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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

Not Available

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Fermentation method producing ethanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Ethanol Myths: Under the Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, transport to facility, convert to ethanol, and distribute Future biomass feedstocks will come primarily from

Pawlowski, Wojtek

4

Process for producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

5

Ethanol production from lignocellulose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Major DOE...

7

Ethanol Myths and Facts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts Ethanol Myths and Facts More Documents & Publications Biofuels & Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Myths versus Facts Microsoft Word -...

8

NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biorefinery decreased from -0.03 to -1.2 kg CO 2e gal ethanol, while fossil energy demand decreased from 0.85 to -13.66 MJgal ethanol (design case versus 2012 SOT case,...

9

Ethanol Production Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM standard D4806. The total credit amount available for all...

10

Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant? JAMES M. GRIFFIN & RACHAEL DAHL The Mosbacher Institute VOLUME 3 | ISSUE 2 | 2012 2012 RELAXING THE ETHANOL MANDATE The severity of the drought of 2012 affecting for ethanol production, 6.72 BB for domestic food and feed and the remainder for exports (Figure 1). The USDA

Boas, Harold P.

11

Sorghum to Ethanol Research  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called �dedicated bioenergy crops� including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help provide a major portion of the feedstocks required to produce renewable domestic transportation fuels.

Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Xylose fermentation to ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale SustainableHydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol •Ethanol, ethyl alcohol, fermentation ethanol, or just “

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Form in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Ethanol Ordering Process Effective March 11, 2013, Ethanol must be ordered through an Ethanol Services will accept faxed orders for Ethanol. · Monday, March 11, 2013 is the first day the PantherExpress System will accept orders for Ethanol. Requirements · Your PantherExpress System account must be properly

Sibille, Etienne

15

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Consumption by Rat Dams During Gestation, Lactation and Weaning Increases Ethanol examined effects of ethanol consumption in rat dams during gestation, lactation, and weaning on voluntary ethanol consumption by their adolescent young. We found that exposure to an ethanol-ingesting dam

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

16

Ethanol-blended Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted forEstimationEthanol-Blended

17

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ethanol can be combined with gasoline in blends ranging from E10 (10% or less ethanol, 90% gasoline) up to E85 (up to 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). The Renewable Fuels Standard (under the Energy...

18

Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ethanol Ethanol blend prices are generally 10 cents lower Net Ethanol price at wholesale today is more than 1.50+gal lower than gasoline. Higher blends may emerge in the...

19

Ethanol production in non-recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Non-recombinant bacteria that produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product, associated nucleic acids and polypeptides, methods for producing ethanol using the bacteria, and kits are disclosed.

Kim, Youngnyun; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O.

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

20

Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility Louisiana: Verenium Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Facility April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2010, Verenium...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle Midwest fields, waiting to rot or be processed into ethanol. Interestingly, the National Corn Growers

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

22

Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon supported PtRh catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell S 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Pt reserved. 1. Introduction In terms of fuel, a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is more attractive than

Zhao, Tianshou

23

Ethanol Waivers: Needed or Irrelevant?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of the magnitude of the existing corn harvest shortfall coupled with the large ethanol mandates, policymakers face extreme uncertainties looking into the future with potentially large economic ramifications. Precisely, because neither...

Griffin, James M.; Dahl, Rachel

24

Relationships between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake in mice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4.2.3. Ethanol Vapor Sessions . . . . . . . . .4.2.4.scheduling a?ects subsequent voluntary ethanol 2.1.of circadian period to ethanol intake . . . . . . . . . .

Trujillo, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl.Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentGenetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialproducts, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the

Fortman, J.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of glucose from cellulose Projected Cellulosic Ethanol CostsEthanol Research • Improve the understanding of biomass fractionation, pretreatment, and cellulosecellulose to glucose, and ferment all sugars Ethanol

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Ethanol fuel for diesel tractors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ethanol fuel in turbocharged diesel tractors is considered. The investigation was performed to evaluate the conversion of a diesel tractor for dual-fueling with ethanol by attaching a carburetor to the inlet air system or with the use of an alcohol spray-injection kit. In this system the mixture of water and alcohol is injected into the air stream by means of pressure from the turbocharger. The carburetor was attached to a by-pass apparatus which allowed the engine to start and shut off on diesel alone. Approximately 46% of the energy for the turbocharged 65 kW diesel tractor could be supplied by carbureted ethanol, and about 30% by the spray-injection approach. Knock limited the extent of substitution of ethanol for diesel fuel. The dual-fueling with ethanol caused a slight increase in brake thermal efficiency. Exhaust temperatures were much lower for equivalent high torque levels. Maximum power was increased by 36% with the spray-injection approach and about 59% with carburetion.

da Cruz, J.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

Hadder, G.R.

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Enabling High Efficiency Ethanol Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to explore the potential to improve the energy efficiency of spark-ignited engines operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. By taking advantage of the fuel properties of ethanol, such as high compression ratio and high latent heat of vaporization, it is possible to increase efficiency with ethanol blends. Increasing the efficiency with ethanol-containing blends aims to remove a market barrier of reduced fuel economy with E85 fuel blends, which is currently about 30% lower than with petroleum-derived gasoline. The same or higher engine efficiency is achieved with E85, and the reduction in fuel economy is due to the lower energy density of E85. By making ethanol-blends more efficient, the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85 can be reduced. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has extensive knowledge and experience in powertrain components and subsystems as well as overcoming real-world implementation barriers. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise in non-traditional fuels and improving engine system efficiency for the next generation of internal combustion engines. Partnering to combine these knowledge bases was essential towards making progress to reducing the fuel economy gap between gasoline and E85. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, usually on a bi-weekly basis, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided substantial hardware support to the project by providing components for the single-cylinder engine experiments, engineering support for hardware modifications, guidance for operational strategies on engine research, and hardware support by providing a flexible multi-cylinder engine to be used for optimizing engine efficiency with ethanol-containing fuels.

Szybist, J.; Confer, K. (Delphi Automotive Systems)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ferment all sugars Ethanol recovery Fuel ethanol Residuecellulosic ethanol that is competitive as a pure fuel •Fuels Ocean/ hydro Geothermal Transportation Electricity Hydrogen Batteries Nuclear By Lee Lynd, Dartmouth Ethanol •

Wyman, C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbialtechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of workstrategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently

Fortman, J.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

petroleum and to cut greenhouse gas emissions. A new blend of ethanol and conventional gasoline was to cost- tive, the current blend of E10 (or 10% ethanol) gasoline offers pros and cons. The btu efficiency of a gallon of ethanol is about 40% less than a gallon of conventional gasoline. So, an E10 blend requires 4

Meagher, Mary

35

Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of ethanol preservation on otolith microchemistry K. J. HEDGES*, S. A. LUDSIN*§ AND B. J coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to examine the effects of exposure time to ethanol (0, 1, 3, 9, 27 and 81 days) and ethanol quality (ACS- v. HPLC- grade) on strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba

36

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors H U U B H . J . C O X , T H O M A S S E X of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s

37

Original article Parallel selection of ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Parallel selection of ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster significantly with latitude (0.036 ! 0.004 for 1° latitude; genetic divergence FST = 0.25). Patterns of ethanol of latitudinal ethanol tolerance (10 to 15%) and acetic-acid tolerance (3.7 to 13.2%) were observed in adult

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Ethanol production by recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

Fowler, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Horton, Philip G. (Gainesville, FL); Ben-Bassat, Arie (Gainesville, FL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ethanol production by recombinant hosts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel plasmids comprising genes which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase are described. Also described are recombinant hosts which have been transformed with genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate. By virtue of their transformation with these genes, the recombinant hosts are capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product. Also disclosed are methods for increasing the growth of recombinant hosts and methods for reducing the accumulation of undesirable metabolic products in the growth medium of these hosts. Also disclosed are recombinant host capable of producing significant amounts of ethanol as a fermentation product of oligosaccharides and plasmids comprising genes encoding polysaccharases, in addition to the genes described above which code for the alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate decarboxylase. Further, methods are described for producing ethanol from oligomeric feedstock using the recombinant hosts described above. Also provided is a method for enhancing the production of functional proteins in a recombinant host comprising overexpressing an adhB gene in the host. Further provided are process designs for fermenting oligosaccharide-containing biomass to ethanol.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Beall, David S. (Gainesville, FL); Burchhardt, Gerhard F. H. (Gainesville, FL); Guimaraes, Walter V. (Vicosa, BR); Ohta, Kazuyoshi (Miyazaki, JP); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL); Shanmugam, Keelnatham T. (Gainesville, FL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Ethanol annual report FY 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the research progress and accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Ethanol from Biomass Program, field managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute, during FY 1990. The report includes an overview of the entire program and summaries of individual research projects. These projects are grouped into the following subject areas: technoeconomic analysis; pretreatment; cellulose conversion; xylose fermentation; and lignin conversion. Individual papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Texeira, R.H.; Goodman, B.J. (eds.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Process for producing ethanol from syngas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Food for fuel: The price of ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.

Albino, Dominic K; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with uranium contaminated subsurface sediment to assess the geochemical and microbial community response to ethanol amendment. A...

45

Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mid-Blend Ethanol Fuels ? Implementation Perspectives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Blend Ethanol Fuels - Implementation Perspectives William Woebkenberg - US Fuels Technical and Regulatory Affairs Mercedes-Benz Research & Development North America July 25, 2013...

47

High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet,*, Eric Apel, Daven K. Henze,§ Jason Hill, Julian D. Marshall, Hanwant B-Chem chemical transport model to constrain present-day North American ethanol sources, and gauge potential long

Mlllet, Dylan B.

49

PEMFC Power System on EthanolPEMFC Power System on Ethanol Caterpillar Inc.Caterpillar Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. RichardsThomas J. Richards #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cells 2003 Annual Merit Review 21 May 2003 #12;PEM ETHANOL FUEL CELL In 2003, a 10-15 kW stationary PEM fuel cell system examines the durability of a PEM based fuel cell system while operating on ethanol - a renewable fuel

50

Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ethanol Fuel Use Dylan B. Millet*,1 , Eric Apel2 , Daven K. Henze3 , Jason Hill1 , Julian D. Marshall1S1 Natural and Anthropogenic Ethanol Sources in North America and Potential Atmospheric Impacts INFORMATION Supporting Information contains a total of 12 pages, 1 table, and 7 figures. 1. AIRBORNE ETHANOL

Mlllet, Dylan B.

51

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformationCenterResearch Highlights MediaFuelAboutCase StudiesElectricityEthanol

52

Ace Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 SouthWaterBrasil Jump to: navigation, searchAcciona SA JumpEnergyEthanol

53

Mid-Level Ethanol Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev. 05 Oak09 U . SThe MarchMid-Level Ethanol

54

Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Ramsey County, Minnesota September with the Gopher State Ethanol, St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota. It is based on a formal site evaluation....................................................................................................................... 3 Ethanol Production

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

55

Alternative Fuel Tool Kit How to Implement: Ethanol (E85)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a renewable alternative transportation fuel blend of gasoline and ethanol. Ethanol (C2H5OH, a.k.a. ethyl, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends" by the US Department of Energy ( US DOE).1,2 The dominant ethanol/gasoline blends in the United States are up to 10% ethanol (E10) and up to 83% ethanol (E85). More

56

Biotech Breakthrough Produces Ethanol from Waste Glycerin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Biodiesel is one of the green alternatives and US production of this fuel is at an all-time high, with new biodiesel plants being constructed in record number. However, there is one problem, the fact. They developed a new technology that transforms glycerin into ethanol, another ecological fuel. Ethanol

Stuart, Steven J.

57

Diesel-engine fumigation with aqueous ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three cylinder, two cycle diesel engine, rated at 22KW at 2300 rpm, was fumigated with ethanol of 140-to-200 proofs. P-T diagrams and engine performance were analyzed with particular emphasis on the detection and evaluation of the knock phenomenon. Satisfactory full load operation was obtained with thirty percent of the fuel energy supplied as aqueous ethanol.

McLaughlin, S.L.; Stephenson, K.Q.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Clark, David P. (Carbondale, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

60

acute ethanol exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

acute ethanol challenge: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

62

affects ethanolic fermentation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) A good...

63

Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-B:...

64

Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline Feasability Study - Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Section 243 Report to Congress: Dedicated Ethanol Pipeline...

65

Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425) Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

66

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1 Updated Feb 2009 Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and...

67

acute ethanol assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Delaine 2008-10-10 3 Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of St. Paul Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Public Health Assessment Gopher State Ethanol, City of...

68

Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Fuel Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol...

69

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007) Cellulosic ethanol: biofuel researchers prepare toBiofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial welltechnologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution. (Refs. 6).

Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Dual-fueling turbocharged diesels with ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray addition and carburetion methods were tested for dual-fueling a turbocharged, 65 kW diesel tractor. Approximately 30 percent of the fuel energy for the tractor was supplied by spraying ethanol into the intake air and about 46 percent by carburetion with little affect on the engine thermal efficiency. Further substitution of diesel fuel with ethanol was limited by knock. As the amount of ethanol fed into the engine was increased, ignition apparently changed from the steady burning process which normally occurs in a diesel engine to a rapid explosion which caused knock. The best fuel for the spray approach was a 50 percent ethanol/water solution and with the carburetor it was an 80 percent ethanol/water solution.

Cruz, J.M.; Rotz, C.A.; Watson, D.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

Minnesota, University of

75

Ethanol Production, Distribution, and Use: Discussions on Key Issues (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From production to the environment, presentation discusses issues surrounding ethanol as a transportation fuel.

Harrow, G.

2008-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Tolerance Caused by slowpoke Induction in Drosophila Roshani B. Cowmeadow, Harish R in the ethanol response. Caenorhabditis elegans carrying mutations in this gene have altered ethanol sensitivity and Drosophila mutant for this gene are unable to acquire rapid tolerance to ethanol or anesthetics

Atkinson, Nigel

77

Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

78

Natural Gas Ethanol Flex-Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas Propane Electric Ethanol Flex-Fuel Biodiesel Vehicle Buyer's Guide Clean Cities 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Compressed Natural Gas and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane

79

Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Cellulose, ethanol, biofuel, Clostridiumincreases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrassincreases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Transportation risk assessment for ethanol transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the quantitative risks involved with an ethanol pipeline. Pipelines that run from the Midwest, where the vast majority of ethanol is produced, to the target areas where reformulated gasoline is required (California, Texas Gulf Coast, New England Atlantic Coast... Atlantic Coast because of the large volume. It is beneficial to look at these areas as opposed to the iv smaller areas because pipeline transportation requires very large volumes. In order to find a meaningful comparison between all three...

Shelton Davis, Anecia Delaine

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Biological production of ethanol from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

M. Clark Dale

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1982 19801205. Ethanol and fuel product production.The first generation fuel ethanol is derived from starch andfor bioconversion to fuel ethanol because it not only

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was used to vaporize ethanol fuel. The vaporizer wasmixture of the evaporated ethanol fuel and the nitrogen gas.premixed flames of ethanol and other fuels for comparison

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stimulation reward: effects of ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Resstimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal. J Pharmacol Expthe "anxiogenic" response to ethanol withdrawal in the rat.

Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EthanolOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeCELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of U.S.

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Length of Stay Following Trauma is not Affected by Ethnicity When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When Controlled for Ethanol Intoxication Craig Mangum, MD;properly controlled for ethanol and drug intoxication. Wepatients, controlling for ethanol intoxication. Methods:

Mangum, Craig; LoVecchio, Frank; Mathieson, Kathleen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5 EthanolBazua, D.C. and C.R. Wilke, "Ethanol Effects on the Kineticsto the Production of Ethanol, LBL-5963. (Submitted to

Wilke, C.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60,700 ETHANOL RECOVERY Dist. Column CondenserF2 Steam Exchanger Ethanol Absorber 10 ft. diameter. 38Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report, LBL-

Wilke, Charles R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL BERKELEY PROGRAM--JulyXylose Fermentation to Ethanol (a) (b) Fusarium oxysporum (OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13 Javier Perez I II. ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES A. B.Development Studies of Ethanol Production--------------- 19of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (June 1979) and (b)

Wilke, Charles R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,of ethanol, isobutene and MTBE: Experiments and modeling”,

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-temperature oxidation of ethanol. Part 2. -Kineticof high-temperature ethanol ignition”, Soviet Journal ofKinetic modeling of ethanol pyrolysis and combustion”,

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alvarez AI: Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exerciseR, Urbano-Marquez A: Acute ethanol treatment decreasesA: Comparative effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate

Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL underBioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol, LBL-of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation (with

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." Reportand Continuous Cellulose Hydrolysis with and without EthanolLindsey. CELLULOSE BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

Wilke, C.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." ReportOf Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol I Charles R. WilkeBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL Charlesof Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Lawrence Berkeley

Wilke, Charles R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol." (JuneBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL Charles

Wilke, Charles R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. ReferencesBioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-to the ethanol cost assuming a complete cellulose conversion

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with either enzyme or cellulose, III, ETHANOL FERMENTATIONof Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report,of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," Progress Report,

Wilke, Charles R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL underof Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation, withCandidate. CELLULOSE BIOCONVERSION TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%.

Oulman, Charles S. [Ames, IA; Chriswell, Colin D. [Slater, IA

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Process of concentrating ethanol from dilute aqueous solutions thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Relatively dilute aqueous solutions of ethanol are concentrated by passage through a bed of a crystalline silica polymorph, such as silicalite, to adsorb the ethanol with residual dilute feed in contact with the bed, which is displaced by passing concentrated aqueous ethanol through the bed without displacing the adsorbed ethanol. A product concentrate is then obtained by removing the adsorbed ethanol from the bed together with at least a portion of the concentrated aqueous ethanol used as the displacer liquid. This process permits ethanol to be concentrated from dilute fermentation beers, which may contain from 6 to 10% ethanol, to obtain a concentrate product at very low energy cost having an ethanol concentration in excess of 95%, such as a concentration of from 98 to 99.5%. 5 figs.

Oulman, C.S.; Chriswell, C.D.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

107

Biological production of ethanol from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, rhodium, ruthenium, manganese in combination with iron and possibly osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 2,4-diazabicyclooctane, dimethylneopentylamine, N-methylpiperidine and derivatives of N-methylpiperidine.

Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

1981-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

Feder, Harold M. (Darien, IL); Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Method and system for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

112

Investigation of the Photocatalytic Degradation of Ethanol and Acetone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-situ transmission Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy has been used to study the photocatalytic oxidation of acetone, ethanol and the interaction between acetone and ethanol. Compared with the degradation of acetone alone, it cannot...

Liu, Y.; Ding, B.; Dong, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so,Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentethanol production, the advances are applicable to the production of a variety of fuel

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ABSTRACT CODED SPECTROSCOPY FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas Mc FOR ETHANOL DETECTION IN DIFFUSE, FLUORESCENT MEDIA by Scott Thomas McCain Department of Electrical

115

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bio-diesel is favored in several European countries, ethanol dominates the majority of the world biofuel market,

Fortman, J.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bio-diesel is favored in several European countries, ethanol dominates the majority of the world biofuel market,

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Dynamics of Evolution in the Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and background in television receiver industry. The second driving force is security of supply. There are two important supply points along the value chain - supply of feedstock for ethanol production and supply of ethanol for gasoline blending... some evidence of increasing vertical integration. Table 1: Biofuel Policy and Blending Segments in Four Major Countries/Region 5 E denotes ethanol. E5 is a fuel with 5% ethanol content in gasoline...

Chan, Jin Hooi; Reiner, David

118

Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CLOVER-GRASS MIXTURES FOR ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CLOVER- GRASS MIXTURES FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION MARTÍN, C.1,2 , THOMSEN, M. H

120

Clean Cities: Ethanol Basics, Fact Sheet, October 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Document answers frequently asked questions about ethanol as a transportation fuel, including those on production, environmental effects, and vehicles.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

TOLERANT ETHANOL ESTIMATION IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES DURING MAF SENSOR DRIFTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ethanol-gasoline blend em Mass fraction of ethanol in ethanol-gasoline blend pm Intake manifold absolute operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol. This blend Engineering Dearborn, Michigan 48121 ABSTRACT Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of ethanol

Stefanopoulou, Anna

122

THE 2001 NET ENERGY BALANCE OF CORN-ETHANOL (PRELIMINARY)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 THE 2001 NET ENERGY BALANCE OF CORN-ETHANOL (PRELIMINARY) Hosein Shapouri*, U.S. Department Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL. 60439 ABSTRACT This report estimates the net energy balance to produce ethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that corn ethanol has a positive energy balance, even

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

123

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron Smith July 12, 2012 Abstract Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of US gasoline, up from 3% in 2003-level blend mandates, and supported by direct subsidies such as the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit. Some

Rothman, Daniel

124

Biofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofuel derived from Microalgae Corn-based Ethanol #12;Outline · Production processes for each;Definitions Biofuel: clean fuel made from animal and plant fats and tissues (Hollebone, 2008) Ethanol species (sizes from a few- a few hundred µm) (Wikipedia, 2008) #12;How is ethanol produced from corn

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

125

Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication J. S. Rhodes*, , M. M. Ford , C described a simple procedure, Drinking in the Dark (DID), in which C57BL/6J mice self-administer ethanol to a blood ethanol concentration (BEC) above 1 mg/ml. The test consists of replacing the water with 20

Garland Jr., Theodore

126

UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

127

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to manufacture fuel ethanol (Rosentrater and Muthukumarappan, 2006). In 2008, 174 operating ethanol plantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Utilization of diets containing graded levels of ethanol production co-Pascual, 2000), fuel-based DDGS are a co-product of dry mill pro- cessing, where primarily corn is used

128

What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to many, the uniqueness of cellu- losic ethanol as a sustainable, liquid transportation fuel, which canWhat is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol Charles E. Wyman Chemical of Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506, USA Ethanol made biologically from cellulosic

California at Riverside, University of

129

RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose steps to their practical usage for ethanol production. Ideally, a recombinant microorganism, possessing the capability to utilize cellulose for simultaneous growth and ethanol production, is of great interest. We have

Chen, Wilfred

130

Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle First Draft Tad W. Patzek Department of Civil legitimately ask: Why do the various energy balances of the corn-ethanol cycle still differ so much? Why do some authors claim that the corn-ethanol cycle has a positive net energy balance (Wang et al., 1997

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

131

GUV formation protocol: -Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GUV formation protocol: Materials: - Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning - 5-10 µl glass with ethanol and DI water using Kimwipes alternating the solvents at least twice to make sure any grease-ring using a Kimwipe and ethanol. Use Que-tip or grease slide to apply a thin layer of vacuum grease to one

Movileanu, Liviu

132

Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production Yeast Studies on Physiology Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2014 #12;Dekkera bruxellensis, a Non-conventional Ethanol Production in several ethanol production plants, which nevertheless had a high efficiency in one of the monitored

133

The Renewable Fuel Standard and Ethanol Pricing: A Sensitivity Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biofuel. The current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022. A large proportion of the mandate is to consist of corn-based ethanol. Most ethanol is consumed in the U.S. as a 10 percent blend of ethanol...

McNair, Robert

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances in Drosophila melanogaster: similar maternal) Summary - Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerances were studied in a cross between 2 geo- graphic races disappeared in the F2. Further investigations demonstrated that for ethanol tolerance, the large difference

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Ethanol and acetic-acid tolerance in Indian geographical populations of Drosophila clines of ethanol toler- ance (1.5-4.2%) and acetic-acid tolerance (2.9-4.9%) were observed in adult individuals of 4 geographical populations of Drosophila immigrans. Thus, both ethanol and acetic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol intracellular cAMP levels in the brain. However, the role of PDE4 in ethanol consumption remains unknown

137

EA-1694: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for the Cellulosic Ethanol Facility in Highlands County, Florida  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to issue a Federal loan guarantee to Highlands Ethanol, LLC, for a cellulosic ethanol facility in Highlands County, Florida. This EA is on hold.

138

Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal (Gainesville, FL); Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F. (Gainesville, FL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

144

What Do We Know About Ethanol and Alkylates as Pollutants?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gov. Davis issued Executive Order D-5-99 in March 1999 calling for removal of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline no later than December 31, 2002. The Executive Order required the California Air Board, State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to prepare an analysis of potential impacts and health risks that may be associated with the use of ethanol as a fuel oxygenate. The SWRCB contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to lead a team of researchers, including scientists from Clarkson University, University of Iowa, and University of California, Davis, in evaluating the potential ground and surface water impacts that may occur if ethanol is used to replace MTBE. These findings are reported in the document entitled Health and Environmental Assessment of the Use of Ethanol as a Fuel Oxygenate. This document has been peer reviewed and presented to the California Environmental Policy Council and may be viewed at: http://www-erd.llnl.gov/ethanol/. Ethanol used for fuels is made primarily from grains, but any feed stock containing sugar, starch, or cellulose can be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol contains 34.7% oxygen by weight. It is less dense than water, but infinitely soluble in water. Ethanol vapors are denser than air. One and a half gallons of ethanol have the same energy as one gallon of gasoline. Pure fuel ethanol, and gasoline with ethanol, conducts electricity, while gasoline without ethanol is an insulator. Corrosion and compatibility of materials is an issue with the storage of pure ethanol and gasoline with high percentages of ethanol, but these issues are less important if gasoline with less than 10% ethanol is used.

Rich, D W; Marchetti, A A; Buscheck, T; Layton, D W

2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

145

NREL Proves Cellulosic Ethanol Can Be Cost Competitive (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol from non-food sources - known as "cellulosic ethanol" - is a near-perfect transportation fuel: it is clean, domestic, abundant, and renewable, and it can potentially replace 30% of the petroleum consumed in the United States, but its relatively high cost has limited its market. That changed in 2012, when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrated the technical advances needed to produce cellulosic ethanol at a minimum ethanol selling price of $2.15/gallon (in 2007 dollars). Through a multi-year research project involving private industry, NREL has proven that cellulosic ethanol can be cost competitive with other transportation fuels.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Surface-induced anisotropic orientations of interfacial ethanol molecules at air/sapphire (1-102) and ethanol/sapphire (1-102) interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SSP-SFVS spectra of the ethanol liquid/? -Al 2 O 3 ( 1102 )In Ref. 7, ? for the first ethanol monolayer was assumed toassumptions led to results on ethanol bilayers different

Sung, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Great Plains Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio: EnergyGrasslands Renewable Energy LLCGray,Boiling SpringsLakesEthanol

151

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blends  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanol Blends to

152

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Feedstocks  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanol Blends

153

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Related Links  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticutEthanol Printable Version Share

154

Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

McMillan, J.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

Wolfe, R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

Lynd, L.R.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol RevNext- generation cellulosic ethanol technologies and theirProduction of cellulosic ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy balance of corn ethanol revisited, Transaction offor autoignition. The wet ethanol modeling study [REF] usedengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacteria engineered for fuel ethanol production: currentcharacterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-Lin Y, Tanaka S. 2006. Ethanol fermentation from biomass

Tang, Yinjie J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

PILOT PLANT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JUNE 30, 1977  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose to Ethanol" to the Professionaland produce ethanol directly from cellulose. The methodof Cellulose by Coupling with Ethanol Fermentation." ,.l

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Simultaneous cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by an engineered yeast consortium displaying a functional mini-cellulosome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cell growth and ethanol production from cellulose by anKeywords: cellulose, cellulosome, ethanol, yeast,growth and ethanol production from cellulose. However,

Goyal, Garima; Tsai, Shen-Long; Madan, Bhawna; DaSilva, Nancy A; Chen, Wilfred

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concen- tration of up of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol. This blend is denoted by the EXX nomenclature, where XX represents the volumetric percentage of ethanol in the gasoline-ethanol blend. E85

Stefanopoulou, Anna

163

Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process...

164

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis For Corn Stover Lignocellulosic Biomass to...

165

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc.187 24 Fukuda, H. et al. (2001) Biodiesel fuel production by26 Chisti, Y. (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol.

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Andy Aden Feb. 5, 2009 The Current State of Technology for Cellulosic Ethanol National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy...

167

Wet Gasification of Ethanol Residue: A Preliminary Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary technoeconomic assessment has been made of several options for the application of catalytic hydrothermal gasification (wet gasification) to ethanol processing residues.

Brown, Michael D.; Elliott, Douglas C.

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

168

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol and plant-based biodiesel ( Box 1). Although bio-acid pathway Currently, biodiesel production uses plant oilsbeen developed for use as biodiesel. However, if biodiesel

Fortman, J.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Ethanol enhances collective dynamics of lipid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and all atom molecular dynamics simulations we present evidence for a low-energy dynamical mode in the fluid phase of a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer immersed in a 5% water/ethanol solution. In addition to the well-known phonon that shows a liquidlike dispersion with energies up to 4.5 meV, we observe an additional mode at smaller energies of 0.8 meV, which shows little or no dispersion. Both modes show transverse properties and might be related to molecular motion perpendicular to the bilayer.

Kaye, Martin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Schmalzl, Karin [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Outstation at ILL, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti Nibali, Valeria [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, I-98100 Messina (Italy); Tarek, Mounir [UMR 7565, Structure et Reactivite des Systemes Moleculaires Complexes, CNRS-Nancy University, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rheinstaedter, Maikel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 Canada (Canada); Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council Canada, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

Milinkovic, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The remaining requirement for energy i is for producing a dried, high protein, an feed by-product from the stillage remai after the ethanol has been stripped from beer. The stillage initially contains about solids, of which about 55% is suspended mat... The basic process, shown in Figure 7, st with separation of the suspended solids from dissolved solids. Early practice was to use screens to achieve this separation followed by presses to dewater the solids, but ost distilleries now use solid bowl...

Easley, C. E.

172

Gulf Ethanol Corp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county inAl., It isOpenForestry,Gulf CoastEthanol

173

Brazil Ethanol Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGEFairfield(CTI PFAN)Brasilia,EnergyEthanol

174

Ethanol Capital Funding | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 NoSan Leandro,Law and PolicyEssex County is aEstonia:Ethanol

175

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fuel Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWayElectricity Fuel Basics to someone byEthanol

176

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWayElectricity Fuel Basics to someone byEthanolFueling

177

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWayElectricity Fuel Basics to someoneEthanol Vehicle

178

Kansas Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverviewKanematsu Corporation JumpEthanol LLC Jump to:

179

Low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol and ethanol-PRF blends: An experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this brief communication, we present new experimental species profile measurements for the low and intermediate temperature oxidation of ethanol under knock-prone conditions. These experiments show that ethanol exhibits no global low temperature reactivity at these conditions, although we note the heterogeneous decomposition of ethanol to ethylene and water. Similar behavior is reported for an E85 blend in n-heptane. Kinetic modeling results are presented to complement these experiments and elucidate the interaction of ethanol and primary reference fuels undergoing cooxidation. (author)

Haas, Francis M.; Chaos, Marcos; Dryer, Frederick L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel engines Anil Singh Bika, Luke Franklin, Prof. David B. Kittelson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol in Diesel enginesHydrogen assisted combustion of ethanol a means of using nearly pure ethanol as a diesel engine fuel by using hydrogen rich gases to facilitate of combustion (SOC) · A good diesel fuel has a low ignition delay period and hence a high CN · Ethanol has

Minnesota, University of

182

Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Divergence in Cactophilic Drosophila: The Evolutionary Significance of Adult Ethanol Metabolism IN CACTOPHILIC DROSOPHILA: THE EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE OF ADULT ETHANOL METABOLISM WILLIAMJ. ETGES~ Department of volatile com- pounds, particularly ethanol, than Opuntia or other Sonoran Desert columnar cacti, because

Etges, William J.

183

What’s the Issue? Changing Frames of Ethanol Policy in Congress and the Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

our use of fossil fuels” and “Ethanol does not help reduce2011 Note: Ethanol production data from the Renewable Fuelsand fuel mandate programs to a growing suite of ethanol

Weiner, Sarah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES ON THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under auspices of22 Mohammad Riaz ETHANOL FERMENTATION STUDIES II I. A. B.Hydrolyzates to Ethanol J2 Ren-Der Yang

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum,OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BYPYRUVATE V~ P a-ACETOLACTATE ETHANOL CoA AC ETA LDE HYDE V

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

honeys were classified higher and were pre-ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

honeys were classified higher and were pre- ferred. Honeys with an ethanol content higher than 100 with an ethanol con- tent higher than 1000 mg·kg-1 were classi- fied as 'extremely fermented'. Ethanol

Boyer, Edmond

188

Impact of ethanol expansion on the cattle feeding industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

feedlots are located more than 200 miles from an ethanol plant, Dried Distiller�s Grains with Solubles (DDGS) can be fed to lower the cost of gain; therefore, ethanol co-products can be fed to help offset potential increases in corn prices. The partial...

Daley, Erin

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

189

External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

External Quality Assurance Services (EQAS) Ethanol/Ammonia Program BC35 12 x 3 mL 2 Analytes QC35 12 x 3 mL Specimen Only ENGLISH INTENDED USE Bio-Rad EQAS Ethanol/Ammonia Program is designed

Rodriguez, Carlos

190

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

191

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout...

192

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain...

193

Red wine but not ethanol at low doses can protect against the toxicity of methamphetamine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C.F. , Chen, C. , 2002. Melatonin in concentrated ethanoland ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminewine polyphenol, attenuates ethanol-induced oxidative stress

Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

ZeaChem Pilot Project: High-Yield Hybrid Cellulosic Ethanol Process...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ethanol Process Using High-Impact Feedstock for Commercialization This pilot-scale integrated biorefinery will produce 250,000 gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol when...

195

Softwood Biomass to Ethanol Feasibility Study; Final Report: June 14, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of design and project evaluation work studying various aspects of ethanol related projects including a conceptual ethanol plant located in Martell California.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ethanol producer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of 65% 12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Optimal Bioconversion yield Biomass converted Biogas produced Ethanol... by means of bio-ethanol Transportation in ... Source: Ris...

197

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to fuel ethanol because it not only contains cellulose andCellulose conversion, % Co-Fermentation Glucose-ethanolamount of cellulose, can be used as fuel ethanol feedstocks

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

PILOT PLANT STUDIES OF THE BIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL. REPORT OF WORK PROGRESS, JAN. 31, 1977  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion Of Cellulose And Production Of Ethanol CharlesBIOCONVERSION OF CELLULOSE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL under

Wilke, C.R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

Biswas, Ranjita [ORNL] [ORNL; Prabhu, Sandeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth] [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Guss, Adam M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wafer Preparation and Iodine-Ethanol-Ethanol Passivation Procedure for Reproducible Minority-Carrier Lifetime Measurement: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes reasons that lifetime measurments may be irreproducible using iodine-in-ethanol (I-E) passivation. Possible factors include the strength of the iodine in ethanol solution, wafer cleaning procedures, influence of wafer container during lifetime measurement, and stability of I-E.

Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Mehta, V.; Li, C.; Johnston, S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND ()--PINENE FOR DETECTING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

106 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 ETHANOL AND (­)--PINENE FOR DETECTING traps baited with ethanol or ethanol and (-)--pinene for bark and ambrosia beetles in pine stands control; (2) ethanol; (3) (-)--pinene; and (4) ethanol + (-)--pinene. The release rates for ethanol

203

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

MTBE, ethanol rules come under fire  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EPA is facing stiff challenges to the mandates for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol in its reformulated gasoline (RFG) program. Wisconsin officials are receiving hundreds of complaints about the alleged health effects and other problems with MTBE added to gasoline, and Gov. Tommy Thompson is demanding that EPA suspend the RFG program until April 1. Rep. James Sensenbrenner (R., WI) is threatening to introduce a bill to repeal the program in Wisconsin if EPA does not comply. However, EPA administrator Carol Browner says the agency will {open_quotes}defer any decision{close_quotes} on the request. EPA has sent technical experts to Milwaukee to respond to and monitor citizens` complaints.

Begley, R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

207

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Puddle Model and AFR Compensator for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex-Fuel Engines* Kyung vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up to 85% ethanol for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

210

Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future will also lead to additional ethanol use. There- fore, it is important to understand how ethanol affects that the presence of ethanol could have undesirable effects on the biodegradation of BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

211

Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Report Long lasting effects of rearing by an ethanol-consuming dam on voluntary ethanol rats as subjects, we examined effects of exposure during weaning to a dam consuming ethanol on adolescents' later affinity for ethanol. In a preliminary experiment, we offered rat pups a choice between 8

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

212

O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O P I N I O N Ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: a `midway' strategy for increasing ethanol of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Abstract This article reviews the history and current state of ethanol. We propose that it is possible to produce ethanol from sugarcane while maintaining or even recovering

DeLucia, Evan H.

213

Chain elongation with reactor microbiomes: upgrading dilute ethanol to medium-chain carboxylates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in 2011 and mandated another $60 billion liters of ethanol or ethanol-equivalent fuel by 2020 from distillation for corn and cellulosic ethanol.2,3 To circumvent fossil- fuel consumption for distillation-caproic acid. This chemical has twice the value of ethanol per carbon atom and is not only a fuel precursor

Angenent, Lars T.

214

Stabilization of the palladium electrocatalyst with alloyed gold for ethanol oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Electrocatalyst Stabilization Palladiumegold alloy oxidation reaction, especially for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline direct ethanol fuelStabilization of the palladium electrocatalyst with alloyed gold for ethanol oxidation J.B. Xu, T

Zhao, Tianshou

215

MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOLECULAR PHYSICS, 1999, VOL. 97, NO. 7, 897± 905 Dynamics and hydrogen bonding in liquid ethanol L of liquid ethanol at three temperatures have been carried out. The hydrogen bonding states of ethanol measurements of the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of liquid ethanol. 1. Introduction A detailed

Saiz, Leonor

216

Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; Biodiesel production using soybean and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production using wood biomass required 57 % more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel produced. • Biodiesel

David Pimentel; Tad W. Patzek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass M. R. Schmer*, K. P. Vogel*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass M. R. Schmer*, K. P. Vogel* , R. B. Mitchell that received low agricultural inputs. Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol of grain-ethanol capacity. An additional feedstock source for producing ethanol is the ligno- cellulosic

Laughlin, Robert B.

218

Brief Communication Effect of asymmetric radiant heating on monodisperse acetone/ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Brief Communication Effect of asymmetric radiant heating on monodisperse acetone/ethanol, exploring bi-component droplets of ace- tone/ethanol and acetone/2-propanol mixtures. The ethanol and 2-component droplets composed of acetone/ethanol and acetone/ 2-propanol mixtures (1:1 volume ratio). Fig. 1 shows

Miller, Richard S.

219

Ethanol supply chain and industry overview : more harm than good?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is a comprehensive study that aggregates the key aspects of ethanol including its supply chain, government legislation that impacts the use of, and the inherent material characteristics of the fuel as well as ...

Bruce, Sarah L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

U.S. Ethanol Policy: The Unintended Consequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the future growth, but reasonable production costs remain elusive. The unintended consequences of the policy, especially those influencing world food prices, are negative and far outweigh the positives. Corn-based ethanol has had only small price, energy...

Griffin, James M.; Soto, Maricio Cifuentes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. (2006) Bonkers about biofuels. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 755–Schubert, C. (2006) Can biofuels finally take center stage?

Fortman, J. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Life cycle analysis of hybrid poplar trees for cellulosic ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main purpose of this paper is to assess the energy and environmental benefits of cultivating hybrid poplars as a biomass crop for cellulosic ethanol. A "Life Cycle Assessment" (LCA) methodology is used to systematically ...

Huang, Jessica J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Continuous production of ethanol by use of flocculent zymomonas mobilis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethanol is produced by means of a floc-forming strain of Zymomonas mobilis bacteria. Gas is vented along the length of a column containing the flocculent bacteria to preclude disruption of liquid flow.

Arcuri, Edward J. (Del Mar, CA); Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenoir City, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Understanding the Growth of the Cellulosic Ethanol Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report identifies, outlines, and documents a set of plausible scenarios for producing significant quantities of lignocellulosic ethanol in 2017. These scenarios can provide guidance for setting government policy and targeting government investment to the areas with greatest potential impact.

Sandor, D.; Wallace, R.; Peterson, S.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

acute ethanol effects: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Effects of Government Subsidies and the Renewable Fuels Standard on the Fuel Ethanol Industry: A Fossil Fuels Websites Summary: of the future evolution of the fuel...

228

acute ethanol intoxication: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with 2-carbon distillation for corn and cellulosic ethanol.2,3 To circumvent fossil- fuel consumption for distillation Angenent, Lars T. 182 An Analysis of the Effects of...

229

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12;The addition of other metals to Platinum improves its fuel cell performance Pt alone is easily

Petta, Jason

231

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanol BlendsEthanol

232

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Federal Laws and Incentives for Ethanol  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticutEthanol PrintableEthanol Printable

233

Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

Cuzens, J.E.

1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

Role of ethanol in sodalite crystallization in an ethanolNa2OAl2O3SiO2 Yi Huang,ab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of ethanol in sodalite crystallization in an ethanol­Na2O­Al2O3­SiO2­ H2O system Yi Huang 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1ce05194f Crystallization of sodalite was studied in an ethanol­Na2O­Al2O3­SiO2­H2O system. The addition of ethanol was observed to significantly affect the crystallization process

Rubloff, Gary W.

235

What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 What Factors Affect the Decision to Invest in a Fuel Ethanol Plant? A Structural Model of the Ethanol Investment Timing Game1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi Abstract The decision to invest in building an ethanol plant that uses a particular feedstock is a dynamic decision that may be affected by economic

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

236

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis

Kammen, Daniel M.

237

Ethanol seeking triggered by environmental context is attenuated by blocking dopamine D1 receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and shell in rats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ment into the prior ethanol self-administration context. SCHreinstatement of responding for ethanol cues triggered byplacement into an ethanol-associated context. Keywords

Chaudhri, Nadia; Sahuque, Lacey L.; Janak, Patricia H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

ESTIMATION OF ETHANOL CONTENT IN FLEX-FUEL VEHICLES USING AN EXHAUST GAS OXYGEN SENSOR: MODEL, TUNING AND SENSITIVITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

derivatives. Currently available flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol Estimated stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio e Volume fraction of ethanol in gasoline-ethanol blend e Estimated volume fraction of ethanol in gasoline-ethanol blend Address all correspondence to annastef

Stefanopoulou, Anna

240

Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with uranium contaminated subsurface sediment to assess the geochemical and microbial community response to ethanol amendment. A classical sequence of TEAPs was observed in ethanol-amended slurries, with NO3- reduction, Fe(III) reduction, SO4 2- reduction, and CH4 production proceeding in sequence until all of the added 13C-ethanol (9 mM) was consumed. Approximately 60% of the U(VI) content of the sediment was reduced during the period of Fe(III) reduction. No additional U(VI) reduction took place during the sulfate-reducing and methanogenic phases of the experiment. Only gradual reduction of NO3 -, and no reduction of U(VI), took place in ethanol-free slurries. Stimulation of additional Fe(III) or SO4 2- reduction in the ethanol-amended slurries failed to promote further U(VI) reduction. Reverse transcribed 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed major increases in the abundance of organisms related to Dechloromonas, Geobacter, and Oxalobacter in the ethanolamended slurries. PLFAs indicative of Geobacter showed a distinct increase in the amended slurries, and analysis of PLFA 13C/12C ratios confirmed the incorporation of ethanol into these PLFAs. A increase in the abundance of 13C-labeled PLFAs indicative of Desulfobacter, Desulfotomaculum, and Desulfovibrio took place during the brief period of sulfate reduction which followed the Fe(III) reduction phase. Our results show that major redox processes in ethanol-amended sediments can be reliably interpreted in terms of standard conceptual models of TEAPs in sediments. However, the redox speciation of uranium is complex and cannot be explained based on simplified thermodynamic considerations.

Mohanty, Santosh R.; Kollah, Bharati; Hedrick, David B.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Å thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: nzh2003@seu.edu.cn, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)] [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

Not Available

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Direct Use of Wet Ethanol in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine: Experimental and Numerical Results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for 4 different water-in-ethanol fuel blends at a variety ofmotivation for using wet ethanol fuel is that significantengine running on wet ethanol. Fuel mixtures studied range

Mack, John Hunter; Flowers, Daniel L; Aceves, Salvador M; Dibble, Robert W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

Levko, D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

The effects of ethanol on strychnine sensitive glycine receptors in the rat basolateral amygdala  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The major relationship between ethanol and the behavioral response to environmental stressors indicates that ethanol functions to reduce the effects of stress. The most classical presentation of the anxiety-reduction hypothesis of alcoholism...

Botting, Shaleen Kaye

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid–Base Sites. Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...

248

A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Abstract: ZnxZryOz...

249

EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV EA-1848: Fulcrum Sierra Waste-to-Ethanol Facility in McCarran, Storey County, NV June 1, 2011 EA-1848:...

250

Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline direct ethanol Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2... FEATURE ARTICLE T.S. Zhao, Y.S. Li, S.Y. Shen Anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells... Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are a ... Source: Zhao, Tianshou -...

252

one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple-mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

one was tested, all reaction mixtures were supple- mented with an appropriate amount of ethanol (5% v/v), because the menadione was dissolved in ethanol as a stock solution. The reaction was ini

Moorcroft, Paul R.

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanolic leaf Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS? TAD... as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or...

254

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanol termodinamicheskie Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS? TAD... as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous ethanol pulping Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS? TAD... as ethanol from corn. When this corn ethanol is burned as a gasoline additive or...

256

Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower Fuel Economy and Emmissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower This page contains information on the...

257

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Light-Induced Passivation of Si by Iodine Ethanol Solution: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on our observations of light-activated passivation of silicon surfaces by iodine-ethanol solution.

Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Guhaabiswas, D.; Anderson-Jackson, L.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E10 gasoline (i.e., a blend with 10% vol/vol ethanol/ gasoline) showed that mean benzene plume of E10 gasoline (10% vol/vol ethanol), which compares favorably to field observations. For low benzene Act requirements. The widespread use of ethanol in gasoline has led to an increase in its potential

Alvarez, Pedro J.

260

Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Puddle Dynamics and Air-to-Fuel Ratio Compensation for Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Flex flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) can operate on a blend of gasoline and ethanol in any concentration of up for gasoline-ethanol blends is, thus, necessary for the purpose of air-to-fuel ratio control. In this paper, we

Stefanopoulou, Anna

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

262

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Ethanol Attracts Scolytid Beetles to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium 147 Ethanol Attracts Scolytid Beetles. These attacks accelerate tree mortality. Ethanol concentrations were analyzed in sapwood samples collected from. Trees with large basal cankers contained 4.3 times more sapwood ethanol than trees with spot cankers

Standiford, Richard B.

263

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious and Aaron Smith attack the paper "The Impact of Ethanol Production on US and Regional Gasoline Markets

Rothman, Daniel

264

2-Undecyloxy-1-ethanol in combination with other semiochemicals attracts three  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2-Undecyloxy-1-ethanol in combination with other semiochemicals attracts three Monochamus species: Lamiinae) have recently been shown to have the same male-produced sex pheromone, 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol volatiles ethanol and a-pinene, in southern British Columbia, Canada. We captured 603 Monochamus clamator

Hanks, Lawrence M.

265

Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Report Effects of ethanol consumption by adult female rats on subsequent consumption January 2004 Abstract We used a two-bottle choice test to measure voluntary ethanol consumption by adolescent rats that had lived with ethanol-consuming or water-consuming adult conspecifics. We found

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

266

Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security) requires 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 to replace about 20 percent of U.S. gasoline consumption. Since 2001 ethanol produc- tion, mainly from corn, has increased dramatically at an annual average

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

267

Increasing atmospheric burden of ethanol in the United States J. A. de Gouw,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing atmospheric burden of ethanol in the United States J. A. de Gouw,1,2 J. B. Gilman,1,2 A; revised 25 June 2012; accepted 1 July 2012; published 4 August 2012. [1] The use of ethanol 10% ethanol. In accordance with this increased use, atmospheric measurements of volatile organic

Goldstein, Allen

268

Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

California at Riverside, University of

269

MU FAPRI reports economic impact of extending ethanol tax credit, tariff Contact:Duane Dailey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ­ Extending the current ethanol tax credit and tariff would boost corn-based fuel production -- and corn for corn as an ethanol fuel source would expand corn acreage by 1.7 million acres, said Seth Meyer, MU for blended fuel at the pump. "At the same time, blenders can pay more to ethanol plants that in turn pay

Noble, James S.

270

Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell L. An, T.S. Zhao ethanol fuel cell Alkaline-acid Species concentrations Membrane thickness Power density a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell (AA-DEFC) that is composed

Zhao, Tianshou

271

IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels Ethanol as a Fuel for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFP06 IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation -- Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The report is a contribution to Annex XXXV: "Ethanol as a Motor Fuel -- Subtask 1: Ethanol as a Fuel in Road Vehicles." The work has been carried out by The Technical

272

Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand)] [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)] [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-specic gene induction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECHNICAL ADVANCE The ethanol switch: a tool for tissue-speci®c gene induction during plant is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function during plant development. Here, we report ethanol inducible of an ethanol-regulated transcription factor, ALCR, is restricted to precise domains using speci®c promoters

Murray, J.A.H.

274

Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked porcine aortic cusps by ethanol preincubation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked porcine aortic cusps by ethanol efficacious ethanol pre- treatment of BPHVs for the prevention of cuspal calcifica- tion. The aim of the present study is to extend our under- standing of the material changes brought about by ethanol

Zand, Robert

275

Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Ethanol L. Saiz and J. A. Padro*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure and Dynamics of Liquid Ethanol L. Saiz and J. A. Padro´* Departament de Fi dynamics simulations of liquid ethanol at four thermodynamic states ranging from T ) 173 K to T ) 348 K and to their influence on the molecular behavior. Results for liquid ethanol are compared with those for methanol

Saiz, Leonor

276

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases biodegradation potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adaptive microbial population shifts in response to a continuous ethanol blend release increases 2013 Accepted 28 March 2013 Keywords: Pyrosequencing Ethanol Microbial diversity Temperature a b s t r a pilot- scale continuous release (10 months) of a 10% v:v ethanol solution mixed with benzene and toluene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

277

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and todlux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Ethanol, Acetate, and Phenol on Toluene Degradation Activity and tod­lux Expression with increasing influent concentrations of ethanol, acetate, or phenol. Three inhibitory mechanisms were) by acetate and ethanol, which was quantified by a decrease in specific bioluminescence; (2) competitive

Alvarez, Pedro J.

278

Ethanol Assay, UV-method (R-Biopharm, Cat. No. 10 176 290 035)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Assay, UV-method (R-Biopharm, Cat. No. 10 176 290 035) modified by Maitreya Dunham the assay since ethanol is volatile. Use the following chart to add the appropriate amount of reagents your samples at all times during the assay since ethanol is volatile. According to the kit, _A must

Dunham, Maitreya

279

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment: Biochemical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inhibition of aortic wall calcification in bioprosthetic heart valves by ethanol pretreatment 16 September 1997; 20 February 1998 Abstract: The effectiveness of ethanol pretreatment on pre was previously demonstrated, and the mechanism of action of ethanol was attributed in part to both lipid removal

Zand, Robert

280

Dielectric properties of liquid ethanol. A computer simulation study Leonor Saiz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dielectric properties of liquid ethanol. A computer simulation study Leonor Saiz Departament de Fi Static and dynamic dielectric properties of liquid ethanol have been studied as a function of the wave, but in the case of ethanol, the latter are restricted to the microwave region of the spectra6 and to the infrared

Saiz, Leonor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

New Catalyst Might Expand Bio-Ethanol's Possible uses: fuel additives, rubber and solvents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New Catalyst Might Expand Bio-Ethanol's Usefulness Possible uses: fuel additives, rubber and solvents RESULTS To turn bio-ethanol into chemicals that are typically made from petroleum, re- searchers the presence of water, allowing producers to use dilute and cheaper bio-ethanol rather than having to purify

282

The effect of CO regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of CO 2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production This article has been) 024003 (9pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/3/2/024003 The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates

Kammen, Daniel M.

283

Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol production Naveen Narayanaswamy a , Ahmed Faik b , Douglas J. Goetz a , Tingyue Gu a, a Department). Increased demand in biofuels cannot be met by the use of corn and sugarcane. In the US, corn ethanol has in and Liska, 2007). The production of lignocellulosic ethanol from biomass gener- ally involves four major

Gu, Tingyue

284

Energy Input, Carbon Intensity, and Cost for Ethanol Produced from Brown Seaweed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Input, Carbon Intensity, and Cost for Ethanol Produced from Brown Seaweed by Aaron, Carbon Intensity, and Cost for Ethanol Produced from Brown Seaweed by Aaron Philippsen B.Eng, University of Mechanical Engineering) Co-Supervisor Brown macroalgae or brown seaweed is a promising source of ethanol

Victoria, University of

285

Density Functional Theory Studies of the Structure Sensitivity of Ethanol Oxidation on Palladium Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Functional Theory Studies of the Structure Sensitivity of Ethanol Oxidation on PalladiumVised Manuscript ReceiVed: May 04, 2010 In this work, the adsorption behaviors and oxidation mechanisms of ethanol palladium surfaces, the adsorption behaviors, and the first step dehydrogenation of ethanol, it is found

Zhao, Tianshou

286

Water Research 36 (2002) 37393746 Effect of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation kinetics: aerobic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Research 36 (2002) 3739­3746 Effect of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation kinetics: aerobic November 2001; received in revised form 1 February 2002 Abstract The use of ethanol as an automotive fuel oxygenate represents potential economic and air-quality benefits. However, little is known about how ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

287

Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels Jason in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per

Minnesota, University of

288

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

289

Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 66­72. � 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. KEYWORDS: cellulose; ethanol; model validation Introduction Conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol and other liquid fuels is of interest

California at Riverside, University of

290

Enzymatically based cellulosic ethanol production technology was selected as a key area for biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enzymatically based cellulosic ethanol production technology was selected as a key area for biomass cellulosic ethanol com- petitive. Improvements in dilute acid pretreatment and cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei discov- ered during World War II led to most of the historic cellulosic ethanol cost

California at Riverside, University of

291

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from wheat straw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cultivar variation and selection potential relevant to the production of cellulosic ethanol from Sugar Wheat straw Variation Cultivar a b s t r a c t Optimizing cellulosic ethanol yield depends Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Decreasing the cost of producing cellulosic ethanol

California at Riverside, University of

292

BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION TO ETHANOL IS MODULATED BY ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, BUT IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION TO ETHANOL IS MODULATED BY ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, BUT IS NOT ASSOCIATED, OR 97239, USA Abstract--Rationale: The ability of ethanol to facilitate GABAA receptor-mediated transmission may result in GABAA receptor alterations during repeated ethanol administration, and lead

Das, Soma

293

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol

Raman, Venkat

294

Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Genome-Scale Analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Metabolism and Ethanol Production in Fed cerevisiae metabolism and ethanol production in fed-batch culture. Metabolic engineering strategies previously identified for their enhanced steady-state biomass and/or ethanol yields are evaluated for fed

Mountziaris, T. J.

295

WSU Program for TBI Research Summer School Neuroprotection & Mechanism of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/12/2013 1 WSU Program for TBI Research Summer School Neuroprotection & Mechanism of Ethanol Surgery June 7, 2013 Department of Neurological Surgery Wayne State University History of Alcohol (Ethanol) ·The earliest evidence of alcohol (ethanol) use is the discovery of beer jugs from the Neolithic age

VandeVord, Pamela

296

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

297

Vesicle Formation of a 1:1 Catanionic Surfactant Mixture in Ethanol Solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vesicle Formation of a 1:1 Catanionic Surfactant Mixture in Ethanol Solution J.-B. Huang,* B on the liposome of natural phospho- lipids.10,11 As for the situation in ethanol solution, early studies showed that ethanol addition deteriorates the molecular order in lipid bilayers,12-16 although a small amount

Huang, Jianbin

298

DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE IN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENTAL ALTERATIONS IN OLIVARY CLIMBING FIBER DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING POSTNATAL ETHANOL 72205-7199, USA Abstract--Ethanol exposure during postnatal days (PN) 4­6 in rats alters cerebellar happens to the neurons that survive. In this study, rat pups were treated with a daily dose of ethanol

Hayar, Abdallah

299

Expression of Ethanol-Induced Behavioral Sensitization Is Associated with Alteration of Chromatin Remodeling in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Expression of Ethanol-Induced Behavioral Sensitization Is Associated with Alteration of Chromatin), Amiens, France Abstract Background: Ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization (EIBS) is proposed to play in the development and the persistence of ethanol-related behaviors, we explored the involvement of epigenetic

Boyer, Edmond

300

Wang et al. 1 Ethanol-Mediated Facilitation of AMPA Receptor Function in the Dorsomedial Striatum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wang et al. 1 Ethanol-Mediated Facilitation of AMPA Receptor Function in the Dorsomedial Striatum, California 94608 Running Title: Ethanol and AMPA receptors in the dorsomedial striatum # To whom as well as repeated cycles of in vivo ethanol exposure and withdrawal, including excessive voluntary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B (received for review September 1, 2004) Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol with- drawal (EW). Here we show that tissue

302

Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blended into gasoline in 2004 amounted to about 2% of all gasoline sold by volume and 1.3% (2.5 Ã? 1017 J studies indicated that current corn ethanol technologies are much less petroleum-intensive than gasoline but have greenhouse gas emissions similar to those of gasoline. However, many important environmental

Kammen, Daniel M.

303

Crop Production Variability and U.S. Ethanol Mandates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projection model – Iowa State University and the University of Missouri FASOM Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model GAMS General Algebraic Modeling System GDP Gross Domestic Product GHG Greenhouse Gas NASS National Agricultural Statistics... Figure 11. 2015 U.S. corn price given 2012 drought sensitivity to marginal decreases in crop ethanol mandates ............................................................... 65 Figure 12. An empirical distribution of yearly corn production...

Jones, Jason P.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

304

Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

305

Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into Corn Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.11 Solar Energy Input into Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.5 Overall Energy Balance of the Corn-Ethanol Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 II.1 The Earth is an Open System to Heat Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 10.2 Conclusions

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

306

Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Cornbased Ethanol Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Corn­based Ethanol Plants Elvis Ahmetovi). First, we review the major alternatives in the optimization of energy consumption and its impact for the water streams. We show that minimizing energy consumption leads to process water networks with minimum

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

307

acute ethanol withdrawal: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acute ethanol withdrawal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Quantitative trait loci...

308

acute ethanol ingestion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

acute ethanol ingestion First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE...

309

aqueous ethanol solutions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ethanol solutions First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A swollen phase observed between the...

310

accumbens stimulate ethanol: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

accumbens stimulate ethanol First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Suppression of...

311

adolescent ethanol exposure: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adolescent ethanol exposure First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Impulsivity and trauma...

312

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

313

Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Timothy L [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M [University of Minnesota

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

aqueous ethanol solution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ethanol solution First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A swollen phase observed between the...

315

MTBE still facing pressure from ethanol under latest fuel proposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US EPA's finalized reformulated gasoline rule, part of Phase II of the 1990 Clean Air Act, signals a possible turnaround for the sluggish methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. But if a 30% renewable fuels proposal favoring ethanol passes, pressure could continue for MTBE.

Lucas, A.

1994-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

316

An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand—2014  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas AF

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES WITH ADDITION OF ETHANOL P. Dirrenberger1 , P.A. Glaude*1 (2014) 162-169" DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.07.015 #12;2 LAMINAR BURNING VELOCITY OF GASOLINES, Sweden Abstract The adiabatic laminar burning velocities of a commercial gasoline and of a model fuel (n

Boyer, Edmond

318

The Real Corn-Ethanol Transportation Tad W. Patzek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research, mass transit systems, highway upgrades, etc. Corn and ethanol subsidies in the US channel money, and more efficient planes will save at least 7 million barrels of crude oil per day if the price of fuel.34. Consistently with this claim, for each 1 unit of input fossil energy, one would get 1.34 units of output fossil

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

319

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requiring no energy input by conventional sources, with the potential to replace, or significantly reduce-harvesting nanoparticles that capture solar energy for direct liquid-vapor conversion, eliminating the energy O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1

320

Effect of hydrous ethanol on crankcase oil dilution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adequate lubrication is of the utmost importance in internal combustion engines. Low temperature operation with low-proof alcohol may create some operational problems if alcohol and/or water accumulates in the crankcase oil. Condensates of unburned alcohol and water maybe blown into the crankcase oil with blowby gases. These condensates may form an emulsion with the crankcase oil that may restrict the supply of oil for adequate lubrication. Three engine tests were performed to identify the effect of low-proof ethanol fueling on crankcase oil dilution and degradation. The first test was hydrous ethanol carburetion in a 2.3 liter, 4 cylinder, 1974 Ford gasoline engine. The second test was a mixture of low-proof ethanol fumigation and normal diesel fuel injection (at reduced rate) in an Allis-Chalmers Model 2900 turbocharged diesel engine. The third test was also a mixture of ethanol fumigation and diesel injection in an Allis-Chalmers Mod2800 naturally aspirated diesel engine. Independent parameters of crankcase oil temperature, engine load and speed, percent of total energy in the form of ethyl alcohol and proof of the ethyl alcohol were considered and varied. After each test the oil was sampled for determination of flash point, fire points, water by centrifuge, water by distillation, and viscosity at room temperature. Results for the first test indicate that the use of ethanol of 130 proof or less may result in accumulation of water in the crankcase oil that may be harmful to the engine. In the second and third tests although there was a decrease in fire and flash points as well as in the viscosity of the oil, no appreciable amount of water or alcohol was detected in the crankcase oil. It is important to mention that there was a maximum alcohol fuel flow rate beyond which the diesel engine starts to knock or misfire.

Khalifa, G.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

322

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate, chelated ferric iron or nitrate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX-ethanol mixtures in aquifer columns amended with sulfate-mail: alvarez@rice.edu) Key words: anaerobic biostimulation, bioremediation, BTEX, ethanol, natural attenuation­Fe(III) or nitrate to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX and ethanol mixtures. The rapid biodegradation of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

323

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve Timing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion Phasing Model for Control of a Gasoline-Ethanol Fueled SI Engine with Variable Valve engine efficiency. Fuel-flexible engines permit the increased use of ethanol-gasoline blends. Ethanol points across the engine operating range for four blends of gasoline and ethanol. I. INTRODUCTION Fuel

324

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

325

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has generated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel market, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

Fortman, J.L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

326

Biofuel alternatives to ethanol: pumping the microbial well  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineered microorganisms are currently used for the production of food products, pharmaceuticals, ethanol fuel and more. Even so, the enormous potential of this technology has yet to be fully exploited. The need for sustainable sources of transportation fuels has gener-ated a tremendous interest in technologies that enable biofuel production. Decades of work have produced a considerable knowledge-base for the physiology and pathway engineering of microbes, making microbial engineering an ideal strategy for producing biofuel. Although ethanol currently dominates the biofuel mar-ket, some of its inherent physical properties make it a less than ideal product. To highlight additional options, we review advances in microbial engineering for the production of other potential fuel molecules, using a variety of biosynthetic pathways.

Fortman, J. L.; Chhabra, Swapnil; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Chou, Howard; Lee, Taek Soon; Steen, Eric; Keasling, Jay D.

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

327

Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous silicon.

Anke Henschel; Klaus Knorr; Patrick Huber

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

Polymorphism of the glass former ethanol confined in mesoporous silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction patterns of ethanol confined in parallel-aligned channels of approx. 10 nm diameter and 50 micrometer length in mesoporous silicon have been recorded as a function of filling fraction, temperature and for varying cooling and heating rates. A sorption isotherm, recorded in the liquid state, indicates a three monolayer thick, strongly adsorbed wall layer and a capillary condensed fraction of molecules in the pore center. Though the strongly adsorbed film remains in an amorphous state for the entire temperature range investigated, the capillary condensed molecules reproduce the polymorphism of bulk solid ethanol, that is the formation of either crystalline or glass-like states as a function of cooling rate. The critical rate necessary to achieve a vitrification in the mesopores is, however, at least two orders of magnitude smaller than in the bulk state. This finding can be traced both to pure geometrical constraints and quenched disorder effects, characteristic of confinement in mesoporous sil...

Henschel, Anke; Huber, Patrick; 10.1080/09500831003766999

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slide 1 U.S. Energy Situation, Ethanol, and Energy Policy Wally Tyner #12;Slide 2 Breakeven Corn Corn ($/bu) Crude($/bbl) Energy basis Price premium for octane/oxygen With subsidy and price premium.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75 4 4.25 4.5 4.75 5 Corn ($/bu) Crude($/bbl) Energy basis Price premium

331

Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Stout (Member) L r x ge Edwa d A. Hiler (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Vaporizer Design Criteria For Ethanol Fueled Internal Combustion Engines. (May 1985) Arachchi Rallage Ariyaratne, B. S. , University of Sri Lanka Chairman... VAPORIZATION LENGTH WITH UNIFORM HEAT FLUX 8 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOR EVALUATING PARAMETERS C VARIATION OF HEAT FLUX AND AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPARATURE D PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING VAPORIZATION LENGTH 73 75 78 80 VITA 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1...

Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hyperconjugative Effect on the Electronic Wavefunctions of Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hyperconjugation is a basic conception of chemistry. Its straightforward effect is exhibited by the spatial delocalization characteristics of the electron density distributions or wavefunctions. Such effects on the electron wavefunctions of the highest-occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) of two ethanol conformers are demonstrated with electron momentum spectroscopy together with natural bond orbital analyses, exhibiting the distinctly different symmetries of the HOMO wavefunctions in momentum space.

Chen, Xiangjun; Yan, Mi; Li, Hai-Bei; Tian*, Shan Xi; Shan, Xu; Wang, Kedong; Li, Zhongjun; Xu, Kezun

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

Bloyd, Cary N.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Infrastructure Development  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanol

335

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Station Locations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onAlternativeConnecticut InformationEthanolStation

336

The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

Chuang, S.S.C.

1989-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

337

Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The economic competitiveness of cellulosic ethanol production is highly dependent on feedstock cost, which constitutes 35–50% of the total ethanol production cost, depending on various geographical factors and the types of systems used for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, transporting, and handling the material. Consequently, as the deployment of cellulosic ethanol biorefi neries approaches, feedstock cost and availability are the driving factors that infl uence pioneer biorefi nery locations and will largely control the rate at which this industry grows. Initial scenarios were postulated to develop a pioneer dry feedstock supply system design case as a demonstration of the current state of technology. Based on this pioneer design, advanced scenarios were developed to determine key cost barriers, needed supply system improvements, and technology advancements to achieve government and private sector cost targets. Analysis of the pioneer supply system resulted in a delivered feedstock cost to the throat of the pretreatment reactor of $37.00 per dry tonne (2002 $). Pioneer supply systems will start by using current infrastructure and technologies and be individually designed for biorefi neries using specifi c feedstock types and varieties based on local geographic conditions. As the industry develops and cost barriers are addressed, the supply systems will incorporate advanced technologies that will eliminate downstream diversity and provide a uniform, tailored feedstock for multiple biorefi neries located in different regions.

J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Thermophilic Gram-Positive Biocatalysts for Biomass Conversion to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of energy from renewable sources is receiving increased attention due to the finite nature of fossil fuels and the environmental impact associated with the continued large scale use of fossil energy sources. Biomass, a CO2-neutral abundant resource, is an attractive alternate source of energy. Biomass-derived sugars, such as glucose, xylose, and other minor sugars, can be readily fermented to fuel ethanol and commodity chemicals. Extracellular cellulases produced by fungi are commercially developed for depolymerization of cellulose in biomass to glucose for fermentation by appropriate biocatalysts in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Due to the differences in the optimum conditions for the activity of the fungal cellulases and the growth and fermentation characteristics of the current industrial biocatalysts, SSF of cellulose is envisioned at conditions that are not optimal for the fungal cellulase activity leading to higher than required cost of cellulase in SSF. We have isolated bacterial biocatalysts whose growth and fermentation requirements match the optimum conditions for commercial fungal cellulase activity (pH 5.0 and 50 deg. C). These isolates fermented both glucose and xylose, major components of cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, to L(+)-lactic acid. Xylose was metabolized through the pentose-phosphate pathway by these organisms as evidenced by the fermentation profile and analysis of the fermentation products of 13C1-xylose by NMR. As expected for the metabolism of xylose by the pentose-phosphate pathway, 13C-lactate accounted for more than 90% of the total 13C-labeled products. All three strains fermented crystalline cellulose to lactic acid with the addition of fungal cellulase (Spezyme CE) (SSF) at an optimum of about 10 FPU/g cellulose. These isolates also fermented cellulose and sugar cane bagasse hemicellulose acid hydrolysate simultaneously. Based on fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA sequence, these isolates cluster with Bacillus coagulans although B. coagulans type strain, ATCC 7050, failed to utilize xylose as a carbon source. For successful production of ethanol from pyruvate, both pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AHD) need to be produced at optimal levels in these biocatalysts. A plasmid containing the S. ventriculi pdc gene and the adh gene from geobacillus stearothermophilus was constructed using plasmid pWH1520 that was successfully used for expression of pdc in B. megaterium. The resulting portable ethanol (PET) plasmid, pJAM423, was transformed into B. megaterium. After xylose induction, a significant fraction of cell cytoplasm was composed of the S. ventriculi PDC and G. stearothermophilus ADH proteins. In preliminary experiments, the amount of ethanol produced by b. megaterium with plasmid pJAM423 was about twice (20 mM) of the bacterium without the plasmid. These results show that the PET operon is functional in B. megaterium but high level ethanol production needs further genetic and metabolic engineering. A genetic transfer system for the second generation biocatalysts needs to be developed for transferring the plasmid pJAM423 and its derivatives for engineering these organisms for ethanol production from biomass derived sugars and cellulose to ethanol. One of the new biocatalysts, strain P4-102B was found to be transformable with plasmids and the method for introducing plasmid pJAM423 into this strain and expression of the encoded DNA is being optimized. These new second generation biocatalysts have the potential to reduce the cost of SSF by minimizing the amount of fungal cellulases, a significant cost component in the use of biomass as a renewable resource for production of fuels and chemicals.

Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O.; Maupin-Furlow, J.A.; Preston, J.F.; Aldrich, H.C.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for producing ethanol and co-products from cellulosic biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to processes for production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention also relates to production of various co-products of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. The present invention further relates to improvements in one or more aspects of preparation of ethanol from cellulosic biomass including, for example, improved methods for cleaning biomass feedstocks, improved acid impregnation, and improved steam treatment, or "steam explosion."

Nguyen, Quang A

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Systems biology analysis of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 ethanol stress responses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 is a capable ethanogenic bacterium with high ethanol productivity and high level of ethanol tolerance. Previous studies indicated that several stress-related proteins and changes in the ZM4 membrane lipid composition may contribute to ethanol tolerance. However, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol stress response have not been elucidated fully. In this study, ethanol stress responses were investigated using systems biology tools. Medium supplementation with an initial 47.3 g/L (6% v/v) ethanol reduced Z. mobilis ZM4 glucose consumption, growth rate and ethanol productivity compared to that of untreated controls. Metabolomic profiling showed that ethanol-treated ZM4 cells accumulated greater amounts of glycerol during the entire fermentation process, which may indicate an important role for this metabolite. A proteomic analysis of early exponential growth identified about one thousand proteins, or approximately 56% of the predicted ZM4 proteome. Proteins related to metabolism and stress response such as chaperones and key regulators were more abundant in the early ethanol stress condition. Transcriptomic studies indicated the response of ZM4 to ethanol is dynamic, complex and involves many genes from all the different functional categories. There were fewer genes significantly differentially expressed in the exponential phase compared to that of stationary phase and early stationary phase. Most down-regulated genes were related to translation and ribosome biogenesis, while the ethanol-upregulated genes were mostly related to cellular processes and metabolism. Correlations among the transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolism were examined and among significantly expressed genes or proteins, we observe higher correlation coefficients when fold-change values are higher. This systems biology study elucidates key Z. mobilis ZM4 metabolites, genes and proteins that form the foundation of its distinctive physiology and its multifaceted response to ethanol stress.

Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Zhou, Wen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Dam, Phuongan [ORNL; Xu, Ying [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Dice, Lezlee T [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bulk and track etch properties of CR-39 SSNTD etched in NaOH/ethanol K.F. Chan, F.M.F. Ng, D. described the use of NaOH/ethanol as an etchant for the CR-39 detector, and have determined the corre and track etch properties of CR- 39 in NaOH/ethanol were derived from direct measurements. The bulk etch

Yu, K.N.

345

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

Wu, Jung Fu (Lakewood, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With Renewable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Robert Wagner, 062111 Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Brian West Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge...

349

Development of an SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SI DI Ethanol Optimized Flex Fuel Engine Using Advanced Valvetrain Wayne Moore, Matt Foster, Kevin Hoyer, Keith Confer Delphi Advanced Powertrain DEER Conference September 29, 2010...

350

Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol flames”, ASME TURBO EXPO 2006: Power for Land, Seaof GT2006, ASME Turbo Expo 2006: Power for Land, Sea and

Saxena, Priyank

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1996 19950414. Municipal solid waste processing facility andconversion of municipal-solid-waste to ethanol. Biotechnol.Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-

Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - advances cellulosic ethanol Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

cellulosic ethanol. This would be 25... million annually to "share the cost of biomass feedstocks used by ... Source: Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural...

354

Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running line-haul trucks on ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bulletin describes case studies of trucks operating on ethanol fuel. Cost, maintenance and repair, as well as fuel economy are discussed.

Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Marek, N.J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

batch fermentation the concentrations of acetic, and butyricthat acetic acid may fate in fermentations conducted by B.acid fermentation are ethanol , CO^, and acetic, succinic,

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that acetic acid may fate in fermentations conducted by B.fermentation the concentrations of acetic, and butyric acidsthe mixed acid fermentation are ethanol , CO^, and acetic,

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and...

358

Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Wu, J.F.

1985-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

359

Surface-induced anisotropic orientations of interfacial ethanol molecules at air/sapphire (1-102) and ethanol/sapphire (1-102) interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study the interfacial arrangement of ethanol molecules at the vapor/α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 )/ethanol liquid interfaces. The spectra in the C-H range show that ethanol molecules adsorbed from vapor onto α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) surface have a welldefined anisotropic arrangement following the structure of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 ) surface. The arrangement can be explained by the formation of two specific hydrogen bonds between the adsorbed ethanol molecule and hydroxyls on the sapphire surface. At the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1{bar 1}02 )/ethanol liquid interface, the first ethanol monolayer assumes a similar anisotropic arrangement as in the case of an ethanol monolayer on the dry sapphire surface. The second monolayer has a rather broad orientation distribution that is azimuthally nearly isotropic, but with molecules flipped 180 degrees with respect to those in the first monolayer.

Sung, J.; Waychunas, G. A.; Shen, Y. R.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Vehicle Technologies Office: Intermediate Ethanol Blends | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment of EnergyProgram2-26TheUtility-ScaleofLabReportEnergy Ethanol can be

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tampa Bay Area Ethanol Consortium | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark Jump to: navigation, search Name: TagusparkCountyArea Ethanol

362

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWayElectricity Fuel Basics to someone byEthanol Benefits

363

Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative I?B-? plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-?B, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-?B pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. • p38 MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway modulates ethanol-induced Nox2 expression.

Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon, E-mail: parkp@yu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsanbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Effect of the Di-Tertiary Butyl Peroxide (DTBP) additive on HCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diethyl ether (DEE) in ethanol fuel blends for a range ofbio-derived fuel components (ethanol) in emission productsHCCI Combustion of Fuel Blends of Ethanol and Diethyl Ether

Mack, John Hunter; Buchholz, Bruce A; Flowers, Daniel L; Dibble, Robert W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Liquid-liquid equilibria for water + ethanol + 2-methylpropyl ethanoate and water + ethanol + 1,2-dibromoethane at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid equilibrium, distribution coefficients, and selectivities of the systems water + ethanol + 2-methylpropyl ethanoate or + 1,2-dibromoethane have been determined at 298.15 K in order to evaluate their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. Tie-line data were satisfactorily correlated by the Othmer and Tobias method, and the plait point coordinates for the two systems were estimated. The experimental data was compared with the values calculated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The water + ethanol + 2-methylpropyl ethanoate system was also compared with the values predicted by the UNIFAC model. Poor qualitative agreement was obtained with these models. From the experimental results, they can conclude that both solvents are inappropriate for ethanol extraction processes from aqueous solutions.

Solimo, H.N.; Barnes de Arreguez, N.G. (Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina). Inst. de Fisica)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

JV Task 112-Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) and Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) tests were conducted on four 2007 model vehicles; a Chevrolet Impala flex-fuel and three non-flex-fuel vehicles: a Ford Fusion, a Toyota Camry, and a Chevrolet Impala. This investigation utilized a range of undenatured ethanol/Tier II gasoline blend levels from 0% to 85%. HWFET testing on ethanol blend levels of E20 in the flex fuel Chevrolet Impala and E30 in the non-flex-fuel Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry resulted in miles-per-gallon (mpg) fuel economy greater than Tier 2 gasoline, while E40 in the non-flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala resulted in an optimum mpg based on per-gallon fuel Btu content. Exhaust emission values for non-methane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) obtained from both the FTP-75 and the HWFET driving cycles were at or below EPA Tier II, Light-Duty Vehicles, Bin 5 levels for all vehicles tested with one exception. The flex-fuel Chevrolet Impala exceeded the NMOG standard for the FTP-75 on E-20 and Tier II gasoline.

Richard Shockey; Ted Aulich; Bruce Jones; Gary Mead; Paul Steevens

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

368

Theoretical kinetic study of the low temperature oxidation of ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to improve the understanding of the low temperature combustion of ethanol, high-level ab initio calculations were performed for elementary reactions involving hydroxyethylperoxy radicals. These radicals come from the addition of hydroxethyl radicals (?CH3CHOH and ?CH2CH2OH) on oxygen molecule. Unimolecular reactions involving hydroxyethylperoxy radicals and their radical products were studied at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The results allowed to highlight the principal ways of decomposition of these radicals. Calculations of potential energy surfaces showed that the principal channels lead to the formation of HO2 radicals which can be considered, at low temperature, as slightly reactive. However, in the case of CH3CH(OOH)O? radicals, a route of decomposition yields H atom and formic peracid, which is a branching agent that can strongly enhance the reactivity of ethanol in low temperature oxidation. In addition to these analyses, high-pressure limit rate constants were derived in the temperature rang...

Fournet, René; Bounaceur, Roda; Molière, Michel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Polymeric Assembly of Gluten Proteins in an Aqueous Ethanol Solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supramolecular organization of wheat gluten proteins is largely unknown due to the intrinsic complexity of this family of proteins and their insolubility in water. We fractionate gluten in a water/ethanol (50/50 v/v) and obtain a protein extract which is depleted in gliadin, the monomeric part of wheat gluten proteins, and enriched in glutenin, the polymeric part of wheat gluten proteins. We investigate the structure of the proteins in the solvent used for extraction over a wide range of concentration, by combining X-ray scattering and multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering. Our data show that, in the ethanol/water mixture, the proteins display features characteristic of flexible polymer chains in a good solvent. In the dilute regime, the protein form very loose structures of characteristic size 150 nm, with an internal dynamics which is quantitatively similar to that of branched polymer coils. In more concentrated regimes, data highlight a hierarchical structure with one characteristic length scale of the order of a few nm, which displays the scaling with concentration expected for a semi-dilute polymer in good solvent, and a fractal arrangement at much larger length scale. This structure is strikingly similar to that of polymeric gels, thus providing some factual knowledge to rationalize the viscoelastic properties of wheat gluten proteins and their assemblies.

Mohsen Dahesh; Amélie Banc; Agnès Duri; Marie-Hélène Morel; Laurence Ramos

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

370

ETHANOL FROM CORN: CLEAN RENEWABLE FUEL FOR THE FUTURE, OR DRAIN ON OUR RESOURCES AND POCKETS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, surface water, soil and aquifers. The overall energy balance of corn conversion to ethanol demonstrates that 65% of the input energy is lost during the conversion. Carbon dioxide sequestration by corn, energy balance, ethanol, fuel, nitrate, oxygenate, pollution, sequestration. 1. Background Previous

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

371

Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

Chung, Daehwan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Cha, Minseok [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Westpheling, Janet [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

97505 THE CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO ETHANOL USING GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM HOT DRY ROCK of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant

373

17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

374

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% ethanol conversion) were much higher than in previous re- ports. The presence of TiO2 during syn- thesisDOI: 10.1002/chem.200700579 Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid on Dispersed Mo, easily separated from organic reactants and products, and gas-phase process- es that avoid solid

Iglesia, Enrique

375

Economic feasibility of ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental and political concerns centered on energy use from gasoline have led to a great deal of research on ethanol production. The goal of this thesis is to determine if it is profitable to produce ethanol in Texas using sweet sorghum juice...

Morris, Brittany Danielle

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Economic Optimization of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Supply Chain in the Midwest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Optimization of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Supply Chain in the Midwest W. Alex of a biomass-to-ethanol supply chain in a 9-state region in the Midwestern United States. A biochemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Locations and capacities of biorefineries are determined simultaneously with biomass

Benjaafar, Saifallah

377

Recombinant yeast with improved ethanol tolerance and related methods of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides isolated Elo1 and Mig3 nucleic acid sequences capable of conferring increased ethanol tolerance on recombinant yeast and methods of using same in biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering yeast using the Elo1 and, or, Mig3 nucleic acid sequences are also provided.

Gasch, Audrey P. (Madison, WI); Lewis, Jeffrey A. (Madison, WI)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1 2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Cellulosic Ethanol Technology on Track to Being Competitive With Other Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have been driving down the cost of cellulosic ethanol and overcoming the technical challenges that surround it-major milestones toward the Department of Energy (DOE) goal of making cellulosic ethanol cost-competitive by 2012.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Mutant selection and phenotypic and genetic characterization of ethanol-tolerant strains of Clostridium thermocellum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clostridium thermocellum is a model microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals via consolidated bioprocessing. One of the challenges for industrial application of this organism is its low ethanol tolerance, typically 1-2% (w/v) in wild-type strains. In this study, we report the development and characterization of mutant C. thermocellum strains that can grow in the presence of high ethanol concentrations. Starting from a single colony, wild-type C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 was sub-cultured and adapted for growth in up to 50 g/L ethanol using either cellobiose or crystalline cellulose as the growth substrate. Both the adapted strains retained their ability to grow on either substrate and displayed a higher growth rate and biomass yield than the wild-type strain in the absence of ethanol. With added ethanol in the media, the mutant strains displayed an inverse correlation between ethanol concentration and growth rate or biomass yield. Genome sequencing revealed six common mutations in the two ethanol-tolerant strains including an alcohol dehydrogenase gene and genes involved in arginine/pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. The potential role of these mutations in ethanol tolerance phenotype is discussed.

Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Zhu, Mingjun [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, PR China; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to gastric ulcer and the present work was aimed to examine the protective effect of tetrahydrocoptisine (THC) in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in mice. Fasted mice treated with ethanol 75% (0.5 ml/100 g) were pre-treated with THC (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip), cimetidine (100 mg/kg, ip) or saline in different experimental sets for a period of 3 days, and animals were euthanized 4 h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and microscopic lesions, immunological and biochemical parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol induced gastric damage, improving nitric oxide (NO) level, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-6) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the expression of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in the ethanol group. Pretreatment of THC at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg bodyweight significantly attenuated the gastric lesions as compared to the ethanol group. These results suggest that the gastroprotective activity of THC is attributed to reducing NO production and adjusting the pro-inflammatory cytokine, inhibited neutrophil accumulation and NF-?B expression. - Highlights: • THC decreased ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. • THC inhibited the production of NO in serum and gastric tissue. • THC reduced NF-?B expression and MPO accumulation in ethanol-induced gastric tissue.

Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liwf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng, E-mail: niuxf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Fan, Ting; Mu, Qingli; Li, Huani

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What is the Viability of Cellulosic Ethanol as an Alternative to Fossil Fuels in today's Economy. Assessing the viability of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in today's and future the world. The consequences from anthropogenic burning of fossil fuels experienced over the last few decades

Iglesia, Enrique

383

In-situ measurement of ethanol tolerance in an operating fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In-situ measurement of ethanol tolerance in an operating fuel cell Matt S. Naughton a , Claire E online xxx Keywords: Alkaline fuel cell Gas diffusion electrodes Ag cathode Electrode characterization Reference electrode Non-Platinum catalyst a b s t r a c t Ethanol is seen as an attractive option as a fuel

Kenis, Paul J. A.

384

Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends (Book)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document serves as a guide for blenders, distributors, sellers, and users of E85 and other ethanol blends above E10. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of E85 and other ethanol blends and includes supporting technical and policy references.

Moriarty, K.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 1133­1143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline cost of lead additives and of gasoline, and the falling cost of ethanol and sugarcane, have created sugarcane is produced in Africa to replace all the lead used in African gasoline; this would require Africa

Thomas, Valerie

386

Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply Chain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Multiscale Strategic Planning Model for the Design of Integrated Ethanol and Gasoline Supply address the design and planning of an integrated ethanol and gasoline supply chain. We assume, distribution centers where blending takes place, and the retail gas stations where different blends of gasoline

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

387

Natural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

profits. In the U.S. ethanol system, considerably more energy, including high-grade fossil fuelNatural Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 2003 ( C 2003) Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance January 2003 Several studies suggest that the $1.4 billion in government subsidies are encouraging

Laughlin, Robert B.

388

Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification: cellulose; ethanol; kinetics; reactor design Introduction Plant biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable­803] for simultaneous saccharification of fermentation of cellulosic biomass is extended and modified to accommodate

California at Riverside, University of

389

Metabolic engineering of Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 for ethanol production from xylose and glucose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient diversion of pyruvate from normal fermentative pathways to ethanol production in Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 requires the expression of Zymomanas mobilis genes encoding both pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Final ethanol concentrations obtained with the best recombinant, strain M5A1 (pLOI555), were in excess of 40 g/liter with an efficiency of 0.48 g of ethanol (xylose) and 0.50 g of ethanol (glucose) per g of sugar, as compared with a theoretical maximum of 0.51 of ethanol per g of sugar. The maximal volumetric productivity per hour for both sugars was 2.0 g/liter. This volumetric productivity with xylose is almost twice that previously obtained with ethanologenic Escherichia coli. Succinate was also produced as a minor product during fermentation.

Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Beall, D.S.; Mejia, J.P.; Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Physical Energy Accounting in California: A Case Study of Cellulosic Ethanol Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

California's target for greenhouse gas reduction in part relies on the development of viable low-carbon fuel alternatives to gasoline. It is often assumed that cellulosic ethanol--ethanol made from the structural parts of a plant and not from the food parts--will be one of these alternatives. This study examines the physical viability of a switchgrass-based cellulosic ethanol industry in California from the point of view of the physical requirements of land, water, energy and other material use. Starting from a scenario in which existing irrigated pastureland and fiber-crop land is converted to switchgrass production, the analysis determines the total acreage and water supply available and the resulting total biofuel feedstock output under different assumed yields. The number and location of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries that can be supported is also determined, assuming that the distance from field to biorefinery would be minimized. The biorefinery energy input requirement, available energy from the fraction of biomass not converted to ethanol, and energy output is calculated at various levels of ethanol yields, making different assumptions about process efficiencies. The analysis shows that there is insufficient biomass (after cellulose separation and fermentation into ethanol) to provide all the process energy needed to run the biorefinery; hence, the purchase of external energy such as natural gas is required to produce ethanol from switchgrass. The higher the yield of ethanol, the more external energy is needed, so that the net gains due to improved process efficiency may not be positive. On 2.7 million acres of land planted in switchgrass in this scenario, the switchgrass outputproduces enough ethanol to substitute for only 1.2 to 4.0percent of California's gasoline consumption in 2007.

Coughlin, Katie; Fridley, David

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

2-(Undecyloxy)-ethanol is a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Monochamus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2-(Undecyloxy)-ethanol is a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone and identified as 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol. In analyses by GC coupled to electroantennography the only consistent, Sweden, and China. 2-(Undecyl- oxy)-ethanol was attractive to both male and female M. sutor beetles

Hanks, Lawrence M.

393

Import demand for Brazilian ethanol: a cross-country analysis Barbara Farinelli, Colin A Carter, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Import demand for Brazilian ethanol: a cross-country analysis Barbara Farinelli, Colin A Carter ethanol by its six major foreign buyers. The primary objectives of this study were to identify the economic factors affecting the demand for ethanol imports and to derive long-run price and income

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

394

Ethanol plant investment in Canada: A structural model1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ethanol plant investment in Canada: A structural model1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Fujin Yi Most of the fuel ethanol plants in Canada were built recently and either use corn or wheat as feedstock. It is important to determine what factors affect decisions about when and where to invest in building new ethanol

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

395

An Analysis of the Effects of Government Subsidies and the Renewable Fuels Standard on the Fuel Ethanol Industry: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Industry: A Structural Econometric Model By Fujin Yi, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin, Karen Thome This paper ethanol industry. Analyses that ignore the dynamic implications of these policies, including their effects on incumbent ethanol firms' investment, production, and exit decisions and on potential entrants' entry

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

396

Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial community response to a release of neat ethanol onto residual hydrocarbons in a pilot ethanol release (E100, 76 l) onto residual hydrocarbons in sandy soil was evaluated in a continuous-flow 8 shifts were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. High ethanol concentrations

Alvarez, Pedro J.

397

Electrical Properties of SandClay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J. Roberts and Dorthe Wildenschild*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrical Properties of Sand­Clay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J, and as an ethanol­water mixture (80:20) was flowed through the sample. Resistivity increased by about a factor of 4 as the ethanol mixture replaced the water solution. Nondestructive x-ray imaging of the sample at various stages

Wildenschild, Dorthe

398

Ternary PtSnRhSnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ternary PtSnRh­SnO2 nanoclusters: synthesis and electroactivity for ethanol oxidation fuel cell. Ethanol becomes an attractive fuel in the fuel cell reactions compared with methanol and hydrogen, because­4 A major impediment to the commercialization of ethanol fuel cell stacks is the difficulty in designing

Frenkel, Anatoly

399

Synthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Available online 3 August 2010 Keywords: Fuel cell Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell Oxygen reduction Carbon in large quantities from agricultural products or biomass. Hence, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) haveSynthesis and characterization of the Au-modified Pd cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol

Zhao, Tianshou

400

An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molasses for ethanol: The economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol Anand R Gopal1,4,6 and Daniel M Kammen1,2,3,5 1 Energy supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol; fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian

Kammen, Daniel M.

402

Numerical Model Investigation for Potential Methane Explosion and Benzene Vapor Intrusion Associated with High-Ethanol Blend  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Associated with High-Ethanol Blend Releases Jie Ma, Hong Luo, George E. DeVaull,§ William G. Rixey, and Pedro ABSTRACT: Ethanol-blended fuel releases usually stimulate methanogenesis in the subsurface, which could conditions exist. Ethanol- derived methane may also increase the vapor intrusion potential of toxic fuel

Alvarez, Pedro J.

403

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect experimental cylinder pressure for different gasoline-ethanol blends and various speeds and loads on a 2.0 L

Stefanopoulou, Anna

404

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U essential to an informed choice about the corn-to-ethanol cycle are in need of updating, thanks to scientific and technological advances in both corn farming and ethanol production; and (2) generalized

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

405

Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol Systems Ethan Warner1, Yimin Zhang1, Helena Chum2 , Robin Newmark1 Biofuels represent technological learning, sugarcane and corn ethanol industries have achieved steady improvements in resource Scope Abstract Conclusions The GHG savings and land energy productivity of both ethanol systems have

406

Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

Maruyama, Shigeo

407

New C-H Stretching Vibrational Spectral Features in the Raman Spectra of Gaseous and Liquid Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New C-H Stretching Vibrational Spectral Features in the Raman Spectra of Gaseous and Liquid Ethanol Traditionally, the Raman spectrum of ethanol in the C-H vibrational stretching region between 2800 cm-1 and 3100, and the -CH3 antisymmetric stretching. In this report, new Raman spectral features were observed for ethanol

Liu, Shilin

408

Excessive Ethanol-Seeking as Related to Impulsive Behavior as Measured by Delay Discounting Katharine A. Havard1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excessive Ethanol-Seeking as Related to Impulsive Behavior as Measured by Delay Discounting discounting is preferentially related to ethanol-seeking vs. consumption. Alcohol preferring rats (P; n=5 of impulsivity could be associated with the quantity of ethanol-seeking, and not just with the inclination

Zhou, Yaoqi

409

Dopamine D2R DNA transfer in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice: Effects on ethanol drinking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dopamine D2R DNA transfer in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice: Effects on ethanol drinking), and receptor-deficient mice (Drd2Ã?/Ã?). Ethanol intake and preference were then determined using the two attenuated (58 %) their ethanol intake as well as reduced preference. Drd2+/Ã? and mutant mice showed

Homes, Christopher C.

410

Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes during CVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon atoms in ethanol do not contribute equally to formation of single-walled carbon nanotubes in which isotopically labeled ethanol, e.g., 12CH3-13CH2-OH, is used to trace the carbon atoms during of ethanol's two different carbon atoms to SWNT formation. Surprisingly, the carbon away from the hydroxyl

Maruyama, Shigeo

411

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

412

FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Mississippi Ethanol Gasification Project, Final Scientific / Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mississippi Ethanol (ME) Project is a comprehensive effort to develop the conversion of biomass to ethanol utilizing a proprietary gasification reactor technology developed by Mississippi Ethanol, LLC. Tasks were split between operation of a 1/10 scale unit at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) of Mississippi State University (MSU) and the construction, development, and operation of a full scale pilot unit located at the ME facility in Winona, Mississippi. In addition to characterization of the ME reactor gasification system, other areas considered critical to the operational and economic viability of the overall ME concept were evaluated. These areas include syngas cleanup, biological conversion of syngas to alcohol, and effects of gasification scale factors. Characterization of run data from the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units has allowed development of the factors necessary for scale-up from the small unit to the larger unit. This scale range is approximately a factor of 10. Particulate and tar sampling gave order of magnitude values for preliminary design calculations. In addition, sampling values collected downstream of the ash removal system show significant reductions in observed loadings. These loading values indicate that acceptable particulate and tar loading rates could be attained with standard equipment additions to the existing configurations. Overall operation both the Pre-Pilot and Pilot Units proceeded very well. The Pilot Unit was operated as a system, from wood receiving to gas flaring, several times and these runs were used to address possible production-scale concerns. Among these, a pressure feed system was developed to allow feed of material against gasifier system pressure with little or no purge requirements. Similarly, a water wash system, with continuous ash collection, was developed, installed, and tested. Development of a biological system for alcohol production was conducted at Mississippi State University with much progress. However, the current state of biological technology is not deemed to be ready commercially. A preliminary estimate of capital and operating costs of a 12000 gallon per day gasification/biological facility was developed for comparison purposes. In addition, during the biological organism screening and testing, some possible alternative products were identified. One such possibility is the biological production of bio-diesel. Additional research is necessary for further evaluation of all of the biological concepts.

Pearson, Larry, E.

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

414

Vehicles and E85 Stations Needed to Achieve Ethanol Goals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the numbers of stations and vehicles necessary to achieve future goals for sales of ethanol fuel (E85). The paper does not analyze issues related to the supply of ethanol which may turn out to be of even greater concern. A model of consumers decisions to purchase E85 versus gasoline based on prices, availability, and refueling frequency is derived and preliminary results for 2010, 2017 and 2030 consistent with the President s 2007 biofuels program goals are presented (1). A limited sensitivity analysis is carried out to indicate key uncertainties in the trade-off between the number of stations and fuels. The analysis indicates that to meet a 2017 goal of 26 billion gallons of E85 sold, on the order of 30% to 80% of all stations may need to offer E85, and that 125 to 200 million flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) may need to be on the road, even if oil prices remain high. These conclusions are tentative for three reasons: (1) there is considerable uncertainty about key parameter values, such as the price elasticity of choice between E85 and gasoline, (2) the future prices of E85 and gasoline are uncertain; and (3) the method of analysis used is highly aggregated; it does not consider the potential benefits of regional strategies nor the possible existence of market segments predisposed to purchase E85. Nonetheless, the preliminary results indicate that the 2017 biofuels program goals are ambitious and will require a massive effort to produce FFVs and insure widespread availability of E85.

Greene, David L [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

A First-Law Thermodynamic Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper analyzes energy efficiency of the industrial corn-ethanol cycle. In particular, it critically evaluates earlier publications by DOE, USDA, and UC Berkeley Energy Resources Group. It is demonstrated that most of the current First Law net-energy models of the industrial corn-ethanol cycle are based on nonphysical assumptions and should be viewed with caution. In particular, these models do not (i) define the system boundaries, (ii) conserve mass, and (iii) conserve energy. The energy cost of producing and refining carbon fuels in real time, for example, corn and ethanol, is high relative to that of fossil fuels deposited and concentrated over geological time. Proper mass and energy balances of corn fields and ethanol refineries that account for the photosynthetic energy, part of the environment restoration work, and the coproduct energy have been formulated. These balances show that energetically production of ethanol from corn is 2-4 times less favorable than production of gasoline from petroleum. From thermodynamics it also follows that ecological damage wrought by industrial biofuel production must be severe. With the DDGS coproduct energy credit, 3.9 gallons of ethanol displace on average the energy in 1 gallon of gasoline. Without the DDGS energy credit, this average number is 6.2 gallons of ethanol. Equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from corn ethanol are some 50% higher than those from gasoline, and become 100% higher if methane emissions from cows fed with DDGS are accounted for. From the mass balance of soil it follows that ethanol coproducts should be returned to the fields.

Patzek, Tad W. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: patzek@patzek.berkeley.edu

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Equilibrium Geometries, Reaction Pathways, and Electronic Structures of Ethanol Adsorbed on the Si (111) Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equilibrium atomic configurations and electron energy structure of ethanol adsorbed on the Si (111) surface are studied by the first-principles density functional theory. Geometry optimization is performed by the total energy minimization method. Several equilibrium atomic configurations of ethanol, both undissociated and dissociated, on the Si (111) surface are found. Reaction pathways and predicted transition states are discussed in comparison with available experimental data in terms of the feasibility of the reactions occurring. Analysis of atom and orbital resolved projected density of states indicate substantial modifications of the Si surface valence and conduction bands due to the adsorption of ethanol affecting the electrical properties of the surface.

Gavrilenko, A V; Gavrilenko, V I

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

CVD Growth of Mono-and Bi-Layer Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen, Pei Zhao, Bo Hou, Erik Einarsson, Shohei Chiashi and Shigeo Maruyama  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CVD Growth of Mono- and Bi-Layer Graphene from Ethanol Xiao Chen, Pei Zhao, Bo Hou, Erik Einarsson precursors have been employed to synthesize graphene, such as methane [6], ethane [7] and ethanol [8]. Here we report a systematic study on CVD growth of graphene on Cu and Ni substrates from ethanol. Ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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421

Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

R St eam M et hane Ref ormer; AIV (Aluminum Int ensive Vehicle)-Sable Glider 1.25 X EPA Combined Driving Cycle 800 Grid Mix SMR Natural SR Ethanol 700 Gas California Marginal...

422

Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation andEngine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Engine-in-the-Loop Evaluation of Ethanol Blends for PHEVs using Simulation and Engine-in-the-Loop 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies...

425

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

426

Ethanol synthesis from syngas over Rh-based/SiO2 catalysts: A...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

over Rh-basedSiO2 catalysts: A combined experimental and theoretical modeling study. Ethanol synthesis from syngas over Rh-basedSiO2 catalysts: A combined experimental and...

427

Effects of ethanol content on gasohol PFI engine wide-open-throttle operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with ? =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due ...

Cheng, Wai K.

428

Technology assessment of biomass ethanol : a multi-objective, life cycle approach under uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A methodology is presented for assessing the current and future utilization of agricultural crops as feedstocks for the production of transportation fuels, specifically, the use of corn grain and stover for ethanol production. ...

Johnson, Jeremy C. (Jeremy Clayton)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Through the use of a stochastic simulation model this project analyzes both the impacts of the expanding biofuels sector on water demand in selected regions of the United States and variations in the profitability of ethanol production due...

Higgins, Lindsey M.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

Kasseris, Emmanuel P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic ethanol oxidation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

) Thermophilic Fermentation (Xylose) Wet oxidation 196C, 12 Bar O2 NaCO2 Biogas Ethanol 55C 32C 70C 12... 90% of new cars have engines specially designed to...

432

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute ethanol treatment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy 96 UofS FOBI -ABIP Group 3: Added Value Summary: of Wheat DG (ADF Funding) 2.0 Biogas and Syngas Production within the -Ethanol-Feedlot-Digester System... Fermentation &...

433

Internal flow patterns on heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves using ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this research was to investigate the internal flow patterns and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV). The ratio of number of check valves to meandering turns was 0.2. Ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 50% by total volume of tube. The CLOHP/CV was made of a glass tube with an inside diameter of 2.4 mm. The evaporator section was 50 mm and 100 mm in length and there were 10 meandering turns. An inclination angle of 90 from horizontal axis was established. The evaporator section was heated by an electric heater and the condenser section was cooled by distilled water. Temperature at the evaporator section was controlled at 85 C, 105 C and 125 C. The inlet and outlet temperatures were measured. A digital camera and video camera were used to observe the flow patterns at the evaporator. The silver nano-ethanol mixture gave higher heat flux than ethanol. When the temperature at the evaporator section was increased from 85 C to 105 C and 125 C. It was found that, the flow patterns occurred as annular flow + slug flow, slug flow + bubble flow and dispersed bubble flow + bubble flow respectively. The main regime of each flow pattern can be determined from the flow pattern map ethanol and a silver nano-ethanol mixture. Each of the two working fluids gave corresponding flow patterns. (author)

Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Rittidech, S. [Heat Pipe and Thermal Tools Design Research Laboratory (HTDR), Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on Ethanol Engine Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called E85, underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane E85 fuel. While this fuel is suitable for current ethanol tolerant flex fuel vehicles, this study experimentally examines whether engines can still be aggressively optimized for the resultant fuel from the revised ASTM D5798 specification. The performance of six ethanol fuel blends, ranging from 51-85% ethanol, is compared to a premium-grade certification gasoline (UTG-96) in a single-cylinder direct-injection (DI) engine with a compression ratio of 12.9:1 at knock-prone engine conditions. UTG-96 (RON = 96.1), light straight run gasoline (RON = 63.6), and n-heptane (RON = 0) are used as the hydrocarbon blending streams for the ethanol-containing fuels in an effort to establish a broad range of knock resistance for high ethanol fuels. Results show that nearly all ethanol-containing fuels are more resistant to engine knock than UTG-96 (the only exception being the ethanol blend with 49% n-heptane). This knock resistance allows ethanol blends made with 33 and 49% light straight run gasoline, and 33% n-heptane to be operated at significantly more advanced combustion phasing for higher efficiency, as well as at higher engine loads. While experimental results show that the octane number of the hydrocarbon blend stock does impact engine performance, there remains a significant opportunity for engine optimization when considering even the lowest octane fuels that are in compliance with the current revision of ASTM D5798 compared to premium-grade gasoline.

Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly technical report], December 22, 1991--March 21, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. CSTRs and CSTRs with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

Not Available

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effects of ethanol on evoked unit activity in discrete layers of the hippocampus in rabbits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON EVOKED UNIT ACTIVITY IN DISCRETE LAYERS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN RABBITS A Thesis by NILLIAM RAY FOLGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Biology EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON EVOKED UNIT ACTIVITY IN DISCRETE LAYERS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN RABBITS A Thesis by WILLIAM RAY FOLGER Approved as to style and content by: W. R. Klemm Chairman...

Folger, William Ray

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

439

MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

Streitparth, F., E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rinnenthal, J. L. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Neuropathology (Germany); Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bernhardt, U. [InnoRa GmbH (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic profiles after ethanol stress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clostridium thermocellum is a candidate consolidated bioprocessing biocatalyst, which is a microorganism that expresses enzymes for both cellulose hydrolysis and its fermentation to produce fuels such as lignocellulosic ethanol. However, C. thermocellum is relatively sensitive to ethanol compared to ethanologenic microorganisms such as yeast and Zymomonas mobilis that are used in industrial fermentations but do not possess native enzymes for industrial cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, C. thermocellum was grown to mid-exponential phase and then treated with ethanol to a final concentration of 3.9 g/L to investigate its physiological and regulatory responses to ethanol stress. Samples were taken pre-shock and 2, 12, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min post-shock, and from untreated control fermentations for systems biology analyses. Cell growth was arrested by ethanol supplementation with intracellular accumulation of carbon sources such as cellobiose, and sugar phosphates, including fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. The largest response of C. thermocellum to ethanol shock treatment was in genes and proteins related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism, which is likely important for redirecting the cells physiology to overcome inhibition and allow growth to resume. This study suggests possible avenues for metabolic engineering and provides comprehensive, integrated systems biology datasets that will be useful for future metabolic modeling and strain development endeavors.

Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; Dice, Lezlee T [ORNL; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Role of Nrf2 in preventing ethanol-induced oxidative stress and lipid accumulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidative stress and lipid accumulation play important roles in alcohol-induced liver injury. Previous reports showed that, in livers of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-activated mice, genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced, whereas genes involved in lipid biosynthesis are suppressed. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in ethanol-induced hepatic alterations, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation, were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg, po). Blood and liver samples were collected 6 h thereafter. Ethanol increased alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in serum of Nrf2-null and wild-type mice, but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. After ethanol administration, mitochondrial glutathione concentrations decreased markedly in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicates that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. Ethanol increased serum triglycerides and hepatic free fatty acids in Nrf2-null mice, and these increases were blunted in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In addition, the basal mRNA and nuclear protein levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1(Srebp-1) were decreased with graded Nrf2 activation. Ethanol further induced Srebp-1 mRNA in Nrf2-null mice but not in Nrf2-enhanced mice. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation prevented alcohol-induced oxidative stress and accumulation of free fatty acids in liver by increasing genes involved in antioxidant defense and decreasing genes involved in lipogenesis. -- Highlights: ? Ethanol depleted mitochondrial GSH in Nrf2-null mice but not in Keap1-KD mice. ? Ethanol increased ROS in hepatocytes isolated from Nrf2-null and wild-type mice. ? Nrf2 blunted ethanol-induced increase of triglycerides and free fatty acids. ? The mRNA and nuclear protein of Srebp-1 were decreased with Nrf2 activation. ? The mRNA of Scd1 was increased in Nrf2-null mice after ethanol exposure.

Wu, Kai Connie [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Comparative studies of etching mechanisms of CR-39 in NaOH/H2O and NaOH/ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparative studies of etching mechanisms of CR-39 in NaOH/H2O and NaOH/ethanol K.C.C. Tse, D Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Available online 13 May 2007 Abstract The bulk etch rate for CR-39 in NaOH/ethanol accumulates on the surface of CR-39 detector during etching in NaOH/ethanol, which is absent during etching

Yu, K.N.

445

Energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of corn and cellulosic ethanol with technology improvements and land use changes.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam{sup 3} in 1980 to over 40.1 hm{sup 3} in 2009 - and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol production) have been made. With updated simulation results of direct and indirect land use changes and observed technology improvements in the past several years, we conducted a life-cycle analysis of ethanol and show that at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20%, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. On the other hand, second-generation ethanol could achieve much higher reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In a broader sense, sound evaluation of U.S. biofuel policies should account for both unanticipated consequences and technology potentials. We maintain that the usefulness of such evaluations is to provide insight into how to prevent unanticipated consequences and how to promote efficient technologies with policy intervention.

Wang, M.; Han, J.; Haq, Z; Tyner, .W.; Wu, M.; Elgowainy, A. (Energy Systems)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Acute Cor Pulmonale and Right Heat Failure Complicating Ethanol Ablative Therapy: Anesthetic and Radiologic Considerations and Management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is an effective ablative agent used for the treatment of certain solid organ tumors and vascular malformations (VMs). The egress of ethanol beyond the target tissue can be associated with significant changes to the cardiopulmonary system that can lead to cardiac arrest. This article reviews the contemporary role of ethanol in tumor and VM treatment and discusses the physiological mechanisms of acute pulmonary hypertension and cardiovascular collapse. The importance of periprocedural recognition of the hemodynamic changes that can occur with the use of ethanol and the treatment of this condition are discussed.

Naik, Bhiken, E-mail: bin4n@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Anesthesiology (United States)] [University of Virginia, Department of Anesthesiology (United States); Matsumoto, Alan H. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (United States)] [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Electron spin-lattice relaxation in solid ethanol: the effect of nitroxyl radical hydrogen bonding and matrix disorder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron spin-lattice relaxation of TEMPO and TEMPONE was measured at temperatures between 5 and 80 K in crystalline and glassy ethanol using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experimental data at the lowest temperatures studied were explained in terms of electron-nuclear dipolar interaction between the paramagnetic center and the localized excitations, whereas at higher temperatures low-frequency vibrational modes from the host matrix and Raman processes should be considered. The strong impact of hydrogen bonding between the dopant molecule and ethanol host on the spin relaxation was observed in ethanol glass whereas in crystalline ethanol both paramagnetic guest molecules behaved similarly.

Marina Kveder; Dalibor Merunka; Milan Joki?; Janja Makarevi?; Boris Rakvin

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

448

Electron spin-lattice relaxation in solid ethanol: the effect of nitroxyl radical hydrogen bonding and matrix disorder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron spin-lattice relaxation of TEMPO and TEMPONE was measured at temperatures between 5 and 80 K in crystalline and glassy ethanol using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experimental data at the lowest temperatures studied were explained in terms of electron-nuclear dipolar interaction between the paramagnetic center and the localized excitations, whereas at higher temperatures low-frequency vibrational modes from the host matrix and Raman processes should be considered. The strong impact of hydrogen bonding between the dopant molecule and ethanol host on the spin relaxation was observed in ethanol glass whereas in crystalline ethanol both paramagnetic guest molecules behaved similarly.

Kveder, Marina; Joki?, Milan; Makarevi?, Janja; Rakvin, Boris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x} reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.

Johnson, William L [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

Lee, James Weifu (Knoxville, TN)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

451

Low temperature electron-spin relaxation in the crystalline and glassy states of solid ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the spectral properties of a nitroxide spin probe in ethanol glass and crystalline ethanol, at 5 - 11.5 K. The different anisotropy of molecular packing in the two host matrices was evidenced by different rigid limit values for maximal hyperfine splitting in the signal of the spin probe. The significantly shorter phase memory time, , for the spin probe dissolved in crystalline ethanol, as compared to ethanol glass, was discussed in terms of contribution from spectral diffusion. The effect of low-frequency dynamics was manifested in the temperature dependence of and in the difference between the data measured at different spectral positions. This phenomenon was addressed within the framework of the slow-motional isotropic diffusion model [S. Lee, and S. Z. Tang, Phys. Rev. B 31, 1308 (1985)] predicting the spin probe dynamics within the millisecond range, at very low temperatures. The shorter spin-lattice relaxation time of the spin probe in ethanol glass was interpreted in terms of enhanced energy exchange between the spin system and the lattice in the glass matrix due to boson peak excitations.

Marina Kveder; Dalibor Merunka; Milan Joki?; Boris Rakvin

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

452

New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Value of Coproduction of Ethanol and Furfural from Acid Hydrolysis Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the acid hydrolysis of a cellulosic feedstock (wood, wood wastes, or crop residues), up to 3.65 lb of furfural may be coproduced with each gallon of ethanol for only the cost of recovering and purifying it. Each plant producing 50 x 106 gal/yr of ethanol would produce an amount of by-product furfural equal to the total current domestic production. Thus, the need arises for investigation into potentially suitable processes for deriving profitable end products from furfural and thus expanding the market. The objectives of this study were to determine the economic potential of five selected, large volume derivatives of furfural that could displace hydrocarbon-based chemicals, and the consequent value of furfural as a by-product to the cellulose hydrolysis process of ethanol production.

Parker, S.; Calnon, M.; Feinberg, D.; Power, A.; Weiss, L.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

Linden, Edwin van der, E-mail: e.van.der.linden@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Baalen, Jary M. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Pattynama, Peter M. T. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) -- Phase 2 report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this 3.5-year project is to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes the second phase of this project, which lasted 12 months. This report documents two baseline vehicles, the engine modifications made to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) engines, advanced aftertreatment testing, and various fuel tests to evaluate the flammability, lubricity, and material compatibility of the ethanol fuel blends.

Dodge, L.G.; Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.J.; Naegeli, D.W.; Shouse, K.R.; Smith, L.R.; Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Biological production of ethanol from coal. Task 4 report, Continuous reactor studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of ethanol from synthesis gas by the anaerobic bacterium C. ljungdahlii has been demonstrated in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), CSTRs with cell recycle and trickle bed reactors. Various liquid media were utilized in these studies including basal medium, basal media with 1/2 B-vitamins and no yeast extract and a medium specifically designed for the growth of C. ljungdahlii in the CSTR. Ethanol production was successful in each of the three reactor types, although trickle bed operation with C. ljungdahlii was not as good as with the stirred tank reactors. Operation in the CSTR with cell recycle was particularly promising, producing 47 g/L ethanol with only minor concentrations of the by-product acetate.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Food Crises: A quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent increases in basic food prices are severely impacting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the US, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, while an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take ad...

Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

Hadder, G.R.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

The effect of temperature and ethanol on the deposition of nickel hydroxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nickel hydroxide is one of the most commonly used active materials for the positive electrode in rechargeable batteries. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of the temperature and the ethanol content of the Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution on: (i) the efficiency of electrochemical deposition of nickel hydroxide; and (ii) the molecular weight (MW) of the deposited film. An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN) was used to measure the mass of films electrochemically deposited from Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solutions and constant current discharges were used to determine the electrochemical capacity of the films. The data indicates that increasing the temperature increases both the efficiency of the deposition reaction and the MW of the deposited film. The increased efficiency at higher temperatures is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of a nickel complex at the surface of the electrode. The lower complex concentration decreases the diffusion rate of this species away from the electrode surface and hence increases the rate at which the complex precipitates from the solution. The increase in the MW at higher temperature is attributed to a combination of increased rate of deposition and an increase in the lattice spacing of the active material. The data also indicate that increasing the ethanol content of the solution had no noticeable effect on the efficiency of deposition, when water was present. In pure ethanol, however, the chemistry of deposition seemed to change considerably. However, increasing the ethanol content resulted in an increase of the MW of the film. Increased in the MW with an increase in the ethanol content is due to an increase in the relative percentage of ethanol incorporated in the active material. The data also indicate that the number of electrons in the discharge reaction is approximately 1.4 electrons per nickel atom.

Streinz, C.C.; Motupally, S.; Weidner, J.W. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

NMOG Emissions Characterizations and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations.

Neidlinger, H.H.; Schissel, P.O.; Orth, R.A.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle mass emissions were approximately 3 and 7 mg/mile for the FTP75 and US06, respectively, with lower emissions for the ethanol blends. The data are compared to a previous study on a U.S.-legal stoichiometric GDI vehicle operating on the same ethanol blends. The lean-burn GDI vehicle emitted a higher number of particles, but had an overall smaller average size. Particle number per mile decreased with increasing ethanol content for the transient tests. For the 30 and 80 mph tests, particle number concentration decreased with increasing ethanol content, although the shape of the particle size distribution remained the same. Engine-out OC/EC ratios were highest for the stoichiometric GDI vehicle with E20, but tailpipe OC/EC ratios were similar for all vehicles.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Pervaporation separation of ethanol-water mixtures using polyethylenimine composite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Synthetic, organic, polymeric membranes were prepared from polyethylenimine for use with pervaporation apparatus in the separation of ethanol-water mixtures. The polymeric material was prepared in dilute aqueous solution and coated onto a polysulfone support film, from which excess polymeric material was subsequently removed. Cross-links were then generated by limited exposure to toluene-2,4-diisocyanate solution, after which the prepared membrane was heat-cured. The resulting membrane structures showed high selectivity in permeating ethanol or water over a wide range of feed concentrations.

Neidlinger, Hermann H. (Lakewood, CO); Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Orth, Richard A. (Denver, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

NMOG Emissions Characterization and Estimation for Vehicles Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a biofuel commonly used in gasoline blends to displace petroleum consumption; its utilization is on the rise in the United States, spurred by the biofuel utilization mandates put in place by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the statutory responsibility to implement the EISA mandates through the promulgation of the Renewable Fuel Standard. EPA has historically mandated an emissions certification fuel specification that calls for ethanol-free fuel, except for the certification of flex-fuel vehicles. However, since the U.S. gasoline marketplace is now virtually saturated with E10, some organizations have suggested that inclusion of ethanol in emissions certification fuels would be appropriate. The test methodologies and calculations contained in the Code of Federal Regulations for gasoline-fueled vehicles have been developed with the presumption that the certification fuel does not contain ethanol; thus, a number of technical issues would require resolution before such a change could be accomplished. This report makes use of the considerable data gathered during the mid-level blends testing program to investigate one such issue: estimation of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions. The data reported in this paper were gathered from over 600 cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted on 68 vehicles representing 21 models from model year 2000 to 2009. Most of the vehicles were certified to the Tier-2 emissions standard, but several older Tier-1 and national low emissions vehicle program (NLEV) vehicles were also included in the study. Exhaust speciation shows that ethanol, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde dominate the oxygenated species emissions when ethanol is blended into the test fuel. A set of correlations were developed that are derived from the measured non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions and the ethanol blend level in the fuel. These correlations were applied to the measured NMHC emissions from the mid-level ethanol blends testing program and the results compared against the measured NMOG emissions. The results show that the composite FTP NMOG emissions estimate has an error of 0.0015 g/mile {+-}0.0074 for 95% of the test results. Estimates for the individual phases of the FTP are also presented with similar error levels. A limited number of tests conducted using the LA92, US06, and highway fuel economy test cycles show that the FTP correlation also holds reasonably well for these cycles, though the error level relative to the measured NMOG value increases for NMOG emissions less than 0.010 g/mile.

Sluder, Scott [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery (Singapore); Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Service) (Singapore); Mahadev, Arjandas, E-mail: arjandas.mahadev@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Fluorescence spectrum analysis using Fourier series modeling for Fluorescein solution in Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the fluorescence spectrum for fluorescein solution in ethanol with concentration 1 {\\times} 10-3 mol/liter at different temperatures from room temperature to freezing point of solvent, (T = 153, 183, 223, 253, and 303 K) using liquid nitrogen. Table curve 2D version 5.01 program has been used to determine the fitting curve and fitting equation for each fluorescence spectrum. Fourier series (3 {\\times} 2) was the most suitable fitting equation for all spectra. Theoretical fluorescence spectrum of fluorescein in ethanol at T = 183K was calculated and compared with experimental fluorescence spectrum at the same temperature. There is a good similarity between them.

Hadi, Mahasin F

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

2013 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to understand the status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2013, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the first of what is anticipated to be an annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this initial survey and describes the survey methodology. Subsequent surveys will report on the progress over time of the development of these facilities and companies.

Schwab, A.; Geiger, J.; Lewis, J.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

The effects of indole-3-ethanol on the human B+ erythrocyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ethanol assoc1ation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank the important people behind this venture: Nomand Dad for making me what I am. Dr. J. Dick Seed for his dedication, patience and understanding. Lance "Sandy" Sandberg for being the best of best... to indole-3-ethanol, has been shown via spin labeling to interact w1th the phosphatidylcholine of the exter1or port1on of the erythrocyte membrane (Bray and Sandberg, 1975). High concentrat1ons (500 ug/ml) of 3-methylindole have also been shown to cause...

Lewis, Robert Cary

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Ethanol Production from Glucose and Xylose by Immobilized Zymomonas mobilis CP4(pZB5)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures to ethanol was investigated in batch and continuous experiments using immobilized recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4(pZB5). This microorganism was immobilized by entrapment in k-carrageenan beads having a diameter of 1.5-2.5 mm. Batch experiments showed that the immobilized cells co-fermented glucose and xylose to ethanol and that the presence of glucose improved the xylose utilization rate. Batch fermentation of rice straw hydrolyzate containing 76 g/L glucose and 33.8 g/L xylose gave an ethanol concentration of 44.3 g/L after 24 hours, corresponding to a yeild of 0.46 g ethanol/g sugars. Comparable results were achieved with a synthetic sugar control. Continuous fermentation runs were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR). Glucose-xylose feed mixtures were run through the FBR at residence times of 2 to 4 hours. Glucose conversion to ethanol was maintained above 98% in all continuous runs. Xylose conversion to ethanol was highest at 91.5% for a feed containing 50 g/L glucose-13 g/L xylose at a dilution rate of 0.24 h-1. The xylose conversion to ethanol decreased with increasing feed xylose concentration, dilution rate and age of the immobilized cells. Volumetric ethanol productivities in the range of 6.5 to 15.3 g/L-h were obtained.

Blanco, M.; Davison, B.H.; Krishnan, M.S.; Nghiem, n.P.; Shattuck, C.K.

1999-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

476

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield, and Michael Wang. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update. By Hosein Shapouri, James A. Duffield.34. Keywords: Ethanol, net energy balance, corn production, energy. About the Authors Shapouri and Duffield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Energy Balance Issue

Laughlin, Robert B.

478

Pt/AlPO4 Nanocomposite Thin-Film Electrodes forPt/AlPO4 Nanocomposite Thin-Film Electrodes for4 p Ethanol Electrooxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell (DAFC) ­ At pH 1 2CO2 + 12H+ + 12e- CH3CH2OH + 3H2O E = 0.085 V (Ethanol Ethanol Electrooxidation 4 p Ethanol Electrooxidation http://bp.snu.ac.krSeoul National University 1 #12 Oxidation) 3/2 O2 + 6H+ + 6e- 3H2O E = 1.229 V (Oxygen Reduction) 1.183 V or 1.144 Ve- e- + Ethanol + Water

Park, Byungwoo

479

Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Investment in Corn-Ethanol Plants in the Midwestern United States: An Analysis Using Reduced-Form and Structural Models1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lin and Karen E. Thome Abstract Ethanol has attracted considerable policy policy and strategic interactions affect decisions about when and where to invest in building new ethanol

Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "b10-b100 ethanol e10-e100" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Accounting for the water impacts of ethanol production This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accounting for the water impacts of ethanol production This article has been downloaded from for the water impacts of ethanol production Kevin R Fingerman1,4 , Margaret S Torn1,2 , Michael H O'Hare3 scarcity, and aggressive alternative fuel incentive policies. Life cycle water consumption for ethanol

Kammen, Daniel M.

482

Ethanol-induced Retinal Defects are Rescued by Retinoic Acid Supplement in Developing Zebrafish Pooja Muralidharan, Swapnalee Sarmah, James A. Marrs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethanol-induced Retinal Defects are Rescued by Retinoic Acid Supplement in Developing Zebrafish laboratory has used a zebrafish model for FASD that exposes embryos to ethanol during early development ranging from small eyes, underdeveloped optic nerve, and cataract. Zebrafish embryos exposed to ethanol

Zhou, Yaoqi

483

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000--000 (1994) The detection of hot ethanol in G34.3+0.15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 000--000 (1994) The detection of hot ethanol in G34.3+0.15 T. J rotational transitions of ethanol in the submillimetre spectrum of the molecular cloud associated, cannot be made by purely gas­phase processes, and we con­ clude that the ethanol must be formed

Millar, Tom

484

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Reflectance Imaging: A Label-Free/Real-Time Mapping of Microscale Mixture Concentration Fields (Water+Ethanol)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mixture Concentration Fields (Water+Ethanol) Iltai Kim and Kenneth D. Kihm Department of Mechanical (water+ethanol) concentration fields with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) reflectance technique based the refractive index and mixture concentration fields. The presented results show that ethanol penetrates

Kihm, IconKenneth David

485

Non-Aqueous Solvation of n-Octanol and Ethanol: Spectroscopic and Computational Lori M. Levering, Carrigan J. Hayes, Karen M. Callahan, Christopher M. Hadad,* and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-Aqueous Solvation of n-Octanol and Ethanol: Spectroscopic and Computational Studies Lori M-H bonds in n-octanol and ethanol with the organic solvents carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), cyclohexane populations of each ethanol complex and are consistent with the experimental results. Additional spectra were

486

Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT -Transition from no-flow CVD to normal ACCVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of flow rate of ethanol on growth dynamics of VA-SWNT - Transition from no-flow CVD a growth model [2]. In this study, the flow rate of ethanol during the CVD was controlled precisely. Figure 1 shows the growth curve of VA-SWNT film for various ethanol flow rates. In the figure, "No

Maruyama, Shigeo

487

Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

488

Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

489

Viability Studies of Biofuels Though biofuels (like ethanol) promise renewable "green" energy, these  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Viability Studies of Biofuels Though biofuels (like ethanol) promise renewable "green" energy cannot possibly meet U.S. energy demands, and current methods of biofuel production often consume as much energy as they produce. If biofuels are to be viable long-term energy solutions, we need new sources

Hill, Wendell T.

490

Economic Optimization of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Supply Chain W. Alex Marvin a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Optimization of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Supply Chain W. Alex Marvin a , Lanny design a b s t r a c t This paper presents an optimization study of the net present value of a biomass hydrolysis. Optimal locations and capacities of biorefineries are determined simultaneously with biomass

Benjaafar, Saifallah

491

Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

492

alleviates ethanol-induced hepatocytes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alleviates ethanol-induced hepatocytes First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Expression of...

493

Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for ���°Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

Horton, David Scott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were then evaluated using a computerized array channel microreactor system and mass spectrometry high cost (about $5.00/gal) of production relative to inexpensive petroleum prices. This neces- sitated government subsidies.5 The economic future of ethanol production looks even more favorable when one consid

Senkan, Selim M.

495

The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

496

Nipa (Nypa fruticans) sap as a potential feedstock for ethanol production Pramila Tamunaidu1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Currently the global ethanol supply is produced mainly from sugar and starch feedstocks. Sugar these feedstocks rely heavily on non-renewable fossil fuels and exploitation of forest lands which has negative cutting down the plant as in sugarcane which consequently produces large biomass waste such as straw

Takada, Shoji

497

Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

499

Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

Tyson, K.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

In vivo and in vitro effects of ethanol on the incorporation and cleavage of sialic acid moieties in the brain before, during and after withdrawal from a chronic ethanol diet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON THE INCORPORATION AND CLEAVAGE OF SIALIC ACID MOIETIES IN THE BRAIN BEFORE' DURING AND AFTER WITHDRAWAL FROM A CHRONIC ETHANOL DIET A Thesis by NESTOR ENRIQUE ACEVEDO-PABON Submitted to the Office... of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Veterinary Anatomy IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ON THE INCORPORATION AND CLEAVAGE OF S IALI...

Acevedo-Pabon, Nestor Enrique

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z