actinide analyses in soil, a new rapid method for the determination of actinide isotopes in soil samples using both alpha spectrometry and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed. The new rapid soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. [9, 10] Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates were used to reduce analytical time. Challenges associated with the mineral content in the volcanic soil will be discussed. Air filter samples were reported within twenty-four (24) hours of receipt using rapid techniques published previously. [11] The rapid reporting of high quality analytical data arranged through the U.S. Department of Energy Consequence Management Home Team was critical to allow the government of Japan to readily evaluate radiological impacts from the nuclear reactor incident to both personnel and the environment. SRNL employed unique rapid methods capability for radionuclides to support Japan that can also be applied to environmental, bioassay and waste management samples. New rapid radiochemical techniques for radionuclides in soil and other environmental matrices as well as some of the unique challenges associated with this work will be presented that can be used for application to environmental monitoring, environmental remediation, decommissioning and decontamination activities. (authors)

  7. Worksheet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    UTILITY_ID","UTILITY_NAME","TRANSLINE_NO","TERMINAL_LOC_FROM","TERMINAL_LOC_TO","PERCENT_OWNED","LINE_LENGTH","LINE_TYPE","VOLTAGE_TYPE","VOLTAGE_OPERATING","VOLTAGE_DESIGN","CONDUCTOR_SIZE","CONDUCTOR_MAT_TYPE","CONDUCTOR_CONFIG","CIRCUIT_PERSTRUCT_PRES","CIRCUIT_PERSTRUCT_ULT","POLE_TOWER_TYPE","RATED_CAPACITY","LAND_LANDRIGHT_COSTS","POLE_TOWER_FIXTURE_COSTS","CONDUCTOR_DEVICE_COSTS","CONSTRUCTION_ETC_COSTS","TOTAL_LINE_COSTS","IN_SERVICE_DATE" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",1,"Northland","Magnesium Plant",100,4.11,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR Drake/ACSS Rail","Single",1,2,"Steel & Wood Poles",215,0,17500,8000,19500,45000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",2,"Grove","Met Center",100,3.1,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ASCR Drake","Double",1,1,"Steel Pole",430,0,30000,10000,35000,75000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",3,"Dessau","Daffin Gin",100,6.01,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ASCR Drake","Single",1,1,"Steel Pole",215,0,60000,15000,40000,115000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",4,"Burleson","AMD",100,2.2,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACR Drake","Double",2,2,"Steel Pole",430,0,75000,55000,120000,250000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",5,"Bergstrom","Kingsberry",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ASCR Drake/AAAC","Single",1,2,"Steel & Wood Poles",215,0,75000,35000,340000,450000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",6,"Mcneil","Magnesium Plant",100,3.24,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR Drake","Double",1,2,"Steel Pole & Steel Tower",430,0,380000,76000,644000,1100000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1015,"Austin City of",7,"Summit","Magnesium Plant",100,2.18,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR Drake","Double",1,2,"Steel Pole & Steel Tower",430,0,265000,125000,410000,800000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1307,"Basin Electric Power Coop",1,"Rapid City","New Underwood",65,18.55,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Single Pole, Steel",460,0,0,0,5300000,5300000,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,1586,"Bentonville City of",1,"AEP/SWEPCO","City Substation F",100,1,"OH","AC",161,161,477,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood and Steel Single Pole",199,18000,81522,28082,214516,342120,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,2172,"Brazos Electric Power Coop",1,"Coppell","Lewisville",100,7.03,"OH","AC",138,138,1033,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Concrete/Steel Single Pole",485,17577.55,2527717,537265.96,956475.39,4039035.9,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,2172,"Brazos Electric Power Coop",2,"Boyd","Newark",100,1.8,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",2,2,"Concrete/Steel Single Pole",215,133929.08,538282.3,131112.75,246577.6,1049901.73,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,2172,"Brazos Electric Power Coop",3,"Cedar Hill","Sardis",100,5.1,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Concrete Si ngle Ploe",215,24515.26,652910.22,246676.96,560582.43,1484684.87,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,5580,"East Kentucky Power Coop Inc",1,"Jamestown Tap","Jamestown Tap",100,0.47,"OH","AC",161,161,556.5,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Single Pole",292,43326,160508,68789,0,272623,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,5580,"East Kentucky Power Coop Inc",2,"Pulaski Co. Tap","Pulaski Co. Tap",100,5.88,"OH","AC",161,161,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood H-Frame Structure",367,494183,1092462,468198,0,2054843,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,7197,"Georgia Transmission Corp",1,"Shoal Creek","Spout Spring",100,10.83,"OH","AC",230,230,1351,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Concrete, Single Pole & Steel",602,1277945,1685271,444690,6047603,9455509,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,7197,"Georgia Transmission Corp",2,"Dresden","Yellowdirt",100,9.5,"OH","AC",230,230,795,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Concrete, Single Pole",866,870826,772876,375515,3649376,5668593,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,7197,"Georgia Transmission Corp",3,"East Moultrie","West Valdosta",100,38.46,"OH","AC",230,230,1622,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Concrete, Single Pole",596,1191168,2829632,1476802,10279078,15776680,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,7490,"Grand River Dam Authority",1,"Cowskin","Grove PSO",100,4.5,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single/Twisted",1,1,"Wood Pole",223,287671,135402,156769,880890,1460732,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",1,"BASTROP","AUSTIN",100,0.32,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,9155828,155817297,37044659,47228709,249246493,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",2,"BASTROP","AUSTROP",100,0.32,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",3,"BASTROP","AUSTROP",100,0.32,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",4,"BASTROP","AUSTROP",100,0.32,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",5,"CANYON","SAN MARCOS/LOCKHART",100,0.31,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",6,"CANYON","SAN MARCOS/LOCKHART",100,0.31,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",7,"CANYON","SAN MARCOS/LOCKHART",100,0.31,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",8,"CANYON","SAN MARCOS/LOCKHART",100,0.31,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",9,"CANYON","SAN MARCOS/LOCKHART",100,0.31,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",10,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",11,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",12,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",13,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",14,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",15,"CICO","HELOTES",100,4,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",16,"LOCKHART","DUMP HILL",100,1.6,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Concrete Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",17,"HILL POWER STATION","NUECES BAY",100,17.3,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",18,"NORTH OAK PARK","LON HILL",100,14.9,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Wood Pole",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",19,"STATE HIGHTWAY 80",,100,0.38,"OH","AC",138,138,211.5,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood H-Frame Structure",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",20,"STATE HIGHWAY 80",,100,0.38,"OH","AC",138,138,211.5,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood H-Frame Structure",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",21,"STERLING/MITCHELL LINE","TWINN BUTTES",100,135.08,"OH","AC",345,345,1590,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",22,"VERDE CREEK","KERRVILLE STADIUM",100,0.1,"OH","AC",138,138,336,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",23,"VERDE CREEK","KERRVILLE STADIUM",100,0.1,"OH","AC",138,138,336,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",24,"VERDE CREEK","KERRVILLE STADIUM",100,0.1,"OH","AC",138,138,336,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",25,"VERDE CREEK","KERRVILLE STADIUM",100,0.1,"OH","AC",138,138,336,"ACSR","Double",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",26,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",27,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",28,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",29,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",30,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,11269,"Lower Colorado River Authority",31,"ZORN","MCCARTY LANE",100,4.2,"OH","AC",138,138,1433.6,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,15143,"Platte River Power Authority",1,"Rawhide","Timberline West",100,31.63,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ACSR","Single",2,2,"Steel/Tower & Pole",378,5553,1928767,2385430,251850,4571600,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,15159,"Plymouth City of",1,"Mullet River Sub","Sub # 1",100,0.8,"OH","AC",138,138,336.4,"ACSR","SINGLE",1,1,"Steel Double Pole",33,0,0,0,1492139,1492139,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,16534,"Sacramento Municipal Util Dist",1,"Natomas","Elverta",100,4.3,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"Aluminum","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",316,0,0,0,0,0,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,17543,"South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",1,"Rainey - Anderson (Duke) #1","Rainey - Anderson (Duke) #1",100,9.51,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ACSR","Double",2,2,"Steel / Tower",956,840152,1230361,1207282,22364,3300159,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,17543,"South Carolina Pub Serv Auth",2,"Rainey - Anderson (Duke) #2","Rainey - Anderson (Duke) #2",100,9.51,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ACSR","Double",2,2,"Steel / Tower",956,840152,1230361,1207282,22364,3300159,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",1,"West Ringgold","Center Point",100,7.94,"OH","AC",115,230,954,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,2086252,5658529,1502763,3053959,12301503,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",2,"NE Johnson City--Erwin 161kV T","Jonesborough 161 kV SS",100,0.28,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,11050,191917,894933,714987,1812887,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",3,"Elizabethton","Pandara-Shouns",100,15.12,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,282232,1797686,537733,2057572,4675223,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",4,"Sullivan","Blountville",100,0.63,"OH","AC",161,161,1590,"ASCR","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,547521,1134556,788061,1224067,3694205,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",5,"Pin Hook","Structure E 104A (NES)",100,1.74,"OH","DC",161,161,2034.5,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,179775,881877,641976,270782,1974410,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",6,"Dug Gap 115 kV SS","Center Point 230 kV SS",100,4.49,"OH","AC",115,230,954,"ASCR","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,3939251,3451555,545558,1026021,8962385,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",7,"Chickamauga-Ridgedale","Hawthorne 161 kV SS",100,2.82,"OH","AC",161,161,1590,"ASCR","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,87206,533582,342640,584799,1548227,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",8,"Ft. Loudoun-Elza 161 kV TL","Spallation Neutron Source 161",100,3.92,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,2972,639541,373150,469765,1485428,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",9,"Leake","Sebastapol SW STA 161 kV",100,0.77,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,36158,236368,103374,167311,543211,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",10,"Sebasatpol 161 kV Switching St","Five Point 161 kV Substation",100,0.13,"OH","AC",161,230,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,917304,1772761,931352,1477668,5099085,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",11,"Structure 170A","Structure 174",100,0.73,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,0,445863,79638,194574,720075,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",12,"Ramer-Hickory Valley 161 kV TL","Middleton 46 kV SS",100,6.81,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,566805,1162854,447607,787813,2965079,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",13,"Lowndes-Miller","Valley View",100,0.46,"OH","AC",500,500,954,"ASCR","Triple",1,2,"Steel Tower",,0,688737,255237,341129,1285103,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",14,"Sweetwater 161 kV SS","Madisonville 161 kV SS",100,8.95,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,1066219,1474937,466681,797814,3805651,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",15,"East Point 500 kV SS","Hanceville 161 kV TL",100,11.25,"OH","AC",161,161,1351.5,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,1416513,1442382,606534,1427424,4892853,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",16,"W Cookeville-Crossville 161 kV","W. Crossville SS",100,4.37,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,267463,1112667,651963,964407,2996500,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",17,"East Shelbyville-Unionville","Deason 161 kV SS",100,5.09,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,1071199,931797,430714,320721,2754431,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",18,"Kentucky Hydro","Barkley Hydro",100,2,"OH","AC",161,161,2034.5,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,2845,406947,90111,155401,655304,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",19,"MEC Sw Station","Trinity Substation",100,2.9,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ACSS","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,0,604526,474640,608702,1687868,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",20,"Hickory Valley Selmer 161 kV T","North Selmer 161 kV SS",100,4.88,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,357578,632244,368993,899046,2257861,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",21,"Trinity","Morgan Energy Center",100,2.98,"OH","AC",161,161,1590,"ASCR","Single",2,2,"Steel Tower",,7155,647789,386671,513831,1555446,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",22,"MEC","Finley",100,0.61,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,9879,303540,156165,181613,651197,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",23,"Pickwick-South Jackson","Magic Valley",100,1.38,"OH","AC",161,161,954,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Pole",,78377,284367,113237,237716,713697,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",24,"Wolf Creek-Choctaw 500 kV TL","Reliant French Camp Gener Plt",100,0.11,"OH","AC",500,500,954,"ASCR","Triple",1,2,"Steel Tower",,0,863770,411493,891161,2166424,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",25,"Widows Creek Ft. Payne 161 kV","Flat Rock 161 kV SS",100,2.05,"OH","AC",161,161,397.5,"ASCR","Single",1,1,"Steel Tower",,130460,443384,182965,410228,1167037,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",26,"Volunteer-Cherokee HP 161 kV T","Oakland 161 kV SS",100,0.5,"OH","AC",161,161,1351,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,0,159020,71787,133784,364591,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,18642,"Tennessee Valley Authority",27,"Cordell-Hull-Carthage 161 kV","South Carthage 161 kV SS",100,1.68,"OH","AC",161,161,636,"ASCR","Single",1,2,"Steel Tower",,0,209664,102390,256537,568591,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",1,"Arco","Sprectrum",100,5.89,"OH","AC",138,138,336.4,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",91,37547.56,399750.8,416067.16,0,853365.52,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",2,"Hazel Dell Jct","Hazel Dell",100,3.12,"OH","AC",138,138,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",158,72967.09,417464.37,285659.16,0,776090.62,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",3,"Red River","Tenaska Kiowa Sw",100,75.75,"OH","AC",345,345,795,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Combination Pole",158,0,0,0,47569327.23,47569327.23,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",4,"Washita Sw","Blue Canyon",100,23.96,"OH","AC",138,138,1590,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",239,0,0,0,5092171.22,5092171.22,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",5,"Limestone Jct","Limestone",100,0.5,"OH","AC",138,138,336.4,"ACSR","Single",1,1,"Wood Pole",91,25673.08,159253.08,77468.07,0,262394.23,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,20447,"Western Farmers Elec Coop Inc",6,"OGE Sunset Jct","Sunset Corner",100,0.15,"OH","AC",161,161,336.4,"ACSR","Singel",1,1,"Wood Pole",91,0,29315.87,35224.01,0,64539.88,"application/vnd.ms-excel" 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",1,"Shiprock","Four Corners",100,8.2,"OH","AC",345,345,,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",2,"Coolidge","Sundance 1 and 2",100,9.8,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,2,2,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",3,"Structure 96/4","O/Banion 1",100,38,"OH","AC",230,230,,"ASCR",,2,2,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",4,"Mead","Market Place",100,12.9,"OH","AC",525,525,,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",5,"Bears Ears","Craig",100,1,"OH","AC",345,345,,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",6,"Glen Canyon Pumping Plant","Glen Canyon SW Yard",100,1,"OH","AC",345,345,,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",7,"Baker","Bowman",22.96,53.96,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,1,1,"Wood H",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",8,"Basin Tap #2","Washburn",100,2.23,"OH","AC",230,230,795,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",9,"Craig","Rifle",100,96,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",10,"Garrison","Basin Tap #1",100,20.97,"OH","AC",230,230,795,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",11,"Everta","Roseville",100,13.3,"OH","AC",230,230,,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",12,"Griffith","McConnico",100,8,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",13,"McConnico","Peacock",100,29.4,"OH","AC",230,230,795,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",14,"Liberty","Buckeye",100,6.7,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ASCR",,2,2,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",15,"Liberty","Parker",100,118.7,"OH","AC",230,230,1272,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",16,"Liberty","Estrella",100,10.8,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,2,2,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",17,"Liberty","Lone Batte",100,38.2,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",18,"Lone Butte","Sundance",100,38.4,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",19,"New Waddell","West Wing",100,10.1,"OH","AC",230,230,954,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",20,"South Point","Topock #1",100,6.46,"OH","AC",230,230,1590,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0 2003,27000,"Western Area Power Admin",21,"South Point","Topock #2",100,6.34,"OH","AC",230,230,1590,"ASCR",,1,1,"Steel Lattice",,0,0,0,0,0