National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ba biological assessment

  1. PG&E Reconductoring Project Biological Assessment (Revised)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This biological assessment (BA) is to provide the information necessary for formal consultation between the Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regarding the effects of the Proposed Action as required pursuant to Section 7(a)(2) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

  2. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

    2014-07-24

    Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now more than 50 years old. Plans are underway to refit these aging turbines with new runners. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when upgrading the turbines. In this paper, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is demonstrated. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We present an application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

  3. Hydro Review: Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Hydro Review: Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance Hydro Review: Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance This review covers the BioPA method used to analyze the biological performance of proposed designs to help ensure the safety of fish passing through the turbines at the Priest Rapids Dam in Grant County, Washington. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance (483.71 KB) More Documents & Publications

  4. California Valley Solar Ranch Biological Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Valley Solar Ranch Biological Assessment California Valley Solar Ranch Biological Assessment Biological Assessment for the California Valley Solar Ranch Project San Luis Obispo County, California High Plains Ranch II, LLC (HPR II), a wholly owned subsidiary of SunPower Corporation, Systems ("SunPower") proposes to construct a 250-megawatt (MW) solar photovoltaic (PV) energy plant, the California Valley Solar Ranch Project (CVSR Project or Project), on a 4,747acre site in

  5. Hydro Review: Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance (483.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydropower R&D: Recent Advances in Turbine Passage Technology Environmental ...

  6. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  7. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  8. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  9. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, S.

    1997-03-01

    This report discusses the biological impact to the area around the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator. In particular the impact to the soils, water quality, vegetation, and wildlife are discussed.

  10. Proliferation profile assessment of emerging biological weapons threats. Research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.G.; Bland, M.S.; Duann, T.P.; Tucker, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    This project develops a first generation biological warfare (BW) program system model for use in the DOD`s counterproliferation workstation, identifies key issues the U.S. military must address to assure its forces are prepared to fight in a BW environment, and develops a concise BW primer for use by any DOD activity requiring such information. The greatest lesson to be learned from this study is that only through the collective analysis of all the sub-systems of a suspected BW program will conclusive evidence of the program be found. Still, with current counterproliferation capabilities the U.S. may only be able to slow, not stop a motivated proliferant.

  11. Strategies for Assessment of the Biological Performance and Design of Hydroturbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2011-05-05

    The biological response of fish to turbine passage has been of concern for several decades and emphasized recently by consideration of hydro as a 'green' power source. The current state-of-the-art of hydro-turbine biological performance assessment, while still inadequate, has advanced considerably the past 10 years. For example, the importance of assessment of exposure to pressure changes during turbine passage has been emphasized by findings of laboratory studies of rapid decompression. It is now very clear that hydroturbine biological assessment must consider the physiological state and behavior of fish at turbine entry and changes in physiological state that drive aspects of behavior during tailrace passage. Such considerations are in addition to concerns about exposure of fish to mechanical and pressure sources of injury during turbine passage. Experimental designs and assessment tools have evolved for acclimation of test fish, observation of test fish behavior at approach and upon exit from the turbine environment, and precise estimation of turbine passage mortality. Fish condition assessment continues to improve permitting better classification of observed injuries to injury mechanisms. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and other computer models permit detailed investigation of the turbine passage environment and development of hypotheses that can be tested in field studies using live fish. Risk assessment techniques permit synthesis of laboratory and in-field study findings and estimation of population level effects over a wide range of turbine operation scenarios. Risk assessment is also evolving to provide input to turbine runner design. These developments, and others, have resulted in more productive biological performance assessment studies and will continue to evolve and improve the quantity and quality of information obtained from costly live fish hydroturbine passage studies. This paper reviews the history of hydro-turbine biological

  12. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  13. Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biology @WIPP Life Begins at 250,000,000 Years WIPP's underground isn't just suited for physics experiments aiming to unlock the mysteries of the Universe, it is also a perfect "dig site" for biologists wanting to chronicle the history of life. 250 million years ago, the area around WIPP was all part of the Permian Sea. Today, the salt beds that make up the WIPP underground provide a time capsule, of sorts, to this ancient era. Researchers have uncovered ancient bacteria, cellulose and

  14. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  15. Historical precedence and technical requirements of biological weapons use : a threat assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estes, Daniel P.; Vogel, Kathleen Margaret; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Hickok, Lauren T.; Jung, Danielle F.; Barnett, Natalie Beth; Frerichs, Rebecca L.; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson

    2004-05-01

    The threat from biological weapons is assessed through both a comparative historical analysis of the patterns of biological weapons use and an assessment of the technological hurdles to proliferation and use that must be overcome. The history of biological weapons is studied to learn how agents have been acquired and what types of states and substate actors have used agents. Substate actors have generally been more willing than states to use pathogens and toxins and they have focused on those agents that are more readily available. There has been an increasing trend of bioterrorism incidents over the past century, but states and substate actors have struggled with one or more of the necessary technological steps. These steps include acquisition of a suitable agent, production of an appropriate quantity and form, and effective deployment. The technological hurdles associated with the steps present a real barrier to producing a high consequence event. However, the ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event.

  16. Bibliographical database of radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment: Part 1, through June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Straume, T.; Ricker, Y.; Thut, M.

    1988-08-29

    This database was constructed to support research in radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment. Relevant publications were identified through detailed searches of national and international electronic databases and through our personal knowledge of the subject. Publications were numbered and key worded, and referenced in an electronic data-retrieval system that permits quick access through computerized searches on publication number, authors, key words, title, year, and journal name. Photocopies of all publications contained in the database are maintained in a file that is numerically arranged by citation number. This report of the database is provided as a useful reference and overview. It should be emphasized that the database will grow as new citations are added to it. With that in mind, we arranged this report in order of ascending citation number so that follow-up reports will simply extend this document. The database cite 1212 publications. Publications are from 119 different scientific journals, 27 of these journals are cited at least 5 times. It also contains reference to 42 books and published symposia, and 129 reports. Information relevant to radiation biological dosimetry and risk assessment is widely distributed among the scientific literature, although a few journals clearly dominate. The four journals publishing the largest number of relevant papers are Health Physics, Mutation Research, Radiation Research, and International Journal of Radiation Biology. Publications in Health Physics make up almost 10% of the current database.

  17. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  18. Sitewide biological risk assessment Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska: Risks to terrestrial receptors from diverse contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Becker, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) is located southeast of Fairbanks, Alaska. Eielson AFB was listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency on the National Priorities List with a total of 64 potential terrestrial and aquatic source areas. Contaminants of concern include fuel and fuel components, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead. As part of the remedial investigations of these sites, a biological risk assessment (BRA) was conducted to estimate the risk of ecological effects on terrestrial receptors posed by contaminants in the Eielson environment. There are 32 mammal species, 117 bird species, 17 fish species, and 1 amphibian species known to inhabit Eielson AFB and vicinity. The BRA screened source areas based on completed biological exposure pathways, selected receptors for analysis, estimated exposure of receptors to contaminants, and compared these exposures to known toxicological effects. Lower Garrison Slough and Flightline Pond posed a substantial risk for shrikes and goshawks. Ingestion of PCBs constituted the primary pathway/contaminant combination contributing to this risk. The effects of the various sources of uncertainty in the ingestion exposure calculations for these sites were evaluated in a probabilistic risk assessment using Monte Carlo methods. There was an 11% risk of reproductive effects from PCBs for goshawks feeding from Flightline Pond and a 25 % risk from lower Garrison Slough. There was an 81 % risk of reproductive effects from PCB exposure for shrikes feeding near lower Garrison Slough.

  19. Design Tools to Assess Hydro-Turbine Biological Performance: Priest Rapids Dam Turbine Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

    2013-06-25

    Over the past two decades, there have been many studies describing injury mechanisms associated with turbine passage, the response of various fish species to these mechanisms, and the probability of survival through dams. Although developing tools to design turbines that improve passage survival has been difficult and slow, a more robust quantification of the turbine environment has emerged through integrating physical model data, fish survival data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now almost 50 years old. The Utility District plans to refit all of these aging turbines with new turbines. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when replacing the turbines. In this presentation, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is introduced. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We will present application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

  20. Baseline biological risk assessment for aquatic populations occurring near Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, D.; Brandt, C.; Lewis, R.; Smith, R.

    1995-12-31

    Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska was listed as a Superfund site in November 1989 with 64 potential source areas of contamination. As part of a sitewide remedial investigation, baseline risk assessments were conducted in 1993 and 1994 to evaluate hazards posed to biological receptors and to human health. Fish tissue, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic vegetation, sediment, and surface water data were collected from several on-site and off-site surface water bodies. An initial screening risk assessment indicated that several surface water sites along two major tributary creeks flowing through the base had unacceptable risks to both aquatic receptors and to human health because of DDTs. Other contaminants of concern (i.e., PCBs and PAHs) were below screening risk levels for aquatic organisms, but contributed to an unacceptable risk to human health. Additional samples was taken in 1994 to characterize the site-wide distribution of PAHs, DDTs, and PCBs in aquatic biota and sediments. Concentrations of PAHs were invertebrates > aquatic vegetation > fish, but concentrations were sufficiently low that they posed no significant risk to biological receptors. Pesticides were detected in all fish tissue samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also detected in most fish from Garrison Slough. The pattern of PCB concentrations in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) was related to their proximity to a sediment source in lower Garrison Slough. Ingestion of PCB-contaminated fish is the primary human-health risk driver for surface water bodies on Eielson AFB, resulting in carcinogenic risks > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} for future recreational land-use at some sites. Principal considerations affecting uncertainty in the risk assessment process included spatial and temporal variability in media contaminant concentrations and inconsistencies between modelled and measured body burdens.

  1. Biological assessments for the low energy demonstration accelerator, 1996 and 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, S.

    1998-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to build, install, and operate a Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LMA) in Technical Area 53 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). LEDA will demonstrate the accelerator technology necessary to produce tritium, but is not designed to produce tritium at LANL. USFWS reviewers of the Biological Assessment prepared for LEDA insisted that the main drainage be monitored to measure and document changes to vegetation, soils, wildlife, and habitats due to LEDA effluent discharges. The Biology Team of ESH-20 (LANL`s Ecology Group) has performed these monitoring activities during 1996 and 1997 to document baseline conditions before LEDA released significant effluent discharges. Quarterly monitoring of the outfall which will discharge LEDA blowdown effluent had one exceedance of permitted parameters, a high chlorine discharge that was quickly remedied. Samples from 12 soil pits in the drainage area contained no hydric indicators, such as organic matter in the upper layers, streaking, organic pans, and oxidized rhizospheres. Vegetation transacts in the meadows that LEDA discharges will flow through contained 44 species of herbaceous plants, all upland taxa. Surveys of resident birds, reptiles, and amphibians documented a fauna typical of local dry canyons. No threatened or endangered species inhabit the project area, but increased effluent releases may make the area more attractive to many wildlife species, an endangered raptor, and several other species of concern. Biological best management practices especially designed for LEDA are discussed, including protection of floodplains, erosion control measures, hazards posed by increased usage of the area by deer and elk and revegetation of disturbed areas.

  2. Assessing Impacts of Climate Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dale, V. H.; Rauscher, H. M.

    1993-04-06

    Models that address the impacts to forests of climate change are reviewed by four levels of biological organization: global, regional or landscape, community, and tree. The models are compared as to their ability to assess changes in greenhouse gas flux, land use, maps of forest type or species composition, forest resource productivity, forest health, biodiversity, and wildlife habitat. No one model can address all of these impacts, but landscape transition models and regional vegetation and land-use models consider the largest number of impacts. Developing landscape vegetation dynamics models of functional groups is suggested as a means to integrate the theory of both landscape ecology and individual tree responses to climate change. Risk assessment methodologies can be adapted to deal with the impacts of climate change at various spatial and temporal scales. Four areas of research development are identified: (1) linking socioeconomic and ecologic models, (2) interfacing forest models at different scales, (3) obtaining data on susceptibility of trees and forest to changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and (4) relating information from different scales.

  3. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  4. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  5. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  6. Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning and Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory … December 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targeted Review of Work Planning and Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory December 2015 Office of Worker Safety and Health Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms ...................................................................................................................................................... ii Executive Summary

  7. Biological alternatives to chemical identification for the ecotoxicological assessment of industrial effluents: The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castano, A. . Centro de Sanidad Ambiental); Vega, M.; Blazquez, T.; Tarazona, J.V. )

    1994-10-01

    Ecotoxicology is concerned with the effects of chemicals on biological systems. Identifying components of complex aqueous effluents poses special problems, and can be useless if there is a lack of information on the biological effects of the identified chemicals. Toxicity-based (bioassay-directed) sample fractionation can be very useful, but the small amount of fractioned material is a constraint that can be solved by using in vitro tests. The RTG-2 in vitro cytotoxicity test has been used to assess (a) the efficacy of a treatment plant in the aeronautics industry and (b) the exposure of fish and molluscs cultured in Esteiro Bay to the effluent of a fish-processing factory. Ecotoxicological assessments could be done without identifying the responsible chemicals. The RTG-2 test was used in combination with concentration/fractionation procedures. It proved that the toxicity of the liquid wastes from the aeronautics industry was eliminated by the treatment, and that molluscs and fish reared in Esteiro Bay had accumulated toxic chemicals dumped by the fish-processing factory. A combination of the RTG-2 cytotoxicity test and HPLC proved to give useful information even for chemicals not identified by GC-MS.

  8. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of adepleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio,site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. The Indiana bat is known to occur in the area of the Portsmouth site and may potentially occur on the site during spring or summer. Evaluations of the Portsmouth site indicated that most of the site was found to have poor summer habitat for the Indiana bat because of the small size, isolation, and insufficient maturity of the few woodlands on the site. Potential summer habitat for the Indiana bat was identified outside the developed area bounded by

  9. Programmatic Biological Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    may also be present. Threatened, Endangered, and Culturally Sensitive Species The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) list of threatened, endangered, candidate, and proposed...

  10. Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene is the main component in the Ba-doped phenanthrene superconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xun-Wang; Huang, Zhongbing; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-12-14

    We have systematically investigated the crystal structure of Ba-doped phenanthrene with various Ba doping levels by the first-principles calculations combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra simulations. Although the experimental stoichiometry ratio of Ba atom and phenanthrene molecule is 1.5:1, the simulated XRD spectra, space group symmetry and optimized lattice parameters of Ba{sub 1.5}phenanthrene are not consistent with the experimental ones, while the results for Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene are in good agreement with the measurements. The strength difference of a few XRD peaks can be explained by the existence of pristine phenanthrene. Our findings suggest that instead of uniform Ba{sub 1.5}phenanthrene, there coexist Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene and undoped phenanthrene in the superconducting sample. The electronic calculations indicate that Ba{sub 2}phenanthrene is a semiconductor with a small energy gap less than 0.05 eV.

  11. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  12. NO2 uptake under practically relevant conditions on BaO/Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos

    2012-02-14

    The formation of nitrites and nitrates (Ba(NOx)2) under practically relevant conditions (PNO2 up to 1.0 Torr and T = 500 K) and their thermal decomposition on BaO (>20 monolayer equivalent (MLE))/Pt(1 1 1) were studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA), and Xray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO to 1.0 × 10−8 Torr NO2 at 500 K leads to the formation of a Ba(NOx)2 layer with small, disordered crystalline nitrate clusters. Under these conditions (PNO2 = 1.0 × 10−8 Torr and T = 500 K) only the top portion of the BaO layer converts to Ba(NOx)2 and the nitrites in this Ba(NOx)2 layer stay without converting completely to nitrates even after 100 min of NO2 exposure. In the thermal decomposition of Ba(NOx)2, first nitrites decompose, releasing NO and then the decomposition of nitrates occurs via two pathways releasing NO2 and NO + O2. At 500 K and PNO2 ≥ 1.0 × 10−7 Torr, first NO2 reacts with BaO to form small disordered crystalline Ba(NO3)2 particles and then these particles agglomerate to form large, well-ordered (bulk-like) crystalline nitrates as the NO2 exposure increases. The thermal decomposition of these well-ordered, bulk-like crystalline nitrate aggregates occurs in two steps releasing NO2 and NO + O2 in each step in two different temperature regions. NO2 pressure ≥1.0 × 10−5 Torr is required for the complete oxidation of initially formed nitrites to nitrates and the full nitration of the BaO layer at 500 K sample temperature. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US

  13. Biological Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The DOE's Biological Safety Program provides a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of biological safety. This content is supported by the Biosurety Executive Team. The Biosurety Executive Team is a DOE-chartered group. The DOE Office of Worker Safety and Health Policy provides administrative support for this group. The group identifies biological safety-related issues of concern to the DOE and pursues solutions to issues identified.

  14. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoitemore » (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba), thereby providing viable ceramic waste forms for all the Ba decay products.« less

  15. Hadron Physics in BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafferty, G.D.; /Manchester U.

    2005-08-29

    Some recent results in hadron physics from the BaBar experiment are discussed. In particular, the observation of two new charmed states, the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2317) and the D*{sub sJ}{sup +}(2457), is described, and results are presented on the first measurement of the rare decay mode of the B meson, B{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.

  16. Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of the Surveillance Program of the High-Level Waste Storage Tanks at Hanford :.~I LALI i~E REJ 163 ROOM 1t 4 F77L.~ ~ -_77 .:earmn OfEeg Asitn Sertr fo niomn 4 z. r _________ rment of the Surveilance Prograrn of the High-Level Storage- Tanks at Hanford P. E WOOD Robert J. Catln, Deputy Directat - Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview Office of Environment MARCH 1980 Report to the U.S. Departrent of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment Washkngon, DC C March 27, 1980

  17. Hydrodynamic Modeling Analysis for Leque Island and zis a ba Restoration Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2015-01-31

    Ducks Unlimited, Inc. in collaboration with Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians have proposed the restoration of Leque Island and zis a ba (formerly Matterand) sites near the mouth of Old Stillaguamish River Channel in Port Susan Bay, Washington. The Leque Island site, which is owned by WDFW, consists of nearly 253 acres of land south of Highway 532 that is currently behind a perimeter dike. The 90-acres zis a ba site, also shielded by dikes along the shoreline, is located just upstream of Leque Island and is owned by Stillaguamish Tribes. The proposed actions consider the removal or modification of perimeter dikes at both locations to allow estuarine functions to be restored. The overall objective of the proposed projects is to remove the dike barriers to 1) provide connectivity and access between the tidal river channel and the restoration site for use by juvenile migrating salmon and 2) create a self-sustaining tidal marsh habitat. Ducks Unlimited engaged Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Port Susan Bay, Skagit Bay, and the interconnecting Leque Island region for use in support of the feasibility assessment for the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The objective of this modeling-based feasibility assessment is to evaluate the performance of proposed restoration actions in terms of achieving habitat goals while assessing the potential hydraulic and sediment transport impacts to the site and surrounding parcels of land.

  18. SeeBA Energiesysteme GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SeeBA Energiesysteme GmbH Place: Stemwede, Germany Zip: 32351 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer, from planning through to implementation...

  19. Abnormal thermal conductivity in tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature interval. Substitution of Sr for Ba brings about a significant decrease in thermal conductivity at x???3 accompanied by development of a low-temperature...

  20. National Laboratory] Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Achievements of structural genomics Terwilliger, Thomas C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science Biological Science Abstract Not...

  1. Biological preconcentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  2. Theoretical Biology and Biophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Modeling biological systems and analysis and informatics of molecular and cellular biological data Mathematical BiologyImmunology Fundamental ...

  3. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sega, G.A.

    1990-11-06

    The traveler participated in an International Symposium on Trends in Biological Dosimetry and presented an invited paper entitled, Adducts in sperm protamine and DNA vs mutation frequency.'' The purpose of the Symposium was to examine the applicability of new methods to study quantitatively the effects of xenobiotic agents (radiation and chemicals) on molecular, cellular and organ systems, with special emphasis on human biological dosimetry. The general areas covered at the meeting included studies on parent compounds and metabolites; protein adducts; DNA adducts; gene mutations; cytogenetic end-points and reproductive methods.

  4. On the Verge of One Petabyte - the Story Behind the BaBar Database...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Story Behind the BaBar Database System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Verge of One Petabyte - the Story Behind the BaBar Database System The BaBar database ...

  5. Unitarity Triangle Angle Measurements at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latham, Thomas E.; /SLAC

    2005-06-30

    We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory. We present recent results of measurements of the Unitarity Triangle angles alpha, beta and gamma made with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory.

  6. Biological Evaluation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Assessment, Fort Gordon Drop Zone, Mr. Robert Drumm, Chief, Natural Resource Branch, ... Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield Field, 2008, Sustainable Range Field Card, ...

  7. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO 3 -based ferroelect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ... ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of ( Ba , Cd ) TiO 3 from DFT, ...

  8. Innovative methodology for the synthesis of Ba-M hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M.A.; Helmy, N.; El-Dek, S.I.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscope images for the BaFe12O19. - Highlights: BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}nanoparticles were prepared in single-phase from organometallic precursors. BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} possesses small size 65 nm, H{sub C} = 3695 Oe and M{sub s} = 58 emu/g. This method of preparation could be extended in the synthesis of other metal oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this piece of work, high quality and homogeneity, barium hexaferrite (BaM) BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were prepared from organometallic precursors for the 1st time. This method is based on the formation of supramolecular crystal structure of Ba[Fe(H{sub 3}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NH{sub 3})]Cl{sub 7}8H{sub 2}O. The crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} at two different annealing temperatures namely 1000 C and 1200 C were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope TEM and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results show that monophasic nanoparticles of hexaferrites were obtained. Nanoparticles of crystallite size 4050 nm distinguished by narrow distribution and excellent homogeneity were obtained with superior magnetic properties which suggested single-domain particles of Ba-M hexaferrite.

  9. Crystal Structure and Thermodynamic Stability of Ba/Ti-Substituted Pollucites for Radioactive Cs/Ba Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu; Chavez, Manuel E.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Garino, Terry J.; Schwarz, Haiqing L.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Rademacher, David X.; Nenoff, Tina Maria

    2015-04-23

    An analogue of the mineral pollucite (CsAlSi2O6), CsTiSi2O6.5 has a potential host phase for radioactive Cs. However, as 137Cs and 135Cs transmute to 137Ba and 135Ba, respectively, through the beta decay, it is essential to study the structure and stability of this phase upon Cs → Ba substitution. In this work, two series of Ba/Ti-substituted samples, CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 and CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x, (x = 0.9 and 0.7), were synthesized by high-temperature crystallization from their respective precursors. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis reveal that while CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 samples are phase-pure, CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x samples contain Cs3x/(2+x)Ba(1-x)/(2+x)TiSi2O6.5 pollucites (i.e., also two-Cs-to-one-Ba substitution) and a secondary phase, fresnoite (Ba2TiSi2O8). Thus, the CsxBa1-xTiSi2O7-0.5x series is energetically less favorable than CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5. To study the stability systematics of CsxBa(1-x)/2TiSi2O6.5 pollucites, high-temperature calorimetric experiments were performed at 973 K with or without the lead borate solvent. Enthalpies of formation from the constituent oxides (and elements) have thus been derived. Our results show that with increasing Ba/(Cs + Ba) ratio, the thermodynamic stability of these phases decreases with respect to their component oxides. Hence, from the energetic viewpoint, continued Cs → Ba transmutation tends to destabilize the parent silicotitanate pollucite structure. However, the Ba-substituted pollucite co-forms with fresnoite (which incorporates the excess Ba

  10. Ba2TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J. B.; Tokumoto, T. D.; McGill, S. A.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-01

    For single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba2TeO, we synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba2TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. Moreover, the optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba2TeO is highly insulating.

  11. Genomics and Systems Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genomics and Systems Biology LANL leads the world in computational finishing of microbial ... and experimental biology as the foundation of a dynamic systems biology capability. ...

  12. Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Symmetry-Breaking Orbital Anisotropy Observed for Detwinned Ba(Fe (1-X) Co (X) ) (2) As (2) Above the Spin Density Wave Transition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  13. The analysis of Ytrium doped BaZrO3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Power Stability for Proton Conducting Solid Oxides Fuel Cells Report Title: Computational modeling, synthesis, and characterization of BaZr 1-x Y x O 3- solid state ...

  14. Transition probabilities in the X(5) candidate {sup 122}Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bizzeti, P. G.; Giannatiempo, A.; Melon, B.; Perego, A.; Sona, P.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Marginean, R.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Dewald, A.; Fransen, C.; Michelagnoli, C.; Lenzi, S.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Nespolo, M.

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible X(5) character of {sup 122}Ba, suggested by the ground-state band energy pattern, the lifetimes of the lowest yrast states of {sup 122}Ba have been measured, via the recoil distance Doppler-shift method. The relevant levels have been populated by using the {sup 108}Cd({sup 16}O,2n){sup 122}Ba and the {sup 112}Sn({sup 13}C,3n){sup 122}Ba reactions. The B(E2) values deduced in the present work are compared to the predictions of the X(5) model and to calculations performed in the framework of the IBA-1 and IBA-2 models.

  15. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  16. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  17. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanicallybiologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Maria, Francesco Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup ?1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup ?1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation in the global

  18. Processing of R-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H.

    1998-02-23

    Precipitation processes were developed to introduce second phases as flux pinning centers in Gd-Ba-Cu-O and Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. In Gd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the upper solubility limit of Gd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} solid solution (Gd123ss) in low oxygen partial pressure. Processing of supersaturated Gd{sub 1.2}Ba{sub 1.8}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} in low oxygen partial pressure can produce dispersed second phases. Gd211 is formed as a separate phase while extensive Gd124 type stacking fault is formed instead of a separate CuO phase. As a result of the precipitation reaction, the transition temperature and critical current density are increased. In Nd-Ba-Cu-O, precipitation is caused by the decrease of the lower solubility limit of Nd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2{minus}x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} solid solution (Nd123ss) in oxygen. DTA results reveal the relative stability of Nd123ss in different oxygen partial pressures. In 1 bar oxygen partial pressure, Nd123ss with x = 0.1 is the most stable phase. In lower oxygen partial pressures, the most stable composition shifts towards the stoichiometric composition. The relative stability changes faster with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, processing in oxygen and air tends to produce broad superconducting transitions but sharp transitions can be achieved in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures. While the lower solubility limits in 0.01 bar and 0.001 bar oxygen partial pressures remain at x = 0.00, the solubility limits in oxygen and air show a narrowing with decreasing temperature. Because of the narrowing of the solubility range in oxygen, oxygen annealing of Nd123 initially processed in low oxygen partial pressures will result in precipitation of second phases. The equilibrium second phase is BaCuO{sub 2} for temperature above 608 C, and at lower temperatures the equilibrium second phases are Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 3.3} and Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 5+y}. However, annealing at

  19. Observation of excited states in /sup 128/Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Zhi-zheng; Guo Ying-xiang; Pan Zong-you; Xiao Jian-min; Lei Xiang-guo; Liu Hong-ye; Sun Xi-jun

    1987-01-01

    Excited states in /sup 128/Ba have been investigated via the /sup 120/Sn (/sup 12/C, 4n..gamma..) /sup 128/Ba reaction by means of in-beam gamma spectroscopy. A 12/sup +/ state other than the previously reported one is observed according to the properties of the 935.0 keV ..gamma..-ray. It does not belong to the ground-state band. Two new interband transitions, 224.8 keV and 632.7 keV, are observed and assigned to sidefeeding between the negative-parity band and ground-state band.

  20. Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Study of the Decays of Charm Mesons With the BaBar Experiment You are ...

  1. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Interfacial ...

  2. Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using CORBA Servers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimizing Parallel Access to the BaBar Database System Using ...

  3. Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bottomonium Spectroscopy at BaBar and Belle You are accessing a document from the ...

  4. Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of BaBar Skimmed Analysis Datasets Using the Grid You are ...

  5. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric control of magnetism at the FeBaTiO3 interface You are accessing a ...

  6. Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Searches for Light New Physics at BaBar Authors: ...

  7. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshops & Summer Schools Summer Students Structural Molecular Biology Illuminating ... major experimental driver for structural biology research, serving the needs of a large ...

  8. Genomics and Systems Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genomics and Systems Biology Genomics and Systems Biology Los Alamos scientists perform research in functional genomics and structural genomics, and applications for such work ...

  9. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cells, viruses), plant or soil samples (USDA quarantines), recombinant DNA, or blood-borne pathogen. Biological Use Authorization The great majority of biological work at...

  10. Structural phase transitions in BaPrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saines, Paul J.; Kennedy, Brendan J. Smith, Ronald I.

    2009-04-02

    The crystal structures adopted by BaPrO{sub 3} at and above ambient temperature have been examined using a combination of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction. BaPrO{sub 3} has been established to undergo a series of phase transitions from Pbnmorthorhombic{yields}Ibmmorthorhombic{yields}R3-bar crhombohedral{yields}Pm3-barm cubic. BaPrO{sub 3} is the second A{sup 2+}B{sup 4+}O{sub 3} perovskite found to adopt rhombohedral symmetry in preference to the I4/mcm tetragonal structure. Analysis of the octahedral tilting through the rhombohedral to cubic phase transition indicates that this transformation is continuous and tricritical in nature. The tricritical behaviour of this transition is likely to be a result of the competition between tetragonal and rhombohedral structures to be the preferred phase, with the rhombohedral symmetry adopted by BaPrO{sub 3} being stabilised by the unusually large B-site cation.

  11. Hysteretic electrical transport in BaTiO{sub 3}/Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3}/Ge heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngai, J. H.; Kumah, D. P.; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.

    2014-02-10

    We present electrical transport measurements of heterostructures comprised of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} epitaxially grown on Ge. Sr alloying imparts compressive strain to the BaTiO{sub 3}, which enables the thermal expansion mismatch between BaTiO{sub 3} and Ge to be overcome to achieve c-axis oriented growth. The conduction bands of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} are nearly aligned with the conduction band of Ge, which facilitates electron transport. Electrical transport measurements through the dielectric stack exhibit rectifying behavior and hysteresis, where the latter is consistent with ferroelectric switching.

  12. Biological conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  13. Quarkonium Spectroscopy and New States from BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, L.; /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste

    2007-06-08

    We review results on charmonium and bottomonium spectroscopy by the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. More space is reserved to the new results like the observation of hadronic non-B{bar B} {Upsilon}(4S) decays and the investigation on the production and decay properties of the recently discovered charmonium-like states X(3872) and Y (4260). These results are preliminary, unless otherwise specified.

  14. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Biology Group hosted a 3-day comprehensive workshop on the use of non-crystalline small-angle x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques in structural biology research. ...

  15. Structural and chemical characterization of BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagar, K.; Recnik, A.; Sturm, S.; Gajovic, A.; Ceh, M.

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were synthesized with EPD into AAO templates. {yields} Nanorods are composed of crystalline, nanosized grains with pseudo-cubic structure. {yields} Integrowth of hexagonal BaTiO{sub 3} polymorph within pseudo-cubic structure was observed. -- Abstract: An electron-microscopy investigation was performed on BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods that were processed by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition (EPD) into anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods grown within the template membranes had diameters ranging from 150 to 200 nm, with an average length of 10-50 {mu}m. By using various electron-microscopy techniques we showed that the processed BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were homogeneous in their chemical composition. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods were always polycrystalline and were composed of well-crystallized, defect-free, pseudo-cubic BaTiO{sub 3} grains, ranging from 10 to 30 nm. No intergranular phases were observed between the BaTiO{sub 3} grains. A low-temperature hexagonal polymorph that is coherently intergrown with the BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite matrix was also observed as a minor phase. When annealing the AAO templates containing the BaTiO{sub 3} sol in an oxygen atmosphere the presence of the hexagonal polymorph was diminished.

  16. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaO/Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Mei, Donghai; Yi, Cheol-Woo; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos

    2010-12-02

    The formation of adsorbed O (Oad) species and their reactivities in CO oxidation on BaO/Pt(111) (at two BaO coverages) were studied with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. In neither of these two systems was the Pt(111) surface completely covered with BaO. On the system with lower BaO coverage (~45 % of the Pt(111) surface is covered by BaO), two different Oad species form following the adsorption of O2 at 300 K: O adsorbed on BaO-free Pt(111) sites (OPt) and at the Pt-BaO interface (Oint). On the system with higher BaO coverage (~60 % of the Pt(111) surface is covered by BaO), two types of Oint are seen at the Pt-BaO interface. The desorption of OPt from the BaO-free portion of the Pt(111) surface gives an O2 desorption peak with a maximum desorption rate at ~690 K. Migration of Oint to the Pt(111) sites and their recombinative desorption give two explosive desorption features at ~760 and ~790 K in the TPD spectrum. The reactivities of these Oad species with CO to form CO2 follow their sequence of desorption; i.e., the OPt associated with the BaO-free Pt(111) surface, which desorbs at 690 K, reacts first with CO, followed by the Oint species at the Pt-BaO interface (first the one that desorbs at ~760 K and finally the one that is bound the most strongly to the interface, and desorbs at ~790 K). This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  17. Kahuku Wind Power Biological Opinion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kahuku Wind Power Biological Opinion Kahuku Wind Power Biological Opinion Kahuku Wind Power, LLC, Construction of the Kahuku Wind Power Facility in Kahuku, O'ahu, Hawaii Kahuku Wind Power Biological Opinion (4.75 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1726: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1374: Final Environmental Assessment Wind Turbine Interactions with Birds, Bats, and their Habitats: A Summary of Research Results and Priority Questions

  18. Water adsorption induced in-plane domain switching on BaTiO{sub 3} surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.; Bai, Y.; Su, Y. J.; Wang, B. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study, the influences of the adsorption of water molecules on the changes in the atomic and electric structures of BaTiO{sub 3} surface were investigated using ab initio calculation. Water molecules are molecularly and dissociatively adsorbed on the BaTiO{sub 3} surface, which makes electrons transfer from water molecules to the BaTiO{sub 3} surface. The redistribution of electrons in the BaTiO{sub 3} surface layers weakens the Ba-O interactions and strengthens the Ti-O interactions, so that the Ti atom shifts in TiO{sub 2} plane, i.e., an in-plane domain switching. The adsorption of water molecules on BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces also results in a reduction in the surface rumpling.

  19. Ba{sub 2}TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J.B.; Tokumoto, T.D.; McGill, S.A.; Singh, D.J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-15

    Single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba{sub 2}TeO, were synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba{sub 2}TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. The optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba{sub 2}TeO is highly insulating. - Graphical abstract: Starting from a simple stacking of rocksalt layers, the final structure of Ba{sub 2}TeO can be obtained by accommodation of structural strain via atom displacements. Density of states calculations and optical absorbance measurements show that Ba{sub 2}TeO has a band gap of 2.93 eV, indicative of semiconductor behavior. - Highlights: • Single crystal synthesis of a new layered oxytelluride, Ba{sub 2}TeO. • The structure features inverse PbO-type BaO layers and NaCl-type BaTe layers. • Optical absorbance show Ba{sub 2}TeO to be a semiconductor with a 2.93 eV gap. • Density of states indicate a small hybridization between Te 5p and Ba 5d states. • The BaTe (BaO) layers dominate the heat capacity at low (high) temperatures.

  20. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuma, Takashi Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro; Xianglian; Takahashi, Haruyuki; Basar, Khairul; Igawa, Naoki; Danilkin, Sergey A.

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10?K and 295?K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295?K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  1. Method of forming superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Richeson, Darrin S.; Tonge, Lauren M.; Zhang, Jiming

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming a superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O film is disclosed, which comprises depositing a Ba-Ca-Cu-O film on a substrate by MOCVD, annealing the deposited film and heat-treating the annealed film in a closed circular vessel with TlBa.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x and cooling to form said superconducting film of TlO.sub.m Ba.sub.2 Ca.sub.n-1 Cu.sub.n O.sub.2n+2, wherein m=1,2 and n=1,2,3.

  2. Biological tracer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strong-Gunderson, Janet M. (Ten Mile, TN); Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer.

  3. Biological tracer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a biological tracer method for characterizing the movement of a material through a medium, comprising the steps of: introducing a biological tracer comprising a microorganism having ice nucleating activity into a medium; collecting at least one sample of the medium from a point removed from the introduction point; and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. The present invention is also a method for using a biological tracer as a label for material identification by introducing a biological tracer having ice nucleating activity into a material, collecting a sample of a portion of the labelled material and analyzing the sample for the presence of the biological tracer. 2 figs.

  4. A A S BA IMPORTANT ISSUES W BOOK TWO O

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    i * A * A S BA IMPORTANT ISSUES W BOOK TWO O * - U.S. Department of Energy, Transition 2008 - HOT Issue Papers Section 1 - Energy 1-1 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) * CCS could be developed and accelerated to meet aggressive C02 emissions goals. This strategy includes FutureGen and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). * July 2009 - Select CCPI recipients (closes 1/15/09) * December 2009 - Award FutureGen based on a December 2008 selection 1-2 Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Partnership

  5. Genomics and Systems Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genomics and Systems Biology LANL leads the world in computational finishing of microbial genomes Read caption + In 2013, Los Alamos scientist Richard Sayre and his team genetically modified the organisms to harvest light more efficiently for maximum production. Overview of Research and Highlights Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory are using their renowned expertise in genomics, computation, and experimental biology as the foundation of a dynamic systems biology capability. Systems

  6. Genomics and Systems Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Genomics and Systems Biology Genomics and Systems Biology Los Alamos scientists perform research in functional genomics and structural genomics, and applications for such work cover diverse fields such as energy, agriculture, and environmental cleanup. Contact Us Babetta Marrone Biofuels Program Manager Email Cheryl Kuske DOE BER Biological System Science Division Program Manager Email Kirsten McCabe Emerging Threats Program Manager Email Rebecca McDonald Bioscience Communications Email "We

  7. Biological detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  8. Biological detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  9. Biological detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  10. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Mission Our Mission The SSRL Structural Molecular Biology program operates as a integrated resource and has three primary areas (or cores) of technological research and ...

  11. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2002-09-01

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  12. Integrated Biological Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, A.R.

    2003-10-09

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects, and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (a priori) or in response to existing contamination spread (a posteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and a priori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, a posteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response.

  13. Biological sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  14. Direct spectroscopic evidence for completely filled Cu 3d shell in BaCu₂As₂ and α – BaCu₂Sb₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S. F.; Richard, P.; van Roekeghem, A.; Nie, S. M.; Miao, H.; Xu, N.; Qian, T.; Saparov, B.; Fang, Z.; Biermann, S.; Sefat, Athena S.; Ding, H.

    2015-06-08

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to extract the band dispersion and the Fermi surface of BaCu₂As₂ and α - BaCu₂Sb₂. While the Cu 3d bands in both materials are located around 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, the low-energy photoemission intensity mainly comes from As 4p states, suggesting a completely filled Cu 3d shell. The splitting of the As 3d core levels and the lack of pronounced three-dimensionality in the measured band structure of BaCu₂As₂ indicate a surface state likely induced by the cleavage of this material in the collapsed tetragonal phase, which is consistent with our observation of a Cu⁺¹ oxidation state. However, the observation of Cu states at similar energy in α - BaCu₂Sb₂ without the pnictide-pnictide interlayer bonding characteristic of the collapsed tetragonal phase suggests that the short interlayer distance in BaCu₂As₂ follows from the stability of the Cu⁺¹ rather than the other way around. Our results confirm the prediction that BaCu₂As₂ is an sp metal with weak electronic correlations.

  15. Dipole strength distributions in the stable Ba isotopes {sup 134-138}Ba: A study in the mass region of a nuclear shape transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheck, M.; Garrel, H. von; Belic, D.; Kneissl, U.; Kohstall, C.; Nord, A.; Pitz, H.H.; Stedile, F.; Tsoneva, N.; Brentano, P. von; Fransen, C.; Gade, A.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.; Stoyanov, C.

    2004-10-01

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions in the odd-mass isotopes {sup 135,137}Ba were studied in nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments (NRF) performed at the Stuttgart Dynamitron facility using bremsstrahlung beams with end point energies of 4.1, 3.1, and 2.5 MeV. Numerous excited states, most of them unknown so far, were observed in the excitation energy range up to 4 MeV. Detailed spectroscopic information has been obtained on excitation energies, decay widths, decay branching ratios, and transition probabilities. The results for {sup 137}Ba are compared with calculations in the framework of the Quasiparticle-Phonon Model. The new data for {sup 135,137}Ba complete the systematics of low-lying dipole excitations as observed for the even Ba isotopes {sup 134,136,138}Ba in previous NRF experiments in Stuttgart. The complete systematics within the Ba isotopic chain, exhibiting a nuclear shape transition, is discussed with respect to E1 two-phonon excitations, M1 scissors mode excitations, and in regard to the new critical point symmetries.

  16. Submillimeter and microwave residual losses in epitaxial films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Garrison, S.M.; Newman, N.; Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T.; Martens, J.S.; Lee, W.Y.; Bourne, L.C.

    1992-03-01

    We have used a novel bolometric technique and a resonant technique to obtain accurate submillimeter and microwave residual loss data for epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, Tl{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} and Tl{sub 2}CaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. For all films we obtain good agreement between the submillimeter and microwave data, with the residual losses in both the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films scaling approximately as frequency squared below {approximately} 1 THz. We are able to fit the losses in the Y-Ba-Cu-O films to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity, in good agreement with results from a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the loss data. We observe strong phonon structure in the Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films for frequencies between 2 and 21 THz, and are unable to fit these losses to the simple weakly coupled grain model. This is in strong contrast to the case for other high {Tc} superconductors such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, where phonon structure observed in ceramic samples is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of the electronic screening due to the high conductivity of the a-b planes.

  17. Direct spectroscopic evidence for completely filled Cu 3d shell in BaCu₂As₂ and α – BaCu₂Sb₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, S. F.; Richard, P.; van Roekeghem, A.; Nie, S. M.; Miao, H.; Xu, N.; Qian, T.; Saparov, B.; Fang, Z.; Biermann, S.; et al

    2015-06-08

    We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to extract the band dispersion and the Fermi surface of BaCu₂As₂ and α - BaCu₂Sb₂. While the Cu 3d bands in both materials are located around 3.5 eV below the Fermi level, the low-energy photoemission intensity mainly comes from As 4p states, suggesting a completely filled Cu 3d shell. The splitting of the As 3d core levels and the lack of pronounced three-dimensionality in the measured band structure of BaCu₂As₂ indicate a surface state likely induced by the cleavage of this material in the collapsed tetragonal phase, which is consistent with our observation of amore » Cu⁺¹ oxidation state. However, the observation of Cu states at similar energy in α - BaCu₂Sb₂ without the pnictide-pnictide interlayer bonding characteristic of the collapsed tetragonal phase suggests that the short interlayer distance in BaCu₂As₂ follows from the stability of the Cu⁺¹ rather than the other way around. Our results confirm the prediction that BaCu₂As₂ is an sp metal with weak electronic correlations.« less

  18. Phonon properties of BaFe?X? (X=S, Se) spin ladder compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popovicq, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.; Scepanovic, M.; Lazarevic, N.; Opacic, M.; Radonjic, M. M.; Tanaskovic, D.; Lei, Hechang

    2015-02-27

    We present the Raman scattering spectra of the S=2 spin ladder compounds BaFe?X? (X=S,Se) in a temperature range between 20 and 400 K. Although the crystal structures of these two compounds are both orthorhombic and very similar, they are not isostructural. The unit cell of BaFe?S? (BaFe?Se?) is base-centered Cmcm (primitive Pnma), giving 18 (36) modes to be observed in the Raman scattering experiment. We have detected almost all Raman active modes, predicted by factor group analysis, which can be observed from the cleavage planes of these compounds. Assignment of the observed Raman modes of BaFe?S(Se)? is supported by themorelattice dynamics calculations. The antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in BaFe?Se? below TN=255K leaves a fingerprint both in the A1g and B3g phonon mode linewidth and energy.less

  19. Nanocrystalline BaTiO3 powder via ambient conditions sol process (Prop.2001-071)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payzant, E Andrew; Wang, X.; Hu, Michael Z.; Blom, Douglas Allen

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been prepared by ambient condition sol (ACS) process starting from soluble precursors of barium and titanium yielding a mixed oxide/hydroxide gel. The gel was peptized and crystallized in water under a refluxing condition. Higher initial pH and Ba/Ti ratio led to smaller crystallite sizes of BaTiO{sub 3} powders. Organic mineralizer, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), can adsorb on the BaTiO{sub 3} nuclei and inhibited further growth of the particles. Adding a polymer during BaTiO{sub 3} synthesis led to a smaller particle size and increased redispersibility of the particles in water.

  20. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  1. Catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Weaver, Jason F.; Szanyi, Janos

    2011-04-07

    The decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 formed on BaO/Pt(111) (Pt(111) surface is partially covered by BaO) in the presence of CO was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), infrared reflection absorption (IRA) and X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectroscopies. The exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to elevated NO2 pressure (1.0×10-4 Torr) at 450 K leads to the formation of Ba(NO3)2, chemisorbed O (OPt) and Pt-oxide-like domains. During TPD, the Ba(NO3)2 begins to thermally decompose near 490 K, releasing NO and NO2 with the maximum NOx desorption rate seen at 605 K. The OPt species formed following the exposure of BaO/Pt(111) to NO2 react with CO to release CO2 at 450 K. The consumption of OPt during CO oxidation initiates the migration of O from the Pt-oxide-like domains to the chemisorbed phase, where the CO oxidation reaction occurs. Therefore, the removal of OPt by CO leads to the reduction of oxidized Pt, and to the formation of metallic Pt(111) domains, where, subsequently, catalytic decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 can take place. The Pt-catalyzed decomposition of Ba(NO3)2 occurs readily at 450 K, a temperature much lower than the onset of the decomposition temperature of Ba(NO3)2 in the presence of oxidized Pt. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  2. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal process or may be completed as an independent document. In the ESS, identify each material (including all biological materials) with which you will be working. The regulatory oversight for biological work is very complicated and we need to understand the risk levels involved with the material you plan to use at the ALS,

  3. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal process or may be completed as an independent document. In the ESS, identify each material (including all biological materials) with which you will be working. The regulatory oversight for biological work is very complicated and we need to understand the risk levels involved with the material you plan to use at the ALS,

  4. Work with Biological Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work with Biological Materials Print Planning A complete Experiment Safety Sheet (ESS) is required before work can be done at the ALS. This ESS is either a part of the proposal process or may be completed as an independent document. In the ESS, identify each material (including all biological materials) with which you will be working. The regulatory oversight for biological work is very complicated and we need to understand the risk levels involved with the material you plan to use at the ALS,

  5. Biological and Environmental Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Science Biological Science The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum gliding through a cell in the gut of a mosquito, its primary host. Although five different species of Plasmodium can cause malaria, Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe disease. | Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons. <a href="http://energy.gov/articles/malaria-researchers-find-weakness-global-killer">Read more</a> The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum gliding through a cell in the gut of a

  6. Biological and Environmental Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological and Environmental Research Biological and Environmental Research Understanding how genomic information is translated to functional capabilities, and the roles of Earth's biogeochemical systems so we can predict climate decades or centuries into the future. Get Expertise Cheryl Kuske (505) 665-4800 Email James Bossert (505) 667-3644 Email Manvendra Dubey (505) 665-3128 Email Kim Nitschke (505) 667-1186 Email Phil Jones (505) 667-6387 Email Cathy Wilson (505) 667-0202 Email Conducting

  7. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  8. Green Biologics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biologics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Biologics Place: Oxfordshire, United Kingdom Sector: Biomass, Renewable Energy Product: Oxfordshire-based industrial biotech...

  9. Y-Ba-Cu-O films prepared by a paint-on method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, I.; Qiu, C.X.

    1988-02-29

    Polycrystalline films of Y-Ba-Cu-O with a thickness of about 20--40 ..mu..m have been prepared on alumina substrates using a paint-on method. The liquid source used was obtained by mixing powder of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BaCO/sub 3/, and CuO in liquid triethanolamine. Several Y-Ba-Cu-O films with an onset temperature of about 100 K and a zero resistance temperature of 85 K have been obtained after a short heat treatment at 1000 /sup 0/C in flowing O/sub 2/.

  10. Global Forest Resource Assessment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment 2010 (FRA 2010) covers all seven thematic elements of sustainable forest management: Extent of forest resources Forest biological diversity Forest health and...

  11. OTEC environmental biological oceanographic program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartwig, E.O.

    1981-07-01

    One of the major goals of the OTEC biological field measurement program is to assess the effect of OTEC operations on the environment. Prior understanding of the natural variability of the tropical oceanic plankton community is the most important method for determining changes due to operation of an OTEC plant. The spatial and temporal patterns of the plankton community in terms of absolute number, biomass and species composition have been investigated at potential OTEC sites. Considerable data exist which document the changes with depth of all three measurements. Diel fluctuations in number and species composition have been studied at one site. While horizontal and seasonal patterns of variability likely exist at all sites, they are subtle and remain somewhat unclear. Attempts are now being made to determine the overall trophic structure of the plankton community at these sites using these data, gut content analysis, and information already in the literature.

  12. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  13. Low-energy planar magnetic defects in BaFe2As2: Nanotwins, twins, antiphase, and domain boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Suffian N. [Ames Laboratory; Alam, Aftab [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-11-27

    In BaFe2As2, structural and magnetic planar defects begin to proliferate below the structural phase transition, affecting descriptions of magnetism and superconductivity. We study, using density-functional theory, the stability and magnetic properties of competing antiphase and domain boundaries, twins and isolated nanotwins (twin nuclei), and spin excitations proposed and/or observed. These nanoscale defects have a very low surface energy (22210 m Jm?2), with twins favorable to the mesoscale. Defects exhibit smaller moments confined near their boundariesmaking a uniform-moment picture inappropriate for long-range magnetic order in real samples. Nanotwins explain features in measured pair distribution functions so should be considered when analyzing scattering data. All these defects can be weakly mobile and/or can have fluctuations that lower assessed ordered moments from longer spatial and/or time averaging and should be considered directly.

  14. Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCe{sub...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Thickness dependence of hydrogen permeability for Ni-BaCesub 0.8Ysub 0.2Osub 3-delta. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thickness dependence of ...

  15. Ba{sub 2}TeO as an optoelectronic material: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.; Siegrist, Theo

    2015-05-21

    The band structure, optical, and defects properties of Ba{sub 2}TeO are systematically investigated using density functional theory with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or transparent conducting material. Ba{sub 2}TeO crystallizes with tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm) and with a 2.93 eV optical bandgap [Besara et al., J. Solid State Chem. 222, 60 (2015)]. We find relatively modest band masses for both electrons and holes suggesting applications. Optical properties show infrared-red absorption when doped. This could potentially be useful for combining wavelength filtering and transparent conducting functions. Furthermore, our defect calculations show that Ba{sub 2}TeO is intrinsically p-type conducting under Ba-poor condition. However, the spontaneous formation of the donor defects may constrain the p-type transport properties and would need to be addressed to enable applications.

  16. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba( Fe 1 - x M x ) 2 As...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba( Fe 1 - x M x ) 2 As 2 ( M Co ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials ...

  17. Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    spectroscopy and microscopy study Morphology and Composition cycle of BaOAl2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study 2005 Diesel ...

  18. Ba2TeO as an optoelectronic material: First-principles study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Jifeng; Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua; Siegrist, Theo; Singh, David J.

    2015-05-21

    The band structure, optical and defects properties of Ba2TeO are systematically investigated using density functional theory with a view to understanding its potential as an optoelectronic or transparent conducting material. Ba2TeO crystallizes with tetragonal structure (space group P4/nmm) and with a 2.93 eV optical band gap1. We find relatively modest band masses for both electrons and holes suggesting applications. Optical properties show a infrared-red absorption when doped. This could potentially be useful for combining wavelength filtering and transparent conducting functions. Furthermore, our defect calculations show that Ba2TeO is intrinsically p-type conducting under Ba-poor condition. However, the spontaneous formation of themore » donor defects may constrain the p-type transport properties and would need to be addressed to enable applications.« less

  19. The U5+ compound Ba9Ag10U4S24: Synthesis, structure, and electronic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The U5+ compound Ba9Ag10U4S24: Synthesis, structure, and electronic properties This ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  20. Observation in BaBar of a Narrow Resonance in the D{sub s} pi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Dsub s pisup 0 System at 2317 MeVcsup 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation in BaBar of a Narrow Resonance in the Dsub s pisup 0 System at ...

  1. Chiral Anomaly Effects And the BaBar Measurements of the$\\gamma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...to pi0 Transition Form Factor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chiral Anomaly Effects And the BaBar Measurements of the gammagamma*to pi0 ...

  2. Building America Team (BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review Building America Team (BA-PIRC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Eric Martin, Florida Solar Energy Center Building America research projects develop and demonstrate market-ready building solutions that improve the energy efficiency of new and existing homes, increasing comfort, health, safety, and durability. When fully deployed, proven solutions will reduce building-related energy use in new and existing residential building stock by 30% and 25%,

  3. Crystallography and Physical Properties of BaCo2As2, Ba0.94K0.06Co2As2, and Ba0.78K0.22Co2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, V K; Quirinale, Dante G; Lee, Yongbin; Harmon, Bruce N; Furukawa, Yuji; Ogloblichev, V V; Huq, A; Abernathy, D L; Stephens, P W; McQueeney, Robert J; Kreyssig, Aandreas; Goldman, Alan I; Johnston, David C

    2014-08-01

    The crystallographic and physical properties of polycrystalline and single crystal samples of BaCo2As2 and K-doped Ba{1-x}K{x}Co2As2 (x = 0.06, 0.22) are investigated by x-ray and neutron powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility chi, magnetization, heat capacity Cp, {75}As NMR and electrical resistivity rho measurements versus temperature T. The crystals were grown using both Sn flux and CoAs self-flux, where the Sn-grown crystals contain 1.6-2.0 mol% Sn. All samples crystallize in the tetragonal ThCr2Si2-type structure (space group I4/mmm). For BaCo2As2, powder neutron diffraction data show that the c-axis lattice parameter exhibits anomalous negative thermal expansion from 10 to 300 K, whereas the a-axis lattice parameter and the unit cell volume show normal positive thermal expansion over this T range. No transitions in BaCo2As2 were found in this T range from any of the measurements. Below 40-50 K, we find rho ~ T^2 indicating a Fermi liquid ground state. A large density of states at the Fermi energy D(EF) ~ 18 states/(eV f.u.) for both spin directions is found from low-T Cp(T) measurements, whereas the band structure calculations give D(EF) = 8.23 states/(eV f.u.). The {75}As NMR shift data versus T have the same T dependence as the chi(T) data, demonstrating that the derived chi(T) data are intrinsic. The observed {75}As nuclear spin dynamics are consistent with the presence of ferromagnetic and/or stripe-type antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations. The crystals of Ba{0.78}K{0.22}Co2As2 were grown in Sn flux and show properties very similar to those of undoped BaCo2As2. On the other hand, the crystals from two batches of Ba{0.94}K{0.06}Co2As2 grown in CoAs self-flux show evidence of weak ferromagnetism at T < 10 K with small ordered moments at 1.8 K of 0.007 and 0.03 muB per formula unit, respectively.

  4. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merchán, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ → 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two γ-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via β-decay, the Jπ = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keVmore » in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.« less

  5. 137 Ba Double Gamma Decay Measurement with GAMMASPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchn, E.; Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Greene, J. P.; Zhu, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Shearman, R.

    2015-05-28

    The study of the electromagnetic moments (EM), and decay probability, provides detailed information about nuclear wave functions. The well-know properties of EM interactions are good for extracting information about the motion of nucleons. Higher order EM processes always occur, but are usually too weak to be measured. In the case of a 0+ ? 0+ transitions, where a single gamma transition is forbidden, the simultaneous emission of two ?-rays has been studied. An interesting opportunity to further investigate 2-photon emission phenomena is by using a standard 137Cs source populating, via ?-decay, the J? = 11/2- isomeric state at 662 keV in 137Ba. In this case, two photon process can have contributions from quadrupole-quadrupole or dipole-octupole multipolarities in direct competition with the high multipolarity M4 decay. Since the yield of the double gamma decay is around six orders of magnitude less than the first order transition, very good statistics are needed in order to observe the phenomena and great care must be taken to suppress the first-order decay. The Gammasphere array is ideal since its configuration allows a good coverage of the angular distribution and the Compton events can be suppressed. Nevertheless the process to understand and eliminate the Compton background is a challenge. Geant4 simulations were carried out to help understand and correct for those factors.

  6. Measurements of the CKM Angle Alpha at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2012-04-04

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fractions and CP-asymmetries fin the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0} decays, which impact the determination of {alpha}. The combined branching fractions of B {yields} K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and B {yields} K{sub 1}(1400){pi} decays are measured for the first time and allow a novel determination of {alpha} in the B{sup 0} {yields} {alpha}{sub 1}(1260){sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay channel. These measurements are performed using the final dataset collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II B-factory. The primary goal of the experiments based at the B factories is to test the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) picture of CP violation in the standard model of electroweak interactions. This can be achieved by measuring the angles and sides of the Unitarity Triangle in a redundant way.

  7. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  8. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K.

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  9. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  10. Biological particle identification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, Gary C.; Gregg, Charles T.; Grace, W. Kevin; Hiebert, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making multiparameter light scattering measurements from suspensions of biological particles is described. Fourteen of the sixteen Mueller matrix elements describing the particles under investigation can be substantially individually determined as a function of scattering angle and probing radiations wavelength, eight elements simultaneously for each of two apparatus configurations using an apparatus which incluees, in its simplest form, two polarization modulators each operating at a chosen frequency, one polarizer, a source of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, a detector sensitive to the wavelength of radiation employed, eight phase-sensitive detectors, and appropriate electronics. A database of known biological particle suspensions can be assembled, and unknown samples can be quickly identified once measurements are performed on it according to the teachings of the subject invention, and a comparison is made with the database.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Infrared spectroscopy of CaTiO3, SrTiO3, BaTiO3, Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films, and (BaTiO3)5(SrTiO3)5 superlattice grown on SrRuO3SrTiO3(001) substrates Citation Details In-Document ...

  12. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  13. Report of The Structural Biology Subcommittee of The Biological and

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Environmental Research Advisory Committee | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Report of The Structural Biology Subcommittee of The Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) BERAC Home Meetings Members Charges/Reports Current BERAC Charges Archive of BERAC Reports Charter .pdf file (135KB) BER Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees BER Home Charges/Reports Report of The Structural Biology Subcommittee of

  14. Work Function Reduction by BaO: Growth of Crystalline Barium Oxide on Ag(001) and Ag(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droubay, Timothy C.; Kong, Lingmei; Chambers, Scott A.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2015-02-01

    Ultrathin films of barium oxide were grown on Ag(001) and Ag(111) using the evaporation of Ba metal in an O2 atmosphere by molecular beam epitaxy. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy reveals that films consisting of predominantly BaO or BaO2 result in Ag(001) work function reductions of 1.74 eV and 0.64 eV, respectively. On the Ag(001) surface, Ba oxide growth is initiated by two-dimensional nucleation of epitaxial BaO, followed by a transition to three-dimensional dual-phase nucleation of epitaxial BaO and BaO2. Three-dimensional islands of primarily BaO2(111) nucleate epitaxially on the Ag(111) substrate leaving large patches of Ag uncovered. We find no indication of chemical reaction or charge transfer between the films and the Ag substrates. These data suggest that the origin of the observed work function reduction is largely due to a combination of BaO surface relaxation and an electrostatic compressive effect.

  15. Abengoa Mojave Final Biological Opinion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biological Opinion on Mojave Solar, LLC's Mojave Solar Project, San Bernardino County, California (8-8-11-F-3)

  16. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  17. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-11-03

    The low Curie temperature (T{sub c}?=?130?C) of bulk BaTiO{sub 3} greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5?nm to 10?nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained at 600?C, suggesting a significant increase of T{sub c}. Based on the in-situ TEM results and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO{sub 3} particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the T{sub c} obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.

  18. Lattice dynamics of BaFe2X3(X=S,Se) compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Popović, Z. V.; Šćepanović, M.; Lazarević, N.; Opačić, M.; Radonjić, M. M.; Tanasković, D.; Lei, Hechang; Petrovic, C.

    2015-02-27

    We present the Raman scattering spectra of the S=2 spin ladder compounds BaFe₂X₃ (X=S,Se) in a temperature range between 20 and 400 K. Although the crystal structures of these two compounds are both orthorhombic and very similar, they are not isostructural. The unit cell of BaFe₂S₃ (BaFe₂Se₃) is base-centered Cmcm (primitive Pnma), giving 18 (36) modes to be observed in the Raman scattering experiment. We have detected almost all Raman active modes, predicted by factor group analysis, which can be observed from the cleavage planes of these compounds. Assignment of the observed Raman modes of BaFe₂S(Se)₃ is supported by themore » lattice dynamics calculations. The antiferromagnetic long-range spin ordering in BaFe₂Se₃ below TN=255K leaves a fingerprint both in the A1g and B3g phonon mode linewidth and energy.« less

  19. Investigation of the {sup 128}Ba nucleus with the (p,t) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascu, S.; Cata-Danil, Gh.; Bucurescu, D.; Marginean, N.; Zamfir, N. V.; Graw, G.; Gollwitzer, A.; Hofer, D.; Valnion, B. D.

    2009-06-15

    The low lying states in {sup 128}Ba have been investigated for the first time with the {sup 130}Ba(p,t){sup 128}Ba reaction. The experiment was performed at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph with a 25-MeV proton beam and a high-resolution, 1.5-m-long focal plane detector. As a result of this experiment 27 excited levels with energies below 3.7 MeV have been observed for the first time, significantly increasing (by {approx}50%) the number of levels observed in {sup 128}Ba. Angular distributions of tritons were measured and their comparison with the distorted wave Born approximation calculation allowed in most cases spin and parity assignments for the nuclear levels. The experimental two-neutron transition strengths with transferred angular momentum L=0 and 2 are compared with the predictions of the IBA-1 model with a new set of parameters. The results indicate for the first time from a hadronic probe perspective a transitional structure close to the O(6) symmetry for the {sup 128}Ba nucleus, confirming previous conclusions of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy studies.

  20. Microstructure and Cs Behavior of Ba-Doped Aluminosilicate Pollucite Irradiated with F+ Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Kovarik, Libor; Zhu, Zihua; Varga, Tamas; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Garino, Terry

    2014-08-07

    Radionuclide 137Cs is one of the major fission products that dominate heat generation in spent fuels over the first 300 hundred years. A durable waste form for 137Cs that decays to 137Ba is needed to minimize its environmental impact. Aluminosilicate pollucite CsAlSi2O6 is selected as a model waste form to study the decay-induced structural effects. While Ba-containing precipitates are not present in charge-balanced Cs0.9Ba0.05AlSi2O6, they are found in Cs0.9Ba0.1AlSi2O6 and identified as monoclinic Ba2Si3O8. Pollucite is susceptible to electron irradiation induced amorphization. The threshold density of the electronic energy deposition for amorphization is determined to be ~235 keV/nm3. Pollucite can be readily amorphized under F+ ion irradiation at 673 K. A significant amount of Cs diffusion and release from the amorphized pollucite is observed during the irradiation. However, cesium is immobile in the crystalline structure under He+ ion irradiation at room temperature. The critical temperature for amorphization is not higher than 873 K under F+ ion irradiation. If kept at or above 873 K all the time, the pollucite structure is unlikely to be amorphized; Cs diffusion and release are improbable. A general discussion regarding pollucite as a potential waste form is provided in this report.

  1. Hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for the growth of stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, Abhinav Dewey, John; Yun, Hwanhui; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Jalan, Bharat

    2015-11-15

    Owing to its high room-temperature electron mobility and wide bandgap, BaSnO{sub 3} has recently become of significant interest for potential room-temperature oxide electronics. A hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach for the growth of high-quality BaSnO{sub 3} films is developed in this work. This approach employs hexamethylditin as a chemical precursor for tin, an effusion cell for barium, and a radio frequency plasma source for oxygen. BaSnO{sub 3} films were thus grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and LaAlO{sub 3} (001) substrates. Growth conditions for stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3} were identified. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) intensity oscillations, characteristic of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed. A critical thickness of ∼1 nm for strain relaxation was determined for films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} using in situ RHEED. Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed the cube-on-cube epitaxy and composition. The importance of precursor chemistry is discussed in the context of the MBE growth of BaSnO{sub 3}.

  2. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  3. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  4. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Greater Prairie-Chickens | Department of Energy Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in

  5. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N.; Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  6. Ba2TeO: A new layered oxytelluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besara, T.; Ramirez, D.; Sun, J.; Whalen, J. B.; Tokumoto, T. D.; McGill, S. A.; Singh, D. J.; Siegrist, T.

    2015-02-01

    For single crystals of the new semiconducting oxytelluride phase, Ba2TeO, we synthesized from barium oxide powder and elemental tellurium in a molten barium metal flux. Ba2TeO crystallizes in tetragonal symmetry with space group P4/nmm (#129), a=5.0337(1) Å, c=9.9437(4) Å, Z=2. The crystals were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction, heat capacity and optical measurements. Moreover, the optical measurements along with electronic band structure calculations indicate semiconductor behavior with a band gap of 2.93 eV. Resistivity measurements show that Ba2TeO is highly insulating.

  7. High-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} grown by oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Cain, Tyler A.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility perovskite BaSnO{sub 3} films are of significant interest as new wide bandgap semiconductors for power electronics, transparent conductors, and as high mobility channels for epitaxial integration with functional perovskites. Despite promising results for single crystals, high-mobility BaSnO{sub 3} films have been challenging to grow. Here, we demonstrate a modified oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) approach, which supplies pre-oxidized SnO{sub x}. This technique addresses issues in the MBE of ternary stannates related to volatile SnO formation and enables growth of epitaxial, stoichiometric BaSnO{sub 3}. We demonstrate room temperature electron mobilities of 150 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in films grown on PrScO{sub 3}. The results open up a wide range of opportunities for future electronic devices.

  8. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen ...

  9. Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - December 2015 | Department of Energy Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning and Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - December 2015 Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning and Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - December 2015 December 2015 Review of Work Planning and Control and Biological Safety at the

  10. Synthesis and characterization of hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-02-01

    A facile method is reported to synthesize hollow mesoporous BaFe12O19 spheres using a template-free chemical etching process. Hollow BaFe12O19 spheres were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis. The mesoporous structure is achieved by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 degrees C, with the porosity controlled by the heating time. The hollow porous structure is confirmed by SEM, TEM, and FIB-FESEM characterization. The crystal structure and magnetic properties are not significantly affected after the chemical etching process. The formation mechanism of the porous structure is explained by grain boundary etching. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystal structures and phase transitions in Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Brendan J. Saines, Paul J.; Kubota, Yoshiki; Minakata, Chiharu; Hano, Hiroko; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki

    2007-11-06

    The structure of the cation-ordered double perovskite Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} was examined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction at fine temperature intervals over the range of 90-300 K. Ba{sub 2}HoTaO{sub 6} has a cubic structure in space group Fm3-barm at room temperature. A proper ferroelastic phase transition to I4/m tetragonal symmetry occurs near approximately 260 K. Analysis of the spontaneous tetragonal strain versus temperature indicated that the phase transition is second order in nature.

  12. Electron-hole asymmetry, Dirac fermions, and quantum magnetoresistance in BaMnBi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Lijun; Wang, Kefeng; Graf, D.; Wang, Limin; Wang, Aifeng; Petrovic, C.

    2016-03-28

    Here, we report two-dimensional quantum transport and Dirac fermions in BaMnBi2 single crystals. BaMnBi2 is a layered bad metal with highly anisotropic conductivity and magnetic order below 290 K. Magnetotransport properties, nonzero Berry phase, small cyclotron mass, and the first-principles band structure calculations indicate the presence of Dirac fermions in Bi square nets. Quantum oscillations in the Hall channel suggest the presence of both electron and hole pockets, whereas Dirac and parabolic states coexist at the Fermi level.

  13. Spin-driven multiferroics in BaYFeO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Jun-Zhuang; Shen, Shi-Peng; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Yan, Li-Qin; Shang, Da-Shan; Wang, Shou-Guo; Sun, Young

    2015-05-07

    We report on the spin-driven multiferroic property and magnetoelectric effect in the lately synthesized compound BaYFeO{sub 4}. Due to its peculiar crystal structure, the system exhibits complex magnetic phases with multiple transitions. The dielectric and pyroelectric measurements evidence a spin-driven multiferroic state raised by the cycloidal spin structure below T{sub 1} = 36 K. Strong magnetoelectric effect has also been observed in the multiferroic state. The origin of noncollinear cycloidal spin structure in BaYFeO{sub 4} is believed to arise from the interactions between low-dimensional magnetic columns.

  14. The luminescence of BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles upon high-energy excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vistovskyy, V. V. Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Halyatkin, O. O.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Mitina, N. E.; Zaichenko, A. S.; Rodnyi, P. A.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Gektin, A. V.

    2014-08-07

    The dependence of X-ray excited luminescence intensity on BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size was studied. A sharp decrease of self-trapped exciton luminescence intensity was observed when the nanoparticle size is less than 80?nm. The main mechanism of the luminescence quenching is caused by the escape of electrons from the nanoparticles. Escape of electrons from nanoparticles is confirmed by the considerable increase of luminescence intensity of the polystyrene scintillator with embedded BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles comparing with pure polystyrene scintillator.

  15. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  16. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M = Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M Co,Ni,Cu,Zn) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1 xMx)2As2 (M ...

  17. Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (M=Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (MCo, Ni, Cu, Zn) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fermi surfaces and Phase Stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx))2As2 (MCo,...

  18. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-15

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB{sub 6}, SrB{sub 6}, BaB{sub 6} and the ternary hexaborides Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6} (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB{sub 6} (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials.

  19. Biological Safety | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Select Agents Inspection Report: IG-0681, Concerns Regarding a Non-Viable (Dead) "Anthrax Sport" Research Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Inspection ...

  20. Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Applications of Synchrotron Radiation: An Evaluation of the State of the Field ... Maxwell's equations show that electromagnetic radiation is generated when charged ...

  1. Biological & Environmental Research Abstracts Database

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Welcome to the Biological and Environmental Research Abstracts Database The U.S. ... This database contains abstracts of research projects supported by the program. Work was ...

  2. Synthesis and Structure Determination of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors LaAMnSnO6 (A = Sr Ba)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T Yang; T Perkisas; J Hadermann; M Croft; A Ignatov; M Greenblatt

    2011-12-31

    LaAMnSnO{sub 6} (A = Sr, Ba) have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reactions under dynamic 1% H{sub 2}/Ar flow. Rietveld refinements on room temperature powder X-ray diffraction data indicate that LaSrMnSnO{sub 6} crystallizes in the GdFeO{sub 3}-structure, with space group Pnma and, combined with transmission electron microscopy, LaBaMnSnO{sub 6} in Imma. Both space groups are common in disordered double-perovskites. The Mn{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} ions whose valence states were confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, are completely disordered over the B-sites and the BO{sub 6} octahedra are slightly distorted. LaAMnSnO{sub 6} are ferromagnetic semiconductors with a T{sub C} = 83 K for the Sr- and 66 K for the Ba-compound. The title compounds, together with the previously reported LaCaMnSnO{sub 6} provide an interesting example of progression from Pnma to Imma as the tolerance factor increases. An analysis of the relationship between space group and tolerance factor for the series LaAMnMO{sub 6} (A = Ca, Sr, Ba; M = Sn, Ru) provides a better understanding of the symmetry determination for double perovskites.

  3. Atomic and electronic structure of the ferroelectric BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge(001) interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, Kurt D.; Ponath, Patrick; Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A.; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.; Aoki, Toshihiro

    2014-06-16

    In this study, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of BaTiO{sub 3} on Ge(001) by molecular beam epitaxy using a thin Zintl template buffer layer. A combination of density functional theory, atomic-resolution electron microscopy and in situ photoemission spectroscopy is used to investigate the electronic properties and atomic structure of the BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge interface. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron micrographs reveal that the Ge(001) 2??1 surface reconstruction remains intact during the subsequent BaTiO{sub 3} growth, thereby enabling a choice to be made between several theoretically predicted interface structures. The measured valence band offset of 2.7?eV matches well with the theoretical value of 2.5?eV based on the model structure for an in-plane-polarized interface. The agreement between the calculated and measured band offsets, which are highly sensitive to the detailed atomic arrangement, indicates that the most likely BaTiO{sub 3}/Ge(001) interface structure has been identified.

  4. Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Control and Biological Safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - December 2015 Office of Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of Work Planning and Control and ...

  5. 6th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and the Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitski, Timothy, P.

    2007-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology is an annual two-day event gathering the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investigating complex systems. In recognition of the fundamental similarity between the scientific problems addressed in environmental science and systems biology studies at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels, the 2007 Symposium featured global leaders in “Systems Biology and the Environment.” The objective of the 2007 “Systems Biology and the Environment” International Symposium was to stimulate interdisciplinary thinking and research that spans systems biology and environmental science. This Symposium was well aligned with the DOE’s Genomics:GTL program efforts to achieve scientific objectives for each of the three DOE missions: • Develop biofuels as a major secure energy source for this century, • Develop biological solutions for intractable environmental problems, and • Understand biosystems’ climate impacts and assess sequestration strategies Our scientific program highlighted world-class research exemplifying these priorities. The Symposium featured 45 minute lectures from 12 researchers including: Penny/Sallie Chisholm of MIT gave the keynote address “Tiny Cells, Global Impact: What Prochlorococcus Can Teach Us About Systems Biology”, plus Jim Fredrickson of PNNL, Nitin Baliga of ISB, Steve Briggs of UCSD, David Cox of Perlegen Sciences, Antoine Danchin of Institut Pasteur, John Delaney of the U of Washington, John Groopman of Johns Hopkins, Ben Kerr of the U of Washington, Steve Koonin of BP, Elliott Meyerowitz of Caltech, and Ed Rubin of LBNL. The 2007 Symposium promoted DOE’s three mission areas among scientists from multiple disciplines representing academia, non-profit research institutions, and the private sector. As in all previous

  6. Energy from biological processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This assessment responds to a request by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation for an evaluation of the energy potential of various sources of plant and animal matter (biomass). This report complements an earlier OTA report on the Application of Solar Technology to Today's Energy Needs in evaluating the major solar energy resources available to the United States. The findings also will serve as part of the material to be used in an upcoming OTA assessment of synthetic fuels for transportation. This volume presents analyses of prominent biomass issues, summaries of four biomass fuel cycles, a description of biomass' place in two plausible energy futures, and discussions of policy options for promoting energy from biomass. The four fuel cycles - wood, alcohol fuels, grasses and crop residues, and animal wastes - were chosen because of their near- to mid-term energy potential and because of the public interest in them. A second volume presents technical analyses of the resource base, conversion technologies, and end uses that provide a basis for the discussion in this volume. Also included in Volume II are various unconventional approaches to bioenergy production as well as the use of biomass to produce chemicals.

  7. Controlled synthesis and optical properties of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals via ethanol/water solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Qinghua; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10039 ; Li, Zhi; Ma, Wangjing; Shi, Yao; Yang, Xinmin

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and cost-effective approach for the controlled synthesis of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals is introduced. The structures and morphologies of the obtained products are affected by the amount of water and ethanol in the solvent mixtures. Highlights: ► Precipitation route for preparing BaFBr nano and micro crystals in water/ethanol solvent mixtures. ► Controlled growth of BaFBr nano crystals by tuning the volume ratio of Ethanol/water. ► Luminescence properties after annealing at 200 °C are investigated. ► Short lifetimes of photoluminescence and photostimulated luminescence in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals are presented. ► Shortened lifetimes in BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano crystals demonstrate that they are promising materials for use in X-ray imaging systems. -- Abstract: BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} crystals with different structures were successfully fabricated via a simple precipitation method using ethanol/water mixtures as solvents. The amount of ethanol in the solvent mixtures played a significant role in the formation of final products, enabling the well-controlled growth of the BaFBr crystals. A possible formation mechanism was proposed based on the results of controlled experiments. The phases and morphologies of the resulting samples were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and elementary analysis. The optical properties of the annealed BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} nano-cuboids were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSL) and kinetic decays. Faster decay behaviors demonstrate that these BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors are promising materials for applications in optical storage fields. Furthermore, it is envisaged that this environmentally benign method can be extended to prepare other fluoride halides.

  8. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fully fluorinated compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Wright, Adrian J.; Berry, Frank J.; Smith, Ronald I.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-02-15

    The compound 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F (P6{sub 3}/mmc) was synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. Structural characterisation by XRD and NPD suggests that the local positions of the oxygen and fluorine atoms vary with no evidence for ordering on the anion sites. This compound shows antiferromagnetic ordering at room temperature with antiparallel alignment of the magnetic moments along the c-axis. The use of PVDF also allows the possibility of tuning the fluorine content in materials of composition 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} to any value of 0BaFeO{sub 2}F. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure of the hexagonal perovskite phase 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 6H-BaFeO{sub 3-d}F{sub y} were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This analysis suggests differences for the local coordination of O{sup 2-} and F{sup -} anions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The magnetic moments align parallel to the a-axis.

  9. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT COVER SHEETS, IB Biology I/II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? December 7, 2015 - 4:41pm Addthis This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please view it in a modern browser. If you are using IE9, you can also view the interactive here Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer KEY FACTS New interactive lets you compare annual carbon emissions of U.S.

  10. Thermodynamic and nonstoichiometric behavior of the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tetenbaum, M.

    1998-09-29

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made on the GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system in the temperature range {approximately}400-600 C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. Equations for the variation of oxygen partial pressure with composition and temperature have been derived from our EMF measurements. The shape of the 400 C isotherms as a function of oxygen stoichiometry for the Gd and Nd cuprate systems suggests the presence of miscibility gaps at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} system. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, oxygen partial pressures above Gd-123 and Nd-123 cuprate systems are higher (above x = 6.5) than that for the Y-123 system. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our partial pressure measurements with the results of related measurements will be presented.

  11. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterisation of the fluorinated compound 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Oliver; Berry, Frank J.; Bauer, Jessica; Wright, Adrian J.; Knight, Kevin S.; Slater, Peter R.

    2013-07-15

    The compounds 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5} have been synthesised by the low temperature fluorination of 15R-BaFeO{sub 3−d}F{sub 0.2} using polyvinylidenedifluoride (PVDF) as a fluorination agent. The materials have been structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray- and HRPD-powder neutron diffraction data. A detailed analysis of bond valence sums suggests that the oxide and fluoride ions order on the different anion sites. A reinvestigation of our recently published structure (Clemens et al., 2013) [34] of 6H-BaFeO{sub 2}F is also reported and incorporation of fluoride in h-type layers is also confirmed in this compound. The magnetic moments for 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.25}F{sub 0.5} align in the a/b-plane with antiferromagnetic alignment of the moments between adjacent layers, and are flipped by 90° as compared to the precursor compound. 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F exhibits very robust antiferromagnetism with a Néel temperature between 300 and 400 °C. - Graphical abstract: The crystal and magnetic structure of the perovskite phase 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F. - Highlights: • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F and 15R-BaFeO{sub 2.27}F{sub 0.5}were prepared via low temperature fluorination using PVDF. • A structural investigation of the compounds BaFeO{sub 2}F is presented in detail. • This analysis suggests ordering of O{sup 2−} and F{sup −} anions between different layers. • 15R-BaFeO{sub 2}F shows antiferromagnetic ordering at 300 K with T{sub N} ∼300–400 °C. • The magnetic moments align in the a/b-plane.

  12. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Its scientific programs focus on materials, neutron science, energy, high performance computing, systems biology, and national security. During fiscal year (FY) 2013,...

  13. Wind Resource and Feasibility Assessment Report for the Lummi Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DNV Renewables Inc.; J.C. Brennan & Associates, Inc.; Hamer Environmental L.P.

    2012-08-31

    This report summarizes the wind resource on the Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington State) and presents the methodology, assumptions, and final results of the wind energy development feasibility assessment, which included an assessment of biological impacts and noise impacts.

  14. Crystal structure and physical properties of quaternary clathrates Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}, Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Cu){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x} and Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Pd){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasir, Navida; Grytsiv, Andriy; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Rogl, Peter; Bednar, Ingeborg; Bauer, Ernst

    2010-10-15

    Three series of vacancy-free quaternary clathrates of type I, Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}, Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Cu){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}, and Ba{sub 8}(Zn,Pd){sub x}Ge{sub 46-x}, have been prepared by reactions of elemental ingots in vacuum sealed quartz at 800 {sup o}C. In all cases cubic primitive symmetry (space group Pm3n, a{approx}1.1 nm) was confirmed for the clathrate phase by X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray single crystal analyses. The lattice parameters show a linear increase with increase in Ge for Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y}. M atoms (Zn, Pd, Cu) preferably occupy the 6d site in random mixtures. No defects were observed for the 6d site. Site preference of Ge and Si in Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x-y}Si{sub y} has been elucidated from X-ray refinement: Ge atoms linearly substitute Si in the 24k site whilst a significant deviation from linearity is observed for occupation of the 16i site. A connectivity scheme for the phase equilibria in the 'Ba{sub 8}Ge{sub 46}' corner at 800 {sup o}C has been derived and a three-dimensional isothermal section at 800 {sup o}C is presented for the Ba-Pd-Zn-Ge system. Studies of transport properties carried out for Ba{sub 8{l_brace}}Cu,Pd,Zn{r_brace}{sub x}Ge{sub 46-x} and Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub x}Si{sub y}Ge{sub 46-x-y} evidenced predominantly electrons as charge carriers and the closeness of the systems to a metal-to-insulator transition, fine-tuned by substitution and mechanical processing of starting material Ba{sub 8}Ge{sub 43}. A promising figure of merit, ZT {approx}0.45 at 750 K, has been derived for Ba{sub 8}Zn{sub 7.4}Ge{sub 19.8}Si{sub 18.8}, where pricey germanium is exchanged by reasonably cheap silicon. - Graphical abstract: Quaternary phase diagram of Ba-Pd-Zn-Ge system at 800 {sup o}C.

  15. Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development PNNL-18567.pdf (1.2 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1772: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1772: Finding of No Significant Impact EIS-0521: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact

  16. Optical properties of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrade, Adriano B. Mello, Ana C. S. de; Valerio, Mrio E. G.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.; Baldochi, Sonia L.

    2014-08-07

    Crystalline samples of Pr-doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} (BaYF) were prepared by zone melting technique. The pure phase obtained was identified by X-ray diffraction measurement. Optical absorption result was evaluated and it showed that the formation of the absorption bands can be connected to color centers generated by radiation in the matrix. Radioluminescence emission measurements after excitation by X-ray showed that the material exhibited components responsible for long lasting phosphorescence. Short decay times were also evaluated, the measurements showed a fast component around 70?ns associated to the 4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1} ? 4f{sup 2} transition of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. The Thermoluminescence (TL) results indicate the presence of two trapping centers.

  17. Single crystal growth and characterization of the large-unit-cell compound Cu13Ba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesche, Anton; Budko, Serguei L.; Canfield, Paul C.

    2013-10-31

    Single crystals of Cu13Ba were successfully grown out of BaCu self flux. Temperature dependent magnetization, M (T ), electrical resistivity, ?(T)?(T), and specific heat, Cp(T)Cp(T), data are reported. Isothermal magnetization measurements, M(H)M(H), show clear de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at T = 2 K for applied fields as low as View the MathML source?0H=1T. An anomalous behavior of the magnetic susceptibility is observed up to T ? 50 K reflecting the effect of de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at fairly high temperatures. The field- and temperature-dependencies of the magnetization indicate the presence of diluted magnetic impurities with a concentration of the order of 0.01 at.%. Accordingly, the minimum and lower temperature rise observed in the electrical resistivity at and below T = 15 K is attributed to the Kondo-impurity effect.

  18. Melt-processing of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors for improved levitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Zhong, W.; Emerson, J.E.; McDaniel, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    Melt processed bulk YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) superconductors are of considerable interest in the application of low-friction, superconducting permanent magnet bearings and flywheel-energy-storage devices. The mechanisms of enhanced flux pinning in the melt processed samples has been the subject of many investigations. Fine precipitates of Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (211) are considered potential flux-pinning sites by many investigators. Several groups have reported the refinement of 211 precipitates through Pt additions. In this paper, the authors describe the melt processing of YBCO with additives such as 211, Pt, and Ag. Large single domain regions are obtained using small SmBa2Cu3O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (Sm-123) single crystal seeds. The microstructure and levitation forces are measured and reported here.

  19. Infrared-optical spectroscopy of transparent conducting perovskite (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongmin; Yu, Kwangnam; Jun Chang, Young; Choi, E. J.; Sohn, Egon; Hoon Kim, Kee

    2014-01-13

    We have performed optical transmission, reflection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Hall effect measurements on the electron-doped La{sub x}Ba{sub 1x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.04) transparent thin films. From the infrared Drude response and plasma frequency analysis we determine the effective mass of the conducting electron m*?=?0.35m{sub 0}. In the visible-UV region the optical band gap shifts to high energy in (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} by 0.18?eV compared with undoped BaSnO{sub 3} which, in the context of the Burstein-Moss analysis, is consistent with the infrared-m*. m* of BaSnO{sub 3} is compared with other existing transparent conducting oxides (TCO), and implication on search for high-mobility TCO compounds is discussed.

  20. K and Mn co-doped BaCd{sub 2}As{sub 2}: A hexagonal structured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    K and Mn co-doped BaCdsub 2Assub 2: A hexagonal structured bulk diluted magnetic semiconductor with large magnetoresistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: K and Mn ...

  1. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  2. Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx)2As2 (M = Co...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fermi surfaces and phase stability of Ba(Fe1-xMx)2As2 (M Co,Ni,Cu,Zn) ... (EFRC); Center for Defect Physics in Structural Materials (CDP) Sponsoring Org: USDOE ...

  3. Recent Results on D0 - Anti-D0 Mixing from BaBar and Belle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Recent Results on D0 - Anti-D0 Mixing from BaBar and Belle Authors: Neri, Nicola ; Pisa U. INFN, Pisa Publication Date: 2013-06-04 OSTI Identifier: 1082815 Report ...

  4. Data:3dfe9516-886e-413a-baed-ae8390939e0b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dfe9516-886e-413a-baed-ae8390939e0b No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading......

  5. Michael Levitt and Computational Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Levitt and Computational Biology Resources with Additional Information * Publications Michael Levitt Courtesy of Linda A. Cicero / Stanford News Service Michael Levitt, PhD, professor of structural biology at the Stanford University School of Medicine, has won the 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Levitt ... shares the ... prize with Martin Karplus ... and Arieh Warshel ... "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems." Levitt's work focuses on

  6. Biological Science | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Science Biological Science The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum gliding through a cell in the gut of a mosquito, its primary host. Although five different species of Plasmodium can cause malaria, Plasmodium falciparum causes the most severe disease. | Photo courtesy of Wikipedia Commons. <a href="http://energy.gov/articles/malaria-researchers-find-weakness-global-killer">Read more</a> The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum gliding through a cell in the gut of a

  7. A Measurement of the Exclusive Branching Fraction for B → π K at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aspinwall, Marie Louise

    2002-02-01

    This thesis presents an exclusive measurement of the branching fraction B for the rare charmless hadronic B decays to πK final states. A sample of 22.57±0.36 million BB pairs was collected with the BaBar detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's PEP-II B Factory, during the Run 1 data taking period (1999-2000).

  8. Information resources and the correlation of response patterns between biological end points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malling, H.V.; Wassom, J.S.

    1990-12-31

    This paper focuses on the analysis of information for mutagenesis, a biological end point that is important in the overall process of assessing possible adverse health effects from chemical exposure. 17 refs.

  9. Dielectric investigations in nanostructured tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, L.G.D.; Alves, M.F.S.; Ctica, L.F.; Gotardo, R.A.M.; Nascimento, W.J.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J.A.; Santos, I.A.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Nanostructured BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics processed by an innovative protocol. ? Dielectric relaxations related to strains and vacancies. ? Dielectric and ferroelectric properties enhanced by strain. - Abstract: In this paper, structural and dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics obtained under extreme conditions were investigated. The temperature dependent dielectric investigations revealed that the phase transition temperatures of the BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were raised as a function of residual strains associated to the nanostructuration, while structural characterizations showed a tetragonal arrangement at room temperature. From the frequency dependence analyses of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity, impedance and modulus function, three relaxation processes were identified. Two of them exhibit activation energies of 0.45 and 0.63 eV, and were attributed to single and double-ionization of oxygen vacancies. The whole set of results also indicated that the electrons resulting from the ionization of oxygen vacancies are trapped and do not contribute to the electrical conductivity, while the physical properties of the analyzed samples were enhanced by retaining a strained microstructure.

  10. Growth and self-assembly of BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes for resistive switching memory cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Dewei, E-mail: D.Chu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Lin, Xi; Younis, Adnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Li, Chang Ming [Chongqing Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Clean Energies of Techonologies Dean, Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing (China); Dang, Feng [Research Center for Materials Back Casting Technology (MBT Center), Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Li, Sean [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    In this work, the self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes based resistive switching memory capacitors are fabricated with hydrothermal and drop-coating approaches. The device exhibits excellent bipolar resistance switching characteristics with ON/OFF ratio of 5870, better reliability and stability over various polycrystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanostructures. It is believed that the inter cube junctions is responsible for such a switching behaviour and it can be described by the filament model. The effect of film thickness on switching ratio (ON/OFF) was also investigated in details. - Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel resistive switching memory cell based on self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes. - Highlights: BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes were prepared by one step facile hydrothermal method. Self-assembled BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes thin films were obtained by drop-coating approach. The BaTiO{sub 3} nanocubes show excellent resistive switching properties for memory applications.

  11. Assessment Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... SCADA Assessments Since 1999, Sandia has conducted numerous assessments of operational systems in hydroelectric dams; water treatment systems; electric power transmission, ...

  12. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BioSolarH 2 Autofermentative biological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria G.C. Dismukes Rutgers University Waksman Institute and Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology ...

  13. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Anthropogenic CO2 as a Feedstock for ...

  14. Repurposing the translation apparatus for synthetic biology ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biology Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 14, 2017 Title: Repurposing the translation apparatus for synthetic biology ...

  15. Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production Innovative Breakthrough Demonstrated for Biological Ethanol Production June 30, 2015 - 11:43am Addthis ...

  16. Air monitoring and detection of chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonelli, J.; Althouse, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE`s remote sensing symposium which was held November 2--3, 1998 in Boston, Massachusetts. Topics of discussion include the following: system simulations, atmospheric modeling, and performance prediction studies of chemical warfare remote sensing technologies; ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence and aerosol detection methods for remote sensing of biological warfare agents; passive detection methods for remote detection of chemical warfare agents; and lidar-based system performance assessments, demonstrations, and new concepts for chemical warfare/biological warfare detection.

  17. The new barium zinc mercurides Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} and BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} - Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Michael; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2012-12-15

    The title compounds Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} and BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures, which both represent new structure types, have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. The structure of Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10} (orthorhombic, oP28, space group Pmmn, a=701.2(3), b=1706.9(8), c=627.3(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0657) contains folded 4{sup 4} Hg nets, where the meshes form the bases of flat rectangular pyramids resembling the structure of BaAl{sub 4}. The flat pyramids are connected via Hg-Zn/Hg bonds, leaving large channels at the folds, in which Ba(1) and Hg(2) atoms alternate. Whereas the remaining Hg/Zn atoms form a covalent 3D network of three- to five-bonded atoms with short M-M distances (273-301 pm; CN 9-11), the Hg(2) atoms in the channels adopt a comparatively large coordination number of 12 and increased distances (317-348 pm) to their Zn/Hg neighbours. In the structure of BaZn{sub 0.6}Hg{sub 3.4} (cubic, cI320, space group I4{sup Macron }3d, a=2025.50(7) pm, Z=64, R1=0.0440), with a chemical composition not much different from that of Ba{sub 3}ZnHg{sub 10}, the Zn/Hg atoms of the mixed positions M(1/2) are arranged in an slightly distorted primitive cubic lattice with a 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 subcell relation to the unit cell. The 24 of the originating 64 cubes contain planar cis tetramers Hg(5,6){sub 4} with Hg in a nearly trigonal planar or tetrahedral coordination. In another 24 of the small cubes, two opposing faces are decorated by Hg(3,4){sub 2} dumbbells, two by Ba(2) atoms respectively. The third type of small cubes are centered by Ba(1) atoms only. The complex 3D polyanionic Hg/Zn network thus formed is compared with the Hg partial structure in Rb{sub 3}Hg{sub 20} applying a group-subgroup relation. Despite their different overall structures, the connectivity of the negatively charged Hg atoms, the rather metallic Zn bonding characteristic

  18. Ba-filled Ni–Sb–Sn based skutterudites with anomalously high lattice thermal conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschinger, W.; Rogl, Gerda; Grytsiv, A.; Michor, H.; Heinrich, P. R.; Mueller, H.; Puchegger, S.; Klobes, B.; Hermann, Raphael P.; Reinecker, M.; et al

    2016-06-21

    Here, in this study, novel filled skutterudites BayNi4Sb12-xSnx (ymax = 0.93) have been prepared by arc melting followed by annealing at 250, 350 and 450°C up to 30 days in vacuum-sealed quartz vials. Extension of the homogeneity region, solidus temperatures and structural investigations were performed for the skutterudite phase in the ternary Ni–Sn–Sb and in the quaternary Ba–Ni–Sb–Sn systems. Phase equilibria in the Ni–Sn–Sb system at 450°C were established by means of Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). With rather small cages Ni4(Sb,Sn)12, the Ba–Ni–Sn–Sb skutterudite system is perfectly suited to study the influence of filler atomsmore » on the phonon thermal conductivity. Single-phase samples with the composition Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8, Ba0.42Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3 were used to measure their physical properties, i.e. temperature dependent electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity. The resistivity data demonstrate a crossover from metallic to semiconducting behaviour. The corresponding gap width was extracted from the maxima in the Seebeck coefficient data as a function of temperature. Single crystal X-ray structure analyses at 100, 200 and 300 K revealed the thermal expansion coefficients as well as Einstein and Debye temperatures for Ba0.73Ni4Sb8.1Sn3.9 and Ba0.95Ni4Sb6.1Sn5.9. These data were in accordance with the Debye temperatures obtained from the specific heat (4.4 K < T < 140 K) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (10 K < T < 290 K). Rather small atom displacement parameters for the Ba filler atoms indicate a severe reduction in the “rattling behaviour” consistent with the high levels of lattice thermal conductivity. The elastic moduli, collected from Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy ranged from 100 GPa for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 to 116 GPa for Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3. The thermal expansion coefficients were 11.8 × 10-6 K-1 for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and 13.8 × 10-6 K-1 for Ba0.92Ni4

  19. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  20. Biological effects of electric fields: EPRI's role

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavet, R.

    1982-07-01

    Since 1973 the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has supported research to evaluate the biological effects which may result from exposure to electric fields produced by AC overhead transmission lines; more recently, EPRI has also begun DC research. Through 1981 EPRI will have expended $8.7M on these efforts. Ongoing AC projects are studying a variety of lifeforms exposed to electric fields; these include humans, miniature swine, rats, honeybees, chick embryos, and crops. The status of these projects is discussed. The DC program has not as yet produced data. These studies will add to the current data base so as to enable a more complete assessment of health risks which may be associated with exposure to electric fields at power frequencies.

  1. Electrical and thermal properties of Fe substituted double-filled Ba{sub x}Yb{sub y}Fe{sub z}Co{sub 4-z}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballikaya, Sedat; Uzar, Neslihan; Yildirim, Saffettin; Salvador, James R.

    2013-01-15

    Fe-substituted double-filled Ba{sub x}Yb{sub y}Fe{sub z}Co{sub 4-z}Sb{sub 12} (x=0.1, y=0.2 and z=0.0-0.4 nominal) compounds were synthesized using a melting-annealing-spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed by measuring the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and the Hall coefficient. The sign of the Hall coefficient indicates that electrons are the dominant carriers in all compounds except Ba{sub 0.1}Yb{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.4}Co{sub 3.6}Sb{sub 12}. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the carrier concentration reflect the transition from extrinsic to intrinsic behavior depending on the amount of Fe substituted for Co. Jonker and Ioffe analyses are applied to Fe-substituted double-filled Ba{sub x}Yb{sub y}Fe{sub z}Co{sub 4-z}Sb{sub 12} compounds in order to evaluate the range of minimum and maximum power factors achievable in n-type filled skutterudite compounds at room temperature (300 K). The predicted maximum room temperature power factor values in the range of 15-45 {mu}W/K{sup 2} cm are comparable to experimentally reported values of n-type skutterudite compounds. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature Jonker plot of Ba{sub x}Yb{sub y}Fe{sub z}Co{sub 4-z}Sb{sub 12} samples. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TE properties of Ba{sub x}Yb{sub y}Fe{sub z}Co{sub 4-z}Sb{sub 12} compounds were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jonker and Ioffe analysis applied in order to predict the range of power factor achievable at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductivity is strongly suppressed with increasing of Fe substitution on Co site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We see that small quantities of Fe on Co site is beneficial on enhancement ZT value.

  2. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Environment, Safety and Health Assessments The Department of Energy's Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments, within the Office of Enterprise Assessments, is responsible for conducting assessments to provide information on programs and performance in protecting our workers, the public, and environment from hazards present at Department sites and operations. This information provides assurance to our stakeholders and identifies areas for

  3. Systems biology approach to bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Wu, Cindy H.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2012-06-01

    Bioremediation has historically been approached as a ‘black box’ in terms of our fundamental understanding. Thus it succeeds and fails, seldom without a complete understanding of why. Systems biology is an integrated research approach to study complex biological systems, by investigating interactions and networks at the molecular, cellular, community, and ecosystem level. The knowledge of these interactions within individual components is fundamental to understanding the dynamics of the ecosystem under investigation. Finally, understanding and modeling functional microbial community structure and stress responses in environments at all levels have tremendous implications for our fundamental understanding of hydrobiogeochemical processes and the potential for making bioremediation breakthroughs and illuminating the ‘black box’.

  4. Preparation, photoluminescent properties and luminescent dynamics of BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Hua, Ruinian; Liu, Tianqing; Zhao, Jun; Na, Liyan; Chen, Baojiu

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Rice-shaped BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} are composed of many particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, the sharp line emission located at 361 nm of Eu{sup 2+} was observed. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} ions in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanoparticles suggests that these nanoparticles may have potential applications for sensing, solid-state lasers and spectrometer calibration. - Highlights: • BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors were synthesized via a mild hydrothermal process. • The Van and Huang models were used to research the mechanism of concentration quenching. • The optimum doping concentration of Eu2+ was confirmed to be 5 mol%. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaAlF{sub 5} nanophosphors were synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD results showed that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM and TEM images indicated that the prepared BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors are composed of many rice-shaped particles with an average diameter of 40 nm. When excited at 260 nm, BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors exhibit the sharp line emissions of Eu{sup 2+} at room temperature. The optimum doping concentration of Eu{sup 2+} was confirmed to be 5 mol%. The Van and Huang models were used to study the mechanism of concentration quenching and the electric dipole–dipole interaction between Eu{sup 2+} can be deduced to be a dominant for quenching fluorescence in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors. The strong ultraviolet emission of Eu{sup 2+} in BaAlF{sub 5}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors suggests that

  5. Robust antiferromagnetism preventing superconductivity in pressurized (Ba0.61K0.39)Mn2Bi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Dachun; Dai, Xia; Le, Congcong; Sun, Liling; Wu, Qi; Saparov, Bayrammurad; Guo, Jing; Gao, Peiwen; Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Yazhou; et al

    2014-12-05

    BaMn2Bi2 possesses an iso-structure of iron pnictide superconductors and similar antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state to that of cuprates, therefore, it receives much more attention on its properties and is expected to be the parent compound of a new family of superconductors. When doped with potassium (K), BaMn2Bi2 undergoes a transition from an AFM insulator to an AFM metal. Consequently, it is of great interest to suppress the AFM order in the K-doped BaMn2Bi2 with the aim of exploring the potential superconductivity. Here, we report that external pressure up to 35.6 GPa cannot suppress the AFM order in the K-doped BaMn2Bi2more » to develop superconductivity in the temperature range of 300 K–1.5 K, but induces a tetragonal (T) to an orthorhombic (OR) phase transition at ~20 GPa. Theoretical calculations for the T and OR phases, on basis of our high-pressure XRD data, indicate that the AFM order is robust in the pressurized Ba0.61K0.39Mn2Bi2. Utlimately, both of our experimental and theoretical results suggest that the robust AFM order essentially prevents the emergence of superconductivity.« less

  6. Facile synthesis of Ba1-xKxFe?As? superconductors via hydride route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikina, Julia V. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Batuk, Maria [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Abakumov, Artem M. [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    We have developed a fast, easy, and scalable synthesis method for Ba1-xKxFe?As? (0 ? x ? 1) superconductors using hydrides BaH? and KH as a source of barium and potassium metals. Synthesis from hydrides provides better mixing and easier handling of the starting materials, consequently leading to faster reactions and/or lower synthesis temperatures. The reducing atmosphere provided by the evolved hydrogen facilitates preparation of oxygen-free powders. By a combination of methods we have shown that Ba1-xKxFe?As? obtained via hydride route has the same characteristics as when it is prepared by traditional solid-state synthesis. Refinement from synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data confirms a linear dependence of unit cell parameters upon K content as well as the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition at low temperatures for compositions with x < 0.2. Magnetic measurements revealed dome-like dependence of superconducting transition temperature Tc upon K content with a maximum of 38 K for x close to 0.4. Electron diffraction and high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates an absence of Ba/K ordering, while local inhomogeneity in the Ba/K distribution takes place at a scale of several angstroms along [110] crystallographic direction.

  7. Analysis of BaBar data for three meson tau decay modes using the Tauola generator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shekhovtsova, Olga

    2014-11-24

    The hadronic current for the τ⁻ → π⁻π⁺π⁻ντ decay calculated in the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory with an additional modification to include the σ meson is described. In addition, implementation into the Monte Carlo generator Tauola and fitting strategy to get the model parameters using the one-dimensional distributions are discussed. The results of the fit to one-dimensional mass invariant spectrum of the BaBar data are presented.

  8. Analysis of BaBar data for three meson tau decay modes using the Tauola generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhovtsova, Olga

    2014-11-24

    The hadronic current for the τ⁻ → π⁻π⁺π⁻ντ decay calculated in the framework of the Resonance Chiral Theory with an additional modification to include the σ meson is described. In addition, implementation into the Monte Carlo generator Tauola and fitting strategy to get the model parameters using the one-dimensional distributions are discussed. The results of the fit to one-dimensional mass invariant spectrum of the BaBar data are presented.

  9. Reaction dynamics and photochemistry of divalent systems. [Reaction of Ba with NO sub 2 , H sub 2 O, methanol, ClO sub 2 , O sub 3; photodissociation of NO sub 3 radical and OClO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.F.

    1992-05-01

    Results are presented of molecular beam studies of bimolecular and unimolecular reactions of Ba. Chapter 1 discusses the reaction Ba + NO{sub 2}. Formation of the dominant BaO({sup 1}{Sigma}) + NO products resulted primarily from decay of long-lived Ba{sup +}NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} collision complexes. Secondary mechanisms led to formation of forward scattered, internally excited BaO, and BaNO + O. D{sub o}(Ba-NO) = 65{plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Reactions of ground state and electronically excited Ba with water and alcohols are examined in Chapter 2. Reaction of Ba({sup 1}S) + H{sup 2}O led to BaO + H{sub 2}, whereas excited state Ba({sup 1}D) + H{sub 2}O reacted to form BaOH + H. Collisions between Ba and CH{sub 3}OH led to BaOCH{sub 3} + H. Radical channels involve H-atom migration and are promoted by excitation of the incident Ba atom. In Chapter 3, reactions of Ba({sup 1}S) with ClO{sub 2}2 and O{sub 3} are discussed. Again, direct and complex mechanisms were observed. Formation of BaCl + O{sub 2} from decomposition of Ba{sup +}ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} accounted for 10% of total reaction crass section. Although Ba + O{sub 3} {yields} BaO + 0{sub 2} occurs primarily by direct reaction mechanisms, the secondary channel Ba + 0{sub 3} {yields} BaO{sub 2} + 0 involved decay of long lived Ba{sup +}O{sub 3}{sup {minus}} intermediates. D{sub o}(Ba{minus}O{sub 2}) = 120 {plus minus}20 kcal/mol. Photodissociation dynamics of NO{sub 3} is explored in chapter 4. Visible excitation leads to formation of NO + 0{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} + O. Wavelength dependence of branching ratios is investigated. D{sub o}(O-NO{sub 2}) = 48.55 kcal/mole ;and calculate {Delta}H{sub f}(NO{sub 3}) = 17.75 kcal/mole (298K). Chapter 5 discusses the photodissociation of OClO in a molecular beam. Although ClO({sup 2}II) + O({sup 3}P) is dominant, Cl({sup 2}P) + O{sub 2} also forms, with a max yield of 3.9{plus minus}0.8% near 404nm.

  10. High temperature crystal structures and superionic properties of SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Stephen; Norberg, Stefan T.; Ahmed, Istaq; Eriksson, Sten G.; Mohn, Chris E.

    2011-11-15

    The structural properties of the binary alkaline-earth halides SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} have been investigated from ambient temperature up to close to their melting points, using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Fluorite-structured SrCl{sub 2} undergoes a gradual transition to a superionic phase at 900-1100 K, characterised by an increasing concentration of anion Frenkel defects. At a temperature of 920(3) K, the tetragonal phase of SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order transition to a cubic fluorite phase. This high temperature phase shows the presence of extensive disorder within the anion sublattice, which differs from that found in superionic SrCl{sub 2}. BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} both adopt the cotunnite crystal structure under ambient conditions. BaCl{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition at 917(5) K to a disordered fluorite-structured phase. The relationship between the (disordered) crystal structures and the ionic conductivity behaviour is discussed and the influence of the size of the mobile anion on the superionic behaviour is explored. - Graphical abstract: Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} at temperatures of {approx}1000 K is associated with the gradual transition to a superionic phase, whilst SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition ({beta}{yields}{alpha}) to a fluorite-structured superionic phase at 920(3) K. Highlights: > Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} occurs at temperatures {approx}1000 K. > Crystal structure of {beta}-SrBr{sub 2} is described in detail. > On heating, SrBr{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2} transform to a fluorite-structured superionic phase. > Temperature dependence of the BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} structures is presented. > Nature of the superionic phases within the alkaline-earth halides is discussed.

  11. Crystal and electronic structures of two new iron selenides: Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berthebaud, David; Perez, Olivier; Tobola, Janusz; Pelloquin, Denis; Maignan, Antoine

    2015-10-15

    The new ternary selenides, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10} and BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4,} were synthesized from a reaction of appropriate amounts of elements at high temperature in a silica sealed tube, and their structures were resolved using X-ray single crystal diffraction. BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 4} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4/m with a=8.008(9) Å and c=5.483(3) Å as cell parameters. It is a new compound with a structure isotypical to the sulfide BaFe{sub 2}S{sub 4} which belongs to the infinitely adaptive structures series Ba{sub 1+x}Fe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The second compound, Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}, crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n with a=8.8593(1) Å, b=8.8073(1) Å, c=12.2724(1) Å and β=109.037(6)° as cell parameters. It exhibits an original structure with a new type of iron selenide polyhedra. These data were consistent with the powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analyses. Their electronic structures point towards metallicity and electronic correlations for both selenides. - Graphical abstract: Experimental [010] oriented ED pattern and corresponding HREM image of Ba{sub 4}Fe{sub 3}Se{sub 10}. Image calculated with a focus and thickness to 15nm and 8 nm respectively is inserted. Bright contrasts are correlated to Se rows belonging to FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−}–FeSe{sub 6}–FeSe{sub 3}(Se{sub 2}){sup 2−} trimers. The corresponding structure projection is also shown. - Highlights: • Two new barium iron selenide compounds. • An original structure type Ba4Fe3Se10. • Electronic structure calculations.

  12. Engineered unique elastic modes at a BaTiO3/2x1-Ge(001) interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumah, D. P.; Dogan, M.; Ngai, J. H.; Qiu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Su, D.; Specht, E. D.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.

    2016-03-07

    Here, the strong interaction at an interface between a substrate and thin film leads to epitaxy and provides a means of inducing structural changes in the epitaxial film. These induced material phases often exhibit technologically relevant electronic, magnetic, and functional properties. The 2×1 surface of a Ge(001) substrate applies a unique type of epitaxial constraint on thin films of the perovskite oxide BaTiO3 where a change in bonding and symmetry at the interface leads to a non-bulk-like crystal structure of the BaTiO3. While the complex crystal structure is predicted using first-principles theory, it is further shown that the details ofmore » the structure are a consequence of hidden phases found in the bulk elastic response of the BaTiO3 induced by the symmetry of forces exerted by the germanium substrate.« less

  13. Formation of BaSi{sub 2} heterojunction solar cells using transparent MoO{sub x} hole transport layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, W.; Takabe, R.; Baba, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Toko, K.; Hara, K. O.; Usami, N.; Suemasu, T.

    2015-03-23

    Heterojunction solar cells that consist of 15?nm thick molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub x}, x?BaSi{sub 2} layers were demonstrated. Rectifying current-voltage characteristics were observed when the surface of BaSi{sub 2} was exposed to air. When the exposure time was decreased to 1?min, an open circuit voltage of 200?mV and a short circuit current density of 0.5?mA/cm{sup 2} were obtained under AM1.5 illumination. The photocurrent density under a reverse bias voltage of ?1 V reached 25?mA/cm{sup 2}, which demonstrates the significant potential of BaSi{sub 2} for solar cell applications.

  14. Long-range magnetic ordering in Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}: A neutron diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headspith, D.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Battle, P.D. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Francesconi, M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Cottingham Road, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.francesconi@hull.ac.uk

    2007-10-15

    Neutron powder diffraction has been used to determine the magnetic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional compound Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3}, which contains linear [001] chains of vertex-sharing CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra, spaced apart by Ba{sup 2+} cations. At 1.5 K the Co{sup 2+} cations in the chains are antiferromagnetically ordered with an ordered magnetic moment of 1.97(4) {mu}{sub B} per cation aligned along [100]. Each Co{sup 2+} cation is ferromagnetically aligned with four cation in neighbouring chains and antiferromagnetically aligned with two others. - Graphical abstract: Neutron powder diffraction has been used to prove that Ba{sub 2}CoS{sub 3} shows long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures, despite the quasi-one-dimensional arrangement of the CoS{sub 4} tetrahedra in the crystal structure.

  15. Structure and transport in high pressure oxygen sputter-deposited BaSnO{sub 3−δ}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Koustav; Ambwani, Palak; Xu, Peng; Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Leighton, C. E-mail: leighton@umn.edu; Jalan, Bharat E-mail: leighton@umn.edu

    2015-06-01

    BaSnO{sub 3} has recently been identified as a high mobility wide gap semiconductor with significant potential for room temperature oxide electronics. Here, a detailed study of the high pressure oxygen sputter-deposition, microstructure, morphology, and stoichiometry of epitaxial BaSnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) and MgO(001) is reported, optimized conditions resulting in single-phase, relaxed, close to stoichiometric films. Most significantly, vacuum annealing is established as a facile route to n-doped BaSnO{sub 3−δ}, leading to electron densities above 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}, 5 mΩ cm resistivities, and room temperature mobility of 20 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} in 300-Å-thick films on MgO(001). Mobility limiting factors, and the substantial scope for their improvement, are discussed.

  16. Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop Summary Report summarizes an event hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s Advanced Algal Systems Program in May 2016. The purpose of the Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop was to collect input from experts in the field of algal biology regarding (1) the current state of algal biological tools, including our understanding of algal biology and biochemistry, available molecular toolboxes, omics databases, and other resources; (2) challenges to developing and applying a full suite of biological tools to improve algae performance and system robustness; and (3) strategies to advance progress toward commercial algal biofuels.

  17. Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium into Type I Ba8AlySi46-y Clathrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Raghavan, Rahul; Wagner, Nicholas; Davidowski, Stephen; Baggetto, Loic; Zhao, Ran; Cheng, Qian; Holland, Gregory p; Yarger, Jeffery L; Veith, Gabriel M; Ellis-Terrell, Carol; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai; Chan, Candace

    2015-01-01

    Silicon clathrates contain cage-like structures that can encapsulate various guest atoms or molecules. Here we present an electrochemical evaluation of type I silicon clathrates based on Ba8AlySi46-y for the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. Post-cycling characterization with NMR and XRD show no discernible structural or volume changes even after electrochemical insertion of 44 Li into the clathrate structure. The observed properties are in stark contrast with lithiation of other silicon anodes, which become amorphous and suffer from larger volume changes. The lithiation/delithiation processes are proposed to occur in single phase reactions at approximately 0.2 and 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively, distinct from other diamond cubic or amorphous silicon anodes. Reversible capacities as high as 499 mAh g-1 at a 5 mA g-1 rate were observed for silicon clathrate with composition Ba8Al8.54Si37.46, corresponding to Li:Si of 1.18:1. The results show that silicon clathrates could be promising durable anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. High critical currents in heavily doped (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Gharahcheshmeh, M. Heydari; Xu, A.; Galstyan, E.; Delgado, L.; Cantoni, C.

    2015-01-20

    REBa2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes with moderate levels of dopants have been optimized for high critical current density in low magnetic fields at 77 K, but they do not exhibit exemplary performance in conditions of interest for practical applications, i.e., temperatures less than 50 K and fields of 2–30 T. Heavy doping of REBCO tapes has been avoided by researchers thus far due to deterioration in properties. Here, we report achievement of critical current densities (Jc) above 20 MA/cm2 at 30 K, 3 T in heavily doped (25 mol. % Zr-added) (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconductor tapes, which is more than three times higher thanmore » the Jc typically obtained in moderately doped tapes. Pinning force levels above 1000 GN/m3 have also been attained at 20 K. A composition map of lift factor in Jc (ratio of Jc at 30 K, 3 T to the Jc at 77 K, 0 T) has been developed which reveals the optimum film composition to obtain lift factors above six, which is thrice the typical value. A highly c-axis aligned BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumn defect density of nearly 7 × 1011 cm–2 as well as 2–3nm sized particles rich in Cu and Zr have been found in the high Jc films.« less

  19. Direct evidence of octupole deformation in neutron-rich 144Ba

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bucher, B.; Zhu, S.; Wu, C. Y.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A. B.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Butler, P. A.; Campbell, C. M.; et al

    2016-03-17

    Here, the neutron-rich nucleus 144Ba (t1/2 = 11.5 s) is expected to exhibit some of the strongest octupole correlations among nuclei with mass numbers A less than 200. Until now, indirect evidence for such strong correlations has been inferred from observations such as enhanced E1 transitions and interleaving positive- and negative-parity levels in the ground-state band. In this experiment, the octupole strength was measured directly by sub-barrier, multistep Coulomb excitation of a post-accelerated 650-MeV 144Ba beam on a 1.0–mg/cm2 208Pb target. The measured value of the matrix element, < 31–∥M(E3)∥01+ >= 0.65(+17–23) eb3/2, corresponds to a reduced B(E3) transition probabilitymore » of 48(+25–34) W.u. This result represents an unambiguous determination of the octupole collectivity, is larger than any available theoretical prediction, and is consistent with octupole deformation.« less

  20. Unit-cell thick BaTiO{sub 3} blocks octahedral tilt propagation across oxide heterointerface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kan, Daisuke Aso, Ryotaro; Kurata, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2014-05-14

    We fabricated SrRuO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3}/GdScO{sub 3} heterostructures in which the BaTiO{sub 3} layer is one unit cell thick by pulsed laser deposition and elucidated how the BaTiO{sub 3} layer influences structural and magneto-transport properties of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer through octahedral connections across the heterointerface. Our X-ray-diffraction-based structural characterizations show that while an epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} layer grown directly on a GdScO{sub 3} substrate is in the monoclinic phase with RuO{sub 6} octahedral tilts, a one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO{sub 3} layer inserted between SrRuO{sub 3} and GdScO{sub 3} stabilizes the tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer with largely reduced RuO{sub 6} tilts. Our high-angle annular dark-field and annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy observations provide an atomic-level view of the octahedral connections across the heterostructure and reveal that the BaTiO{sub 3} layer only one unit cell thick is thick enough to stabilize the RuO{sub 6}-TiO{sub 6} octahedral connections with negligible in-plane oxygen atomic displacements. This results in no octahedral tilts propagating into the SrRuO{sub 3} layer and leads to the formation of a tetragonal SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The magneto-transport property characterizations also reveal a strong impact of the octahedral connections modified by the inserted BaTiO{sub 3} layer on the spin-orbit interaction of the SrRuO{sub 3} layer. The SrRuO{sub 3} layer on BaTiO{sub 3}/ GdScO{sub 3} has in-plane magnetic anisotropy. This is in contrast to the magnetic anisotropy of the monoclinic SrRuO{sub 3} films on the GdScO{sub 3} substrate, in which the easy axis is ?45 to the film surface normal. Our results demonstrate that the one-unit-cell-thick layer of BaTiO{sub 3} can control and manipulate the interfacial octahedral connection closely linked to the structure-property relationship of heterostructures.

  1. Role of magnetism in superconductivity of BaFe2As2: Study of 5d Au-doped crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; McGuire, Michael A.; Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Sefat, Athena Safa

    2015-09-09

    We investigate properties of BaFe2As2 (122) single crystals upon gold doping, which is the transition metal with the highest atomic weight. The Au substitution into the FeAs-planes of 122 crystal structure (Au-122) is only possible up to a small amount of ~3%. We find that 5d is more effective in reducing magnetism in 122 than its counter 3d Cu, and this relates to superconductivity. We provide evidence of short-range magnetic fluctuations and local lattice inhomogeneities that may prevent strong percolative superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xAux)2As2.

  2. Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study | Department of Energy Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study Morphology and Composition cycle of BaO/Al2O3 NSR Catalysts during NO2 Uptake and Release: A multi spectroscopy and microscopy study 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_kim.pdf (868.73 KB) More Documents &

  3. Interaction between BaCO{sub 3} and OPC/BFS composite cements at 20 {sup o}C and 60 {sup o}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utton, C.A.; Gallucci, E.; Hill, J.; Milestone, N.B.

    2011-03-15

    A BaCO{sub 3} slurry, containing radioactive {sup 14}C, is produced during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This slurry is encapsulated in a Portland-blastfurnace slag composite cement. The effect of BaCO{sub 3} on the hydration of OPC and Portland-blastfurnace slag cements has been studied in this work. Samples containing a simulant BaCO{sub 3} slurry were cured for up to 720 days at 20 and 60 {sup o}C and analysed by XRD, SEM(EDX) and ICC. BaCO{sub 3} reacted with OPC to precipitate BaSO{sub 4} from a reaction between soluble sulfate and BaCO{sub 3}. Calcium monocarboaluminate subsequently formed from the carbonate released. The monocarboaluminate precipitated as crystals in voids formed during hydration. At 60 {sup o}C in OPC, it was not identified by XRD, suggesting the phase is unstable in this system around this temperature. In the Portland-blastfurnace slag cements containing BaCO{sub 3}, less monocarboaluminate and BaSO{sub 4} were formed, but the hydration of BFS was promoted and monocarboaluminate was stable up to 60 {sup o}C.

  4. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  5. Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on September 24-25, 2013, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop featured 29 participants representing academia, government, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop was to share information and identify

  6. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Assessment Report on "Audit Coverage of Cost Allowability for Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex LLC During Fiscal Year 2013 ...

  7. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  8. Potential variation around grain boundaries in BaSi{sub 2} films grown on multicrystalline silicon evaluated using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Masakazu; Tsukahara, Daichi; Toko, Kaoru; Hara, Kosuke O.; Usami, Noritaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Suemasu, Takashi

    2014-12-21

    Potential variations across the grain boundaries (GBs) in a 100?nm thick undoped n-BaSi{sub 2} film on a cast-grown multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) substrate are evaluated using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). The ?-2? X-ray diffraction pattern reveals diffraction peaks, such as (201), (301), (410), and (411) of BaSi{sub 2}. Local-area electron backscatter diffraction reveals that the a-axis of BaSi{sub 2} is tilted slightly from the surface normal, depending on the local crystal plane of the mc-Si. KFM measurements show that the potentials are not significantly disordered in the grown BaSi{sub 2}, even around the GBs of mc-Si. The potentials are higher at GBs of BaSi{sub 2} around Si GBs that are formed by grains with a Si(111) face and those with faces that deviate slightly from Si(111). Thus, downward band bending occurs at these BaSi{sub 2} GBs. Minority carriers (holes) undergo a repelling force near the GBs, which may suppress recombination as in the case of undoped n-BaSi{sub 2} epitaxial films on a single crystal Si(111) substrate. The barrier height for hole transport across the GBs varies in the range from 10 to 55?meV. The potentials are also higher at the BaSi{sub 2} GBs grown around Si GBs composed of grains with Si(001) and Si(111) faces. The barrier height for hole transport ranges from 5 to 55?meV. These results indicate that BaSi{sub 2} GBs formed on (111)-dominant Si surfaces do not have a negative influence on the minority-carrier properties, and thus BaSi{sub 2} formed on underlayers, such as (111)-oriented Si or Ge and on (111)-oriented mc-Si, can be utilized as a solar cell active layer.

  9. Magnetic and nonlinear optical properties of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakanth, S.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Hamad, Syed; James Raju, K. C.

    2015-05-15

    In our earlier studies the BaTiO{sub 3} samples were processed at higher temperatures like 1000{sup o}C and explained the observed magnetism in it. It is found that the charge transfer effects are playing crucial role in explaining the observed ferromagnetism in it. In the present work the samples were processed at lower temperatures like 650{sup o}C-800{sup o}C. The carrier densities in these particles were estimated to be ∼ 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} range. The band gap is in the range of 2.53eV to 3.2eV. It is observed that magnetization increased with band gap narrowing. The higher band gap narrowed particles exhibited increased magnetization with a higher carrier density of 1.23×10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} near to the Mott critical density. This hint the exchange interactions between the carriers play a dominant role in deciding the magnetic properties of these particles. The increase in charge carrier density in this undoped BaTiO{sub 3} is because of oxygen defects only. The oxygen vacancy will introduce electrons in the system and hence more charge carriers means more oxygen defects in the system and increases the exchange interactions between Ti3+, Ti4+, hence high magnetic moment. The coercivity is increased from 23 nm to 31 nm and then decreased again for higher particle size of 54 nm. These particles do not show photoluminescence property and hence it hints the absence of uniformly distributed distorted [TiO5]-[TiO6] clusters formation and charge transfer between them. Whereas these charge transfer effects are vital in explaining the observed magnetism in high temperature processed samples. Thus the variation of magnetic properties like magnetization, coercivity with band gap narrowing, particle size and charge carrier density reveals the super paramagnetic nature of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. The nonlinear optical coefficients extracted from Z-scan studies suggest that these are potential candidates for optical imaging and signal processing

  10. The new Hg-rich barium indium mercurides BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1) and BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} (x=0–2.8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendorff, Marco; Schwarz, Michael; Röhr, Caroline

    2013-07-15

    The title compounds BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1(1)) and BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} (x=0–2.8) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. Their crystal structures have been determined using single crystal X-ray data. BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 7−x} (x=3.1(1)) crystallizes in a new structure type (orthorhombic, oC16, space group Cmmm: a=512.02(1), b=1227.68(3), c=668.61(2) pm, Z=2, R1=0.0311). In the structure, the atoms of the three crystallographically different mixed In/Hg positions form planar nets of four-, six- and eight-membered rings. These nets are shifted against each other such that the four-membered rings form empty distorted cubes. The cubes are connected via common edges, corners and folded ladders, which are also found in BaIn{sub 2}/BaHg{sub 2} (KHg{sub 2} structure type) and BaIn (α-NaHg type). The Ba atoms are centered in the eight-membered rings and exhibit an overall coordination number of 20. The [BaM{sub 20}] polyhedra and twice as many distorted [M{sub 8}] cubes tesselate the space. BaIn{sub 2.8}Hg{sub 8.2} (cubic, cP36, space group Pm3{sup ¯}m, a=961.83(1) pm, Z=3, R1=0.0243) is the border compound of the phase width BaIn{sub x}Hg{sub 11−x} of the rare BaHg{sub 11} structure type. In the structure, ideal [M{sub 8}] cubes (at the corners of the unit cell) and BaM{sub 20} polyhedra (at the edges of the unit cell) represent the building blocks comparable to the other new In mercuride. In accordance with the increased In/Hg content, additional M-pure regions appear: the center of the unit cell contains a huge [Hg(1)M(2){sub 12}M(3,4){sub 32}] polyhedron, a Hg-centered cuboctahedron of In/Hg atoms surrounded by a capped cantellated cube of 32 additional M atoms. For both structure types, the bonding situation and the ‘coloring’, i.e. the In/Hg distribution of the polyanionic network, are discussed considering the different sizes of the atoms and the charge distribution (Bader AIM charges), which have been

  11. Consequence Assessment

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume focuses on the process of performing timely initial assessments necessary to support critical first decisions and the continuous process of refining those initial assessments as more information and resources become available. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-4.

  12. Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT 1 Advanced Composites Materials and their Manufacture 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ................................................................................................ 2 4 2. Technology Potential and Assessment .................................................................................................. 4 5 2.1 The Potential for Advanced Composites for Clean Energy Application Areas

  13. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less

  14. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  15. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio

    2015-03-01

    t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,

  16. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure spike solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for age determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  17. Thermoelectric and Structural Characterization of Ba2Ho(Cu3-xCox)O6+y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Li, Q.; Yang, Z.; Hu, Y.F.; Huang, Q.; Lowhorn, N.; Otani, M.; Kaduk, J.A.

    2009-03-18

    The search for thermoelectric materials for power generation and for solid-state cooling has led to increased interest of layered cobalt-containing oxides because of their thermal stability at high temperature and their desirable thermoelectric properties. This paper examines the effect of substitution of Co in the layered pervoskite Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} (x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 1.0). Structural analysis using the neutron Rietveld refinement technique reveals that when x {le} 0.4, Co substitutes mainly for Cu in the 'chain sites' of the Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} structure. As x > 0.4, Co also enters in the Cu-O 'plane sites' as well. The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} samples were studied in the temperature range of 10-390 K. In general, as the cobalt content x increases, the resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of these samples increase while the thermal conductivity decreases. Among the five Ba{sub 2}Ho(Cu{sub 3-x}Co{sub x})O{sub 6+y} compositions, the x = 0.4 member gives the highest figure of merit ZT of {approx} 0.02 at approximately 270 K.

  18. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  19. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2013-10-15

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  20. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens of the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  1. Rapid classification of biological components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2006-01-24

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  2. Microscopic description of spherical to {gamma}-soft shape transitions in Ba and Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2010-03-15

    The rapid transition between spherical and {gamma}-soft shapes in Ba and Xe nuclei in the mass region A>=130 is analyzed using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce the characteristic evolution of excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities, and in general, a good agreement with available data is obtained. The calculated spectra display fingerprints of a second-order shape phase transition that can approximately be described by analytic solutions corresponding to the E(5) dynamical symmetry.

  3. Proton Form Factors And Related Processes in BaBar by ISR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferroli, R.B.; /Enrico Fermi Ctr., Rome /INFN, Rome

    2007-02-12

    BaBar has measured with unprecedented accuracy e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} from the threshold up to Q{sub p{bar p}}{sup 2} {approx} 20 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 4}, finding out an unexpected cross section, with plateaux and drops. In particular it is well established a sharp drop near threshold, where evidence for structures in multihadronic channels has also been found. Other unexpected and spectacular features of the Nucleon form factors are reminded, the behavior of space-like G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} and the neutron time-like form factors.

  4. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of (Ba,In) double-filled skutterudites via randomly arranged micropores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Jian; Zhao, Wen-Yu E-mail: zhangqj@whut.edu.cn; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Tang, Ding-Guo; Lei, Bing; Zhang, Qing-Jie E-mail: zhangqj@whut.edu.cn

    2014-04-07

    Porous (Ba,In) double-filled skutterudite materials with pore diameter about 14??m were prepared by the decomposition of metastable ZnSb inclusions induced by the Zn sublimation. Transport measurements revealed that the Seebeck coefficient was increased due to the electron filtering effect induced by nanostructures in the surfaces of pores, the electrical conductivity was almost unchanged because of the percolation effect of conducted network composed of filled skutterudites, and the lattice thermal conductivity was dramatically suppressed due to the enhanced pore-edge boundary scattering of long-wavelength phonons. As a result, a maximum ZT of 1.36 was obtained, increased by 22.5% as compared to that of the bulk material with same chemical composition. This work demonstrates that by introducing porous structures is thought to be an efficient approach to improve the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials.

  5. Computer modeling of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film deposition and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmester, C.; Gronsky, R. ); Wille, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    The deposition and growth of epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the deposition and diffusion of Y, Ba, and Cu oxide particles. This complements existing experimental characterization techniques to allow the study of kinetic phenomena expected to play a dominant role in the inherently non-equilibrium thin film deposition process. Surface morphologies and defect structures obtained in the simulated films are found to closely resemble those observed experimentally. A systematic study of the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature during in-situ film fabrication reveals that the kinetics of film growth can readily dominate the structural formation of the thin film. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Magnetic structure and spin excitations in BaMn2Bi2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calder, Stuart A.; Saparov, Bayrammurad I; Cao, H. B.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Sefat, Athena Safa; Christianson, Andrew D.

    2014-02-19

    We present a single crystal neutron scattering study of BaMn2Bi2, a recently synthesized material with the same ThCr2Si2type structure found in several Fe-based unconventional superconducting materials. We show long range magnetic order, in the form of a G-type antiferromagnetic structure, to exist up to 390 K with an indication of a structural transition at 100 K. Utilizing inelastic neutron scattering we observe a spin-gap of 16 meV, with spin-waves extending up to 55 meV. We find these magnetic excitations are well fit to a J1-J2-Jc Heisenberg model and present values for the exchange interactions. The spin wave spectrum appears tomore » be unchanged by the 100 K structural phase transition.« less

  7. Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons in Ba3Cr2O8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaime, Marcelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kohama, Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aczel, A [MCMASTER UNIV; Ninios, K [UNIV OF FL; Chan, H [UNIV OF FL; Balicas, L [NHMFL; Dabkowska, H [MCMASTER UNIV; Like, G [MCMASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    By performing heat capacity, magnetocaloric effect, torque magnetometry and force magnetometry measurements up to 33 T, we have mapped out the T-H phase diagram of the S = 1/2 spin dimer compound Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We found evidence for field-induced magnetic order between H{sub cl} = 12.52(2) T and H{sub c2} = 23.65(5) T, with the maximum transition temperature T{sub c} {approx} 2.7 K at H {approx} 18 T. The lower transition can likely be described by Bose-Einstein condensation of triplons theory, and this is consistent with the absence of any magnetization plateaus in our magnetic torque and force measurements. In contrast, the nature of the upper phase transition appears to be quite different as our measurements suggest that this transition is actually first order.

  8. Self-trapped exciton and core-valence luminescence in BaF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vistovskyy, V. V. Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Chornodolskyy, Ya. M.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Myagkota, O. S.; Gloskovskii, A.; Gektin, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Rodnyi, P. A.

    2013-11-21

    The influence of the BaF{sub 2} nanoparticle size on the intensity of the self-trapped exciton luminescence and the radiative core-valence transitions is studied by the luminescence spectroscopy methods using synchrotron radiation. The decrease of the self-trapped exciton emission intensity at energies of exciting photons in the range of optical exciton creation (h? ? E{sub g}) is less sensitive to the reduction of the nanoparticle sizes than in the case of band-to-band excitation, where excitons are formed by the recombination way. The intensity of the core-valence luminescence shows considerably weaker dependence on the nanoparticle sizes in comparison with the intensity of self-trapped exciton luminescence. The revealed regularities are explained by considering the relationship between nanoparticle size and photoelectron or photohole thermalization length as well as the size of electronic excitations.

  9. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1982-07-27

    Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  10. Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental in Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    1983-01-20

    Research supported by OHER and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

  11. Method of measurement in biological systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.: Davis, J.C.; Stanker, L.H.

    1993-05-11

    A method is disclosed of quantifying molecules in biological substances, comprising: selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere; preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie; administering the chemical specie to the biological host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system; allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host; isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources; converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation; and measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  12. Investigation of novel decay B _____ ____(2S)____K at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalch, Jacob; /Oberlin Coll. /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    We investigate the undocumented B meson decay, B{sup +} {yields} {Psi}(2S){omega}K{sup +}. The data were collected with the BaBar detector at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collier operating at the {gamma}(4S) resonance, a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV/c{sup 2}. The {gamma}(4S) resonance primarily decays to pairs of B-mesons. The BaBar collaboration at the PEP-II ring was located at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and was designed to study the collisions of positrons and electrons. The e{sup -}e{sup +} pairs collide at asymmetric energies, resulting in a center of mass which is traveling at relativistic speeds. The resulting time dilation allows the decaying particles to travel large distances through the detector before undergoing their rapid decays, a process that occurs in the in the center of mass frame over extremely small distances. As they travel through silicon vertex trackers, a drift chamber, a Cerenkov radiation detector and finally an electromagnetic calorimeter, we measure the charge, energy, momentum, and particle identification in order to reconstruct the decays that have occurred. While all well understood mesons currently fall into the qq model, the quark model has no a priori exclusion of higher configuration states such as qqqq which has led experimentalists and theorists alike to seek evidence supporting the existence of such states. Currently, there are hundreds of known decay modes of the B mesons cataloged by the Particle Data Group, but collectively they only account for approximately 60% of the B branching fraction and it is possible that many more exist.

  13. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  14. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  15. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic ...

  16. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  17. Towards a Semantic Lexicon for Biological Language Processing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Verspoor, Karin

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the resources in the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for the construction of a lexicon useful for processing texts in the field of molecular biology. A lexicon is constructed from overlapping terms in the UMLS SPECIALIST lexicon and the UMLS Metathesaurus to obtain both morphosyntactic and semantic information for terms, and the coverage of a domain corpus is assessed. Over 77% of tokens in the domain corpus are found in the constructed lexicon, validating the lexicon's coverage of the most frequent terms in the domain and indicating that the constructedmore » lexicon is potentially an important resource for biological text processing.« less

  18. Investigations of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics and powders prepared by direct current arc discharge technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shuangbin; Wang, Xiaohan; Yao, Ying Jia, Yongzhong; Xie, Shaolei; Jing, Yan; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.

    2014-09-01

    Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics with x ranging from 0 to 1 were prepared by direct current arc discharge technique and studied by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The cubic-tetragonal ferroelectric phase transition in Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics was found to occur at x???0.75. XRD investigation of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics revealed co-existence of tetragonal and hexagonal modifications with a small amount of impurity phase BaTi{sub 4}O{sub 9}. No evidences of hexagonal phase were observed in Raman spectra of as-grown BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics, while Raman peaks related to hexagonal phase were clearly observed in the spectrum of fine-grain powders prepared from the same ceramics. A core-shell model for BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics prepared by direct current arc discharge technique is proposed. Absence of the hexagonal phase in any Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1?x}TiO{sub 3} solid solution with x?

  19. Risk Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A set of issues that state and local governments should carefully consider, with the goal of helping them assess and anticipate solutions for some worst case or unfortunate case scenarios as they...

  20. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ASSESSMENT (EA) FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE SOUTH ACCESS ROAD (CR 802) IN SUPPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP) IN EDDY COUNTY, NEW MEXICO NEPA #: DOI-BLM-NM-P020-2010-0011-EA PREPARED IN COOPERATION WITH: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CARLSBAD FIELD OFFICE P. O. BOX 2078 CARLSBAD, NM 88221-2078 PREPARED BY: OWEN W. LOFTON SUPERVISORY MULTI RESOURCES SPECIALIST BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT CARLSBAD FIELD OFFICE 620 EAST GREENE CARLSBAD, NM 88220 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

  1. Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    728D Environmental Assessment Integrated Vegetation Management on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office Richland, Washington 99352 Approved for Public Release; Further Disseminat ion Uillimited June 2011 DOE/EA-1728D June 2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 This page intentionally left blank. 7 8 U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EA-1728D Draft Environmental Assessment iii June 2011 CONTENTS 1 2 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  2. Sub-10 nm lanthanide doped BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals: Shape controllable synthesis, tunable multicolor emission and enhanced near-infrared upconversion luminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Ling; Lu, Wei; Wang, Haibo; Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Songjun; Li, Zheng

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Sub-10 nm cubic phase BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals were synthesized by a hydrothermal method for the first time. • Tunable multicolor from yellow to yellow-green was achieved by controlling Gd{sup 3+} content in BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Er system. • Intense near-infrared upconversion luminescence in BaLuF{sub 5}:Gd/Yb/Tm nanocrystal. • The enhancement near-infrared luminescence can be realized by adjusting the content of Gd{sup 3+} in BaLuF{sub 5}:Gd/Yb/Tm system. - Abstract: In this study, sub-10 nm BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals with cubic phase structure were synthesized by a solvothermal method using oleic acid as the stabilizing agent. The as-prepared BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and analyzed by the upconversion (UC) spectra. The TEM results reveal that these samples present high uniformity. Compared with Gd-free samples, the size of BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Er doped with 10% Gd{sup 3+} decreased to 5.6 nm. In addition, BaLuF{sub 5}:Yb/Tm/Gd upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) presented efficient near-infrared (NIR)-NIR UC luminescence. Therefore, it is expected that these ultra-small BaLuF{sub 5} nanocrystals with well-controlled shape, size, and UC emission have potential applications in biomedical imaging fields.

  3. A dual chelating solgel synthesis of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with effective photocatalytic activity for removing humic acid from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peigong; Fan, Caimei; Wang, Yawen; Ding, Guangyue; Yuan, Peihong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C by a dual chelating solgel method, and the photocatalytic activities of the photocatalysts calcined at different temperatures were investigated by the removal of humic acid (HA) from water under UV light irradiation. Highlights: ? The humic acid in water was firstly degradated by BaTiO{sub 3} photocatalyst. ? The cubic BaTiO{sub 3} was obtained and changed into tetragonal phase at lower temperature. ? The chelating agents had an important influence on the phase formation of BaTiO{sub 3}. ? The tetragonal phase BaTiO{sub 3} calcined at 900 C exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. -- Abstract: In this paper, a dual chelating solgel method was used to synthesize BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles by using acetylacetone and citric acid as chelating agents. The samples calcined at different temperatures were analyzed by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra (UVvis). The results indicated that cubic phase BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles about 19.6 nm can be obtained at 600 C and changed into tetragonal phase at 900 C about 97.1 nm. All the BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed effective photocatalytic activities on the removal of humic acid (HA) under UV light irradiation. A comparison of single (acetylacetone or citric acid) and dual chelating (acetylacetone and citric acid) synthetic processes was also studied and the results demonstrated that the dual chelating agents indeed reduced phase transformation temperature from cubic to tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3}.

  4. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  5. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  6. Molecular biology of signal transduction in plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions of the 1991 Cold Springs Harbor Meeting entitled Molecular Biology of Signal Transduction in Plants.

  7. A brief history of the Biology Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Most of the "Biology" buildings were constructed in early 1945 and were built as expansion capability for the uranium preparation operations being conducted across the...

  8. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Dismukes, Rutgers University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  9. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet explains studies conducted in a highly reproducible manner to examine the biological effects to fish exposed to a shear environment in the laboratory.

  10. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines The U.S. Department of Energy's ... which environmen- tal attributes, such as entrainment survival for fish, are emphasized. ...

  11. ABUNDANCES OF C, N, Sr, AND Ba ON THE RED GIANT BRANCH OF {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, Laura M.; Da Costa, G. S.; Norris, John E. E-mail: gdc@mso.anu.edu.a

    2010-05-10

    Abundances relative to iron for carbon, nitrogen, strontium, and barium are presented for 33 stars on the red giant branch (RGB) of the globular cluster {omega} Centauri. They are based on intermediate-resolution spectroscopic data covering the blue spectral region analyzed using spectrum synthesis techniques. The data reveal the existence of a broad range in the abundances of these elements, and a comparison with similar data for main-sequence stars enables insight into the evolutionary history of the cluster. The majority of the RGB stars were found to be depleted in carbon, i.e., [C/Fe] < 0, while [N/Fe] for the same stars shows a range of {approx}1 dex, from [N/Fe] {approx} 0.7 to 1.7 dex. The strontium-to-iron abundance ratios varied from solar to mildly enhanced (0.0 {<=} [Sr/Fe] {<=} 0.8), with [Ba/Fe] generally equal to or greater than [Sr/Fe]. The carbon and nitrogen abundance ratios for the one known CH star in the sample, ROA 279, are [C/Fe] = 0.6 and [N/Fe] = 0.5 dex. Evidence for evolutionary mixing on the RGB is found from the fact that the relative carbon abundances on the main sequence are generally higher than those on the RGB. However, comparison of the RGB and main-sequence samples shows that the upper level of nitrogen enhancement is similar in both sets at [N/Fe] {approx} 2.0 dex. This is most likely the result of primordial rather than evolutionary mixing processes. One RGB star, ROA 276, was found to have Sr and Ba abundance ratios similar to the anomalous Sr-rich main-sequence star S2015448. High-resolution spectra of ROA 276 were obtained with the Magellan Telescope/MIKE spectrograph combination to confirm this result, revealing that ROA 276 is indeed an unusual star. For this star, calculations of the depletion effect, the potential change in surface abundance that results from the increased depth of the convective envelope as a star moves from the main sequence to the RGB, strongly suggest that the observed Sr enhancement in ROA 276 is of

  12. Enterprise Assessments Assessment of Construction Quality at...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Enterprise Assessments Assessment of Construction Quality at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - June 2016 June 2016 Assessment of Construction Quality at ...

  13. Enterprise Assessments Emergency Management Assessment of the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emergency Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - April 2016 Enterprise Assessments Emergency Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - April ...

  14. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic excitation in BaFe1.84Co0.16As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsden, Mark D; Christianson, Andrew D; Parshall, Daniel; Stone, Matthew B; Nagler, Stephen E; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Lokshin, Konstantin A; Egami, Takeshi; Abernathy, Douglas L; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; McGuire, Michael A; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on single crystals of superconducting BaFe1.84Co0.16As2 clearly reveal a magnetic excitation located at wavevectors (1/2 1/2 L) in tetragonal notation. The scattering is much broader in L than are spin waves observed in the parent compound BaFe2As2 indicating that the excitations in the superconducting material are more two-dimensional in nature. The excitation appears gapless for T > TC and becomes gapped on cooling below TC. The observed gap energy is approximately 9.6 meV corresponding to 5 kBTC which is remarkably similar to the canonical value for the resonance energy in the cuprates.

  15. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; et al

    2015-05-28

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe₂Se₃. Their parent compounds BaFe₂Se₃ and CsFe₂Se₃ have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe₂Se₃ is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe₂Se₃ is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe₂Se₃, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediatemore » compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.« less

  16. Data:0a710392-0262-4cde-a5ba-d1dd41e15527 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cde-a5ba-d1dd41e15527 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic...

  17. Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll to Roll (R2R) Processing 1 Technology Assessment 2 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 5 1.1. Introduction to R2R Processing..................................................................................................... 2 6 1.2. R2R Processing Mechanisms ......................................................................................................... 3 7 2.

  18. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  19. Sharpening Our Tools: Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will host the Algal Biology Toolbox Workshop on May 24-25, 2016, in San Diego, California. Because biological productivity is a key driver for the economic viability of algae-based biofuels, improving on the performance of native strains is a critical element of the research efforts funded by the Advanced Algal Systems program at BETO.

  20. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.

  1. Electric control of magnetism at the Fe/BaTiO3 interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Radaelli, G.; Petti, D.; Plekhanov, E.; Fina, I.; Torelli, P.; Salles, B. R.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Gutiérrez, D.; Panaccione, G.; et al

    2014-03-03

    Interfacial magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) is a viable path to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO3 (BTO) system, only tiny changes of the interfacial Fe magnetic moment upon reversal of the BTO dielectric polarization have been predicted so far. Here, by using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in combination with high resolution electron microscopy and first principles calculations, we report on an undisclosed physical mechanism for interfacial MEC in the Fe/BTO system. At the Fe/BTO interface, an ultrathin FeOx layer exists, whose magnetization can be electrically and reversibly switched on-off at room-temperature by reversing themore » BTO polarization. The suppression / recovery of interfacial ferromagnetism results from the asymmetric effect that ionic displacements in BTO produces on the exchange coupling constants in the adjacent FeOx layer. The observed giant magnetoelectric response holds potential for optimizing interfacial MEC in view of efficient, low-power spintronic devices.« less

  2. Structural and optical study of ? BIMEVOX; ME: Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Sakshi Singh, K.

    2015-05-15

    Bismuth oxide based compounds, such as Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11-?} (BIVOX), exhibit Aurivillus type of interleaving arrangement of (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} and (VO{sub 3}?{sub 0.5}){sup 2-} (?: oxygen vacancies). Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11-?,} is known to have three kinds of temperature dependent interconvertible polymorphs ? (monoclinic), ? (orthorhombic) and ? (tetragonal). Out of all the three phases, the ? phase is highly disordered and hence, is the most conductive one which can be stabilized by proper lower valence cation (ME) doping at V site. Bi{sub 4}V{sub 1.90}ME{sub 0.20}O{sub 11-?} (ME: Ba{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}) were prepared via splat quenching technique. The required compositions were melted at 1250 C in an electric furnace. The as quenched samples were sintered at 800 C for 12 hours (h). The formed phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction on quenched and sintered samples, the peak at 32{sup } is found to be singlet in all the samples which confirms the presence of ?-phase. Hence, the stabilization of ?-phase with tetragonal structure was found to have taken place with doping and quenching. These samples are also studied by FT-IR and UV/vis spectroscopy to investigate the effect of dopants on structure and band gaps respectively.

  3. High temperature superconductor step-edge Josephson junctions using Ti-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.; Martens, Jon S.; Plut, Thomas A.; Tigges, Chris P.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1994-10-25

    A process for formulating non-hysteretic and hysteretic Josephson junctions using HTS materials which results in junctions having the ability to operate at high temperatures while maintaining high uniformity and quality. The non-hysteretic Josephson junction is formed by step-etching a LaAlO.sub.3 crystal substrate and then depositing a thin film of TlCaBaCuO on the substrate, covering the step, and forming a grain boundary at the step and a subsequent Josephson junction. Once the non-hysteretic junction is formed the next step to form the hysteretic Josephson junction is to add capacitance to the system. In the current embodiment, this is accomplished by adding a thin dielectric layer, LaA1O.sub.3, followed by a cap layer of a normal metal where the cap layer is formed by first depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) followed by a layer of gold (Au). The dielectric layer and the normal metal cap are patterned to the desired geometry.

  4. New insulating antiferromagnetic quaternary iridates MLa10Ir4O24 (M=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qingbiao; Han, Fei; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Han, Tian -Heng; Li, Hao; Mitchell, J. F.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, oxides of Ir4+ have received renewed attention in the condensed matter physics community, as it has been reported that certain iridates have a strongly spin-orbital coupled (SOC) electronic state, Jeff = ½, that defines the electronic and magnetic properties. The canonical example is the Ruddlesden-Popper compound Sr2IrO4, which has been suggested as a potential route to a new class of high temperature superconductor due to the formal analogy between Jeff = ½ and the S = ½ state of the cuprate superconductors. The quest for other iridium oxides that present tests of the underlying SOC physics is underway. Inmore » this spirit, here we report the synthesis and physical properties of two new quaternary tetravalent iridates, MLa10Ir4O24 (M = Sr, Ba). The crystal structure of both compounds features isolated IrO6 octahedra in which the electronic configuration of Ir is d5. As a result, both compounds order antiferromagnetically despite the lack of obvious superexchange pathways, and resistivity measurement shows that SrLa10Ir4O24 is an insulator.« less

  5. Structural feature controlling superconductivity in compressed BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Wenge; Jia, Feng-Jiang; Tang, Ling-Yun; Tao, Qian; Xu, Zhu-An; Chen, Xiao-Jia

    2014-02-28

    Superconductivity can be induced with the application of pressure but it disappears eventually upon heavy compression in the iron-based parent compound BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. Structural evolution with pressure is used to understand this behavior. By performing synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements with diamond anvil cells up to 26.1 GPa, we find an anomalous behavior of the lattice parameter with a S shape along the a axis but a monotonic decrease in the c-axis lattice parameter with increasing pressure. The close relationship between the axial ratio c/a and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} is established for this parent compound. The c/a ratio is suggested to be a measure of the spin fluctuation strength. The reduction of T{sub c} with the further increase of pressure is a result of the pressure-driven weakness of the spin-fluctuation strength in this material.

  6. High temperature superconductor step-edge Josephson junctions using Ti-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.; Martens, J.S.; Plut, T.A.; Tigges, C.P.; Vawter, G.A.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1994-10-25

    A process is disclosed for formulating non-hysteretic and hysteretic Josephson junctions using HTS materials which results in junctions having the ability to operate at high temperatures while maintaining high uniformity and quality. The non-hysteretic Josephson junction is formed by step-etching a LaAlO[sub 3] crystal substrate and then depositing a thin film of TlCaBaCuO on the substrate, covering the step, and forming a grain boundary at the step and a subsequent Josephson junction. Once the non-hysteretic junction is formed the next step to form the hysteretic Josephson junction is to add capacitance to the system. In the current embodiment, this is accomplished by adding a thin dielectric layer, LaA1O[sub 3], followed by a cap layer of a normal metal where the cap layer is formed by first depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) followed by a layer of gold (Au). The dielectric layer and the normal metal cap are patterned to the desired geometry. 8 figs.

  7. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  8. High field nuclear magnetic resonance in transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garitezi, T. M. Lesseux, G. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Urbano, R. R.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.

    2014-05-07

    We report high field {sup 75}As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on Co and Cu substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals displaying same structural/magnetic transition T{sub 0}≃128  K. From our anisotropy studies in the paramagnetic state, we strikingly found virtually identical quadrupolar splitting and consequently the quadrupole frequency ν{sub Q}≃2.57(1)  MHz for both compounds, despite the claim that each Cu delivers 2 extra 3d electrons in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compared to Co substitution. These results allow us to conclude that a subtle change in the crystallographic structure, particularly in the Fe–As tetrahedra, must be the most probable tuning parameter to determine T{sub 0} in this class of superconductors rather than electronic doping. Furthermore, our NMR data around T{sub 0} suggest coexistence of tetragonal/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phases between the structural and the spin density wave magnetic phase transitions, similarly to what was reported for K-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} [Urbano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107001 (2010)].

  9. Anomalous magneto-elastic and charge doping effects in thallium-doped BaFe2As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sefat, Athena S.; Li, Li; Cao, Huibo B.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sales, Brian; Custelcean, Radu; Parker, David S.

    2016-02-12

    Within the BaFe2As2 crystal lattice, we partially substitute thallium for barium and report the effects of interlayer coupling in Ba1-xTlxFe2As2 crystals. We demonstrate the unusual effects of magneto-elastic coupling and charge doping in this iron-arsenide material, whereby Néel temperature rises with small x, and then falls with additional x. Specifically, we find that Néel and structural transitions in BaFe2As2 (TN = Ts = 133 K) increase for x = 0.05 (TN = 138 K, Ts = 140 K) from magnetization, heat capacity, resistivity, and neutron diffraction measurements. Evidence from single crystal X-ray diffraction and first principles calculations attributes the stronger magnetism in x = 0.05 to magneto-elastic coupling related to the shorter intraplanar Fe-Fe bondmore » distance. With further thallium substitution, the transition temperatures decrease for x = 0.09 (TN = Ts = 131 K), and this is due to charge doping. Finally, we illustrate that small changes related to 3d transition-metal state can have profound effects on magnetism.« less

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of the Kagome antiferromagnet YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huq, A.; Mitchell, J.F. . E-mail: mitchell@anl.gov; Zheng, H.; Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Knight, K.S.; Stephens, P.W.

    2006-04-15

    The mixed-valent compound YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} is built up of Kagome sheets of CoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, linked in the third dimension by a triangular layer of CoO{sub 4} tetrahedra in an analogous fashion to that found in the known geometrically frustrated magnets such as pyrochlores and SrCr{sub 9} {sub x} Ga{sub 12-9} {sub x} O{sub 19} (SCGO). We have undertaken a study of the structural and magnetic properties of this compound using combined high-resolution powder neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. YbBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} undergoes a first-order trigonal{sup {yields}}orthorhombic phase transition at 175 K. We show that this transition occurs as a response to a markedly underbonded Ba{sup 2+} site in the high-temperature phase and does not appear to involve charge ordering of Co{sup 2+}/Co{sup 3+} ions in the tetrahedra. The symmetry lowering relieves the geometric frustration of the structure, and a long-range-ordered 3-D antiferromagnetic state develops below 80 K.

  11. Structural and magnetic phase transitions near optimal superconductivity in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Ding; Lu, Xingye; Zhang, Wenliang; Luo, Huiqian; Li, Shiliang; Wang, Peipei; Chen, Genfu; Han, Fei; Banjara, Shree R.; Sapkota, A.; et al

    2015-04-17

    In this study, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution x-ray and neutron scattering to study structural and magnetic phase transitions in phosphorus-doped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2. Thus, previous transport, NMR, specific heat, and magnetic penetration depth measurements have provided compelling evidence for the presence of a quantum critical point (QCP) near optimal superconductivity at x = 0.3. However, we show that the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural (Ts) and paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (AF, TN) transitions in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 are always coupled and approach to TN ≈ Ts ≥ Tc (≈ 29 K) for x = 0.29 before vanishing abruptly for x ≥ 0.3. These results suggestmore » that AF order in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 disappears in a weakly first order fashion near optimal superconductivity, much like the electron-doped iron pnictides with an avoided QCP.« less

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H-polytype in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macias, Mario A.; Mentre, Olivier; Cuello, Gabriel J.; Gauthier, Gilles H.

    2013-02-15

    Based on the peculiar magnetic properties that are observed in pseudo one-dimensional manganites, we decided to synthesize the new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} compound. The preparation was performed by solid state reaction in air at about 1350 Degree-Sign C, for which we found that the compound crystallizes in a hexagonal symmetry with space group P6{sub 3}/mmc (No-194) and cell parameters a=b=5.7861(2) A and c=23.902(1) A. The structural description was correlated with neutron diffraction and bond valence calculations, confirming the presence of Ce{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} segregated in the different crystallographic positions. Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} displays evidence for strong AFM couplings already set at room temperature. The main arrangement of Mn{sup 4+} in magnetically isolated tetramers of face-sharing octahedra is responsible for a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. - Graphical abstract: The new Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15} polytype shows strong AFM couplings in magnetically isolated [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers of face-sharing octahedral, resulting in a metamagnetic-like transition around 50 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba{sub 5}Ce{sub 1.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}, a new 10H polytype, has been prepared in the Ba-Ce-Mn-O system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compound crystallizes in the P6{sub 3}/mmc space group with (cchhh){sub 2} stacking sequence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ce{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 3.75}O{sub 15}] tetramers are separated by [CeO{sub 6}] octahedra in the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Instead of robust AFM ordering, a metamagnetic-like transition is found around 50 K.

  13. Antiferromagnetic transitions of osmium-containing rare earth double perovskites Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=rare earths)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinatsu, Yukio Doi, Yoshihiro; Wakeshima, Makoto

    2013-10-15

    The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, SmLu) have been prepared. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements and Rietveld analysis show that Ln{sup 3+} and Os{sup 5+} ions are structurally ordered at the M site of the perovskite BaMO{sub 3}. Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements show that an antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 6571 K. Magnetic ordering of Ln{sup 3+} moments occurs when the temperature is furthermore decreased. - Graphical abstract: The perovskite-type compounds containing both rare earth and osmium Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, SmLu) have been prepared. An antiferromagnetic ordering of Os{sup 5+} ions has been observed for Ba{sub 2}LnOsO{sub 6} (Ln=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Lu) at 6571 K. Measurements and analysis of the specific heat for Ba{sub 2}PrOsO{sub 6} show that magnetic ordering of the Pr{sup 3+} moments should have occurred at ?20 K. Display Omitted.

  14. Effect of Eu substitution on superconductivity in Ba{sub 8?x}Eu{sub x}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} clathrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lihua; Bi, Shanli; Peng, Bailu; Li, Yang

    2015-05-07

    The silicon clathrate superconductor is uncommon as its structure is dominated by strong Si-Si covalent bonds, rather than the metallic bond, that are more typical of traditional superconductors. To understand the influence of large magnetic moment of Eu on superconductivity for type-I clathrates, a series of samples with the chemical formula Ba{sub 8?x}Eu{sub x}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} (x?=?0, 0.5, 1, and 2) were synthesised in which Eu occupied Ba sites in cage center. With the increase of Eu content, the cubic lattice parameter decreases monotonically signifying continuous shrinkage of the constituting (Ba/Eu)@Si{sub 20} and (Ba/Eu)@Si{sub 24} cages. The temperature dependence of magnetization at low temperature revealed that Ba{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 40} is superconductive with transition temperature at T{sub C}?=?5.6?K. The substitution of Eu for Ba results in a strong superconductivity suppression; Eu-doping largely decreases the superconducting volume and transition temperature T{sub C}. Eu atoms enter the clathrate lattice and their magnetic moments break paired electrons. The Curie-Weiss temperatures were observed at 3.9, 6.6, and 10.9?K, respectively, for samples with x?=?0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. Such ferromagnetic interaction of Eu can destroy superconductivity.

  15. Endogenous Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endogenous Assessment of the Capacity Value of Solar PV in Generation Investment Planning Studies Francisco D. Munoz, Member, IEEE, and Andrew D. Mills Abstract-There exist several different reliability- and approximation-based methods to determine the contribution of solar resources towards resource adequacy. However, most of these approaches require knowing in advance the installed capacities of both conventional and solar generators. This is a complication since generator capacities are

  16. Method of measurement in biological systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1994-12-27

    Disclosed is a method of quantifying molecules in biological substances comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering the chemical specie to the biological host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources, f. converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting. 5 figures.

  17. Method of measurement in biological systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vogel, John S.; Felton, James S.; Gledhill, Barton L.; Davis, Jay C.; Stanker, Larry H.

    1993-05-11

    Disclosed is a method of quantifying molecules in biological substances, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biological host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  18. Method of measurement in biological systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vogel, John S.; Felton, James S.; Gledhill, Barton L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of quantifying molecules in biological substances comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biological host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  19. Role of basic ecological knowledge in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrand, S.G.; Barnthouse, L.W.; Suter, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The role of basic ecological knowledge in environmental impact assessment was examined. The focus was primarily on the NEPA process. Experience in population biology and ecosystem studies is discussed, the successes and limits of applicability are highlighted, and implications for long-term research needs are identified. Current attempts to develop a national assessment of acid deposition impacts are reviewed. 48 refs. (ACR)

  20. Mixed metallic Ba(Co,Mn)X{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (X=F, Cl) hexagonal perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iorgulescu, Mihaela; Roussel, Pascal; Tancret, Nathalie; Renaut, Nicolas; Tiercelin, Nicolas; Mentre, Olivier

    2013-02-15

    We show here that the incorporation of Mn in Ba-Co-oxohalide, BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, hexagonal perovskite stabilizes the 6H-form (stacking sequence (chhhch Prime ); c, h=[BaO{sub 3}] and h Prime =[BaOX] layers), with tetramers of face-sharing octahedra) rather than the trimeric 10H-form. On the contrary to previous results on the Fe incorporation in similar system leading to more reduced 10H-compounds, the Mn effect is to increase the mean (Co/Mn) valence better suited to the 6H form. We experienced a poor Mn/Co miscibility during our syntheses leading to great difficulties to isolate mixed Co/Mn single phase materials and/or weak reproducibility. Powder neutron diffraction data shows a mixed Mn/Co octahedral occupancy, while the tetrahedra are filled by Co{sup 3+} cations. Anionic vacancies were refined in the h Prime -[BaO{sub 1-z}X{sub 1-x}] layer and the next c-[BaO{sub 3-z}] layers, while the h-[BaO{sub 3}] layers are not oxygen deficient. Magnetic properties suggest that a part of Mn cations remain paramagnetic until low temperature, while isolated spin clusters (probably driven by AFM Co tetrahedral dimers) behave as low-dimensional AFM systems. Transport measurements reveal a transition from high-temperature metallic to low-temperature semi-conducting states that could occur from defect shallow donor upon the Mn for Co substitution. - Graphical abstract: The incorporation of Mn in Ba-Co-oxohalide, BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, hexagonal perovskite stabilizes the 6H-form with tetrameric (Co,Mn){sub 4}O{sub 15} face sharing linear chains. This results from a oxidizing Mn effect and particular Mn/Co distribution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of Mn in BaCoX{sub 0.2-x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (X=F,Cl) hexagonal perovskites stabilizes the 6H-form. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It contains tetrameric (Co,Mn){sub 4}O{sub 15} face sharing linear chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The preference for such chains better than

  1. Exploring the electronic structure and optical properties of the quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}: For photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2015-09-15

    Due to huge demand on discovering new materials for energy, we used first-principle calculations to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of a recent quaternary selenide, namely Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}. The electronic structure and the optical properties of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} were calculated through a reliable approach of Engle Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA). We found that Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV positioned at Γ. Acquiring the fundamental characteristics of Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} we studied the linear optical properties like dielectric function in the energy range of 0–14 eV. From the dielectric function we noticed a weak directional anisotropy for the two components. The absorption spectrum indicates the possibility of greater multiple direct and indirect inter-band transitions in the visible regions and shows similar behavior with experimental spectrum. Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} can be used as shielding material from UV radiations. Present study predicts that the Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is promising for photovoltaic applications due to their high absorption of solar radiations and photoconductivity in the visible range. - Graphical abstract: Interesting quaternary selenide compound, Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12}, for photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} is a quaternary selenide designed for PV and thermoelectric. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12} has a direct band gap of 2.14 eV. • Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 4}SnSe{sub 12,} has a maximum reflectivity in the visible and UV regions.

  2. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of how confinement, crowding and reduced dimensionality modulate reactivity and reaction dynamics will aid in the rational and systematic discovery of functionality in complex biological systems. Artificial micro- and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when integrated with microfluidics, through precise control in both space and time of diffusible signals and binding interactions. Examples of nanostructured interfaces for synthetic biology include the development of cell-like compartments for encapsulating biochemical reactions, nanostructured environments for fundamental studies of diffusion, molecular transport and biochemical reaction kinetics, and regulation of biomolecular interactions as functions of micro- and nanofabricated topological constraints.

  3. Diffuse magnetic neutron scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Gøran. J.; Thompson, Corey M.; Ehlers, Georg; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Greedan, John E.

    2015-02-23

    Here we investigated diffuse magnetic scattering in the highly frustrated double perovskite Ba2YRuO6 using polarized neutrons. Consistent with previous reports, the material shows two apparent transitions at 47 and 36 K to an eventual type I face-centered-cubic magnetic ground state. The (100) magnetic reflection shows different behavior from the five other observed reflections upon heating from 1.8 K, with the former broadening well beyond the resolution limit near 36 K. Closer examination of the latter group reveals a small, but clear, increase in peak widths between 36 and 47 K, indicating that this regime is dominated by short-range spin correlations.more » Diffuse magnetic scattering persists above 47 K near the position of (100) to at least 200 K, consistent with strong frustration. Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of the diffuse scattering from 45 to 200 K finds that the spin-spin correlations between nearest and next-nearest neighbors are antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic, respectively, at temperatures near the upper ordering temperature, but both become antiferromagnetic and of similar magnitude above 100 K. The significance of this unusual crossover is discussed in light of the super-superexchange interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors in this material and the demands of type I order. The dimensionality of the correlations is addressed by reconstructing the scattering in the (hk0) plane using the RMC spin configurations. This indicates that one-dimensional spin correlations dominate at temperatures close to the first transition. In addition, a comparison between mean-field calculations and (hk0) scattering implies that further neighbor couplings play a significant role in the selection of the ground state. Finally, the results and interpretation are compared with those recently published for monoclinic Sr2YRuO6, and similarities and differences are emphasized.« less

  4. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brookhaven Science Associates LLC During Fiscal Years 2012 and 2013 Under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 OAI-V-16-03 January 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 January 19, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, BROOKHAVEN SITE OFFICE FROM: Jack Rouch, Director Central Audits Division Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Assessment Report: "Audit Coverage of Cost

  5. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the University of California During Fiscal Years 2013 and 2014 Under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 OAI-V-16-10 June 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 28, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, BERKELEY SITE OFFICE FROM: David Sedillo Deputy Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Assessment Report on "Audit

  6. An Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of Coupling Algorithms for Nuclear Reactor Core Physics Simulations $ Steven Hamilton a,∗ , Mark Berrill a , Kevin Clarno a , Roger Pawlowski b a Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 U.S.A. b Sandia National Laboratories, MS 0316, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 U.S.A. Abstract This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms on a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form

  7. ASSESSMENT REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UT-Battelle LLC During Fiscal Year 2014 Under Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 OAI-V-16-11 July 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 29, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE OFFICE FROM: Debra K. Solmonson Deputy Assistant Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Assessment Report on the

  8. Algal Biology Program at Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algal Biology Program at Los Alamos gets a star October 11, 2011 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, October 11, 2011-Richard Sayre, one of the nation's top specialists in algae and...

  9. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  10. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  11. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matthew Posewitz, Colorado School of Mines, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  12. A new oxytelluride: Perovskite and CsCl intergrowth in Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, J.B.; Besara, T.; Vasquez, R.; Herrera, F.; Sun, J.; Ramirez, D.; Stillwell, R.L.; and others

    2013-07-15

    The new oxytelluride Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te was obtained from an alkaline earth flux. Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mmm (#123), with a=4.3615(3) Å and c=11.7596(11) Å, Z=1. The structure combines two distinct building blocks, a Ba{sub 2}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5} perovskite-like double layer with square bipyramidal coordination of the ytterbium ions, and a CsCl-type BaTe layer. Short range magnetic order is apparent at below 5 K, with the magnetic behavior above this temperature dominated by crystal field effects. The structure may be considered as an analog to the Ruddlesden–Popper phases, where the NaCl-type layer has been replaced by the CsCl-type layer. The two-dimensional magnetic behavior is expected based on the highly anisotropic nature of the structure. - Graphical abstract: Optical images of Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te in transmission (left) and reflected (right) light, with atomic unit cell overlay. - Highlights: • Single crystal synthesis and characterization of a new phase, Ba{sub 3}Yb{sub 2}O{sub 5}Te. • The structure features the BaTe high pressure polymorph intergrowth. • Magnetic susceptibility measurements show short range 2 dimensional ordering. • Heat capacity measurements show a feature at the magnetic ordering temperature. • Optical reflectivity measurements show a {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} absorption at 976 nm.

  13. Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    February 26-27, 2015, Tysons, Virginia | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) February 26-27, 2015, Tysons, Virginia Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) BERAC Home Meetings BERAC Minutes BERAC Minutes Archive Members Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (135KB) BER Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees BER Home Meetings Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee February 26-27, 2015, Tysons, Virginia Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page

  14. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  15. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  16. Highly constrained ferroelectric [BaTiO{sub 3}]{sub (1−x)Λ}/[BaZrO{sub 3}]{sub xΛ} superlattices: X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belhadi, J.; El Marssi, M. Gagou, Y.; El Mendili, Y.; Bouyanfif, H.; Yuzyuk, Yu. I.; Raevski, I. P.; Wolfman, J.

    2014-07-21

    We report an x-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Raman-scattering investigation of ferroelectric/paraelectric superlattices [BaTiO{sub 3}] {sub (1−x)Λ}/[BaZrO{sub 3}]{sub xΛ} for which the composition varied, 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.85, while the superlattice (SL) modulation period Λ was kept constant at about 100 Å. The samples were epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO substrates buffered with La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}. Based on the XRD analysis and on polarized Raman spectra, we have showed that the large strain in SLs induced ferroelectricity in BaZrO{sub 3} (BZ) for all SLs, a material that is paraelectric in the bulk form at any temperature and in the single film. The induced polar axis in BZ layers is perpendicular to the plane of substrate while BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) layers exhibit in-plane polar orientation. Raman spectroscopy revealed a lattice ordering in SLs due to the misfit strain generated by the large lattice mismatch between the alternating BZ and BT layers. This strain induced a huge upward frequency of the lowest E(1TO) soft mode from 60 cm{sup −1} in the BT single film to 215 cm{sup −1} in the SL with x = 0.85. These results show that in spite of relatively large periodicity of SLs, they are highly constrained and the variation of BZ ratio allowed modifying strains between layers. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectra for BT{sub 0.3Λ}/BZ{sub 0.7Λ} and BT{sub 0.7Λ}/BZ{sub 0.3Λ} samples revealed giant shift of the ferroelectric phase transition. The phase transition temperature was found to be upshifted by about 300 °C with respect to BT single crystal.

  17. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  18. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H.; Apperley, David C.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Provis, John L.

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  19. Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}: A novel blue emitting phosphor for white LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Panlai Wang, Zhijun Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Under the 350 nm radiation excitation, Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band. When the temperature turned up to 150 C, the emission intensity of Ba{sub 1.97}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:0.03Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% of the initial value at room temperature. The activation energy ?E is calculated to be 0.25 eV, which prove the good thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. All the properties indicate that Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} may have potential application in white LEDs. - Highlights: Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band under the 350 nm radiation excitation. Emission intensity of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% (150 C) of the initial value (30 C). The activation energy ?E for thermal quenching is 0.25 eV. - Abstract: A novel blue emitting phosphor Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} is synthesized by a high temperature solid state method. The luminescent property and the thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} are investigated. Under the 350 nm radiation excitation, Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} has a broad blue emission band, and the peak locates at 417 nm which is assigned to the 5d{sup 1}4f{sup 1} transition of Ce{sup 3+}. It is further proved that the dipoledipole interaction results in the concentration quenching of Ce{sup 3+} in Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. When the temperature turned up to 150 C, the emission intensity of Ba{sub 1.97}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:0.03Ce{sup 3+} is 63.4% of the initial value at room temperature. The activation energy ?E is calculated to be 0.25 eV, which prove the good thermal stability of Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+}. All the properties indicate that Ba{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Ce{sup 3+} may have potential application in white LEDs.

  20. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com; Umezawa, Naoto; Imai, Motoharu

    2014-05-28

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.891.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  1. Electromotive force responses of Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using BaCl[sub 2]-KCl solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aono, Hiromichi; Sugimoto, Eisuke . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry); Mori, Yoshiaki; Okajima, Yasuhiro . Niihama Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Chlorine is the most important halogen in industrial production. Chlorine exhaust gas has become a serious problem with regard to air pollution and acid rain in recent years. Solid electrolyte-type gas sensors are superior for SO[sub x] or CO[sub 2] detection because of their rapid response. A Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using BaCl[sub 2]-KCl solid electrolyte was investigated. The conductivity was greatly enhanced by KCl doping of the (1 [minus] x)BaCl[sub 2][minus]x KCl system, and a maximum conductivity of 5.6 [times] 10[sup [minus]5]S [times] cm[sup [minus]1] at 573 K was obtained for x = 0.02. The sensor probe was prepared by a melting method at 1,373 K. The electromotive force (EMF) measurement with the Cl[sub 2] gas sensor using the 0.97BaCl[sub 2]-0.03KCl solid electrolyte was performed with an Ag-AgCl solid reference electrode and an RuO[sub 2] measuring electrode. Good agreement between the measured and the calculated EMF values was obtained for Cl[sub 2] gas concentrations from 50 to 10,000 ppm at 623 K. The EMF response time with a change in Cl[sub 2] concentration is ca. 1 min for above 100 ppm and 2 to 5 min for lower concentrations. The measured EMF was not influenced by O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2] gas concentration. This sensor probe was very stable in the presence of water vapor at 623 K during a 90 day test period.

  2. Temperature driven nano-domain evolution in lead-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo Xu, Zhengkui; Su, Shi; Zuo, Ruzhong

    2014-07-21

    Hierarchical micro- and nanoscale domain structures in Pb-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. In situ heating and cooling studies of domain structure evolution reveal an irreversible domain transformation from a wedge-shaped rhombohedral nanodomain structure to a lamellar tetragonal domain structure, which could be associated with strong piezoelectricity in Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-50(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoceramics.

  3. Correlation between upconversion photoluminescence and dielectric response in Ba-substituted (Sr{sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, T.; Wang, X. D.; Zhao, C. Z.; Liu, M. F.; Liu, J. M.

    2014-06-30

    The filled tetragonal tungsten bronze (Sr{sub 1?x}Ba{sub x}){sub 4}(La{sub 0.85}Ho{sub 0.025}Yb{sub 0.125}){sub 2}Ti{sub 4}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 30} (SBLTNx: Ho-Yb) ceramics with different Ba substitution levels (x) are prepared. The upconversion photoluminescence (UC-PL) and dielectric permittivity are investigated. The substitution of Sr{sup 2+} ions at the A{sub 2}-sites by larger Ba{sup 2+} ions results in substantial variation of the UC-PL intensity as a function of substitution level x. Furthermore, the dielectric response to the substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by Ba{sup 2+} suggests a close correlation between the UC-PL intensity and dielectric permittivity. The origin for this correlation is discussed based on the random stress field (RSF) model.

  4. Interfacial chemical reaction and multiple gap state formation on three layer cathode in organic light-emitting diode: Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Gun; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-07-14

    A three layer cathode is a promising stack structure for long lifetime and high efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes. The interfacial chemical reactions and their effects on electronic structures for alkaline-earth metal (Ca, Ba)/Alq{sub 3} [tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum] and Ca/BaF{sub 2}/Alq{sub 3} are investigated using in-situ X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as molecular model calculation. The BaF{sub 2} interlayer initially prevents direct contact between Alq{sub 3} and the reactive Ca metal, but it is dissociated into Ba and CaF{sub 2} by the addition of Ca. As the Ca thickness increases, the Ca penetrates the interlayer to directly participate in the reaction with the underlying Alq{sub 3}. This series of chemical reactions takes place irrespective of the BaF{sub 2} buffer layer thickness as long as the Ca overlayer thickness is sufficient. The interface reaction between the alkaline-earth metal and Alq{sub 3} generates two energetically separated gap states in a sequential manner. This phenomenon is explained by step-by-step charge transfer from the alkaline-earth metal to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital states of Alq{sub 3}, forming new occupied states below the Fermi level.

  5. Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.Q.; Liang, W.S.; Petrov, Peter Kr.; Alford, Neil McN.

    2011-03-15

    Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film was epitaxially grown on a (001) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate using single-target pulsed laser deposition. The dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in the epitaxial Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). For a misfit dislocation with a Burgers vector of [200], it was shown that it could dissociate into four partial dislocations with Burgers vector of type 1/2 < 110>. For the threading dislocations, it was found that they usually coexist with stacking faults. The formation mechanism for the dissociated dislocations was discussed. All the dislocations can relieve the local strain in the Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} epitaxial film. - Research Highlights: {yields}Dissociation behaviour of misfit dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film. {yields}Dissociation behaviour of threading dislocations in Ba{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}TiO{sub 3} film. {yields}Formation mechanism of the dissociated dislocations.

  6. High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Young Nam, Kim; Bi, Zhonghe; Manthiram, Arumugam; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Huq, Ashfia

    2011-01-01

    InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

  7. Zn-Doping Dependence of Stripe Order in La1.905Ba0.095CuO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucker, M.; Zimmermann, M.v.; Xu, Z.J.; Wen, J.S.; Gu, G.D.; Tian, W.; Zarestky, J.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of Zn-doping on the stripe order in La{sub 1.905}Ba{sub 0.095}CuO{sub 4} has been studied by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction as well as magnetization measurements. While 1% Zn leads to an increase of the spin stripe order, it unexpectedly causes a wipe out of the visibility of the charge stripe order. A magnetic field of 10 Tesla applied along the c-axis has no reversing effect on the charge order. We compare this observation with the Zn-doping dependence of the crystal structure, superconductivity, and normal state magnetism.

  8. Photo-induced change of dielectric response in BaCoSiO{sub 4} stuffed tridymite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Hiroki Okamura, Takuma; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Okazaki, Ryuji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Moriwake, Hiroki; Kuwabara, Akihide; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2014-04-28

    The photodielectric effect is demonstrated in Mott-insulator BaCoSiO{sub 4} with a stuffed-tridymite-type structure under irradiation of visible light at 365?nm. The real part of dielectric permittivity is enhanced by ?300% with little increase of tan?? in a low-frequency region. Results of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, first-principles calculations and dielectric measurements suggest that the photodielectric effect stems from a response of photo-excited electrons in an unoccupied upper-Hubbard band for 3d-orbitals of cobalt, which have significantly small mobility due to the unique configuration of Co ions in the stuffed-tridymite-type structure.

  9. NMR evidence for inhomogeneous nematic fluctuations in BaFe2(As1-xPx)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dioguardi, A. P.; Kissikov, T.; Lin, C. H.; Shirer, K. R.; Lawson, M. M.; Grafe, H. -J.; Chu, J. -H.; Fisher, I. R.; Fernandes, R. M.; Curro, N. J.

    2016-03-10

    We present evidence for nuclear spin-lattice relaxation driven by glassy nematic fluctuations in isovalent P-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals. Both the 75As and 31P sites exhibit a stretched-exponential relaxation similar to the electron-doped systems. By comparing the hyperfine fields and the relaxation rates at these sites we find that the As relaxation cannot be explained solely in terms of magnetic spin fluctuations. We demonstrate that nematic fluctuations couple to the As nuclear quadrupolar moment and can explain the excess relaxation. Lastly, these results suggest that glassy nematic dynamics are a common phenomenon in the iron-based superconductors.

  10. Growth of epitaxial (Sr,Ba){sub n+1}Ru{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlom, D.G.; Knapp, S.B.; Wozniak, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [and others

    1997-12-01

    We have grown epitaxial (Sr,Ba) (n+1)Ru(n)O(3n+1) films, n = 1, 2, and infinity, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and controlled their orientation by choosing appropriate substrates. The growth conditions yielding phase pure films have been mapped out. Resistivity versus temperature measurements show that both a and c axis films of Sr2RuO4 are metallic, but not superconducting. The latter is probably due to the presence of low-level impurities that are difficult to avoid given the target preparation process involved in growing these films by PLD.

  11. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's ...

  12. UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Place: London, United Kingdom...

  13. Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) ...

  14. Detter, John C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory] Basic Biological

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Detter, John C. Los Alamos National Laboratory Basic Biological Sciences(59) Biological Science...

  15. Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of ... Title: Copy of Synthetic Biology of Novel Thermophilic Bacteria for Enhanced Production of ...

  16. Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comparative systems biology across an evolutionary gradient within the Shewanella genus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparative systems biology across an ...

  17. Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol ...

  18. Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Flow cytometry aids basic cell biology research and drug discovery Life Technologies Corporation and LANL have ...

  19. Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening Keynote Address...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening Keynote Address - 2010 JGI User Meeting) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic Biology for Advanced Fuels (Opening ...

  20. California: Breakthrough in Algae Biology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakthrough in Algae Biology California: Breakthrough in Algae Biology January 31, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis Researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of ...

  1. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology Prev Next Title: Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology You are accessing a document from the ...

  2. A Systems Biology Platform for Characterizing Regulatory and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: A Systems Biology Platform for Characterizing Regulatory and Metabolic ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Systems Biology Platform for Characterizing ...

  3. Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for biofuel production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Importance of systems biology in engineering microbes for ...

  4. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Report documenting the ...

  5. Nanojunction Sensors for the Detection of chemical and Biological...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanojunction Sensors for the Detection of chemical and Biological Species DOE Grant ... gaps for various applications, including chemical and biological sensors, magnetoresistive ...

  6. Enterprise Assessments Assessment of Construction Quality and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 2016 Assessment of Construction Quality and the Fire Protection program at the ... (EA) conducted an assessment of construction quality and the fire protection ...

  7. Ecological Risk Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological Risk Assessments Ecological risk assessment is the appraisal of potential adverse effects of exposure to contaminants on plants and animals....

  8. Human Reliability Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Signup SlideShare Human Reliability Assessment HomeStationary PowerNuclear EnergyNuclear Energy Safety TechnologiesRisk and Safety AssessmentHuman Reliability Assessment ...

  9. Digestion of waste activated sludge by anaerobic rotating biological contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chiyuan.

    1990-01-01

    Two parallel, four-stage anaerobic rotating biological contactors (RBC) were continuously operated to evaluate the engineering feasibility of such an attached growth system for digesting sewage sludge. Waste activated sludge was used as the feed which contained 10,000 mg/l of suspended solids and an average total COD of 11,890 mg/l. The effects of three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs: 10, 5, 2.5 days) and three different operating temperatures (35, 30, 25 C) on the digester performance were evaluated. In addition, the maximum methanogenic capability of the RBC system in utilizing acetic, propionic and butyric acids was also assessed. Results indicated that the performance of the anaerobic RBS digester was strongly affected by both the HRT and the operating temperature. A decrease of either HRT or operating temperature would result in a lower stabilization efficiency. At 35 C the digester could stabilize 39.3% of the total sludge COD with a 5-day HRT, and this efficiency was very close to the minimum requirement of 40% in the general engineering practice. The accelerated digestion rate in an RBC system was mainly due to the high methanogenic capability existing in the attached-growths, which also avoid biological washout at a short hydraulic retention condition. Applications of the experimental data to an actual engineering design were also illustrated.

  10. Synthesis and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Hong, Xiaowei; Liu, Jinmei; Le, Zhanggao; Huang, Feihui; Qin, Yuancheng; Zhong, Rong; Gao, Yunhua; Pan, Jianfei; Ling, Yun

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Due to combining different functions and characteristics of individual materials, hybrid nanocomposite materials can strengthen their applications. Magnetic-conductive nanocomposites are the promising materials with electromagnetic loss, which have synergetic behavior between magnetic and conductive materials. It is the first time to report the synthesis of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide (BF/TD) composites by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion process. The influence of mass ratio of BF and TD on the electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites was studied. The tgδ{sub μ} and tgδ{sub ε} of BF–TD composites. - Highlights: • It is the first time to report BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites. • The composites are prepared by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion. • The electromagnetic properties could be adjusted by the mass ratio of BF and TD. • The introduction of TD enhances the dielectric loss and widens the frequency bands. • BF/TD composites will be microwave absorption materials with wide frequency band. - Abstract: Doped BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites have been prepared by the gel-precursor self-propagating combustion process. The characterization of the composites are performed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetry (DTA–TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and network analyzer. Both XRD and FT-IR indicate that the doped BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites are successfully synthesized and there are some interactions between BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19} and titanium dioxide. DTA–TG analysis of BaFe{sub 11.92}(LaNd){sub 0.04}O{sub 19}/titanium dioxide composites shows that the composite gel

  11. Dielectric studies of BaTi{sub 0.96}Co{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} prepared via solid state route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Ashutosh Mishra, Niyati Jarabana, Kanaka Mahalakshmi Bisen, Supriya

    2014-04-24

    The synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped barium titanate; BaTi{sub 0.96}Co{sub 0.04}O{sub 3} was investigated with a view to understand its structural and dielectric properties. A finest possible sample of Cobalt doped micro particles of BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) with possible cubic structure via a solid-state route was prepared. Prepared samples were structural characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dielectric constant measurements of the sample above and below the Curie temperature were carried out at various frequencies. The Transition temperature is found shifted towards lower side from that of pure BaTiO{sub 3}.

  12. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore » BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  13. The Intersection of Physics and Biology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Liphardt, Jan [University of California, Berkeley, California, United States

    2010-09-01

    In April 1953, Watson and Crick largely defined the program of 20th century biology: obtaining the blueprint of life encoded in the DNA. Fifty years later, in 2003, the sequencing of the human genome was completed. Like any major scientific breakthrough, the sequencing of the human genome raised many more questions than it answered. I'll brief you on some of the big open problems in cell and developmental biology, and I'll explain why approaches, tools, and ideas from the physical sciences are currently reshaping biological research. Super-resolution light microscopies are revealing the intricate spatial organization of cells, single-molecule methods show how molecular machines function, and new probes are clarifying the role of mechanical forces in cell and tissue function. At the same time, Physics stands to gain beautiful new problems in soft condensed matter, quantum mechanics, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

  14. Inclusion property of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities in LiCl crystal formed by layer-melt crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Kim, Jun-Hong; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-07-01

    Pyroprocessing is one of the promising technologies enabling the recycling of spent nuclear fuels from a commercial light water reactor (LWR). In general, pyroprocessing uses dry molten salts as electrolytes. In particular, LiCl waste salt after pyroprocessing contains highly radioactive I/II group fission products mainly composed of Cs, Sr, and Ba impurities. Therefore, it is beneficial to reuse LiCl salt in the pyroprocessing as an electrolyte for economic and environmental issues. Herein, to understand the inclusion property of impurities within LiCl crystal, the physical properties such as lattice parameter change, bulk modulus, and substitution enthalpy of a LiCl crystal having 0-6 at% Cs{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} impurities under existence of 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} impurity were calculated via the first-principles density functional theory. The substitution enthalpy of LiCl crystals having 1 at% Sr{sup 2+} showed slightly decreased value than those without Sr{sup 2+} impurity. Therefore, through the substitution enthalpy calculation, it is expected that impurities will be incorporated within LiCl crystal as co-existed form rather than as a single component form. (authors)

  15. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi; Donner, Wolfgang

    2015-12-14

    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2} ψ” method to determine residual stress and strain in BST films by X-ray diffraction is applied. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in both samples. Young's modulus E and Poisson ratio ν of BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of effective second-order elastic constants of BST thin films in stressed states is served in SAW study. This paper presents an original investigation of AE effect in prestressed Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3} films, where the effective elastic constants and the effect of texture on second and third order elastic tensor are considered and used. The propagation behavior of Rayleigh and Love waves in BST thin films under residual stress is explored and discussed. The guiding velocities affected by residual stresses, reveal some shifts which do not exceed four percent mainly in the low frequency range.

  16. Determination of the phase diagram of the electron doped superconductor Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Jiun-Haw; Analytis, James G.; Kucharczyk, Chris; Fisher, Ian R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    Systematic measurements of the resistivity, heat capacity, susceptibility and Hall coefficient are presented for single crystal samples of the electron-doped superconductor Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2}. These data delineate an x-T phase diagram in which the single magnetic/structural phase transition that is observed for undoped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} at 134 K apparently splits into two distinct phase transitions, both of which are rapidly suppressed with increasing Co concentration. Superconductivity emerges for Co concentrations above x {approx}0.025, and appears to coexist with the broken symmetry state for an appreciable range of doping, up to x {approx} 0.06. The optimal superconducting transition temperature appears to coincide with the Co concentration at which the magnetic/structural phase transitions are totally suppressed, at least within the resolution provided by the finite step size between crystals prepared with different doping levels. Superconductivity is observed for a further range of Co concentrations, before being completely suppressed for x {approx} 0.018 and above. The form of this x-T phase diagram is suggestive of an association between superconductivity and a quantum critical point arising from suppression of the magnetic and/or structural phase transitions.

  17. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  18. Investigations of Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal as a scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Hu, Guan-Qin; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Jing-Tai

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}-activated Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12} single crystals have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth method (TSSG) for the first time. • Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal exhibits wide transparency in the wavelength range from 250 to 700 nm. • Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal shows high overall scintillation efficiency (1.8 times of BGO) and moderate decay time (860 ns). - Abstract: Single crystals of Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} with high optical quality have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) method using BPO{sub 4}–NaF mixture as the flux. Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal exhibits wide transparency in the wavelength range from 250 to 700 nm, and shows a broad emission band in the wavelength range of 350–650 nm when excited by X-ray radiation. The overall scintillation efficiency is about 1.8 times of that of BGO crystal under the same conditions. Its room temperature fluorescence decay curve exhibits a single-exponent shape with decay time of about 860 ns. It is worth noting that Ba{sub 3}BP{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Eu{sup 2+} single crystal may be of great interest for applications in the field of scintillation materials considering its scintillation properties, as well as the good chemical stability.

  19. Preferential Eu Site Occupation and Its Consequences in the Ternary Luminescent HalidesAB2I5:Eu2+(A=Li–Cs;B=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, C.  M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2015-07-22

    Several rare-earth-doped, heavy-metal halides have recently been identified as potential next-generation luminescent materials with high efficiency at low cost. AB2I5:Eu2+ (A=Li–Cs; B=Sr, Ba) is one such family of halides. Its members, such as CsBa2I5:Eu2+ and KSr2I5:Eu2+, are currently being investigated as high-performance scintillators with improved sensitivity, light yield, and energy resolution less than 3% at 662 keV. Within the AB2I5 family, our first-principles-based calculations reveal two remarkably different trends in Eu site occupation. The substitutional Eu ions occupy both eightfold-coordinated B1(VIII) and the sevenfold-coordinated B2(VII) sites in the Sr-containing compounds. However, in the Ba-containing crystals, Eu ions strongly prefer themore »B2(VII)sites. This random versus preferential distribution of Eu affects their electronic properties. The calculations also suggest that in the Ba-containing compounds one can expect the formation of Eu-rich domains. These results provide atomistic insight into recent experimental observations about the concentration and temperature effects in Eu-doped CsBa2I5. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to luminescent properties and applications. We also hypothesize Sr, Ba-mixed quaternary iodides ABaVIIISrVIII5:Eu as scintillators having enhanced homogeneity and electronic properties.« less

  20. High-pressure synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Hai L.; Arai, Masao; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Yahua; Sathish, Clastin I.; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2014-09-15

    A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was synthesized under high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) conditions. The polycrystalline Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and magnetic susceptibility, isothermal magnetization, and specific heat measurements. The oxide crystallizes in a double-perovskite structure with an I4/m space group, in which Os(VI) and Cu(II) are ordered in the perovskite B-site. Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} is electrically insulating with an activation energy of 0.813(2) eV and shows antiferromagnetic-like characteristics at temperatures of ∼55 K and ∼70 K. The results of the first-principle calculation suggested that the spin–orbit interaction of Os(VI) plays a substantial role in the insulating state. The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO{sub 6} octahedra influences the magnetic characteristics with regard to possible two-dimensional magnetic correlations. - Graphical abstract: A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} synthesized by a high-pressure (6 GPa) and high-temperature (1500 °C) method. - Highlights: • A new compositional double perovskite oxide Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} was synthesized. • Ba{sub 2}CuOsO{sub 6} is electrically insulating and antiferromagnetic below ∼70 K. • The Jahn–Teller distortion of CuO{sub 6} has relevance to possible magnetic anisotropy.

  1. (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Nam, Kim; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Huq, Ashfia

    2012-01-01

    (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

  2. Preferential Eu Site Occupation and Its Consequences in the Ternary Luminescent HalidesAB2I5:Eu2+(A=Li–Cs;B=Sr, Ba)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, C.  M.; Biswas, Koushik

    2015-07-22

    Several rare-earth-doped, heavy-metal halides have recently been identified as potential next-generation luminescent materials with high efficiency at low cost. AB2I5:Eu2+ (A=Li–Cs; B=Sr, Ba) is one such family of halides. Its members, such as CsBa2I5:Eu2+ and KSr2I5:Eu2+, are currently being investigated as high-performance scintillators with improved sensitivity, light yield, and energy resolution less than 3% at 662 keV. Within the AB2I5 family, our first-principles-based calculations reveal two remarkably different trends in Eu site occupation. The substitutional Eu ions occupy both eightfold-coordinated B1(VIII) and the sevenfold-coordinated B2(VII) sites in the Sr-containing compounds. However, in the Ba-containing crystals, Eu ions strongly prefer themore » B2(VII)sites. This random versus preferential distribution of Eu affects their electronic properties. The calculations also suggest that in the Ba-containing compounds one can expect the formation of Eu-rich domains. These results provide atomistic insight into recent experimental observations about the concentration and temperature effects in Eu-doped CsBa2I5. We discuss the implications of our results with respect to luminescent properties and applications. We also hypothesize Sr, Ba-mixed quaternary iodides ABaVIIISrVIII5:Eu as scintillators having enhanced homogeneity and electronic properties.« less

  3. Site-related near-infrared luminescence in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):Fe{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.J.; Ma, Y.Y.; Ye, S.; Hu, G.P.; Zhang, Q.Y.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Intense 700–850 nm NIR emissions in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr, Ba):1%Fe{sup 3+} has been obtained. • The NIR emissions can be ascribed to the octahedral Fe{sup 3+} sites. • The site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6} and SA{sub 6} may be lower than that in BA{sub 6}. • The phosphors may be potentially applied in the high-resolution bioimaging. - Abstract: Intense and broad near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) peaks locating at 777, 808 and 810 nm is observed for BaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (CA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+} and SrAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (SA{sub 6}):1%Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra show that Fe{sup 3+} ions substitute for the different types of Al{sup 3+} sites simultaneously. Meanwhile, the luminescence of Fe{sup 3+} in MAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M = Ca, Sr and Ba) are ascribed to octahedral Fe{sup 3+}. In addition, the site symmetry of Fe{sup 3+} in CA{sub 6}/SA{sub 6} is lower compared with BA{sub 6}, deduced from the photoluminescence excitation (PLE), EPR and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. These phosphors can be considered as good candidates for the applications in the field of high-resolution bioimaging.

  4. Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weiming; Liang, Shijing; Wang, Xiaowei; Bi, Jinhong; Liu, Ping; Wu, Ling

    2011-01-15

    Microcrystalline ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction technique, BET surface area analysis, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results indicated that single-phase orthorhombic SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} could be obtained after being calcined above 650 {sup o}C, while BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} was tetragonal. Based on the diffuse reflectance spectra, the band gaps of the obtained samples were calculated to be around 3.34-3.54 eV. For the photocatalytic redox reaction of methyl orange under UV-light irradiation, SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}. The effects of the crystallinities, BET surface areas and crystal structures of the samples on the photocatalytic activities were discussed in detail. -- Graphical abstract: Aurivillius-type ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by a citrate complex method. SrBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} and BaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} showed different photocatalytic performances in the redox reaction of methyl orange (MO) under UV-light ({lambda}=254 nm), due to the different crystal structures of ABi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9} (A=Sr, Ba). Display Omitted

  5. Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    March 03-04, 2014 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) March 03-04, 2014 Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) BERAC Home Meetings BERAC Minutes BERAC Minutes Archive Members Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (135KB) BER Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees BER Home Meetings Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee March 03-04, 2014 Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Agenda .pdf file (21KB) Presentations: Sharlene Weatherwax .pdf

  6. Biological cell classification by multiangle light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salzman, G.C.; Crowell, J.M.; Mullaney, P.F.

    1975-06-03

    The specification is directed to an apparatus and method for detecting light scattering from a biological cell. Light, preferably from a coherent source of radiation, intercepts an individual biological cell in a stream of cells passing through the beam. Light scattered from the cell is detected at a selected number of angles between 0 and 90/sup 0/ to the longitudinal axis of the beam with a circular array of light responsive elements which produce signals representative of the intensity of light incident thereon. Signals from the elements are processed to determine the light-scattering pattern of the cell and therefrom its identity.

  7. Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; El-Sayed, Ivan H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

  8. Biology and Medicine Division: Annual report 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    The Biology and Medicine Division continues to make important contributions in scientific areas in which it has a long-established leadership role. For 50 years the Division has pioneered in the application of radioisotopes and charged particles to biology and medicine. There is a growing emphasis on cellular and molecular applications in the work of all the Division's research groups. The powerful tools of genetic engineering, the use of recombinant products, the analytical application of DNA probes, and the use of restriction fragment length polymorphic DNA are described and proposed for increasing use in the future.

  9. Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papoutsakis, Elefterios

    2015-04-30

    This is the final project report for project "Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production" for the funding period of 9/1/12 to 2/28/2015 (three years with a 6-month no-cost extension) OVERVIEW AND PROJECT GOALS The bottleneck of achieving higher rates and titers of toxic metabolites (such as solvents and carboxylic acids that can used as biofuels or biofuel precursors) can be overcome by engineering the stress response system. Thus, understanding and modeling the response of cells to toxic metabolites is a problem of great fundamental and practical significance. In this project, our goal is to dissect at the molecular systems level and build models (conceptual and quantitative) for the stress response of C. acetobutylicum (Cac) to its two toxic metabolites: butanol (BuOH) and butyrate (BA). Transcriptional (RNAseq and microarray based), proteomic and fluxomic data and their analysis are key requirements for this goal. Transcriptional data from mid-exponential cultures of Cac under 4 different levels of BuOH and BA stress was obtained using both microarrays (Papoutsakis group) and deep sequencing (RNAseq; Meyers and Papoutsakis groups). These two sets of data do not only serve to validate each other, but are also used for identification of stress-induced changes in transcript levels, small regulatory RNAs, & in transcriptional start sites. Quantitative proteomic data (Lee group), collected using the iTRAQ technology, are essential for understanding of protein levels and turnover under stress and the various protein-protein interactions that orchestrate the stress response. Metabolic flux changes (Antoniewicz group) of core pathways, which provide important information on the re-allocation of energy and carbon resources under metabolite stress, were examined using 13C-labelled chemicals. Omics data are integrated at different levels and scales. At the metabolic-pathway level, omics data are integrated into a 2nd generation genome

  10. Spin-liquid ground state in the frustrated J1?J2 zigzag chain system BaTb2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Garlea, V. O.; Yan, J. -Q.; Weickert, F.; Zapf, V. S.; Movshovich, R.; Jaime, M.; Baker, P. J.; Keppens, V.; et al

    2015-07-13

    We have investigated polycrystalline samples of the zigzag chain system BaTb2O4 with magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation measurements. No magnetic transitions are observed in the bulk measurements, while neutron diffraction reveals the presence of low-temperature, short-range, intrachain magnetic correlations between Tb3+ ions. muSR indicates that these correlations are dynamic, as no signatures of static magnetism are detected by the technique down to 0.095 K. Altogether these findings provide strong evidence for a spin liquid ground state in BaTb2O4.

  11. Spin-liquid ground state in the frustrated J1-J2 zigzag chain system BaTb2O4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Garlea, V. O.; Yan, J. -Q.; Weickert, F.; Zapf, V. S.; Movshovich, R.; Jaime, M.; Baker, P. J.; Keppens, V.; et al

    2015-07-13

    We have investigated polycrystalline samples of the zigzag chain system BaTb2O4 with magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation measurements. No magnetic transitions are observed in the bulk measurements, while neutron diffraction reveals low-temperature, short-range, intrachain magnetic correlations between Tb3+ ions. Muon spin relaxation measurements indicate that these correlations are dynamic, as the technique detects no signatures of static magnetism down to 0.095 K. Altogether these findings provide strong evidence for a spin liquid ground state in BaTb2O4.

  12. Structural Biology | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Structural Biology Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD) Genomic Science DOE Bioenergy Research Centers Bioimaging Technology DOE Joint Genome Institute Structural Biology Radiochemistry & Imaging Instrumentation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Human Subjects Protection Program Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) Research Abstracts Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link

  13. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons (190.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  14. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  15. Physics Meets Biology (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steve [Director, LBNL

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: If scientists could take advantage of the awesomely complex and beautiful functioning of biologys natural molecular machines, their potential for application in many disciplines would be incalculable. Nobel Laureate and Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Steve Chu explores Possible solutions to global warming and its consequences.

  16. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  17. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  18. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Layne, Scott P.; Beugelsdijk, Tony J.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  19. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  20. Biological warfare in the littorals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Biological warfare (BW) has emerged as a significant threat to military operations and is particularly challenging at the operational level of warfare in a littoral environment. There are compelling reasons why an operational commander should be concerned about BW: global proliferation of biotechnology and biological weapons capabilities; suitability of BW for disrupting force projection across the littorals; and the vulnerability of American, allied and coalition forces to BW. The threat of facing an adversary capable and willing to use biological weapons will influence the commander`s application of the operational art across the six operational functions. Degradation of operational tempo, effects of psychological responses among the force, and stress on the organizational structure may challenge the command and control process. Operational intelligence will demand robust integration of technical analysis, intentions and warnings, meteorological information, and medical intelligence. The maneuver and movement processes will be taxed to function effectively when ports and airfields offer such lucrative BW targets. Biological weapons may dictate the location of operational fires assets as well as the make-up of the target lists. Operational logistics assumes great importance in the medical functions, decontamination processes, and troop replacement and unit reconstitution. Operational protection encompasses nearly every aspect of BW defense and will demand a balance between what is necessary and what is possible to protect. As daunting as the challenges appear, the operational-level commander has at his disposal many tools necessary to prepare for biological warfare in the littorals. Ultimately, the commander must convince his force, his allies, and his enemies that the command can fight effectively in a BW environment, on land and sea.

  1. DOE/EA-1927, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers, McCracken County, Kentucky

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers, McCracken County, Kentucky U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office December 2015 DOE/EA-1927 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 CFR Code of Federal Regulations dBA A-weighted decibel DOE U.S. Department of Energy DUF 6 depleted uranium hexafluoride EA

  2. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  3. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Biology And Medicine | OSTI, US Dept

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Biology And Medicine Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual Radiological Control Managers' Council Nevada Test Site Effects of ionizing radiation on the boreal forest: Canada's FIG experiment, with implications for radionuclides Amiro, B.D.; Sheppard, S.C Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as

  4. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, V.H.; De la Rosa, E.; Salas, P.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.J.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  5. Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25}: low-temperature Ge-Ge bond breaking during temperature-induced structure transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder . E-mail: carrillo@cpfs.mpg.de; Borrmann, Horst; Paschen, Silke; Baenitz, Michael; Steglich, Frank; Grin, Yuri

    2005-03-15

    In order to find the optimal conditions for sample preparation of the binary germanide Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25}, the germanium-rich part of the Ba-Ge phase diagram was redetermined by means of metallography, X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The temperature behavior of cubic Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25} was investigated both on polycrystalline samples and single crystals. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter exhibits two anomalies at about 180 and 230K, respectively, which are caused by a structure transformation in two steps with hysteresis. Powder (T=10-295K) and single-crystal (T=95-295K) X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the symmetry of Ba{sub 6}Ge{sub 25} (space group P4{sub 1}32) remains unchanged within the entire temperature range. A reconstructive behavior of the structural transformation is observed, involving Ge-Ge bond breaking and barium cation displacements. Some Ge4 type atoms ({approx}28%) are so significantly displaced during cooling that Ge4-Ge6 bonds break and new three-bonded (3b)Ge{sup -} species (electron acceptors) are formed. Consequently, the number of charge carriers is reduced, affecting the physical properties. The reversible bond breaking involved in this process is a typical characteristic of a solid-state chemical reac0010ti.

  6. Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Marra, James; Fox, Kevin; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod; Tang, Ming

    2012-09-17

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

  7. Single phase melt processed powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 for the immobilization of Mo-rich nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Kyle; Fox, Kevin M.; Marra, James C.; Reppert, Jason; Crum, Jarrod V.; Tang, Ming

    2012-10-02

    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO4 crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO4 and CaMoO4 were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO4 and BaMoO4 powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 x 1013 Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m2).

  8. Spin dynamics near a putative antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Cu-substituted BaFe2As2 and its relation to high-temperature superconductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, M. G.; Wang, M.; Tucker, G. S.; Valdivia, P. N.; Abernathy, D. L.; Chi, Songxue; Christianson, A. D.; Aczel, A. A.; Hong, T.; Heitmann, T. W.; et al

    2015-12-02

    We present the results of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on nonsuperconducting Ba(Fe0.957Cu0.043)2As2, a composition close to a quantum critical point between antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered and paramagnetic phases. By comparing these results with the spin fluctuations in the low-Cu composition as well as the parent compound BaFe2As2 and superconducting Ba(Fe1–xNix)2As2 compounds, we demonstrate that paramagnon-like spin fluctuations are evident in the antiferromagnetically ordered state of Ba(Fe0.957Cu0.043)2As2, which is distinct from the AFM-like spin fluctuations in the superconducting compounds. Our observations suggest that Cu substitution decouples the interaction between quasiparticles and the spin fluctuations. In addition, we show that themore » spin-spin correlation length ξ(T) increases rapidly as the temperature is lowered and find ω/T scaling behavior, the hallmark of quantum criticality, at an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.« less

  9. First Principles Calculations of Oxygen Vacancy Formation and Migration in Ba1?xSrxCo1?yFeyO3?? Perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, Rotraut; Mastrikov, Yuri; Kotomin, Eugene Alexej; Kukla, Maija M.; Maier, Joachim

    2011-12-28

    Based on first principles DFT calculations, we analyze oxygen vacancy formation and migration energies as a function of chemical composition in complex multicomponent (Ba,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3?? perovskites which are candidate materials for SOFC cathodes and permeation membranes. The atomic relaxation, electronic charge redistribution and energies of the transition states of oxygen migration are compared for several perovskites to elucidate the atomistic reason for the exceptionally low migration barrier in Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3?? that was previously determined experimentally. The critical comparison of Ba1?xSrxCo1?yFeyO3?? perovskites with different cation compositions and arrangements shows that in addition to the geometric constraints the electronic structure plays a considerable role for the height of the oxygen migration barrier in these materials. These findings help understand advantages and limitations of the fast oxygen permeation and exchange properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3??.

  10. Heterojunction band offsets and dipole formation at BaTiO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaz, Snjezana; Zeng, Zhaoquan; Brillson, Leonard J.; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff, Columbus, Ohio 43210

    2013-11-14

    We used a complement of photoemission and cathodoluminescence techniques to measure formation of the BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) heterojunction band offset grown monolayer by monolayer by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) provided core level and valence band edge energies to monitor the valence band offset in-situ as the first few crystalline BTO monolayers formed on the STO substrate. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measured Fermi level positions within the band gap, work functions, and ionization potentials of the growing BTO film. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy measured energies and densities of interface states at the buried heterojunction. Kraut-based XPS heterojunction band offsets provided evidence for STO/BTO heterojunction linearity, i.e., commutativity and transitivity. In contrast, UPS and XPS revealed a large dipole associated either with local charge transfer or strain-induced polarization within the BTO epilayer.

  11. Ethylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis for the synthesis of hollow BaFe12O19 spheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, X; Park, J; Hong, YK; Lane, AM

    2015-04-01

    Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing ethylene glycol (EG) and precursors at 1000 degrees C. The effects of EG concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and magnetic properties were investigated. The hollow spherical particles were found to consist of primary particles, and higher EG concentration led to a bigger primary particle size. EG concentration did not show much effect on the hollow particle size. Better crystallinity and higher magnetic coercivity were obtained with higher EG concentration, which is attributed to further crystallization with the heat produced from EG combustion. Saturation magnetization (emu/g) decreased with increasing EG concentration due to residual carbon from EG incomplete combustion, contributing as a non-magnetic phase to the particles. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Unconventional Electronic Reconstruction in Undoped (Ba,Sr)Fe2As2 Across the Spin Density Wave Transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, M.

    2010-06-02

    Through a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study of the iron pnictide compounds (Ba,Sr)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, we show that the electronic structures of these compounds are significantly reconstructed across the spin density wave transition, which cannot be described by a simple folding scenario of conventional density wave ordering. Moreover, we find that LDA calculations with an incorporated suppressed magnetic moment of 0.5{mu}{sub B} can match well the details in the reconstructed electronic structure, suggesting that the nature of magnetism in the pnictides is more itinerant than local, while the origin of suppressed magnetic moment remains an important issue for future investigations.

  13. Low-energy planar magnetic defects in BaFe2As2: Nanotwins, twins, antiphase, and domain boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, S. N. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Alam, A. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2013-01-01

    In BaFe2As2, structural and magnetic planar defects begin to proliferate below the structural phase transition, affecting descriptions of magnetism and superconductivity.We study, using density-functional theory, the stability and magnetic properties of competing antiphase and domain boundaries, twins and isolated nanotwins (twin nuclei), and spin excitations proposed and/or observed. These nanoscale defects have a very low surface energy (22 210 m Jm 2), with twins favorable to the mesoscale. Defects exhibit smaller moments confined near their boundaries making a uniform-moment picture inappropriate for long-range magnetic order in real samples. Nanotwins explain features in measured pair distribution functions so should be considered when analyzing scattering data. All these defects can be weakly mobile and/or can have fluctuations that lower

  14. Magnetic and dielectric behavior of the spin-chain compound Er?BaNiO? well below its Nel temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Tathamay; Singh, Kiran; Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Mohapatra, N.

    2014-09-21

    We have recently reported that the Haldane spin-chain system, Er?BaNiO?, undergoing antiferromagnetic order below (T{sub N}=) 32 K, is characterized by the onset of ferroelectricity near 60 K due to magnetoelectric coupling induced by short-range magnetic-order within spin-chains. We have carried out additional magnetic and dielectric studies to understand the properties well below T{sub N}. We emphasize here on the following: (i) A strong frequency dependent behaviors of ac magnetic susceptibility and complex dielectric properties have been observed at much lower temperatures (<8 K), that is, reentrant multiglass-like phenomenon, naturally suggesting the existence of an additional transition well below T{sub N}. (ii) Magnetoelectric phase coexistence is observed at very low temperature (e.g., T=2 K), where the high-field magnetoelectric phase is partially arrested on returning to zero magnetic field after a cycling through metamagnetic transition.

  15. Specific heat investigation for line nodes in heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Liu, Yong; Lograsso, Thomas A.

    2015-06-10

    Previous research has found that the pairing symmetry in the iron-based superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 changes from nodeless s-wave near optimally doped, x≈0.4-0.55 and Tc>30 K, to nodal (either d-wave or s-wave) at the pure endpoint, x=1 and Tc<4 K. Intense theoretical interest has been focused on this possibility of changing pairing symmetry, where in the transition region both order parameters would be present and time reversal symmetry would be broken. Here we report specific heat measurements in zero and applied magnetic fields down to 0.4 K of three individual single crystals, free of low temperature magnetic anomalies, of heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2,more » x= 0.91, 0.88, and 0.81. The values for Tcmid are 5.6, 7.2 and 13 K and for Hc2≈ 4.5, 6, and 20 T respectively. Furthermore, the data can be analyzed in a two gap scenario, Δ2/Δ1 ≈ 4, with the magnetic field dependence of γ (=C/T as T→0) showing an anisotropic ‘S-shaped’ behavior vs H, with the suppression of the lower gap by 1 T and γ ≈ H1/2 overall. Although such a non-linear γ vs H is consistent with deep minima or nodes in the gap structure, it is not clear evidence for one, or both, of the gaps being nodal in these overdoped samples. Thus, following the established theoretical analysis of the specific heat of d-wave cuprate superconductors containing line nodes, we present the specific heat normalized by H1/2 plotted vs T/H1/2 of these heavily overdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 samples which – thanks to the absence of magnetic impurities in our sample - convincingly shows the expected scaling for line node behavior for the larger gap for all three compositions. There is however no clear observation of the nodal behavior C ∝ αT2 in zero field at low temperatures, with α ≤ 2 mJ/molK3 being consistent with the data. Together with the scaling, this leaves open the possibility of extreme anisotropy in a nodeless larger gap, Δ2, such that the scaling works for fields above 0.25 – 0

  16. Anisotropic Exchange within Decoupled Tetrahedra in the Quantum Breathing Pyrochlore Ba3Yb2Zn5O11

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rau, J. G.; Wu, L. S.; May, A. F.; Poudel, L.; Winn, B.; Garlea, V. O.; Huq, A.; Whitfield, P.; Taylor, A. E.; Lumsden, M. D.; et al

    2016-06-24

    Tmore » he low energy spin excitation spectrum of the breathing pyrochlore Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 has been investigated with inelastic neutron scattering. Several nearly resolution limited modes with no observable dispersion are observed at 250 mK while, at elevated temperatures, transitions between excited levels become visible. o gain deeper insight, a theoretical model of isolated Yb3+ tetrahedra parametrized by four anisotropic exchange constants is constructed. he model reproduces the inelastic neutron scattering data, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility with high fidelity. he fitted exchange parameters reveal a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a very large Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Ultimately, using this model, we predict the appearance of an unusual octupolar paramagnet at low temperatures and speculate on the development of inter-tetrahedron correlations.« less

  17. An overview of DANCE: a 4II BaF[2] detector for neutron capture measurements at LANSCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullmann, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture experiments (DANCE) is a 162-element, 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} array designed to make neutron capture cross-section measurements on rare or radioactive targets with masses as little as 1 mg. Accurate capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. These cross sections are difficult to calculate accurately and must be measured. Up to now, except for a few long-lived nuclides there are essentially no differential capture measurements on radioactive nuclei. The DANCE array is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at LANSCE, which is a continuous-spectrum neutron source with useable energies from below thermal to about 100 keV. Data acquisition is done with 320 fast waveform digitizers. The design and initial performance results, including background minimization, will be discussed.

  18. Stripe-like nanoscale structural phase separation in superconducting BaPb1-xBixO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Zhang, Y.; Parra, C.; Manoharan, H. C.; Beasley, M. R.; Geballe, T. H.; Kramer, M. J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2015-09-16

    The phase diagram of BaPb1-xBixO3 exhibits a superconducting “dome” in the proximity of a charge density wave phase. For the superconducting compositions, the material coexists as two structural polymorphs. Here we show, via high resolution transmission electron microscopy, that the structural dimorphism is accommodated in the form of partially disordered nanoscale stripes. Identification of the morphology of the nanoscale structural phase separation enables determination of the associated length scales, which we compare to the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length. Thus, we find that the maximum Tc occurs when the superconducting coherence length matches the width of the partially disordered stripes, implying amore » connection between the structural phase separation and the shape of the superconducting dome.« less

  19. Magnetoelastically coupled structural, magnetic, and superconducting order parameters in BaFe₂(As₁₋xPx)₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuo, H.-H.; Analytis, James G.; Chu, J.-H.; Fernandes, R. M.; Schmalian, J.; Fisher, I. R.

    2012-10-04

    We measure the transport properties of mechanically strained single crystals of BaFe₂(As₁₋xPx)₂ over a wide range of x. The Néel transition is extremely sensitive to stress and this sensitivity increases as optimal doping is approached (doping with the highest superconducting Tc), even though the magnetic transition itself is strongly suppressed. Furthermore, we observe significant changes in the superconducting transition temperature with applied strain, which mirror changes in the composition x. These experiments are a direct illustration of the intimate coupling between different degrees of freedom in iron-based superconductors, revealing the importance of magnetoelastic coupling to the magnetic and superconducting transitionmore » temperatures.« less

  20. Preclinical investigation for developing injectable fiducial markers using a mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer for proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Sang Hee; Gil, Moon Soo; Lee, Doo Sung; Han, Youngyih E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Park, Hee Chul E-mail: Hee.ro.Park@samsung.com; Yu, Jeong Il; Noh, Jae Myoung; Cho, Jun Sang; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Choi, Doo Ho; Sohn, Jason W.; Kim, Hye Yeong; Shin, Eun Hyuk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the use of mixture of BaSO{sub 4} and biodegradable polymer as an injectable nonmetallic fiducial marker to reduce artifacts in x-ray images, decrease the absorbed dose distortion in proton therapy, and replace permanent metal markers. Methods: Two samples were made with 90 wt. % polymer phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and 10 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B1) or 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} (B2). Two animal models (mice and rats) were used. To test the injectability and in vivo gelation, a volume of 200 μl at a pH 5.8 were injected into the Sprague-Dawley rats. After sacrificing the rats over time, the authors checked the gel morphology. Detectability of the markers in the x-ray images was tested for two sizes (diameters of 1 and 2 mm) for B1 and B2. Four samples were injected into BALB/C mice. The polymer mixed with BaSO{sub 4} transform from SOL at 20 °C with a pH of 6.0 to GEL in the living body at 37 °C with a pH of 7.4, so the size of the fiducial marker could be controlled by adjusting the injected volume. The detectability of the BaSO{sub 4} marker was measured in x-ray images of cone beam CT (CBCT), on-board imager [anterior–posterior (AP), lateral], and fluoroscopy (AP, lateral) using a Novalis-TX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) repeatedly over 4 months. The volume, HU, and artifacts for the markers were measured in the CBCT images. Artifacts were compared to those of gold marker by analyzing the HU distribution. The dose distortion in proton therapy was computed by using a Monte Carlo (MC) code. A cylindrical shaped marker (diameter: 1 or 2 mm, length: 3 mm) made of gold, stainless-steel [304], titanium, and 20 wt. % BaSO{sub 4} was positioned at the center of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) in parallel or perpendicular to the beam entrance. The dose distortion was measured on the depth dose profile across the markers. Results: Transformation to GEL and the biodegradation were verified. All BaSO{sub 4} markers

  1. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keneth Stedman

    2011-08-05

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  2. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Julie Maupin- Furlow

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  3. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  4. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    Modern biology is characterized by rapid change. The development of new tools and the results derived from their application to various biological systems require significant shifts in our concepts and the strategies that are adopted to analyze and elucidate mechanisms. In parallel with exciting new scientific developments our organizational structure and programmatic emphases have altered. These changes and developments have enabled the life sciences at LBL to be better positioned to create and respond to new opportunities. The work summarized in this annual report reflects a vital multifaceted research program that is in the vanguard of the areas represented. We are committed to justifying the confidence expressed by LBL through the new mission statement and reorganizational changes designed to give greater prominence to the life sciences.

  5. Carbon-14 immobilization via the Ba(OH)/sub 2/. 8H/sub 2/O process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1983-03-01

    The airborne release of /sup 4/C from varous nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 y) and the ease with which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At ORNL, technology has been developed for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is airlike in nature (approx. 330 ppmv CO/sub 2/). The technology that has been developed utilizes the CO/sub 2/-Ba(OH)/sub 2/.8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possesses excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations < 100 ppbv), high reactant utilization (> 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at a superficial velocity of 13 cm/s) are possible. This paper addresses three areas of experimental investigation: (1) microscale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures; (2) macroscale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg of reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough; and (3) design, construction, and initial operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34-m/sup 3//h (20-ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  6. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    This factsheet explains studies conducted in a highly reproducible manner to examine the biological effects to fish exposed to a shear environment in the laboratory. Strain rate was used as the index of intensity to describe the hydraulic force experienced by a fish in a shear environment. It was determined that no significant injuries occurred to any fish subjected to strain rates equal to or less than 500 cm/s/cm.

  7. [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]: A new polymorph of barium vanadium (III) pyrophosphate characterized by intersecting tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwu, Shiou-Jyh; Carroll, R.I.; Serra, D.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Investigation into the synthesis of reduced vanadium phosphate has led to the formation of a new form of the barium vanadium (III) pyrophosphate compound [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]. It is a polymorph of the previously known BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2], which is now labeled as the [alpha]-phase. The title compound crystallizes in the P-1 (No. 2) space group with a = 6.269 (1) [angstrom], b = 7.864 (3) [angstrom], c = 6.1592 (9) [angstrom], [alpha] = 101.34 (2)[degree], [beta] = 105.84 (1)[degree], and [gamma] = 96.51 (2)[degree]. The structure consists of corner-shared VO[sub 6] octahedra and PO[sub 4] tetrahedra that are connected in V-O-P-O-V and V-O-P-O-P-O-V bonding arrangements. This interesting three-dimensional framework is characterized by seven types of intersecting tunnels, three of which are occupied by the barium cation, while the others are empty. It is important to know that one of the empty tunnels has a relatively large window with a minimum diagonal distance of 4.4 [angstrom], which facilitates a possible framework for a lithium ion insertion reaction. The barium atom has a 10-coordination sphere, BaO[sub 10], in which the oxygen atoms can be viewed as forming two intersecting pseudohexagonal planes. [beta]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2] appears to form at a relatively higher temperature than its polymorph, [alpha]-BaV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2]. A detailed structural analysis and structural comparison with the [alpha]-phase, as well as a brief comparison with SrV[sub 2](P[sub 2]O[sub 7])[sub 2], are presented.

  8. Novel chemically stable Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82-xYxO9- proton conductor: improved proton conductivity through tailored cation ordering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Fang, Shumin; Zhang, Lingling; Tang, Ming; An, Ke; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S.; Chen, Fanglin

    2014-01-01

    Simple perovskite-structured proton conductors encounter significant challenges to simultaneously achieving excellent chemical stability and proton conductivity that are desirable for many important applications in energy conversion and storage. This work demonstrates that Y-doped complex-perovskite-structured Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials possess both improved proton conductivity and exceptional chemical stability. Neutron powder diffraction refinement revealed a Fm3 m perovskite-structure and increased oxygen vacancy concentration due to the Y doping. High-resolution TEM analysis confirmed the perturbation of the B site cation ordering in the structure for the Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials. Such combined effects led to improved proton conductivity with a value of 5.3 10 3 S cm 1 at 600 C for Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.52Y0.3O9 (BCNY0.3), a value 2.4 times higher compared with that of the undoped Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82O9 . The Ba3Ca1.18Nb1.82 xYxO9 materials showed remarkable chemical stability toward water and demonstrated no observable reactions to CO2 exposure. Ionic transport number studies showed that BCNY0.3 had predominantly proton conduction below 600 C. Solid oxide fuel cells using BCNY0.3 as an electrolyte demonstrated cell power output of 103 mW cm 2 at 750 C. These results suggest that a doping strategy that tailors the cation ordering in complex perovskites provides a new direction in the search for novel proton conducting ceramics.

  9. Crystal structure and luminescence properties of a novel red-emitting phosphor BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wanping Zhou, Ahong; Liu, Yan; Dai, Xiaoyan; Yang, Xin

    2014-12-15

    A series of novel red-emitting phosphors BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:xEu{sup 3+} (0.001≤x≤0.08) were first synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of the phosphor, respectively. The phosphor can be effectively excited with a 395 nm light, and shows a dominant {sup 5}D{sub 0}−{sup 7}F{sub 2} emission with chromatic coordination of 0.628 and 0.372. The optimal doping concentration is about 0.04. Rietveld refinement results and the luminescence behavior of Eu{sup 3+} indicate that the Eu{sup 3+} ion occupies a C{sub 3} symmetry site, and the host BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} has a hexagonal structure with P-6 space group. In addition, the phosphor could be a potential candidate as red-emitting phosphor for application in white light-emitting diode. - Graphical abstract: The luminescence behavior and Rietveld refinement of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} indicate that the red-emitting phosphor has potential application in white LED and the host has a hexagonal structure with P-6 space group. - Highlights: • A novel red-emitting phosphor BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2}:Eu{sup 3+} is first synthesized. • The crystal structure of BaAlBO{sub 3}F{sub 2} is confirmed. • The phosphor shows potential application in white LED.

  10. KPFM and PFM of Biological Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Surface potentials and electrostatic interactions in biological systems are a key element of cellular regulation and interaction. Examples include cardiac and muscular activity, voltage-gated ion channels, protein folding and assembly, and electroactive cells and electrotransduction. The coupling between electrical, mechanical, and chemical signals and responses in cellular systems necessitates the development of tools capable of measuring the distribution of charged species, surface potentials, and mechanical responses to applied electrical stimuli and vice versa, ultimately under physiological conditions. In this chapter, applications of voltage-modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods including Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) to biological systems are discussed. KPFM is a force-sensitive non-contact or intermittent-contact mode AFM technique that allows electrostatic interactions and surface potentials to be addressed. Beyond long-range electrostatic interactions, the application of bias can lead to a mechanical response, e.g., due to linear piezoelectric coupling in polar biopolymers or via more complex electrotransduction and redox pathways in other biosystems. The use and development of PFM, based on direct electromechanical detection, to biological systems will also be addressed. The similarities and limitations of measuring surface potentials and electromechanical coupling in solution will be outlined.

  11. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains a minimum of 244 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Chemical and biological warfare: Detection and warning systems. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection, identification, verification, and warning systems of chemical and biological warfare agents. Citations discuss agents sampling, monitoring, and assessment. Techniques include chromotography, biosensing, chemical analysis, and DNA probes. Land pollution, soil tests, and skin protection are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J. [eds.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  14. Sandia Energy - Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Resource Assessment Resource AssessmentAshley Otero2016-01-05T19:06:04+00:00 Characterizing wave...

  15. Northwest Energy Market Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Northwest Energy Market Assessment Pages Northwest-Energy-Market-Assessment Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects &...

  16. ORISE: Hazard Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    internal and external radiation dose assessments. Our capabililities include: Linkage of exposure data to site rosters Assessment of retrospective exposures Preparation of...

  17. Incommensurate and commensurate modulations of Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R?=?La, Nd) tungsten bronzes and the ferroelectric domain structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Min Min; Li, Kun; Zhu, Xiao Li; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2015-04-07

    Incommensurate and commensurate structural modulations of Ba{sub 5}RTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} (R?=?La, Nd) tungsten bronze ceramics were investigated by using a cooling holder equipped transmission electron microscopy in the temperature range from 100?K to 363?K. The incommensurate modulation was observed in both Ba{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} and Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} at room temperature, while there was a transition from incommensurate tilted structure to commensurate superstructure for Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30} with decreasing temperature. The incommensurate and commensurate modulations were determined by the A-site occupancy of Ba and R cations. The A-site disorder resulted in larger incommensurability parameter ? and the diffusion of the satellite reflection spots. The effect of A-site disorder on the coupling between long-range dipolar order and the commensurate modulation was also discussed. The obvious ferroelectric 180 domains with spike-like shape parallel to c axis were observed for Ba{sub 5}NdTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30}, while no macro ferroelectric domain was determined for Ba{sub 5}LaTi{sub 3}Nb{sub 7}O{sub 30}.

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  19. BioLogical Capital BLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioLogical Capital BLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: BioLogical Capital (BLC) Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80202 Product: Denver Colorado-based group focusing on generating...

  20. Ringleader: Jay Nix, Beamline Director for the Molecular Biology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jay Nix, Beamline Director for the Molecular Biology Consortium Print Jay Nix started started the user program at Beamline 4.2.2 back in 2004, shortly after the Molecular Biology ...

  1. Ringleader: Jay Nix, Beamline Director for the Molecular Biology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Molecular Biology Consortium Print Jay Nix started started the user program at Beamline 4.2.2 back in 2004, shortly after the Molecular Biology Consortium built the beamline. ...

  2. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production | Department of Energy Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Report documenting the biological and engineering characteristics of five algal and bacterial hydrogen production systems selected by DOE and NREL for evaluation. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (3.63 MB) More Documents & Publications Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis

  3. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 b2blowres63006.pdf (8.11 MB) More Documents & Publications Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June 2006 Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... to leverage experience in biochemical processing, specifically cellulose and ... in downstream biological conversion and improving overall process integration. ...

  5. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop. bio_h2_workshop_final_report.pdf (1.55 MB) More Documents & Publications The Hydrogen Program at NREL: A Brief Overview Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

  6. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in...

  7. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolvanen, Outi K. . E-mail: outolvan@bytl.jyu.fi; Haenninen, Kari I.

    2006-07-01

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment.

  8. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its distribution in

  9. AN INTEGRATED BIOLOGICAL CONTROL SYSTEM AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; GIDDINGS RF; RODRIGUEZ JM; ROOS RC; WILDE JW

    2010-02-11

    In 1999 an integrated biological control system was instituted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Successes and changes to the program needed to be communicated to a large and diverse mix of organizations and individuals. Efforts at communication are directed toward the following: Hanford Contractors (Liquid or Tank Waste, Solid Waste, Environmental Restoration, Science and Technology, Site Infrastructure), General Hanford Employees, and Hanford Advisory Board (Native American Tribes, Environmental Groups, Local Citizens, Washington State and Oregon State regulatory agencies). Communication was done through direct interface meetings, individual communication, where appropriate, and broadly sharing program reports. The objectives of the communication efforts was to have the program well coordinated with Hanford contractors, and to have the program understood well enough that all stakeholders would have confidence in the work performed by the program to reduce or elimated spread of radioactive contamination by biotic vectors. Communication of successes and changes to an integrated biological control system instituted in 1999 at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site have required regular interfaces with not only a diverse group of Hanford contractors (i.e., those responsible for liquid or tank waste, solid wastes, environmental restoration, science and technology, and site infrastructure), and general Hanford employees, but also with a consortium of designated stake holders organized as the Hanford Advisory Board (i.e., Native American tribes, various environmental groups, local citizens, Washington state and Oregon regulatory agencies, etc.). Direct interface meetings, individual communication where appropriate, and transparency of the biological control program were the methods and outcome of this effort.

  10. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  11. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Biology Preparation Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biology Preparation Laboratory The Lujan Center Biolab offers a variety of capabilities. 1) Biodeuteration Lab (BDL) We run a protein expression lab for perdeuteration of user proteins. We offer full perdeuteration (~99%) using our algal-based media for bacterial growth. We also have M9 minimal media made in D2O for expression of up to ~85% perdeuteration. Users can use our lab in person or mail-in a plasmid for us to express for them. We also have standard protein expression equipment:

  12. Synchronous Behavior of Two Coupled Biological Neurons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, R.C.; Selverston, A.I.; Elson, R.C.; Selverston, A.I.; Huerta, R.; Rulkov, N.F.; Rabinovich, M.I.; Abarbanel, H.D.; Selverston, A.I.; Huerta, R.; Abarbanel, H.D.

    1998-12-01

    We report experimental studies of synchronization phenomena in a pair of biological neurons that interact through naturally occurring, electrical coupling. When these neurons generate irregular bursts of spikes, the natural coupling synchronizes slow oscillations of membrane potential, but not the fast spikes. By adding artificial electrical coupling we studied transitions between synchrony and asynchrony in both slow oscillations and fast spikes. We discuss the dynamics of bursting and synchronization in living neurons with distributed functional morphology. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Paducah Needs Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Needs Assessment for former Oak Ridge K-25, Paducah, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant production workers.

  14. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallick, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  15. ORISE: Hazard Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hazard Assessments The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) analyzes accumulated data to identify potential workplace hazards to which individuals or groups of workers may be exposed. ORISE assesses both chemical and radiation exposures, and conducts both internal and external radiation dose assessments. Our capabililities include: Linkage of exposure data to site rosters Assessment of retrospective exposures Preparation of assessment protocols Design and testing of dose

  16. Biological and Environmental Research Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V.; Boden, Tom; Cowley, Dave; Dart, Eli; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Rob; Foster, Ian; Goldstone, Robin; Gregurick, Susan; Houghton, John; Izaurralde, Cesar; Johnston, Bill; Joseph, Renu; Kleese-van Dam, Kerstin; Lipton, Mary; Monga, Inder; Pritchard, Matt; Rotman, Lauren; Strand, Gary; Stuart, Cory; Tatusova, Tatiana; Tierney, Brian; Thomas, Brian; Williams, Dean N.; Zurawski, Jason

    2013-09-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In November 2012, ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the DOE SC organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the BER program office. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1) The scale of data sets available to science collaborations continues to increase exponentially. This has broad impact, both on the network and on the computational and storage systems connected to the network. 2) Many science collaborations require assistance to cope with the systems and network engineering challenges inherent in managing the rapid growth in data scale. 3) Several science domains operate distributed facilities that rely on high-performance networking for success. Key examples illustrated in this report include the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) and the Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase). This report expands on these points, and addresses others as well. The report contains a findings section as well as the text of the case studies discussed at the review.

  17. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  18. Acceptance Criteria Framework for Autonomous Biological Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzenitis, J M

    2006-12-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine a set of user acceptance criteria for autonomous biological detection systems for application in high-traffic, public facilities. The test case for the acceptance criteria was the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) operating in high-traffic facilities in New York City (NYC). However, the acceptance criteria were designed to be generally applicable to other biological detection systems in other locations. For such detection systems, ''users'' will include local authorities (e.g., facility operators, public health officials, and law enforcement personnel) and national authorities [including personnel from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the BioWatch Program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)]. The panel members brought expertise from a broad range of backgrounds to complete this picture. The goals of this document are: (1) To serve as informal guidance for users in considering the benefits and costs of these systems. (2) To serve as informal guidance for developers in understanding the needs of users. In follow-up work, this framework will be used to systematically document the APDS for appropriateness and readiness for use in NYC.

  19. Carbon-14 immobilization via the Ba(OH)/sub 2/8H/sub 2/O process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haag, G.L.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Young, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne release of /sup 14/C from various nuclear facilities has been identified as a potential biohazard due to the long half-life of /sup 14/C (5730 yrs) and the ease in which it may be assimilated into the biosphere. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, technology is under development, as part of the Airborne Waste Management Program, for the removal and immobilization of this radionuclide. Prior studies have indicated that the /sup 14/C will likely exist in the oxidized form as CO/sub 2/ and will contribute slightly to the bulk CO/sub 2/ concentration of the gas stream, which is airlike in nature (approx. 330 ppMv CO/sub 2/). The technology under development utilizes the CO/sub 2/ - Ba(OH)/sub 2/ 8H/sub 2/O gas-solid reaction with the mode of gas-solid contacting being a fixed bed. The product, BaCO/sub 3/, possessing excellent thermal and chemical stability, prerequisites for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes. For optimal process operation, studies have indicated that an operating window of adequate size does exist. When operating within the window, high CO/sub 2/ removal efficiency (effluent concentrations < 100 ppBv), high reactant utilization (> 99%), and an acceptable pressure drop across the bed (3 kPa/m at 13 cm/s superficial velocity) are possible. This paper will address three areas of experimental investigation. These areas are (1) micro-scale studies on 150-mg samples to provide information concerning surface properties, kinetics, and equilibrium vapor pressures, (2) macro-scale studies on large fixed beds (4.2 kg reactant) to determine the effects of humidity, temperature, and gas flow-rate upon bed pressure drop and CO/sub 2/ breakthrough, and (3) the design, construction, and initial operation of a pilot unit capable of continuously processing a 34 m/sup 3//h (20 ft/sup 3//min) air-based gas stream.

  20. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N. europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.

  1. Effects of simulated rare earth recycling wastewaters on biological nitrification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-07-16

    Current efforts to increase domestic availability of rare-earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing efforts will result in increased generation of associated wastewaters. In some cases disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological wastewater treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50 and 100 ppm), and the REE extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions above 10 ppm inhibited N.more » europaea activity, even when initially virtually all of the REE was insoluble. The provision of TBP together with Eu increased inhibition of nitrite production by the N. europaea, although TBP alone did not substantially alter nitrifying activity N. winogradskyi was more sensitive to the stimulated wastewaters, with even 10 ppm Eu or Y inducing significant inhibition, and a complete shutdown of nitrifying activity occurred in the presence of the TBP. To analyze the availability of REEs in aqueous solutions, REE solubility has been calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, which is typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but may also be influenced by the formation of a phosphate phase.« less

  2. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  3. Abnormal thermal conductivity in tetragonal tungsten bronze Ba{sub 6−x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T. Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    2014-03-17

    Ba{sub 6−x}Sr{sub x}Nb{sub 10}O{sub 30} solid solution with 0 ≤ x ≤ 6 crystallizes in centrosymmetric tetragonal “tungsten bronze” structure (space group P4/mbm). We report on the x dependence of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline samples measured in the 2–400 K temperature interval. Substitution of Sr for Ba brings about a significant decrease in thermal conductivity at x ≥ 3 accompanied by development of a low-temperature (T ≈ 10–30 K) “plateau” region reminiscent of a glass-like compounds. We explain this behaviour based on a size-driven site occupancy and atomic displacement parameters associated with an alkaline earth atomic positions in the title compounds.

  4. Enhance D. C. resistivity of Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} ceramic by acceptor (Mn) doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Hakikat Arya, G. S.; Pramar, Kusum; Negi, N. S.

    2015-05-15

    In the present work, we prepared Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} and Mn (2 and 3 at % on Ti site) doped Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} ceramic by sol- gel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns reveled that Mn ions did not change the perovskite structure of BST (70/30). The dielectric measurements proved that dielectric constant decreased with Mn doping. The dc resistivity was studied by using I-V measurements. The dc resistivity of the BST increased with Mn doping, which suppressed the leakage current.

  5. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis of gold nanoparticles on Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochmann, A.; Teichert, S.; Katzer, C.; Schmidl, F.

    2015-06-07

    It has been shown recently that the incorporation of gold nanoparticles into Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} enhances the superconducting properties of this material in a significant way. Previous XRD and TEM investigations suggest different crystallographic relations of the gold nanoparticles with respect to the epitaxial Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. Here, detailed investigations of the crystal orientations for a large ensemble of gold nanoparticles with electron backscatter diffraction are reported. The average size of the gold nanoparticles is in the range of 60 nm–80 nm. We identified five different types of heteroepitaxial relationships between the gold nanoparticles and the superconductor film, resulting in complex pole figures. The observed different types of crystallographic orientations are discussed based on good lattice matching and the formation of low energy interfaces.

  6. Giant room-temperature barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Jie; Janolin, Pierre-Eymeric; Infante, Ingrid C.; Dkhil, Brahim E-mail: xlou03@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Lou, Xiaojie E-mail: xlou03@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2014-04-21

    Barocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal is studied by a thermodynamic phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that a giant barocaloric effect can be achieved near room temperature with an adiabatic temperature change of more than 3 K and a temperature span about 50 K. As expected, the electrocaloric peak can be shifted towards room temperature by pressure. However, a slight reduction of the electrocaloric peak is found in contrast to relaxor ferroelectrics and LiNbO{sub 3}. We believe that our findings could open a potential route by combining the barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO{sub 3} single crystal for cooling devices.

  7. A study of electromagnetic characteristics of {sup 124,126,128,130,132,134,136}Ba isotopes performed in the framework of IBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turkan, N.

    2010-01-15

    It was pointed out that the level scheme of the transitional nuclei {sup 124,126,128,130,132,134,136}Ba also can be studied by both characteristics (IBM-1 and IBM-2) of the interacting boson model and an adequate point of the model leading to E2 transitions is therefore confirmed. Most of the {delta}(E2/M1) ratios that are still not known so far are stated and the set of parameters used in these calculations is the best approximation that has been carried out so far. It has turned out that the interacting boson approximation is fairly reliable for the calculation of spectra in the entire set of {sup 124,126,128,130,132,134,136}Ba isotopes.

  8. Electrical conductivity spectra of Sn doped BaTi{sub 0.95}Zr{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; De, S. K.

    2014-05-28

    The alternating current (ac) conductivity spectra of Sn doped BaTi{sub 0.95}Zr{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} prepared by solid state reaction have been studied in the temperature range of 373–473 K. Mixed valency of Sn atoms and the oxygen vacancy controls electrical transport process. The ac conductivity follows Jonscher type power law as a function of frequency. Derived dc conductivity and hopping frequency follow Arrhenius type temperature dependency and have same activation energy. Almost temperature independent nature of frequency exponent indicates that the electrical conduction in Zr and Sn co-doped BaTiO{sub 3} relaxor is quantum mechanical electron tunneling. The conductivity spectra are perfectly scaled using the scaling parameters as dc conductivity and hopping frequency.

  9. Commensurate antiferromagnetic excitations as a signature of the pseudogap in the tetragonal high-Tc cuprate HgBa2CuO4+δ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, M. K.; Dorow, C. J.; Mangin-Thro, L.; Tang, Y.; Ge, Y.; Veit, M. J.; Yu, G.; Zhao, X.; Christianson, A. D.; Park, J. T.; et al

    2016-03-04

    We report that antiferromagnetic correlations have been argued to be the cause of the d-wave superconductivity and the pseudogap phenomena exhibited by the cuprates. Although the antiferromagnetic response in the pseudogap state has been reported for a number of compounds, there exists no information for structurally simple HgBa2CuO4+δ. We report neutron-scattering results for HgBa2CuO4+δ (superconducting transition temperature Tc≈71 K, pseudogap temperature T*≈305 K) that demonstrate the absence of the two most prominent features of the magnetic excitation spectrum of the cuprates: the X-shaped ‘hourglass’ response and the resonance mode in the superconducting state. Instead, the response is Y-shaped, gapped andmore » significantly enhanced below T*, and hence a prominent signature of the pseudogap state.« less

  10. Department of Defense Nuclear/Biological/Chemical (NBC) warfare defense, annual report to Congress. Final report FY96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law No. 103-160, Section 1703, mandates the consolidation of all Department of Defense chemical and biological defense programs. As part of this consolidation, the Secretary of Defense is directed to submit an assessment and a description of plans to improve readiness to survive, fight and win in a chemically or biologically contaminated environment. This report contains modernizations plan summaries which highlight the Department`s approach to improve current NBC defense equipment and resolve current shortcomings in the program.

  11. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  12. Comparative studies of dipole polarizabilities in Sr{sup +}, Ba{sup +}, and Ra{sup +} and their applications to optical clocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, B. K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2009-12-15

    Static dipole polarizabilities are calculated in the ground and metastable states of Sr{sup +}, Ba{sup +} and Ra{sup +} using the relativistic coupled-cluster method. Trends of the electron correlation effects are investigated in these atomic ions. We also estimate the Stark and black-body radiation shifts from these results for these systems for the transitions proposed for the optical frequency standards and compare them with available experimental data.

  13. Structure and magnetic interactions in the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grundmann, Henrik; Schilling, Andreas; Marjerrison, Casey A.; Dabkowska, Hanna A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: We describe for the first time the preparation of single- and polycrystalline members of the solid solution Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}. We report on the structural changes in the solid solution at room temperature depending on the stoichiometry. We describe the peculiar change of the magnetic behavior in the solid solution with the stoichiometry. - Abstract: Solid solutions of the magnetic insulators Ba{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} and Sr{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} (Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8}) have been prepared in polycrystalline form for the first time. Single crystalline material was obtained using a mirror image floating zone technique. X-ray diffraction data taken at room temperature indicate that the space group of Ba{sub 3?x}Sr{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 8} remains unchanged for all values of x, while the cell parameters depend on the chemical composition, as expected. Magnetization data, measured from 300 K down to 2 K, suggest that the interaction constant J{sub d} within the Cr{sup 5+} dimers varies in a peculiar way as a function of x, starting at J{sub d} = 25 K for x = 0, then first slightly dropping to J{sub d} = 18 K for x ? 0.75, before reaching J{sub d} = 62 K for x = 3.

  14. Syntheses and characterization of energetic compounds constructed from alkaline earth metal cations (Sr and Ba) and 1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia Zhengqiang; Chen Sanping; Wei Qing; Qiao Chengfang

    2011-07-15

    Two new energetic compounds, [M(BTE)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub n} (M=Sr(1), Ba(2)) [H{sub 2}BTE=1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that they are isomorphous and exhibit 2D (4,4) net framework, generated by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs linked up by two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE, and the resulting 2D structure is interconnected by hydrogen-bond and strong face to face {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between two tetrazole rings to lead to a 3D supramolecular architecture. DSC measurements show that they have significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties, thermogravimetric analyses, and flame colors of the as-prepared compounds are also investigated in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 2D isomorphous alkaline earth metal complexes were assembled by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE ligands, and the catalytic performances toward thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and photoluminescent properties of them were investigated. Highlights: > Two novel alkaline earth energetic coordination polymers have been prepared.{yields} Both structures are layered based on 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two distinct H{sub 2}BTE coordination modes.{yields} The dehydrated products of the compounds possess good thermostability and significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of AP.

  15. In situ electric field induced domain evolution in Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.3(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakhozheva, M.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Schmitt, L. A.; Acosta, M.; Rödel, J.; Jo, W.

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the lead-free Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.3(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramic was investigated in situ under an applied electric field by transmission electron microscopy. Significant changes in domain morphology of the studied material have been observed under an applied electric field. During the poling process, the domain configurations disappeared, forming a single-domain state. This multi- to single-domain state transition occurred with the formation of an intermediate nanodomain state. After removing the electric field, domain configurations reappeared. Selected area electron diffraction during electrical poling gave no indication of any structural changes as for example reflection splitting. Rather, a contribution of the extrinsic effect to the piezoelectric response of the Ba(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3}-0.3(Ba{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3})TiO{sub 3} was found to be dominant.

  16. Conservation assessment for the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander in northern California.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinikour, W. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Adduci, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-10-20

    The purpose of this conservation assessment is to summarize existing knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander, identify threats to the two species, and identify conservation considerations to aid federal management for persistence of the species. The conservation assessment will serve as the basis for a conservation strategy for the species.

  17. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  18. Geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langmuir, D.; Melchior, D.

    1985-11-01

    The geochemistry of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra sulfates in some deep brines from the Palo Duro Basin of north Texas, was studied to define geochemical controls on radionuclides such as /sup 90/Sr and /sup 226/Ra. Published solubility data for gypsum, anhydrite, celestite, barite and RaSO/sub 4/ were first reevaluated, in most cases using the ion interaction approach of Pitzer, to determine solubility products of the sulfates as a function of temperature and pressure. Ionic strengths of the brines were from 2.9 to 4.8 m, their temperatures and pressures up to 40/sup 0/C and 130 bars. Saturation indices of the sulfates were computed with the ion-interaction approach in one brine from the arkosic granite wash facies and four from the carbonate Wolfcamp Formation. All five brines are saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite and celestite, and three of the five with respect to barite. All are undersaturated by from 5 to 6 orders of magnitude with respect to pure RaSO/sub 4/. /sup 226/Ra concentrations in the brines, which ranged from 10/sup -11.3/ to 10/sup -12.7/ m, are not controlled by RaSO/sub 4/ solubility or adsorption, but possibly by the solubility of trace Ra solid solutions in sulfates including celestite and barite.

  19. High frequency permeability and permittivity spectra of BiFeO{sub 3}/(CoTi)-BaM ferrite composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Yun; Wu, Xiaohan; Li, Qifan; Yu, Ting; Feng, Zekun; Chen, Zhongyan; Su, Zhijuan; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2015-05-07

    Low magnetic loss ferrite composites consisting of Ba(CoTi){sub 1.2}Fe{sub 9.6}O{sub 19} and BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) ferrite were investigated for permeability, permittivity, and high frequency losses at 10 MHz1?GHz. The phase fraction of BiFeO{sub 3} was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction measurements. An effective medium approach was employed to predict the effective permeability and permittivity for the ferrite composites, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The experiment demonstrated low magnetic losses (<0.128), modified by BFO phase fraction, while retaining high permeability (?10.86) at 300?MHz. More importantly, the BFO phase resulted in a reduction of magnetic loss by 32%, as BFO phase increased from 2.7 vol.?% to 12.6 vol.?%. The effect of BFO phase on magnetic and dielectric properties revealed great potential for use in the miniaturization of high efficiency antennas.

  20. Absence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at fully epitaxial Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} interface (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radaelli, G. Petti, D.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-05-07

    Interfacial MagnetoElectric coupling (MEC) at ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interfaces has recently emerged as a promising route to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) system, various MEC mechanisms have been theoretically predicted. Experimentally, it is well established that using BTO single crystal substrates MEC is dominated by strain-mediated mechanisms. In case of ferromagnetic layers epitaxially grown onto BTO films, instead, no direct evidence for MEC has been provided, apart from the results obtained on tunneling junction sandwiching a BTO tunneling barrier. In this paper, MEC at fully epitaxial Fe/BTO interface is investigated by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and magnetoresistance measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated on BTO. We find no evidence for strain-mediated MEC mechanisms in epitaxial systems, likely due to clamping of BTO to the substrate. Our results indicate that pure electronic MEC is the route of choice to be explored for achieving the electrical writing of information in epitaxial ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures.

  1. Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Ba/Rh NOx Traps for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Harold; Vemuri Balakotaiah

    2010-05-31

    In this project a combined experimental and theoretical approach was taken to advance our understanding of lean NOx trap (LNT) technology. Fundamental kinetics studies were carried out of model LNT catalysts containing variable loadings of precious metals (Pt, Rh), and storage components (BaO, CeO{sub 2}). The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor provided transient data under well-characterized conditions for both powder and monolith catalysts, enabling the identification of key reaction pathways and estimation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. The performance of model NOx storage and reduction (NSR) monolith catalysts were evaluated in a bench scale NOx trap using synthetic exhaust, with attention placed on the effect of the pulse timing and composition on the instantaneous and cycle-averaged product distributions. From these experiments we formulated a global model that predicts the main spatio-temporal features of the LNT and a mechanistic-based microkinetic models that incorporates a detailed understanding of the chemistry and predicts more detailed selectivity features of the LNT. The NOx trap models were used to determine its ability to simulate bench-scale data and ultimately to evaluate alternative LNT designs and operating strategies. The four-year project led to the training of several doctoral students and the dissemination of the findings as 47 presentations in conferences, catalysis societies, and academic departments as well 23 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. A condensed review of NOx storage and reduction was published in an encyclopedia of technology.

  2. Giant magnetocaloric effect in magnetoelectric Eu{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}TiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubi, Km; Kumar, Pawan; Maheswar Repaka, D. V.; Chen, Ruofan; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Mahendiran, R.

    2014-01-20

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) in magnetoelectric Eu{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}TiO{sub 3} for 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.9. We find −ΔS{sub m} = 11 (40) J/kg·K in x = 0.1 for a field change of 1 (5) T, respectively, which is the largest value among all Eu-based oxides. ΔS{sub m} arises from the field-induced suppression of the spin entropy of Eu{sup 2+}:4f{sup 7} localized moments. While ∣−ΔS{sub m}∣ decreases with increasing x, ∣−ΔS{sub m}∣ = 6.58 J/kg·K observed in the high spin diluted composition x = 0.9 is larger than that in many manganites. Our results indicate that these magnetoelectrics are potential candidates for cryogenic magnetic refrigeration.

  3. Superconducting gap evolution in overdoped BaFe₂(As1-xPx)₂ single crystals through nanocalorimetry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campanini, D.; Diao, Z.; Fang, L.; Kwok, W.-K.; Welp, U.; Rydh, A.

    2015-06-18

    We report on specific heat measurements on clean overdoped BaFe₂(As1-xPx)₂ single crystals performed with a high resolution membrane-based nanocalorimeter. A nonzero residual electronic specific heat coefficient at zero temperature γr=C/T|T→0 is seen for all doping compositions, indicating a considerable fraction of the Fermi surface ungapped or having very deep minima. The remaining superconducting electronic specific heat is analyzed through a two-band s-wave α model in order to investigate the gap structure. Close to optimal doping we detect a single zero-temperature gap of Δ₀~5.3 me V, corresponding to Δ₀/kBTc ~ 2.2. Increasing the phosphorus concentration x, the main gap reduces tillmore » a value of Δ₀ ~ 1.9 meV for x = 0.55 and a second weaker gap becomes evident. From the magnetic field effect on γr, all samples however show similar behavior [γr(H) - γr (H = 0)∝ Hn, with n between 0.6 and 0.7]. This indicates that, despite a considerable redistribution of the gap weights, the total degree of gap anisotropy does not change drastically with doping.« less

  4. Resonant Spin Excitation in the High Temperature Superconductor Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christianson, Andrew D; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; Rosenkranz, Stephen; Lumsden, Mark D; Malliakas, C.; Todorov, L.; Claus, H.; Chung, D.Y.; Kanatzidis, M.; Bewley, Robert I.; Guidi, T.

    2008-12-18

    A new family of superconductors containing layers of iron arsenide has attracted considerable interest because of their high transition temperatures (T{sub c}), some of which are >50 K, and because of similarities with the high-{sub c} copper oxide superconductors. In both the iron arsenides and the copper oxides, superconductivity arises when an antiferromagnetically ordered phase has been suppressed by chemical doping. A universal feature of the copper oxide superconductors is the existence of a resonant magnetic excitation, localized in both energy and wavevector, within the superconducting phase. This resonance, which has also been observed in several heavy-fermion superconductors is predicted to occur when the sign of the superconducting energy gap takes opposite values on different parts of the Fermi surface, an unusual gap symmetry which implies that the electron pairing interaction is repulsive at short range. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy shows no evidence of gap anisotropy in the iron arsenides, but such measurements are insensitive to the phase of the gap on separate parts of the Fermi surface. Here we report inelastic neutron scattering observations of a magnetic resonance below T{sub c} in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, a phase-sensitive measurement demonstrating that the superconducting energy gap has unconventional symmetry in the iron arsenide superconductors.

  5. Relating electronic and geometric structure of atomic layer deposited BaTiO3 to its electrical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-03-24

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO’s bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Timore » content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate–film interfaces reveal BTO’s homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. As a result, this work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices.« less

  6. Magneto-dielectric coupling and transport properties of the ferromagnetic-BaTiO{sub 3} composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manish E-mail: mkiitbhu2014@gmail.com; Shankar, S. E-mail: mkiitbhu2014@gmail.com; Dwivedi, G. D.; Anshul, A.; Thakur, O. P.; Ghosh, Anup K. E-mail: mkiitbhu2014@gmail.com

    2015-02-16

    Ferromagnetic and large magnetoresistance (MR) nanocomposites of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} (LSMO-BTO) are synthesized via sol-gel route. The X-ray diffraction confirms the existence of two chemically separated phases in the composites. The maximum MR (35%) was achieved in LSMO-5% BTO (LB5). The coupling between the coexisting phases is observed from the dielectric anomaly at the ferromagnetic transition (T{sub c} = 353 K) for LB5 composition. We observed maximum magnetodielectric effect at T{sub c} of 1.18% in magnitude for LB5 and the effect of magnetic field on other composites was significant. These results are related to the large spin polarization within grains as well as at the grain boundaries and the evidence of variation in dielectric parameters with magnetic field reveal the magnetoelectric coupling in LSMO-BTO nanocomposites.

  7. Neutron diffraction study of the magnetic ordering of the Cu sup ++ spins in Nd sub 1. 5 Ba sub 1. 5 Cu sub 3 O sub 6+x

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudden, A.H.; Hennion, B. - Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette ); Schweiss, P. - Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH . Inst. fuer Nukleare Festkoerperphysik); Gehring, P.M.; Shirane, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (

    1991-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering experiments performed on single crystals of Nd{sub 1.5}Ba{sub 1.5}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+y} reveal successive antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering of the Cu{sup ++} spins. The as grown single crystals show an AF structure characterized by a Neel temperature T{sub N1} {approximately} 390K and a magnetic wave vector (1/2 1/2 0) referring to the tetragonal structure of NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6}. As the temperature is lowered below T{sub N2} {approximately} 150K, a spin reorientation develops and a second AF ordering with (1/2 1/2 1/2) wave vector is stabilized. When the samples are oxygenated the tetragonal symmetry and the Neel temperature T{sub N1} remain unchanged, whereas the spin reorientation at T{sub N2} is suppressed. The results indicate that the Nd/Ba substitution increases the stability of the tetragonal structure upon the oxygen content. This may induce new possibilities of local oxygen ordering that favour the presence of holes in the deficient layer.

  8. High mobility field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Chulkwon; Kim, Useong; Ju, Chan Jong; Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Char, Kookrin

    2014-11-17

    We fabricated an n-type accumulation-mode field effect transistor based on BaSnO{sub 3} transparent perovskite semiconductor, taking advantage of its high mobility and oxygen stability. We used the conventional metal-insulator-semiconductor structures: (In,Sn){sub 2}O{sub 3} as the source, drain, and gate electrodes, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate insulator, and La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} as the semiconducting channel. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide was deposited by atomic layer deposition technique. At room temperature, we achieved the field effect mobility value of 17.8?cm{sup 2}/Vs and the I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio value higher than 10{sup 5} for V{sub DS}?=?1?V. These values are higher than those previously reported on other perovskite oxides, in spite of the large density of threading dislocations in the BaSnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. However, a relatively large subthreshold swing value was found, which we attribute to the large density of charge traps in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as well as the threading dislocations.

  9. Effect of calcination temperature on electrical properties of Nd{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, K. P.; Halim, S. A.; Chen, S. K.; Ng, S. W.; Chew, Z. Y.

    2015-04-24

    In this work, Nd{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} was synthesized via cryo-milling method to investigate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure, microstructure, magnetic and electrical properties. XRD analysis revealed all samples can be indexed to orthorhombic structure systems with Imma space group accompany with some minor phases of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and BaMnO{sub 3}. FESEM analysis confirmed that a slight increase in the grain size from 117.4 nm (600C), 119.5 nm (700C), 121.0 nm (800C), 123.1 nm (900C) to 138.4 nm (1000C) was observed when different calcination temperature was applied. Four Point Probe measurements showed that all samples are in paramagnetic insulating region and T{sub MIT} is lower than 20K. Resistivity increase when grain size reduces due to increase of effective grain boundary that weakens the electron hopping process via double exchange mechanism. Beside, a drastic increase of resistivity also observed due to present of minor secondary phase (BaMnO{sub 3}) in sample C9.

  10. Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics a potential blue phosphor for ultra-violet light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weihuan; Zhang, Yuepin Ouyang, Shaoye; Zhang, Zhixiong; Wang, Qian; Xia, Haiping

    2015-01-14

    Eu{sup 2+} doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by melt-quenching technique under a reductive atmosphere. The structure of the glass and glass ceramics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent properties were investigated by transmission, excitation, and emission spectra. The decay time of the Gd{sup 3+} ions at 312?nm excited with 275?nm were also investigated. The results of XRD and TEM indicated the existence of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the transparent glass ceramics. The excitation spectra of Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramics showed an excellent overlap with the main emission region of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Compared with the as-made glass, the emission of glass ceramics is much stronger by a factor of increasing energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions was discussed. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates of glass and glass ceramics specimens were also discussed, which indicated that the Eu{sup 2+} doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics may be used as a potential blue-emitting phosphor for UV-LED.

  11. Magnetisation studies of phase co-existence in Gd{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}BaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thirumurugan, N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)] [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Bharathi, A., E-mail: bharathi@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Arulraj, A.; Sundar, C.S. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)] [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The series Gd{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}BaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5} was synthesised by solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetisation studies were carried out in the 4-300 K temperature range in magnetic fields upto 16 Tesla. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were used to formulate the T versus Ca fraction, phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence for Magnet-electronic phase separation is shown for the first time in the compound. -- Abstract: Magnetic properties of hole doped, oxygen deficient double perovskite compounds, Gd{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}BaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5}, have been investigated. Ferromagnetic transition temperatures increase and the anti-ferromagnetic transition temperatures decrease with Ca substitution leading to stabilisation of ferromagnetisim for x {>=} 0.05. A detailed study of the ferromagnetic phase indicates the presence of double hysterisis loops for Ca fractions, 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.2 in the 50-200 K temperature range, suggestive of the co-existence of two ferromagnetic phases with different co-ercivities. Based on the magnetisation and transport measurements a phase diagram is proposed for Ca doped GdBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5.5}.

  12. Energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Yu; Lu, Xingye; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Tam, David W.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Tian, Wei; Si, Qimiao; Dai, Pengcheng; Luo, Huiqian

    2015-11-06

    In this study, we use inelastic neutron scattering to study the temperature and energy dependence of the spin excitation anisotropy in uniaxial-strained electron-doped iron pnictide BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 near optimal superconductivity (Tc = 20K). Our work has been motivated by the observation of in-plane resistivity anisotropy in the paramagnetic tetragonal phase of electron-underdoped iron pnictides under uniaxial pressure, which has been attributed to a spin-driven Ising-nematic state or orbital ordering. Here we show that the spin excitation anisotropy, a signature of the spin-driven Ising-nematic phase, exists for energies below 60 meV in uniaxial-strained BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2. Since this energy scale is considerably larger thanmore » the energy splitting of the dxz and dyz bands of uniaxial-strained Ba(Fe1–xCox)2As2 near optimal superconductivity, spin Ising-nematic correlations are likely the driving force for the resistivity anisotropy and associated electronic nematic correlations.« less

  13. Direct observation of oxygen-vacancy-enhanced polarization in a SrTiO3-buffered ferroelectric BaTiO3 film on GaAs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qiao, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Contreras-Guerrero, Rocio; Droopad, Ravi; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ogut, Serdar; Klie, Robert F.

    2015-11-16

    The integration of functional oxide thin-films on compound semiconductors can lead to a class of reconfigurable spin-based optoelectronic devices if defect-free, fully reversible active layers are stabilized. However, previous first-principles calculations predicted that SrTiO3 thin filmsgrown on Si exhibit pinned ferroelectric behavior that is not switchable, due to the presence of interfacial vacancies. Meanwhile, piezoresponse force microscopy measurements have demonstrated ferroelectricity in BaTiO3 grown on semiconductor substrates. The presence of interfacial oxygen vacancies in such complex-oxide/semiconductor systems remains unexplored, and their effect on ferroelectricity is controversial. We also use a combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles densitymore » functional theory modeling to examine the role of interfacial oxygen vacancies on the ferroelectricpolarization of a BaTiO3 thin filmgrown on GaAs. Moreover, we demonstrate that interfacial oxygen vacancies enhance the polar discontinuity (and thus the single domain, out-of-plane polarization pinning in BaTiO3), and propose that the presence of surface charge screening allows the formation of switchable domains.« less

  14. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemenman, Ilya; Mugler, Andrew; Ziv, Etay; Wiggins, Chris H

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  15. 2010 Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ana Gonzalez

    2011-03-10

    Advances in basic methodologies have played a major role in the dramatic progress in macromolecular crystallography over the past decade, both in terms of overall productivity and in the increasing complexity of the systems being successfully tackled. The 2010 Gordon Research Conference on Diffraction Methods in Structural Biology will, as in the past, focus on the most recent developments in methodology, covering all aspects of the process from crystallization to model building and refinement, complemented by examples of structural highlights and complementary methods. Extensive discussion will be encouraged and it is hoped that all attendees will participate by giving oral or poster presentations, the latter using the excellent poster display area available at Bates College. The relatively small size and informal atmosphere of the meeting provides an excellent opportunity for all participants, especially younger scientists, to meet and exchange ideas with leading methods developers.

  16. Overview of selected molecular biological databases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayl, K.D.; Gaasterland, T.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the purpose, content, and design of a subset of the currently available biological databases, with an emphasis on protein databases. Databases included in this summary are 3D-ALI, Berlin RNA databank, Blocks, DSSP, EMBL Nucleotide Database, EMP, ENZYME, FSSP, GDB, GenBank, HSSP, LiMB, PDB, PIR, PKCDD, ProSite, and SWISS-PROT. The goal is to provide a starting point for researchers who wish to take advantage of the myriad available databases. Rather than providing a complete explanation of each database, we present its content and form by explaining the details of typical entries. Pointers to more complete ``user guides`` are included, along with general information on where to search for a new database.

  17. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, David Oliver; Yang, Lynn I.; Hammer, Ann E.

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  18. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  19. Biology and Medicine Division annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This book briefly describes the activities of the Biology and Medicine Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. During the past year the Donner Pavilion program on the treatment of arteriovenous malformations in the brain has chalked up very significant successes. The disease control rate has been high and objective measures of success using cerebral angiography have been established. The new high resolution positron emitting tomographic imager has been demonstrated to operate successfully. In the Radiation Biophysics program, the availability of higher mass ions up to uranium has allowed us cell and tissue studies in a radiation domain that is entirely new. Using uranium beams, investigators have already made new and exciting findings that are described in the body of the report.

  20. Caraustar Industries Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This plant-wide assessment case study is about commissioned energy assessments by the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program at two of Caraustar's recycled paperboard mills.

  1. Home Energy Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy...

  2. Solar Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  3. ORISE: Environmental assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental assessments An ORISE technicians performs an environmental assessment The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performs independent, objective environmental assessments to define the extent of radiological contamination at sites scheduled for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). A fundamental aspect of all D&D projects, these environmental assessments provide guidance to determine the best remediation procedures and are a cost-effective method of

  4. Assessing the assessments: Pharmaceuticals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enick, O.V. Moore, M.M.

    2007-11-15

    The relatively new issue of pharmaceutical contamination of the environment offers the opportunity to explore the application of values to the construction, communication and management of risk. The still-developing regulatory policies regarding environmental contamination with pharmaceuticals provide fertile ground for the introduction of values into the definition and management of risk. In this report, we summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmaceutical contamination of the environment and discuss specific attributes of pharmaceuticals that require special consideration. We then present an analysis showing that if values are incorporated into assessing, characterizing and managing risk, the results of risk assessments will more accurately reflect the needs of various stakeholders. Originating from an acknowledgement of the inherent uncertainty and value-laden nature of risk assessment, the precautionary principle (and later, the multi-criteria, integrated risk assessment), provides a direction for further research and policy development.

  5. Management Assessment and Independent Assessment Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-05-31

    The revision to this Guide reflects current assessment practices, international standards, and changes in the Department of Energy expectations. Cancels DOE G 414.1-1. Canceled by DOE G 414.1-1B.

  6. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Assessments Lynn Price Staff Scientist China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Definition and overview of key components - International experience - Chinese situation and recommendations - US-China collaboration Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Analysis of the use of energy and potential for energy efficiency in an industrial facility *

  7. Risk Assessment & Management Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NRC - A Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework, April 2012 Risk Assessment Technical Experts Working Group (RWG) web page DOE Standard on Development and Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in DOE Nuclear Safety Applications (draft), December 2010 Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation Workshop on Risk Assessment and Safety Decision Making Under Uncertainty

  8. NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+w} and steric effect of Nd on valence mixing and ordering of Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, J.; Karen, P.

    2010-11-15

    NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} above and below Verwey transition is studied by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy and compared with GdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} that adopts a higher-symmetry charge-ordered structure typical of the Sm-Ho variants of the title phase. Differences are investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy accounting for iron valence states at their local magnetic and ionic environments. In the charge-ordered state, the orientation of the electric-field gradient (EFG) versus the internal magnetic field (B) agrees with experiment only when contribution from charges of the ordered d{sub xz} orbitals of Fe{sup 2+} is included, proving thus the orbital ordering. The EFG magnitude indicates that only some 60% of the orbital order occurring in the Sm-Ho variants is achieved in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The consequent diminishing of the orbit contribution (of opposite sign) to the field B at the Fe{sup 2+} nucleus explains why B is larger than for the Sm-Ho variants. The decreased orbital ordering in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5} causes a corresponding decrease in charge ordering, which is achieved by decreasing both the amount of the charge-ordered iron states in the sample and their fractional valence separation as seen by the Moessbauer isomer shift. The charge ordering in NdBaFe{sub 2}O{sub 5+w} is more easily suppressed by the oxygen nonstoichiometry (w) than in the Sm-Ho variants. Also the valence mixing into Fe{sup 2.5+} is destabilized by the large size of Nd. The orientation of the EFG around this valence-mixed iron can only be accounted for when the valence-mixing electron is included in the electrostatic ligand field. This proves that the valence mixing occurs between the two iron atoms facing each other across the structural plane of the rare-earth atoms. -- Graphical Abstract: Moessbauer spectrum detects ordering of d{sub xz} orbitals of Fe{sup II}O{sub 5} via the electric-field gradient (EFG) of the orbital, which makes the main component of

  9. Morphology and orientation of β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals patterned by laser in the inside of samarium barium borate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishii, Akihito; Shinozaki, Kenji; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear optical β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines (β-BBO) were patterned in the inside of 8Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–42BaO–50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass by irradiations of continuous-wave Yb:YVO{sub 4} lasers with a wavelength of 1080 nm (power: P=0.8–1.0 W, scanning speed: S=0.2–2.5 μm/s), in which the laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. The morphology, size, and orientation of β-BBO crystals were examined from polarization optical microscope and birefringence imaging observations. It was demonstrated that c-axis oriented β-BBO crystals with long lengths (e.g., 20 mm) were patterned in the inside of the glass. The morphology of β-BBO in the cross-section of lines was a rectangular shape with rounded corners, and the volume of β-BBO formed increased with increasing laser power and with decreasing laser scanning speed. The maximum depth in the inside from the surface for β-BBO patterning increased with increasing laser power, e.g., D{sub max}∼100 μm at P=0.8 W, D{sub max}∼170 μm at P=0.9 W, and D{sub max}∼200 μm at P=1 W. The present study proposes that the laser-induced crystallization opens a new door for applied engineering in glassy solids. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the POM photographs for β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines patterned by cw Yb:YVO{sub 4} fiber laser irradiations with a laser power of P=0.8 W and a laser scanning speed S=2 μm/s in the glass. The laser focal point was moved gradually from the surface into the inside. The results shown in Fig. 1 demonstrate that it is possible to pattern highly oriented β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals even in the inside of glasses. - Highlights: • β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines were patterned in the inside of a glass by lasers. • Laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. • Birefringence imaging was observed. • Morphology, size, and orientation of crystals were clarified. • Crystal lines with long lengths

  10. Deadline Extended for RFI on Biological Hydrogen Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy on Biological Hydrogen Production Deadline Extended for RFI on Biological Hydrogen Production February 26, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis DOE has extended the submission deadline for this Request for Information. Responses must be submitted by 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on March 14, 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) seeking feedback from interested stakeholders regarding biological hydrogen production research

  11. OSTIblog Articles in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (OBER) Abstracts Database Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Biological and Environmental Research (OBER) Abstracts Database Topic Managing the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Project Information by Lorrie Johnson 02 Aug, 2011 in Science Communications 4339 BER%20banner.jpg Managing the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Project Information Read more about 4339

  12. EERE Success Story-California: Breakthrough in Algae Biology | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Breakthrough in Algae Biology EERE Success Story-California: Breakthrough in Algae Biology January 31, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis Researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of California, San Diego, have made a significant breakthrough in algal biology with implications for biofuels. Algae typically overproduce lipid oils-energy-storing fat molecules used in biofuel production-when they are starved for nutrients, but this starvation also limits their growth

  13. DOE Releases Biological Monitoring and Sampling Results Report for the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Amchitka, Alaska, Site | Department of Energy Biological Monitoring and Sampling Results Report for the Amchitka, Alaska, Site DOE Releases Biological Monitoring and Sampling Results Report for the Amchitka, Alaska, Site October 28, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Contractor, Judy Miller, S.M. Stoller Corporation Public Affairs, (970) 248-6363 jmiller@lm.doe.gov GRAND JUNCTION, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced the availability of the Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring

  14. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Research: Target 2014 Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research: Target 2014 BERFrontcover.png A BER / ASCR / NERSC Workshop May 7-8, 2009 Final Report Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research, Report of the Joint BER / NERSC Workshop Conducted May 7-8, 2009 Rockville, MD Goals This workshop was jointly organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological & Environmental

  15. Synthetic biology and crop engineering | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synthetic biology and crop engineering Synthetic biology and crop engineering Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Jonathan Burbaum, Program Director, Department of Energy, Office of Science, ARPA-E b13_burbaum_2-a.pdf (1.63 MB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0481: Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0481: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Programmatic

  16. Home Energy Assessments

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dispenza, Jason

    2013-05-29

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  17. Lessons about vulnerability assessments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory believes that physical security can only be optimized through the use of effective vulnerability assessments. As a result of conducting vulnerability assessments on hundreds of different security devices and systems in the last few years, we have identified some of the attributes of effective assessments. These, along with our recommendations and observations about vulnerability assessments, are summarized in this paper. While our work has primarily involved physical security (in contrast to, for example, computer, network, or information security), our experiences may have applicability to other types of security as well.

  18. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Biology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University Williams, John M. (John M. Williams) - Petroleum Engineering program, Petroleum Institute (Abu Dhabi) Go ...

  19. Micro/nanofabricated environments for synthetic biology (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Artificial micro- and nanofabricated structures have helped elucidate the effects of nanoscale spatial confinement and segregation on biological behavior, particularly when ...

  20. Genomics and Systems Biology of Tuberculosis (2009 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Galagan, James

    2011-04-25

    James Galagan from the Broad Institute spoke about the "Genomics and Systems Biology of TB" on March 26, 2009 during the 4th Annual User Meeting