Sample records for azerbaijan belarus estonia

  1. azerbaijan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Occurrence and Parasite-Host of Ligula intestinalis in Sattarkhan Lake (East Azerbaijan-Iran) CiteSeer Summary: AbstractLigula intestinalis is a three-host life-cycle...

  2. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    entire world." The Energy Summit is built around the core nations of Georgia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Azerbaijan and is focused on promoting a collective energy transit...

  3. Specific Examples of Global Activities Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with the Office competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park worksSpecific Examples of Global Activities · Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan · Study abroad

  4. Upgrading the Radioactive Waste Management Infrastructure in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huseynov, A. [Baku Radioactive Waste Site IZOTOP, Baku (Azerbaijan); Batyukhnova, O. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ojovan, M. [Sheffield Univ., Immobilisation Science Lab. (United Kingdom); Rowat, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Dept. of Nuclear Safety and Security, Vienna (Austria)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide uses in Azerbaijan are limited to peaceful applications in the industry, medicine, agriculture and research. The Baku Radioactive Waste Site (BRWS) 'IZOTOP' is the State agency for radioactive waste management and radioactive materials transport. The radioactive waste processing, storage and disposal facility is operated by IZOTOP since 1963 being significantly upgraded from 1998 to be brought into line with international requirements. The BRWS 'IZOTOP' is currently equipped with state-of-art devices and equipment contributing to the upgrade the radioactive waste management infrastructure in Azerbaijan in line with current internationally accepted practices. The IAEA supports Azerbaijan specialists in preparing syllabus and methodological materials for the Training Centre that is currently being organized on the base of the Azerbaijan BRWS 'IZOTOPE' for education of specialists in the area of safety management of radioactive waste: collection, sorting, processing, conditioning, storage and transportation. (authors)

  5. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, T. [Jaakko Poyry International, Helsinki (Finland); Bird, G.; Wallace, D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  6. aarne saluveer estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: . The DemoEast programme objective in Estonia was to promote the pellets firing technology, equipment and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted...

  7. TENDER: Grants for Partizipation University of Siegen (Germany) and Qafqaz University (Azerbaijan)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegen, Universität

    for Partizipation University of Siegen (Germany) and Qafqaz University (Azerbaijan) International Summer School "Security Issues in the South Caucasus and Central Asia" at Siegen (Germany) from August 12th with participants from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Germany and Kazakhstan will focus on security issues arising from

  8. Estonia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshoneEstonia: Energy

  9. Corsi di laurea magistrale in italiano (non EU soggiornanti in Italia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azerbaijan Belgio Bosnia e Herzegovina Bulgaria Città del Vaticano Croazia Cipro Danimarca Estonia Finlandia

  10. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    anon.

    2004-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy had maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Azerbaijan.

  11. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada)] [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)] [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  12. Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krickovic, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Belarus and Kazakhstan that promote an alternativeof Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan, as counterweights tofrom Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan to European markets without

  13. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 let spustya [Life after Chernobyl: 16 years later]. 2002.Press. Belarus and Chernobyl: The Second Decade. 1998. Ed.Alexievich, S. 1997. Chernobylskaya molitva. Hronika

  14. Seismic interpretation and classification of mud volcanoes of the South Caspian Basin, offshore Azerbaijan.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusifov, Mehdi Zahid

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basin. A 2D seismic grid in southeastern offshore Azerbaijan is used to define the areal distribution of mud volcanoes and to make a classification of the mud volcanoes based on characteristic seismic features. As a result detailed database for each...

  15. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates in the deep water of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knapp, James Howard

    Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates in the deep water of the South Caspian Basin, Azerbaijan C) of this area, the presence of gas hydrates. Geophysical evidence for gas hydrates consists of a shallow (300, and is interpreted as the top of the gas hydrate layer. Similarly, a high-amplitude Rc

  16. Dynamics of the radiation situation on the territory of the Republic of Belarus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveyenko, I.I.; Zhukova, O.M. [Republic Centre of Radiation and Environment Monitoring, Minsk (Belarus). Belarus State Dept. for Hydrometerology

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the environmental contamination in Belarus before the Chernobyl accident and after it. The soil concentration was determined for iodine-131 in 1986, cerium-144 in 1986, and cesium-137 in 1993. Surface water contamination was determined for cesium-137 from 1987-1991. The vertical migration of cesium 137 was determined in soil.

  17. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  18. Book Review. The 20th Century Libraries in the Baltic Sea Regions. Transactions of the National Library of Estonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giullian, Jon C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews a collection of essays about library collections of national heritage in the countries of the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and St. Petersburg, Russia).

  19. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinma, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo@environment.e [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 25 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia); Poder, Tonis, E-mail: tonisp@tlu.e [Institute of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tallinn University, 25 Narva Road, 10120 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  20. Tax Morale and Conditional Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Bruno S.; Torgler, Benno

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estonia, Ukraine, Russia, Croatia, Slovakia, Greece, andBelarus Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic -0.282*** -5.74 -Republic, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Poland exhibit relatively

  1. ACADEMIC DELEGATION VISITS 2008 -2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    ACADEMIC DELEGATION VISITS GRAPHICS 2008 - 2014 #12;Europe: Macedonia, Estonia, Romania, Bosnia, Germany, Estonia, Romania, Turkey, Belarus Asia: Kazakhstan, Russia, Thailand, Japan, Armenia, China, Brazil North America: Mexico, Canada Total Visits: 30 Europe: Czech Republic, Latvia, Germany, Romania

  2. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  3. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Bana?kiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, ?; Dobrzy?ski, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozio?, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Krucza?a, W; Kud?a, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Mol?da, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; P?ocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; ?nieci?ska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staro?, A; Stromboni, M; Studzi?ska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; ?widerski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; ?mijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  4. Proc. 5th Minsk International Seminar (Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps and Refrigerators), Minsk, Belarus, 2003. 21 7+( '(),1,7,21 2) 38/6$7,1* +($7 3,3(6 $1 29(59,(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Proc. 5th Minsk International Seminar (Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps and Refrigerators), Minsk, Belarus)-711-685-2142, Fax: (+49)-711-685-2010, E-mail: khandekar@ike.uni-stuttgart.de $EVWUDFW Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) have emerged as interesting alternatives to conventional heat transfer technologies. These simple

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union: the role of individual and community-level factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    . Setting: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Subjects: Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 1895 years. Results: Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were... behaviours and demographic, socio-economic and environ- mental characteristics. Surveys were nationally representa- tive and conducted among adult respondents (aged ?18 years) in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakh- stan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia...

  6. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varvas, M. [AS ALARA, Leetse tee 21, Paldiski, 76806 (Estonia); Putnik, H. [Delegation of the European Commission to Russia, Kadashevskaja nab. 14/1 119017 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nirvin, B.; Pettersson, S. [SKB, Box 5864, Stockholm, SE-102 40 (Sweden); Johnsson, B. [Studsvik RadWaste, Nykoping, SE-611 82 (Sweden)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  7. UNECE Timber Committee Market Discussions 8th October 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ukraine Yugoslavia Croatia Hungary Million m3 Source: JP database, UNECE/FAO #12;12 0 2 4 6 8 1990 1992.8 1 1.2 Estonia Latvia Czech Lithuania Croatia Hungary Belarus Poland Slovakia Yugoslavia Slovenia

  8. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  9. Azerbaijan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to:AurigaPlantillas Jump to:nculos Jump

  10. Belarus: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,

  11. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle School (6-8)Need for aNuclear Security Progressas2008

  12. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »Usage »DownloadSolar »MiddleHighHighEnergyorofNeed for2008 Energy Summit

  13. Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France: Energy Resources JumpPáginas de usuarios

  14. Power Triangle: Military, Security, and Politics in the Shaping of the Egyptian, Iranian, and Turkish Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandil, Hazem Khaled

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    independent republics in Kurdistan and Azerbaijan to secureand their allies in Kurdistan and Azerbaijan, the two

  15. aircraft lift estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we describe lifted inference algorithms that determine symmetries and automatically lift the probabilistic model to speedup inference. In particular, we describe approximate...

  16. area central estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Central Norte (ACN) region is a designated portion of the TordiHo Field in which a pilot waterflood was initiated in September... Tuvio, Raul 2012-06-07 16 International Summer...

  17. area southwest estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Langmuir, Charles H. 130 Southwest MN IPM STUFF All the pestilence that's fit to print Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants Websites Summary: weather Rainfall, air and soil...

  18. anu sepp estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    European Botea, Adi 6 itservices.anu.edu.au Information Technology Services Renewable Energy Websites Summary: S Contents Introduction 3 ANU Email 4 ANU Enterprise Travel System 4...

  19. area northern estonia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products derived from satellite remote sensing are important for the validation and evaluation of ESMs from regional to global scales. Several decades worth of satellite data...

  20. Organizing Committee International Relations Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    of the Minister of Education of the Republic of Azerbaijan from the republic of azerbaijan: Misir Mardanov

  1. Seismic interpretation and classification of mud volcanoes of the South Caspian Basin, offshore Azerbaijan.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusifov, Mehdi Zahid

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    development in the South Caspian Basin is generally linked to faults, which in some instances are detached at the basement level. By using interpreted seismic surfaces it is possible to determine relative time of mud flows from the mud volcanoes. Timing of mud...

  2. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350, Republic of Korea b Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA c Geology Institute volcanoes, sedimentary volca- noes, gasoil volcanoes etc. Mud volcanoes resemble magmatic volcanoes

  3. Born: 1929, Baranovicze, then Poland, now Belarus In 1937 emigrated to Christchurch New Zealand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Emmanuel

    Cited: 236 DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC-ACIDS (C1-C10) IN THE ATMOSPHERE, MOTOR EXHAUSTS, AND ENGINE OILS of Sulphur Isotopes, IR. Kaplan* and SC. Rittenberg Journal of General Microbiology, 1964 #12;The age curves,051 MICROBIOLOGICAL FRACTIONATION OF SULPHUR ISOTOPES. By: KAPLAN, I R; RITTENBERG, S C Journal of general

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    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in Estonia:...

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    trips, Russian brigades to Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Kara-11, 1934. writers to Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan; and sent aof Ukraine, Tataria, Kazakhstan, and Armenia to give them

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    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Diaphragm Effect on Detonation Wave Transmission from Propane/Oxygen to Propane/Air Jiun-Ming Li1 , Kung on the detonation wave propagation from a propane/oxygen mixture to a propane/air mixture. 2 Experimental setup the diaphragm was 922 mm long, see Fig. 1. A stoichiometric propane/oxygen mixture filled the donor tube while

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    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a mobile nuclear power plant to radiation protection ofless than a nuclear accident or a radiation safety disaster:on Radiation Protection) 55 shape international nuclear

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    Kuchinskaya, Olga

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    Ci/km (Areas with cesium contamination higher than 40 Ci/based on the contamination with Cesium-137); it had enoughsince cesium-137, the major source of contamination, tends

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    Kuchinskaya, Olga

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    Unipack. Irwin, A.1995. Citizen Science: a Study of People,and lay expertise in Citizen Science (1995), though, forof Humility: Citizen Participation in Governing Science.

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    Kuchinskaya, Olga

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    contaminated territories, decontamination, and developmentsanatoria and resorts). Decontamination and rehabilitationmeasures aimed at decontamination and facilitation of

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    Kuchinskaya, Olga

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    dirty With some joint efforts of the village authorities [selsovet], the local doctor, the head of the hospital, the money

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    Omelicheva, Mariya Y.

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    -related decisions (Agyeman-Duah & Olatunde 1991; Price 1971; Rivera 2004). It is suggested that the similarity of human social behaviour at different levels of aggregation opens up a possibility for inferring state conduct from individuals actions. Since... of the reference group (Majone 1991; Weil 1993); the tangible and intangible benefits of being a part of the reference groups, such as exclusive rights and privileges (Agyeman-Duah & Olatunde 1991, p. 299); geographical proximity (Mooney 2001); and acceptance...

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    populations. It is part of a network of AHEC organiza- tions Collins, Gary S. 66 tight environment high radiation area Physics Websites Summary: , no active electronics ...

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    by light fuel oil. The annual light oil consumption is approx. 50 tons and the maximum heat demand capacity and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier oil fuelling) and 26NOVA (with the capacity 700 kW with light oil fuelling). The boilers are fuelled

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    Planning issues Transport companies District Heating Sustainable communities Utilities Solar energy User str. boiler house is operated by Rakvere DH company AS Rakvere Soojus, owned partly by Rakvere town

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    discrimination (Frejka 2008). This is associated primarily with a significant reduction of state welfare policies (Sobotka 2004). Additionally, in Poland the situation is being reinforced by the strong religious influences of the Catholic Church stressing...

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    Soviet Union (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Russia),kg CO 2 /$GDP FSS Ukraine Kazakhstan Iran East Asia BelarusAsia China South Africa Kazakhstan Malaysia Russia Thailand

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    Buscaglia, Edgardo

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    Morocco Zimbabwe Belarus Mongolia Dominican Re Peru SouthSerbia Zambia Morocco Mongolia Nauru Bolivia ArgentinaZimbabwe Belarus Morocco Mongolia Algeria Cyprus Dominican

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    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

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    , Vietnam. Europe Other: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria

  1. Erdteil/Land Gesamt mnnlich weiblich Erstimm. Neuimm. Rckgem. Beurlaubt Afrika 53 44 9 5 0 44 4

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    Syrian Arab Republic Belarus Kazakhstan Trinidad and Tobago Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Kyrgyzstan

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    Uganda Tanzania Venezuela Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia GeorgiaUganda Belarus Russia Kyrgyzstan Macedonia Nigeria Indonesia

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    BELARUS UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN CRO. HERZ. (NORWAY) Svalbard FY R OM* SER. KAZAKHSTAN Black Sea Barents Sea

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    Moreno Centeno, Erick

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    Latvia Australia N. Zealand Croatia Cyprus InsI Country 2Belgium Brazil Canada Chile Croatia Cyprus Denmark EstoniaAustria Belgium Canada Croatia Cyprus Denmark Estonia Israel

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    Persoff, P.

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    and Utilization of Oil Shale Resources, Tillinn, Estonia (and Utilization of Oil Shale Resources, Tallinn, Estonia (Colorado's Primary Oil-Shale Resource for Vertical Modified

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    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in...

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    Gerber, Leah R.

    Singapore 22 Thailand 23 Vietnam 28 Europe 320 Albania 5 Armenia 1 Austria 8 Azerbaijan 6 Belgium 1 Bosnia

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    Moldova, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. World Bank Report. kazakhstan/>. EIU (EconomistAsian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,

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    assessment in Azerbaijan Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with...

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  13. Contributors Ioannis M. Besieris, The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engi-

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    Lu, Jian-yu

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    Muendler, Marc-Andreas; Becker, Sascha O.

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    Balkan countries, Belarus, Turkey, and Ukraine Developing countries including Russia and Central Asian economies as well as dominions of Western

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    .RUS. BULGARIA CZ.REP. SLO. SLOV. AUS. BOS. & GEORGIA ROMANIA UKRAINE BELARUS UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN CRO. HERZ

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    Barkanov, Boris

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Belorussia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, andSenior people from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,gas from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. With the

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    Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan. The third casemillion ethnic Koreans in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan fallAviv, Israel; Almaty, Kazakhstan; Pyongyang, North Korea;

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    polygon. Alma-Ata: Kazakhstan, 1992. ______________. 29Community in Soviet Kazakhstan. An Historical Analysis ofin Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan. In chapter 3 I discuss the

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    finland nigeria serbia and montenegro peru tanzania, unitedcroatia serbia and montenegro zimbabwe tanzania, nigerianam georgia serbia and montenegro japan morocco azerbaijan

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    A Neo-Aramaic dialect of Kurdistan: Texts, grammar, andlanguages from di?erent communities in Turkish Kurdistan,Iraqi Kurdistan, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Ira- nian

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    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Catlica de Chile)

    60 70 80 90 100 Ecuador Peru Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Azerbaijan Iran Qatar Saudi Arabia Libya. Generacin solar -fotovoltaica, concentradores solares. Pelamis Energa Geotrmica -energa calrica

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    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the...

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    Poland Chile Bulgaria Croatia Albania S. Africa Switzld. S.Bulgaria, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Rep. , Estonia,

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    , Germany Varmo Vene + Tartu University, Estonia Markus M?uller­Olm # FernUniversit?at Hagen, Germany

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    CIS mission to Moldova and Kyrgyzstan because of the CISsFaso Equatorial Guinea Kyrgyzstan Burundi Estonia Laos

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    . SAARI Institute of Physics, EstonianAcademy of Sci, Riia 142, Tam 202400,Estonia Abstract Two methods

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    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

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    in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990-91, Eds. Jan KoehlerIn southwestern Europe, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbiainclude: Belarus, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia,

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    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tauno Tammeoja; Aire Vstrik

    The fast economical growth of Estonia in past years has set us several questions on sustainability of oil shale mining in Estonia. For how long do the oil shale resources last? What are the mining expenditures in the areas of different mining conditions and how do they change in future? Thus, in

  6. European Union enlargement A historic opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilbao Arrese, Jess Mario

    with Cyprus, Malta, and Turkey 17 Accession Partnerships 18 Pre-accession assistance 20 The Phare Programme 20 Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. Malta, which had `frozen' its application

  7. Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krickovic, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a major airbase in Kant Kyrgyzstan that is located less thanBelarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and TajikistanStar On Rise Again In Kyrgyzstan, Radio Free Europe-Radio

  8. A r c t i c Barents Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    Ri Vychegda R U S S I AC A N A D A U.K.IRE. ICELAND NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND LATVIA LITH. BELARUS UKRAINE POLAND DENMARK GERMANY EST. KAZ. JAPAN (DENMARK) Greenland (NORWAY) Svalbard (NORWAY) (NORWAY) CHINA UNITED

  9. Chromosomal Rainbows detect Oncogenic Rearrangements of Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Benjamin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELE1 genes, in a post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.in a case of post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancer. Foliafrom Belarus after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Oncogene

  10. New Hanyang 2020 Blueprint Brand Power Up Human Power Up Asset Power Up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Il

    (1) Indonesia(3) Australia(7) Poland(10) Belarus(3) Brazil(2) Finland(2) Lithuania(1) Serbia(1,177 2012 #12; Patents 544 patent applications, 284 registered patents in 2011 Technology transfer record

  11. Presentation 3.3: The EE21 project Gianluca Sambucini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1422,600370,000Vitebsk Grosvet 7701,000770,000Borovljany Control Systems for district Heating Project Emission Reduction of Financed Projects (cont.) Belarus 1. Borovljany Control Systems for District Heating

  12. aortic arch pathology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  13. acinar cells pathologic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  14. anatomy pathology dosimetry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  15. alzheimer-like amyloid pathology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  16. aortic arch pathologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  17. achilles tendon pathology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to participate, and in 2000 the first SNS-meeting for forest pathologists was held in a Baltic country, Estonia. The present meeting was organized by Halvor Solheim with help...

  18. Meeting Report. Assessing Human Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in the Post-Genome Era: A Celebration of the Legacy of William Lawson (Bill) Russell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and 20 years after Chernobyl. Boice JD Jr, Tawn EJ, Winther2006. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in EstoniaDNA Germ-Cell Mutagenesis in Chernobyl, Japanese, and Animal

  19. United States - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of primary coal (includes anthracite, bituminous, lignite, and for Estonia, oil shale). 829.7000 , 823.7750 , 838.1120 , 782.0910 , 895.9208 , 883.6381 , 890.3147 ,...

  20. Understanding Democratic Congruence: A Demand-Supply Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welzel, Christian; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luxemb. Mexico G.B. El Salv. Malta Italy Peru NL SloveniaSlovenia Cyprus Italy Estonia Malta Uruguay Taiwan HungaryBrazil Domin. R. Cyprus Chile Malta Portugal Peru Venezuela

  1. Mathematics Achievement Scale Score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Croatia 490 New Zealand 486 Spain 482 Romania 482 Poland 481 Turkey 469 Azerbaijan 463 Chile 462 Thailand Romania 505 Spain 505 Poland 505 TIMSS Scale Centerpoint 500 New Zealand 497 Kazakhstan 495 Norway 494 Kazakhstan 487 Sweden 484 Ukraine 479 Norway 475 Armenia 467 Romania 458 United Arab Emirates 456 Turkey 452

  2. The University of Washington acts on its great capacity and ambition for addressing vital issues, motivated by the power of shared concern, as is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    Personnel (AP) serves as the institutional portal for academic personnel administration. We bring clear transitions for faculty, librarians, and academic staff · Monitor and uphold the high standards for ethics AFGHANISTAN 1 ALBANIA 1 AZERBAIJAN 1 BULARIA 1 BURMA (MYANMAR) 1 CAMEROON 1 COSTA RICA 1 ETHIOPIA 1 JAMAICA 1

  3. Journal of Human Development Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University and Thomas Snow served as Research and priorities in each landlocked country. The paper concludes with a brief set of policy recommendations of China, India and Russia lie further from the coast than many landlocked countries like Azerbaijan

  4. NETHERLANDS SWITZERLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OCEAN SOUTHERN OCEANSOUTHERN OCEAN SOUTHERN OCEAN SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN ARCTIC OCEANARCTIC OCEAN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN Determining Factors for Medical Threat Levels MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO GREECE AZERBAIJAN ARCTIC OCEAN NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN INDIAN

  5. AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA Algeria Afghanistan Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    AFRICA ASIA SOUTH AMERICA Algeria Afghanistan Argentina Angola Armenia Bolivia Benin Azerbaijan Senegal Syria Seychelles Taiwan (Republic of China) Sierra Leone Tajikistan Somalia Thailand South Africa Kazakhstan Guinea Korea (North) Guinea-Bissau Korea (South) Kenya Kuwait Lesotho Kyrgyzstan Liberia Lao PDR

  6. NEWS REPORT International Conference on ``Photosynthesis Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    NEWS REPORT International Conference on ``Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2011'', July ``Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability-2011'', held in Baku, Azerbaijan, during July 2430, 2011 (http://www.photosynthesis at this conference. (See http://www.photosynthesis 2011.cellreg.org/Photos.php and http

  7. Hohe Anteile an Windenergie im Energiemix der Zukunft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netherlands Algeria Egypt Libya Romania Deutschland Ukraine Azerbaijan Kazhakstan Turkey Uzbekistanstan Great;Sources of Natural Gas 2010 1.000 km 2.000 km 3.000 km Norway Russia Netherlands Algeria Egypt Libya, Malin Head Savingsoffossilfuels[%] Wind energy production [% of demand] Gregor Giebel, Ris, 2007 #12

  8. Collaborative development of Estonian nuclear master's program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tkaczyk, A. H.; Kikas, A.; Realo, E.; Kirm, M.; Kiisk, M.; Isakar, K.; Suursoo, S.; Koch, R.; Feldbach, E.; Lushchik, A.; Reivelt, K. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2009 Estonia approved the National Development Plan for the Energy Sector, including the nuclear energy option. This can be realized by construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Estonia or by participation in neighboring nuclear projects (e.g., Lithuania and/or Finland). Either option requires the availability of competent personnel. It is necessary to prepare specialists with expertise in all aspects related to nuclear infrastructure and to meet workforce needs (e.g. energy enterprises, public agencies, municipalities). Estonia's leading institutions of higher education and research with the support of the European Social Fund have announced in this context a new nuclear master's curriculum to be developed. The language of instruction will be English. (authors)

  9. R u t c o r R e p o r t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the Office of Naval Research (Grant N0001492F1375), NSF (Grant DMS9806389), INTAS and the Belarus Government classes J(ff; !), where J 2 fF; Ig and ff; ! 2 fc; 1g in the following way: 1) if J = F (respectively, J

  10. P-113 / X. Li P-113: Ferroelectric LC Aligned on SiO2 Thin Films Using the Ion Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong A. Khokhlov and E. Khokhlov Izovac Ltd, Belarus Abstract The uniform" (before electrical treatment) and "quazi- bookshelf" (after electrical treatment) were studied of investigation of the alignment of FLC materials on the SiO2 films produced by the ion-beam deposition for LC

  11. Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: A new nuclear disaster about to happen?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildfires in Chernobyl-contaminated forests and risks to the population and the environment: A new June 2014 Accepted 20 August 2014 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chernobyl accident Forest fires Redistribution Radionuclides Risks Radioactive contamination in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia after the Chernobyl

  12. Ris-R-742(EN) EU-CIS Joint Study Project 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scientific Centre for Radiation Medicine Kiev, Ukraine Igor V. Rolevich Chernobyl State Committee Minsk conditions after the Chernobyl accident in the CIS republics Ukraine, Belarus and Russia have been evaluated site 24 3.3 Risks in the Bryansk region from the Chernobyl accident 26 3.4 Comparison of BARD

  13. Batching Work and Rework Processes with Limited Deterioration of Reworkables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdeburg, Universitt

    of Sciences of Belarus, E-mail: kovalyovmy@bsu.by Abstract We study the problem of planning the production [8] note that such an integration leads to challenging planning and control problems. Quite often of new and recovering defective items of the same product manufactured on the same facility. Items

  14. Coping with Change: Understanding Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    KYRGYZSTAN TAJIKISTAN UZBEKISTAN K A Z A K H S T A N A F G H A N I S TA N PAKISTAN I R A N C H I N A T U R K M E N I S T A N R U S S I A UZBEKISTAN K A Z A K H S T A N KYRGYZSTAN TAJIKISTAN AZERBAIJAN KUWAIT, if not millennia, large parts of contemporary Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were home

  15. CURRICULUM VITAE Svante Pbo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pääbo, Svante

    Class, Republic of Estonia. Gorjanovic-Kramberger Medal, Zagreb, Croatia. Honorary Professor, Graduate, Croatian Anthropological Society, Zagreb, Croatia. 2011 Newcomb-Cleveland Prize, AAAS, Washington, D and Arts, Zagreb, Croatia. Heisse Kartoffel, Leipzig, Gemany. 2013 Gruber Genetics Prize, New Haven, CT

  16. Accountable Certificate Management using Undeniable Attestations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ¨uberneetika AS Akadeemia tee 21 12618 Tallinn, Estonia ahto.buldas@cyber.ee Peeter Laud Universit¨at des Saarlandes FB 14 management system. Moreover, authenticated search trees can be used in many security-critical applications for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed

  17. Name School City Country 1 Lycee after Anania Shirakatsy Yerevan Armenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borissova, Daniela

    Estonia 24 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty Kazakhstan 25 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty Kazakhstan 26 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty Kazakhstan 27 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty Kazakhstan 28 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty Kazakhstan 29 Unesco associated school "BEST" Almaty

  18. The Euro as More than a Currency: How Salient is the European Single Currency to Europeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Laura J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Austria, Finland 2003 Non-EMU includes Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden 2008 EMU includes Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta..., Netherlands, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Greece, Portugal 2008 Non-EMU includes Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Sweden, United Kingdom 2 European...

  19. Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and Mixed Inductive-Coinductive Types Andreas Science (FICS 2012) ETAPS 2012, Tallinn, Estonia 24 March 2012 Andreas Abel (LMU) Type-Based Termination AIM XV 1 / 1 #12;Introduction Aspects of Termination What the talk is about: foundational approach

  20. International workshop: Planning for climate change through integrated coastal management. Volume 2: Country and regional reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop included reports from the following countries: Argentina; Bulgaria; Egypt; Estonia; Fiji; Indonesia; Mozambique; Nigeria; Oman; The Philippines; Senegal; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Thailand; and Tuvalu; Regional reports were included on the following: Small Island Developing States of the Pacific; South Pacific Regional Environment Program; and Sea Level Rise Impacts on Central America.

  1. Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles Cowden, Sam Willis, and Richard Shefferson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shefferson, Richard P.

    Mycorrhizal Species Dominate the Soil-Fungal Community in Estonian Oil Shale-Ash Hills Charles 30602 Introduction Estonia relies on vast reserves of oil shale to produce electricity. The mining and burning of oil shale is extremely inefficient and produces large quantities of tailings and ash (Vallner

  2. American Journal of Botany 95(2): 156164. 2008. Orchids are well known for their rarity, but are also increas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shefferson, Richard P.

    's most heavily mined deposits of oil shale, a sedimentary rock with large deposits of organic matter of semicoke and ash tailings from oil shale mines have accumulated throughout northeastern Estonia. is a pseudobulbous orchid growing a 2050 cm long inflorescence. Three individuals were sampled at a working oil

  3. A Tourist Recommendation System Employing Probabilistic Semantics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    Smart City system. Keywords: semantics, tourism, recommendation engine, probabilistic reasoning, rule focuses on automating the object selection and visit schedule creation. Smart City (SC) is a semantic Estonia. The Smart City project uses experience from the Smartmuseum project [9] and applies some

  4. newsletternewsletter EUROPEAN FUSION DEVELOPEMENT AGREEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia Association EURATOM/ University of Latvia Institute of Solid State Physics, Riga http://www.cfi.lu.lv/ Poland, it is essential to present fusion research within the general context of energy research and to explain societal

  5. INFLUENCE OF DROUGHTS TO THE RADIAL GROWTH OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .vitas@gmf.vdu.lt Lithuanian Energy Institute Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Breslaujos 3, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania; e). Dendroclimatological investigation on pine tree rings in Latvia (Spalte, 1978), Estonia (Läänelaid, 1982), Poland to cold winters. However, it was established that rainfall during summer in Poland induces wide rings

  6. WASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    to Climate protection in light of the· Waste Framework Directive. The "energy package", e.g. the RenewablesWASTE TO WATTS Waste is a Resource! energy forum Case Studies from Estonia, Switzerland, Germany Bossart,· ABB Waste-to-Energy Plants Edmund Fleck,· ESWET Marcel van Berlo,· Afval Energie Bedrijf From

  7. An operational semantics for R5 Jacob Matthews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findler, Robert Bruce "Robby"

    An operational semantics for R5 RS Scheme Jacob Matthews University of Chicago jacobm or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation 25, 2005, Tallinn, Estonia. Copyright c 2005 Jacob Matthews and Robert Bruce Findler. suited

  8. December 2007 IBM Internet Security Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the threat is legitimate The distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks against Estonia's Web sites earlier this year 2 represent a case where cyberterrorist acts were successful in generating devastating effects, James Lewis from the Center for Strategic and International Studies, believes that, "what many of us

  9. Diversity of Orchid Fungal Symbionts in Estonian Mine Tailings Sam Willis, Charles Cowden and Richard Shefferson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gittleman, John

    little more than burnt oil soaked shale and ash. We extracted all DNA in soil samples taken from multiple samples were taken is on a barren hill that was created when Estonia burned oil soaked shale to produce the fungi are utilizing the nutrients from the burnt oil and shale to support the orchids (Shefferson et al

  10. Initiatives for proliferation prevention program : goals, projects, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemberger, P. H. (Philip H.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP) Program is to identify and create commercial opportunities for former weapons scientists currently or formerly involved with weapons of mass destruction in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). IPP was first authorized in Fiscal Year 1994 under Section 575 of Public Law 103-87. IPP currently sponsors 164 projects in Russian at 64 institutes; 16 projects in the Ukraine at 14 institutes; 14 projects in Kazakhstan at 10 institutes; and one project in Belarus. To date, the IPP program has engaged over 10,000 experts in the areas of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons and missile development at more than 170 institutes in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  11. A review of "The Cossack Age, 1654-1657" by Mykhailo Hrushevsky, translated by Marta Daria Olynyk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Carol B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attacked from west and south. Khmelnytsky, over this period of less than three years, attempted #23; rst to consolidate an alternative alliance with Sweden, then to undermine negotiations between Muscovy and the Polish-Lithuanian Common- wealth, and #23...; nally to create new alliances for Ukraine?with Sweden again, with Transylvania, and negotiations with the Ottoman Porte. At the same time, he tried to expand the Ukraine he controlled to include western Ukraine and parts of Belarus. #22; ree long...

  12. Progress through Dispute: The Caspian Oil Power Struggle and Its Effects on Central Asian Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristin Perry, Natalie

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    shores on the Caspian seem to hold less oil and natural gas reserves than the other four littoral states, (Bahgat, 2007, p. 163). Since the Iranian economy is less than stable at the moment, and one effect of this is a strong determination on the part... has also joined the TANAP pipeline bandwagon and is ready to invest in building materials and start the proposal process, regarding specifics in transport and delivery. This pipeline will transport gas from Azerbaijan to Turkey through the Turkish...

  13. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Estonia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 France 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gabon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guatemala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 India 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea,...

  14. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estonia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 France 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gabon 297 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guatemala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 India 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea,...

  15. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 Estonia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 France 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gabon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Guatemala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 India 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea,...

  16. Give peace a chance: the origins of territorial autonomy arrangements in multiethnic states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaykhutdinov, Renat

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    who hold Mexico to be a Latin American country? (19-20). ?Globally the most important torn country? (20), Russia is divided over the question of whether it ?is part of West or the leader of a distinct Slavic-Orthodox civilization? (20). In all... been adopted in Russia in 1996, and reestablished in Estonia in 1993, Latvia in 1991, and Lithuania in 1989 (MINELRES: Minority Electronic Resources). In territorial autonomies, on the other...

  17. The Cost of Improving Gas Supply Security in the Baltic States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Pierre; Findlater, Sachi; Chyong, Chi Kong

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to replace a failed compressor station on a transmission pipeline; 12 most disruptions caused by pipeline failures could be repaired in a week or less. A failure of the Latvian underground storage could potentially disrupt supply to Estonia and Latvia... it is important to note that both types of disruptions have the same practical consequences. For example in the Baltic States, an accidental pipeline explosion or compressor failure would interrupt gas supply to district heating plants, just as a voluntary...

  18. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  19. Data Archived for Events in the Caucasus for the CauSINCollaboration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godoladze, T; Hunt, D; Aliyev, F; Arakelyan, A; Kalafat, D; Javakhishvil, Z; Panahi, B; Arzumanyan, V; Hutchings, L J; Vergino, E

    2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Causin project is a joint effort between the countries in the Caucasus region to develop a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. To that end, we have compiled a database of all available network data in the region. The information contained in the database is from four countries: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey and from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). Table 1 lists the networks from which data were obtained. Figure 1 shows the locations of stations, and Figure 2 shows ray paths for event locations of the archived data. An ongoing effort in the region is the Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) is an international scientific project enabling the countries and scientists of the region to: better understand the seismicity of the greater Caucasus; develop new monitoring networks to support the scientific understanding; provide access to seismic data from local networks in the participating countries; and develop a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment for the region enabling the governments in the region to better mitigate the damaging effects from large earthquakes. In parallel with this effort, training has been conducted on modern techniques for probabilistic hazards assessment. CauSIN is also an ongoing effort to promote cooperation in the geosciences between Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, European Union and the United States. The DOE supports the American team from New England Research, Inc. (NER), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston College, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  20. Director`s series on proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  1. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  2. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  3. Russian-Estonian Code-Switching Among Young Estonian Russians: Developing a Mixed Linguistic Identity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskaja, Anastassia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the central authorities; 2) Sillam?e, an area closed to Estonians as members of a ?suspect? ethnic group, due to the uranium mining, and, later, uranium processing; 3) the Kohtla-J?rve oil-shale mines; 4) the PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www... in the county of Ida- Viru. It has always been an industrial town that has become widely known as the capital of the oil shale basin and the chemical industry. Kohtla-J?rve is one of the youngest towns in Estonia. It received its designation as a town on June...

  4. RARE EARTHS1 [Data in metric tons of rare-earth oxide (REO) content unless otherwise noted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,380 840 1,350 1,400 Rare-earth metals, alloys 1,470 1,390 4,920 1,380 3,400 Other rare-earth compounds 1,750 5,480 2,300 Rare-earth oxides, compounds 9,900 8,820 5,130 3,980 3,700 Rare-earth metals, alloy 784 scrap. Import Sources (200710): Rare-earth metals, compounds, etc.: China, 79%; France, 6%; Estonia, 4

  5. Eswood School | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshoneEstonia: EnergyEswood

  6. Ethanol Capital Funding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshoneEstonia:

  7. Ethanol Capital Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshoneEstonia:Management Jump

  8. Ethiopia-Climate Technology Initiative Private Financing Advisory Network

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshoneEstonia:Management

  9. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  10. Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

  11. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  12. Pulse superimposition calculational methodology for estimating the subcritcality level of nuclear fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Rabiti, C.; Aliberti, G.; Kondev, F.; Smith, D.; Zhong, Z.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.; Serafimovich, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny)

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the subcriticality level of a nuclear fuel assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology simulating the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the experimental and analytical reaction rates and the obtained subcriticality levels. In this methodology, the reaction rate is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the delayed fission neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction rate is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is then superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The analytical results of this new calculation methodology have shown an excellent agreement with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. This methodology can be used to calculate Bell and Glasstone spatial correction factor.

  13. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)] [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  14. Shale oil by 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaac, E.D.; Svoboda, D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial processing of oil shale is currently being carried out in two countries, these being Manchuria and Estonia. Germany, Israel, Australia, Brazil and the United States are planning commercial development of oil shale during the 1980's. In the United States, developers currently pursuing production facilities in the Piceance Basin in Colorado are the Union Oil Company; Colony Development Company, now owned by Tosco and Exxon; Occidental Oil Shale Inc.; The Rio Blanco Shale Company (Amoco and Gulf) CA Tract; The Cathedral Bluff's Oil Shale Company (Oxy and Tenneco) at CB tract; The Anvil Points Bureau of Mines Site under the direction of DOE which has been leased to the Paraho Development Company to optimize their process; and Superior Oil. Superior Oil plans to recover Negcolite and Dowsonite that are associated with their oil shale. The processes used by these companies are described briefly. These are the Union B process, Tosco II process, Paraho process, and Occidental process. It is estimated that between 400,000 to 500,000 barrels per day (63,600 to 79,500 m/sup 3//day) production would be achieved by 1990 if all of the effects on the infrastructure are planned for and constructed in an orderly manner.

  15. Quality of environmental impact statements and variability of scrutiny by reviewers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kaja, E-mail: kaja.peterson@seit.e [Stockholm Environment Institute Tallinn Centre, Lai Street 34, Tallinn 10133 (Estonia)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adequate provision of information is essential for decision making. This paper provides the results of the quality assessment of Environmental Impact Statements (EIS), documents prescribed by EIA Directive (337/85/EEC). The assessment was completed by several categories of reviewers in Estonia, which has been an EU member state since 2004. The quality assessment of EIS was based on the EC Guidance on EIS Review (2001). Firstly, the quality assessment of 50 randomly selected EIS was carried out by a single reviewer. Secondly, the individual grading among 24 independent reviewers of a single EIS was tested. Thirdly, a comparison of the results of 15 individual and 5 group assessments of the same EIS was conducted. The results from the quality assessment of the selected EIS demonstrate a satisfactory level of information provided for decision making; 68% of the sample EIS were positively graded. However, more than half of the 50 EIS were graded as 'just satisfactory'. Comparison between the individual and group assessment of the same EIS demonstrates that the group assessment is more critical than the individual assessment. This possibly results from a wider technical expertise and balancing of subjective values and perspectives among group members. Arguably, the current practice of EIA competent authorities assessing the quality of EIS with individuals could be revised. We discuss the effect of the group assessment on expanding the narrow technical expertise and the subjectivity of a single expert.

  16. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

  17. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division) [Nuclear Engineering Division

    2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

  18. YALINA-booster subcritical assembly pulsed-neutron experiments : data processing and spatial corrections.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The YALINA-Booster experiments and analyses are part of the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory of USA and the Joint Institute for Power & Nuclear Research - SOSNY of Belarus for studying the physics of accelerator driven systems for nuclear energy applications using low enriched uranium. The YALINA-Booster subcritical assembly is utilized for studying the kinetics of accelerator driven systems with its highly intensive D-T or D-D pulsed neutron source. In particular, the pulsed neutron methods are used to determine the reactivity of the subcritical system. This report examines the pulsed-neutron experiments performed in the YALINA-Booster facility with different configurations for the subcritical assembly. The 1141 configuration with 90% U-235 fuel and the 1185 configuration with 36% or 21% U-235 fuel are examined. The Sjoestrand area-ratio method is utilized to determine the reactivities of the different configurations. The linear regression method is applied to obtain the prompt neutron decay constants from the pulsed-neutron experimental data. The reactivity values obtained from the experimental data are shown to be dependent on the detector locations inside the subcritical assembly and the types of detector used for the measurements. In this report, Bell's spatial correction factors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo model to remove the detector dependences. The large differences between the reactivity values given by the detectors in the fast neutron zone of the YALINA-Booster are reduced after applying the spatial corrections. In addition, the estimated reactivity values after the spatial corrections are much less spatially dependent.

  19. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  20. Silurian K-bentonites in North America and northwestern Europe: A trans-Atlantic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Little published information is available about Silurian K-bentonites in North America, but a few occurrences of such beds are known from the Great lakes region and Nova Scotia. Only a small number of beds are recorded from the former area, but the Nova Scotia occurrences include about 20 beds of Llandoverian age, the most extensive sequence of Silurian K-bentonites known in North America. In contrast, more than 150 K-bentonites occur in the Silurian successions in Baltoscandia and the British Isles. Virtually all beds in North America are of Llandoverian age. There are numerous beds of that age also in Norway, Denmark (Bornholm), the British Isles, and the Swedish mainland but the successions in Estonia, Gotland, and the British Isles also include many K-bentonites of Wenlockian and Ludlovian age. Apparently, no Pridolian beds are known in North America and northwestern Europe. Many graptolite-dated collections from more than 20 sections in Baltoscandia and from many sections in the British Isles suggest that several single beds, or complexes of beds, can be traced regionally and hence have event-stratigraphic potential. The relatively few beds known from North America all occur in biostratigraphic intervals containing K-bentonites in Europe, and it is possible that some of these beds may have a common source. The much larger number of beds in northwestern Europe compared with North America may be taken as an indication that the source area of the European K-bentonites was closer to Baltica than to Laurentia, and probably located somewhere in the northern Iapetus.

  1. EDITORIAL HPJ SPECIAL ISSUE INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the development and testing of effective cleanup technologies to reduce environmental and health risks. Based o

  2. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

  3. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teskeviciene, Birute [Ministry of Economy, Gedimino pr. 38/2, Vilnius, LT-01104 (Lithuania); Harrison, Peter [Central Project Management Agency, S. Konarskio 13, Vilnius, LT-03109 (Lithuania)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel thereby reducing operating costs and the final quantity of spent fuel. Design and construction of the facilities for spent fuel storage, waste processing and free-release is ongoing. The siting of the Near Surface Repository is now in the final stages of approval and construction of the landfill facility is under tendering. In order to facilitate the approval process and minimize the transport of waste, both disposal facilities will be within the boundary of the NPP site. Approximately 450 staff are employed at the shutdown Unit 1 for the safe maintenance of essential systems. The total staffing level at the plant is currently being reduced by around 200 each year, with a larger release to take place at the closure of Unit 2. It is envisaged that 2000 staff will be required for the dismantling operations. Although Ignalina NPP is still in the early stages of closure and decommissioning, some important lessons have already been learnt: Firstly, the importance considering social and financial issues as well as technical factors in deciding the decommissioning strategy. This should be done before the preparation is started of the FDP. The same broad consideration should also be given to the economic restructuring of the local area. Consultation is necessary with local and national authorities, and other stakeholders up to ensure a common vision. At Ignalina NPP it was considered essential to staff morale and the maintenance of a strong safety culture to guarantee the special social and employment benefits to dismissed staff in law [9]. At the same time, measures were also adopted to encourage certain key personnel to remain at the plant until closure. The case of Lithuania, which at independence had no legislative framework or management infrastructure for radioactive waste, may be exceptional; however, for all decommissioning projects it is necessary to have, from the outset, a clear strategy on waste storage and disposal. Finally, coordination at all levels must be assured, especially with the involvement of the nuclear regulators and other regulatory authorities, t