National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for azerbaijan belarus bosnia

  1. International reserves management and the current account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenman, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Azerbaijan Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovinaand Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Botswana Chile CostaKingdom of Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin

  2. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  3. Participation in Environmental Organizations: An Empirical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgler, Benno; GarcŪa-ValiŮas, Maria A.

    2006-01-01

    Azerbaijan, Serbia, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina),Azerbaijan Serbia Macedonia Croatia Bosnia-Hercegovina Latin

  4. Genocide, Nuptiality, and Fertility in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staveteig, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minneapolis: Universityand gender attitudes in Croatia." Journal of Marriage andin Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia - The Labor

  5. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan for 2008 Energy Summit Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan for 2008 Energy...

  6. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the entire world." The Energy Summit is built around the core nations of Georgia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania and Azerbaijan and is focused on promoting a collective energy...

  7. Azerbaijan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump|LineMaine:Ayuda:Navegacion JumpAzerbaijan:

  8. Music after War: Therapeutic Music Programmes in Bosnia and Herzegovina†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kochenderfer, Mary Anne

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is a study of therapeutic music programmes in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study focuses on how different participant groups perceive programme aims and benefits and what these different perceptions ...

  9. Kode Dansk English AD Andorra ANDORRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataillon, Thomas

    ISLANDS AZ Aserbajdsjan AZERBAIJAN BA Bosnien-Hercegovina BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA BB Barbados BARBADOS BD

  10. Genocidal Rape in Bosnia: Redress in United States Courts under the Alien Tort Claims Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yolanda S.

    1993-01-01

    GENOCIDAL RAPE IN BOSNIA: REDRESS IN UNITED STATES COURTSINTRODUCTION Stories of rape as a tool of ethnic cleansing'was Yugoslavia. Although rapes by Muslims and Croa- tians

  11. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    anon.

    2004-06-21

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy had maintained a web site that was meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consisted of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There were also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these was a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Azerbaijan.

  12. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  13. Explaining ratification of human rights treaties : signaling for aid during regional crises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Heather Michelle

    2007-01-01

    in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990-91,Ē Eds. Jan KoehlerIn southwestern Europe, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbiainclude: Belarus, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia,

  14. When mud volcanoes sleep: Insight from seep geochemistry at the Dashgil mud volcano, Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Petroleum Research, Oslo Research Park, 0349 Oslo, Norway c Geology Institute Azerbaijan, Husein Avenue 29A, and petroleum. However, the source of the fluids and the fluid≠rock interactions within the mud volcano conduit and Indonesia (e.g. Jakubov et al.,1971; Barber et al.,1986; Cita et al.,1996; Dia et al., 1999; Isaksen et al

  15. When mud volcanoes sleep: Insight from seep geochemistry at the Dashgil mud volcano, Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Petroleum Research, Oslo Research Park, 0349 Oslo, Norway c Geology Institute Azerbaijan, Husein Avenue 29A, gas, and petroleum. However, the source of the fluids and the fluid≠rock interactions within the mud and Indonesia (e.g. Jakubov et al.,1971; Barber et al.,1986; Cita et al.,1996; Dia et al., 1999; Isaksen et al

  16. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10 K.J. Kim a, , M. Baskaran: Mud volcano Hydrothermal Beryllium-10 Beryllium isotopes Subduction Cosmogenic nuclide a b s t r a c Caucasus Mountains and 160 marine volcanoes (Fig. 1). Beryllium isotopes have been extensively utilized

  17. WORK PROGRAMME 2010 COOPERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano-Bicocca, Universitŗ

    Armenia3 LM Chad L Suriname LM Azerbaijan3 LM Comoros L Trinidad and UM Belarus3 LM Congo (Republic) LM

  18. Part VII: Section J: List of Documents, Exhibits, and Other Attachment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AzerbaiJan Belarus China (People's Republic of China ) Cuba - Terrorist Georgia India Iran - Terrorist Iraq Israel Kazakhstan North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) -...

  19. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0008418 Section J, Appendix D

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Libya Moldova North Korea (Democratic People's...

  20. Part VII: Section J - List of Documents, Exhibits, and Other...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AzerbaiJan Belarus China (People's Republic of China ) Cuba - Terrorist Georgia India Iran - Terrorist Iraq Israel Kazakhstan North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) -...

  1. Understanding Democratic Congruence: A Demand-Supply Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welzel, Christian; Klingemann, Hans-Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Brazil Norway Moldova NZ Macedonia Switzerlad. AlbaniaPhilippines Colombia Macedonia Turkey Albania GuatemalaIran Argentina Bosnia Macedonia Belarus Algeria Armenia

  2. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Bana?kiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, ?; Dobrzy?ski, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guťrin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozio?, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Krucza?a, W; Kud?a, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Mol?da, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; P?ocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; ?nieci?ska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staro?, A; Stromboni, M; Studzi?ska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; ?widerski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; ?mijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  3. Proc. 5th Minsk International Seminar (Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps and Refrigerators), Minsk, Belarus, 2003. 21 7+( '(),1,7,21 2) 38/6$7,1* +($7 3,3(6 $1 29(59,(

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Proc. 5th Minsk International Seminar (Heat Pipes, Heat Pumps and Refrigerators), Minsk, Belarus)-711-685-2142, Fax: (+49)-711-685-2010, E-mail: khandekar@ike.uni-stuttgart.de $EVWUDFW Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) have emerged as interesting alternatives to conventional heat transfer technologies. These simple

  4. Belarus: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColorado

  5. Sustainability Evaluation of Resident Building in Bosnia and Herzegovina†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlomusica, E.; Afgan, N.

    2010-01-01

    The energy system of resident building requires to be seen as the complex system with defined respective indicators including: economic, environmental and social indicators with respective sub-indicators. In our analysis, we will assumed...

  6. Genocide, Nuptiality, and Fertility in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staveteig, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    L. 2000. War's dirty secret : rape, prostitution, and other999-1023. Allen, B. 1996. Rape warfare : the hidden genocide2004. "Explaining wartime rape." Journal of Sex Research 41(

  7. Genocide, Nuptiality, and Fertility in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staveteig, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    du Rwanda [INSR] and ORC Macro. 2006. "Rwanda DemographicCalverton, Maryland: INSR and ORC Macro. Isabirye, S. B. andde la Population [Rwanda] and ORC Macro. 1993. "EnquÍte

  8. Genocide, Nuptiality, and Fertility in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staveteig, Sarah Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Hearded, sifted and cut off: Refugees' West Timor camps meanWorld Bank. Al-Qudsi, S. S. 2000. "Profiles of refugee andnon-refugee Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza."

  9. Bosnia and Herzegovina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin:Pontiac BiomassInformationSystems Inc Jump

  10. Azerbaijan-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump|LineMaine:Ayuda:Navegacion Jump

  11. Secretary Bodman to Lead Presidential Delegation to Baku, Azerbaijan for

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTIONEnergy ScientistsinArabVisits IraqAdvanceas

  12. Society to 2050 AD: Anthropological Forecasts Extrapolating Correlates of Modernization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeBahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeBahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize

  13. Bosnia: War, History, and Nationality A curriculum unit developed by Steven Boyce for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    these events the regional and transnational features of feudalism were swept away, replaced throughout Europe

  14. Context : physical and psycho-cultural : a design for the concert hall in Sarajevo, Bosnia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fritsch, Enno, 1966-

    2001-01-01

    The thesis proposes a mode of designing that emphasizes the active role that the physical context, including its embedded cultural implications and poetic ideas, might play in the process of architectural design. A successful ...

  15. Genocidal Rape in Bosnia: Redress in United States Courts under the Alien Tort Claims Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yolanda S.

    1993-01-01

    STATES COURTS UNDER THE ALIEN TORT CLAIMS ACT Yolanda S. Wu*of any civil action by an alien for tort only, commit- 3.focuses on application of the Alien Tort Claims Act to focus

  16. Seismic interpretation and classification of mud volcanoes of the South Caspian Basin, offshore Azerbaijan.†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusifov, Mehdi Zahid

    2005-11-01

    development in the South Caspian Basin is generally linked to faults, which in some instances are detached at the basement level. By using interpreted seismic surfaces it is possible to determine relative time of mud flows from the mud volcanoes. Timing of mud...

  17. Explaining ratification of human rights treaties : signaling for aid during regional crises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Heather Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Europe, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro,Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegroborders, Albania and Macedonia, both bordering the conflict

  18. The power of the family

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alesina, Alberto; Giuliano, Paola

    2010-01-01

    bosnia and herzegovina macedonia, republic of bangladeshegypt peru kyrgyzstan macedonia, republic of viet namof) republic of iran macedonia, and herzegovina bosnia

  19. Is there/will there be a Bosnian Language: aspects of the language situation in post?war Bosnia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husic, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    nationality, one homeland, one Croatia being.Ē His Serbian counterpart, Nikola Stojanovi , similarly declared in an article that the Croats are really Serbs, but with the additional inflammatory statement that the Serbs and Croats would Nikola Stojanovi... nationality, one homeland, one Croatia being.Ē His Serbian counterpart, Nikola Stojanovi , similarly declared in an article that the Croats are really Serbs, but with the additional inflammatory statement that the Serbs and Croats would Nikola Stojanovi...

  20. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    maps of contamination and levels of background radiation. Byto be measuring radiation everywhere. There was a map ofmaps of radioactive contamination of the district that used to be displayed in the radiation

  1. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    of health effects from low-dose radiation exposures, andis suggested. conditions of low-dose radiation is available,imperceptibility, low-dose radiation exposure is associated

  2. ICDERS July 27-31, 2009 Minsk, Belarus Correspondence to: kmchung@astrc.iaalab.ncku.edu.tw 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Diaphragm Effect on Detonation Wave Transmission from Propane/Oxygen to Propane/Air Jiun-Ming Li1 , Kung Aerodynamics Research Center, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department University of Texas at Arlington on the detonation wave propagation from a propane/oxygen mixture to a propane/air mixture. 2 Experimental setup

  3. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear Risk as a Strategic Tool in the Late Soviet Politicsnuclear industry, strategic references to the needs of the Ďaffected populations,í and the effects of these international efforts on the politics

  4. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach,1999. Red Atom: Russiaís Nuclear Power Program from Stalin1986. Chernobyl and nuclear power in the USSR. Basingstoke:

  5. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Unipack. Irwin, A.1995. Citizen Science: a Study of People,and lay expertise in Citizen Science (1995), though, forof Humility: Citizen Participation in Governing Science.

  6. "We will die and become science" : the production of invisibility and public knowledge about Chernobyl radiation effects in Belarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuchinskaya, Olga

    2007-01-01

    Vienna. ______. 2004. Nuclear Safety review for the Yearuse and establish nuclear safety standards. 54 Analysis ofrecommendations for nuclear safety standards, but few

  7. SPACEWAR WIRE MILITARY SPACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arrest officer from Azerbaijan over brutal murder NATO chief hopes Putin will attend bloc's June summit

  8. Essays on Political Economy of Religion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriadis, Theocharis Nikolaou

    2012-01-01

    Russia, Ukraine, Slovakia, Macedonia, Armenia and Belarus.Poland Belarus Armenia Macedonia Ukraine Social DemocraticCyprus Romania France Macedonia Poland Lithuania Finland

  9. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of Lake Gacko (Southern Bosnia and Herzegovina): Impact of the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum on the Dinaride Lake System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    properties, and fossil mollusc palaeoecology reveals repetitive changes in lake level. These are interpreted.8 and ~15.2 Ma. The economically valuable lignite accumulations in the lower part of the succession

  10. Project 2012: Increasing Female Representation in Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Slovenia Ukraine Hungary Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina Rep.HG) Chile (HS/HG) Croatia (HG) Finland (HS) Germany (HG)

  11. What Can Open Access Do for Me? Personal Perspectives of KU Faculty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Greenberg, Marc L.; Torrance, Andrew W.; Goddard, Stephen

    2010-10-21

    , Belgium, Belarus, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Austria, Australia, Aruba, Argentina, Algeria, Albania Ö town@ku.edu ..., Belgium, Belarus, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Austria, Australia, Aruba, Argentina, Algeria, Albania Ö town@ku.edu ...

  12. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Coal Products (t) Exports Imports Angola Argentina Australia II Austria Bahrain Bangladesh Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Burma (Myanmar) Belarus Canada

  13. Face to Face and Street to Street: An Exploration of the Benefits and Perils of Transnational Feminist Practices for Iranís One Million Signatures Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKibben, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Keddie & R. Matthee (Eds. ), Iran and the Surrounding World.Muslim Societies: The Cases of Iran and Azerbaijan. Journal2001). Women's Strategies in Iran from the 1979 Revolution

  14. International Prosecution of Rape in Warfare: Nondiscriminatory Recognition and Enforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Arden B.

    1994-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL PROSECUTION OF RAPE an international tribunal1994] INTERNATIONAL PROSECUTION OF RAPE The major problem inMaass, Two Serbs Face Murder, Rape Charges in Bosnia's First

  15. The European tobacco control report 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2007-01-01

    November 2006). Belgium Croatia Czech Republic The EuropeanVlasta Hrabak-Zerjavic, Croatia; Charitini Komodiki, Cyprus;Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Cyprus,

  16. A New Song: Emerging Sephardic Music in Serbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiens, Kathleen Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Anthropology of War in Croatia and Bosnia. London: SaqiCommunity Life in Croatia. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield2008. ďNation-Building in Croatia and the Treatment of

  17. Stories of the Twentieth Century for the Twenty-First

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourinchas, Pierre-Olivier; Obstfeld, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary,Ukraine, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, and Slovenia allChile China Columbia Croatia Dominican Republic Ecuador

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if...

  19. Role of S??hayk??h Muh?ammad K??hiya?ba?ni? and the Democratic Movement of Azerbaijan in the socio-political history of Iran 1910-1920†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabatabai Khatambakhsh, Mohammad-Taghi

    1984-01-01

    and foreign dynasties, we had to study a great deal about the lives of individual Kings; but hardly any space was allocated to the history of social and political movements in Iran. The names of patriots and political thinkers such as K?h?iya?ba?ni? were not...

  20. Decision Making under Interval and Fuzzy Uncertainty: Towards an Operational Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    State Oil Academy, Baku, Azerbaijan raliev@asoa.edu.az, oleg huseynov@yahoo.com 2 Azerbaijan Association assumption that for each two alterna- tives, a user can always meaningfully decide which of them. Traditional decision theory is based on a simplifying assumption that for each two alternatives, a user can

  1. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Incident Shows Tensions With Ukraine,Ē N.Y. Times, Feb. 10,Russia intervened in Ukraineís 2004 presidential electionsthe presidents of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

  2. Microsoft Word - Mod 205 - H 52

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of Energy's nuclear materials protection and accountability programs in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus, including developing such systems and consulting and...

  3. EXPORT CONTROL CHECKLIST YES NO Are You

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    /embargoed country? ∑ Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria or the Balkans, Belarus, Burma ∑ Telecommunications and Information Security ∑ Lasers and Sensors ∑ Navigation and Avionics

  4. The Right to Life with Dignity: Economic and Social Rights Respect in the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolp, Felicity Ann

    2010-01-01

    Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium BelizeRep. Albania Georgia Belgium Barbados Serbia and MontenegroIsrael Belgium Denmark Barbados Bulgaria France Hungary

  5. Tax Morale and Conditional Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Bruno S.; Torgler, Benno

    2006-01-01

    Estonia, Ukraine, Russia, Croatia, Slovakia, Greece, andBelarus Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic -0.282*** -5.74 -Republic, Bulgaria, Croatia, and Poland exhibit relatively

  6. Lidar Bacscatter Cross-Section Radar Bacscatter Cross-Section Mixed Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    S S I AC A N A D A U.K.IRE. ICELAND NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND LATVIA LITH. BELARUS UKRAINE POLAND DENMARK GERMANY EST. KAZ. JAPAN (DENMARK) Greenland (NORWAY) Svalbard (NORWAY) (NORWAY) CHINA UNITED STATES Faroe AC A N A D A U.K.IRE. ICELAND NORWAY SWEDEN FINLAND LATVIA LITH. BELARUS UKRAINE POLAND DENMARK

  7. EU FP7 Project Grant Agreement 317761

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Enrico

    Intelligent Automation Services computing a safe energy price policy for each home (global electric grid Transfer Insti- tute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Belarus) ATANVO GmbH (Germany economic value to Distribution System Opera- tors (DSOs) by optimising electric network operation through

  8. PROJECT AT A GLANCE Project Acronym

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Enrico

    of Belarus (Belarus) ATANVO GmbH (Germany) Panoramic Power (Israel) Solintel (Spain) SEAS-NVE (Denmark value to Distribution Sys- tem Operators (DSOs) by optimising electric network operation through secure by computing a suitable demand aware price policy for each home. Develop Home Intelligent Automation Services

  9. An Update on Avian Flu The virus continues to spread in wild birds and poultry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Myanmar, India, Afghanistan, India, Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria-scale and statistically significant efficacy studies of anti-viral drugs like Tamiflu and Relenza against the H5N1 avian

  10. Protesting the contest : election boycotts around the world, 1990-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaulieu, Emily Ann

    2006-01-01

    Faso Cambodia Cameroon Chad Comoros Congo (dropped) Cote díviolence Azerbaijan Cameroon Comoros Cote díIvoire GhanaPeru, Niger, Mali, Yemen, Ghana, Comoros, and Cameroon while

  11. Pandemic Preparedness - HPMC Occupational Health Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    number of human H5N1 cases have been reported in Azerbaijan, Cambodia, China, Djibouti, Egypt, Indonesia, Iraq, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. More than half of the people infected...

  12. The Effect of War and Its Aftermath on Land Use and Land Cover in Jinotega, Nicaragua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeledon, Esther Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Bosnia- Herzegovina a Decade Beyond War. Annals of AmericanBrauer, J. The Effect of War on the Natural Environment.of the Persian Gulf War, 1990-1991: Remote Sensing Datasets

  13. Impacts of Biofuel Production and Navigation Impediments on Agricultural Transportation and Markets†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmedov, Zafarbek

    2013-08-22

    , Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, South Africa, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay Excess Demand Regions (Importing Countries) Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, France...

  14. Ethnic identity, political identity and ethnic conflict: simulating the effect of congruence between the two identities on ethnic violence and conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigmore-Shepherd, Daniel Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    in the Krajina region of Croatia 1990-91. In: Keohler J andfor Peace in Bosnia, Croatia and Yugoslavia. Journal ofMulti-Party Elections in Croatia. In: Seroka J and Pavlovic

  15. Permeable Binaries, Societal Grand Challenges, and the Roles of the Twenty-first-century Archival and Recordkeeping Profession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilliland, AJ

    2015-01-01

    years has been based in Croatia and Bosnia and is concernedLives in Post-conflict Croatia,Ē Archival Science 14 nos.3-encountered not only in Croatia, a recent entry into the EU,

  16. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2015: Raising taxes on tobacco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2015-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kiribati, New zealand,Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia,* Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia,Belgium EuR Bulgaria BGN Croatia HRK Cyprus EuR Czech

  17. The validity of partition as a solution to ethnic conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wigmore-Shepherd, Daniel Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    A History of Serbs in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia, TheSerb Elite Rivalry in Croatia and Bosnia in the 1990s,Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s, Cornell

  18. Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naspinski, Christine S.

    2010-01-16

    . The collection of dust samples was coordinated by Dr. Leslie Cizmas, Dr. Ziad Naufal and Rebecca Lingenfelter in Texas, China, and Azerbaijan, respectively. Soil and mouse samples were collected from Azerbaijan by Dr. John Bickham and Dr. Cole Matson. Dust... Phillips, Dr. Ziad Naufal, Molly Richardson, Shirley Wang, Dr. Xinsheng Gu, Sui Ke, Dr. Liu Duan, Ying vi Xie, Dr. Cole Matson, Dr. Petros Dimitriou-Christidis, Dr. Erica Bruce, Dr. Henry Huebner, and Dr. Evans Afriyie-Gyawu. Finally, I would like...

  19. Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St. Clair, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Russian Journal of Genetics,M269 Mirabal et al. 2009 Ukraine Haplogroup 1 Rosser et al.2000 Ukraine Eu 18 Semino et al. 2000(a) Ukraine Haplotype

  20. The Fantasy and Fear of Chernobyl's Ruins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotfeld, Masha

    2012-01-01

    city on the map of Ukraine. Ē The materials were prepared byin Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. By the end of Septmeber,shots of Duga ICBM site in Ukraine, known as "Chernobyl 2,"

  1. Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model for Energy Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chyong, Chi Kong; Hobbs, Benjamin F.

    2011-04-06

    ) market power of transit countries, (ii) transmission pipelines in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Central Asia, (iii) differentiation among gas production regions in Russia, and (iv) gas trade relations between FSU countries (e.g., Gazpromís re-exporting...

  2. As of : Jan 19, 2011 S.No. Country

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    applicable) Full bene bank name and address 14 Barbados BBD Dollar Swift and Account number Bene and Bene bank country must be Barbados Need reason for payment Belarus BWP Pulas Swift and Account number Need

  3. Nation 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Afghanistan 2 1 1 2 1 0 -100%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    % Bangladesh 24 27 26 26 30 33 38% Barbados 7 7 4 8 9 10 43% Bassas da India 0 1 1 0 0 0 0% Belarus 3 9 13 10

  4. Commerce Control List Overview and the Country Chart Supplement No. 1 to Part 738page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Daniel

    Administration Regulations September 28, 2001 Barbados X X X X X X X X X X X Belarus X X X X X X X X X X X

  5. PROMOS -Frderstze 2015 500 pro Person

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    .250 Bangladesch 300 700 1.250 Barbados 300 1.500 1.250 Belarus 300 350 1.250 Belgien 300 175 1.250 Benin 300 1

  6. ACADEMIC DELEGATION VISITS 2008 -2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    Total Visits: 38 Europe: Kosovo, Germany, Estonia, Romania, Turkey, Belarus Asia: Kazakhstan, Russia: Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Sweden, Hungary, France, Albania Asia: Kazakhstan: 54 Europe: Turkey, Czech Republic, Germany, Kosovo, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Netherlands, Croatia

  7. **The total number of academic personnel is 18,122. Appointments excluded from the above data include clinical faculty (5,911), affiliate faculty (2,737), and other faculty and academic personnel (4,898). UNITED KINGDOM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    ICELAND 2 INDONESIA 2 LIBYA 2 NEPAL 2 SINGAPORE 2 TANZANIA 1 ALGERIA 1 ARMENIA 1 AZERBAIJAN 1 BRUNEI 1 179 224 8 63 6 26 0 255 7 38 NEW HIRE STATISTICS BY RANK AND TRACK AS OF 10/31/2014 NEW HIRE STATISTICS BYYEAR ≠ PROFESSORIAL FACULTY Year Total Male Female American Indian Asian Black Hispanic Pacific

  8. NETHERLANDS SWITZERLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OCEAN SOUTHERN OCEANSOUTHERN OCEAN SOUTHERN OCEAN SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN ARCTIC OCEANARCTIC OCEAN NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN Determining Factors for Medical Threat Levels MACEDONIA ALBANIA MONTENEGRO GREECE AZERBAIJAN ARCTIC OCEAN NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN INDIAN

  9. The Arab Spring: The Economic Conditions that Bred a Political Uprising†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kimberly Ann

    2014-08-07

    : Youth bulge boiling over......................................................................... 10 Libya: Oil rich failure ......................................................................................... 13 Jordan: The eye... Asia includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Palestine, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. 0 5 000 10 000 15 000 20 000 25 000 30 000 0 -4 5 -9...

  10. Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano MartŪna of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract In this work we address the water consumption

  11. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-05-08

    (Malacrida et al., 2008), Spain (Mirů et al., 2011), Portugal (Rodrigues et al., 2012) and in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (Hoděi? et al., 2014). Due to the ocular disease this parasite causes in animals (e.g., conjunctivitis, epiphora, and ocular...

  12. Technology report INTERIORS IMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    by 40% Today's electric vehicle (EV) batteries can pro- vide only enough power to propel them 100 mi bank. Thermal battery "A thermal battery charges and discharges much like an electrical battery, except, Mexico,United Kingdom, Taiwan, Russia, Belarus, Egypt, Hong Kong, Romania,Italy, Malaysia, Ukraine

  13. Nuclear proliferation status report. Status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear proliferation status of the following countries: (1) Russia, (2) Ukraine, (3) Belarus, (4) Kazakhstan, (5) Israel, (6) India, (7) Pakistan, (8) South Africa, (9) North Korea, (10) Iraq, (11) Iran, (12) Lybia, (13) Algeria, (14) Syria, (15) Brazil, (16) Argentina, and (17) Taiwan.

  14. Progress through Dispute: The Caspian Oil Power Struggle and Its Effects on Central Asian Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristin Perry, Natalie

    2014-08-25

    oil. He also speculates that the opening of this Central Asian pipeline could lead to continued cooperation on the Nabucco Pipeline, which gives direct mobility from the Caspian to Europe More recently, the Nabucco Pipeline has since transformed... into the Nabucco- West Pipeline, along with a new route for Central Asian resources to Europe that compliment the Nabucco-West pipeline. It is labeled the Trans-Andalou Pipeline (TANAP) and involves countries such as Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia...

  15. Subsea BOP stack built for Caspian drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that Shaffer Inc. completed construction of a multi-million dollar subsea drilling system for Caspmorneftegas, an operating company in the Republic of Azerbaijan. The subsea stack will be installed on the semisubmersible drilling rig Shelf 7 currently under construction in Astrakan in the Soviet Union. Shelf 7 will drill wells in the Caspian Sea, one of the most prolific production areas in the Soviet Union.

  16. The Payoffs of Multilaterally Authorized Intervention: Averting Issue Linkage vs. Assuaging Congress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recchia, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    increasingly specific in this regard. SCR 1497, authorizing a US-led intervention in Liberia in 2003, committed the SC Ďto establishÖ a follow-on United Nations stabilization forceí under regional leadership (i.e., led by countries other than the USA) within... approval, such as Somalia 1992, Bosnia 1994-95, and Liberia 2003, enjoyed significant international support a priori as humanitarian rescue missions, making them less likely candidates for the issue-linkage hypothesis.41 The Gulf War and Kosovo...

  17. The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Marc L.

    2006-05-23

    Federal Republic of Macedonia and is now the state language of the independent Republic of Macedonia (also known as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia). In addition, significant non-Slavic minorities are settled among the Slavic population... 1: The former Yugoslavia Greece Bosnia & Herzegovina Slovenia Croatia Serbia Montenegro Macedonia Vojvodina Kosova Ljubljana Zagreb Split Sarajevo Belgrade Ni? Prishtina Podgorica Skopje Hungary Austria Italy Bulgaria...

  18. Identification and characterisation of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marmť, Frederik; Surowy, Harald M.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guťnel, Pascal; Truong, ThťrŤse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, BÝrge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menťndez, Primitiva; GonzŠlez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Ńlvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; MŁller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; BrŁning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; The GENICA Network; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomški, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; DŲrk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab Investigators; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; LabrŤche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkšs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; GarcŪa-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Bui, Quang M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; The Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Study; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.; Cox, Angela

    2014-08-28

    University, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK, 11Institute 69 of Population Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9QQ, UK, 12Ministry of 70 Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand, 13University Breast Center Franconia, 71 Department of Gynecology... of Radiation Oncology, 134 Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany, 61N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute 135 of Oncology and Medical Radiology, 223040 Minsk, Belarus, 62Department of Molecular 136 Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77...

  19. Azle, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYork Jump|LineMaine:Ayuda:Navegacion JumpAzerbaijan:Azle,

  20. Too Hot To Handle: Climate Change, Geopolitics, and U.S. National Security in 2025†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boggs, Jay W.; Chellinsky, Andrew; Ege, David; Hodges, Allen; Reynolds, Tripp; Williams, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Asia Largest underdeveloped oil and natural gas resources outside of OPEC Caspian Sea has 30 billion barrels of oil Turkmenistan has worldís 4th largest natural gas reserves US strategy for developed based on BTC pipeline and parallel natural gas... influence over Ukraine, Belarus, and Georgia in 2006 by cutting off natural gas until they agreed to price hikes. * What this history and climate change projections mean for Europe? Considerations/Issues: *While Russia has not used its role as Europeís...

  1. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  2. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  3. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2010-09-01

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  4. Caspian pipeline combine awards construction contract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-02

    This paper reports that the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) has let contract to Overseas Bechtel Inc. for a 500 mile crude oil export pipeline in Russia. Bechtel will provide engineering, procurement, financing, and construction services and serve as project manager for the 42 inc. line that will extend west from Grozny, near the Caspian Sea, to Novorossiisk, on the Black Sea. Estimated cost is more than $850 million. At Grozny, the new line will tie into 800 miles of existing pipeline that runs along the north shore of the Caspian Sea from supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. Together, the two segments will form a 1,300 mile system capable of shipping crude oil from the Tengiz region and from Baku, Azerbaijan, to a new terminal and port facilities at Novorossiisk for shipment to world markets, ultimately reaching open oceans via the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Oil, Water, and Wildlife: The Gulf of Mexico Disaster and Related Environmental Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickman, John W.

    2010-08-04

    The BP Macondo oil field spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the largest oil spill in U.S. history and has the potential to impact sea turtle and marine mammal populations, and others. This presentation will review the genotoxic effects of oil exposure in wildlife and discuss the potential for an oil spill to impact wildlife populations. Whereas some aspects of a spill are predictable, each spill is different because oils are highly variable, as are the environments in which they occur. The presentation will discuss what has been learned from previous spills, including the Exxon Valdez and the soviet oil legacy in Azerbaijan, and the potential dangers of offshore oil development in the Arctic. Related Purdue University research efforts in oil-spill related engineering and science also will be highlighted.

  6. Use of chemical precipitation processes in practice of liquid radioactive waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabrodsky, V.N.; Prokshin, N.E.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Shunkevich, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    In this work information is presented on the installation which is being developed for treatment of liquid radioactive waste. The characteristics of liquid waste generated during decontamination of industrial facilities in Republic of Belarus are also presented. The results of treatment of simulated liquid waste for {sup 137}Cs removal using the method of chemical coprecipitation at different ratios of sedimenting reagents are described. The received data are juxtaposed with the results of sedimentation kinetics of nickel ferrocyanide at the same conditions. The last-named data were obtained by the methods of optical spectrophotometry and radioactive tracers. Methodology of synthesis and properties of cation-exchange fiber FIBAN K-1 modified by cobalt ferrocyanide is described. This sorbent has high sorption ability towards {sup 137}Cs and may be used at the liquid waste treatment facility.

  7. Turnabout. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roggero, F.F.

    1993-04-19

    The proliferation of ideas and strategies is equally as important as the proliferation of weapons. This paper challenges the reader to search for counters to historically successful strategies which could be turned against the US. Specifically, consider the following scenario: In 1994 Iraq, Syria, Kazakhstan, and Azerbaijan form an alliance called the Southwest Asia Consortium (SAC). In 1996 Iraq invades Kuwait to reclaim its title to the province, and a limited US-led coalition immediately begins to build up a conventional force in the Persian Gulf region. SAC members recognize Iraq's claim to Kuwait and remind the world in a joint statement that an attack on any of its members would be considered an attack on the entire alliance. Furthermore, SAC reserves the right to respond to any attack at an appropriate level, including conventional weapons, battlefield nuclear weapons, intermediate range nuclear missiles or ICBMs. As Iraq prepares a defense of Kuwait with its national forces and token SAC troop deployments, the Consortium's strategy and capability of responding to a potential attack with a full spectrum of weapons confounds America's response to the crisis.

  8. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  9. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J.; Tokarevsky, V.

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA booster subcritical assembly, Part III : low enriched uranium conversion analyses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division) [Nuclear Engineering Division

    2011-05-12

    This study investigates the performance of the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly, located in Belarus, during operation with high (90%), medium (36%), and low (21%) enriched uranium fuels in the assembly's fast zone. The YALINA Booster is a zero-power, subcritical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was constructed for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven subcritical systems, and to serve as a fast neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinides. The first part of this study analyzes the assembly's performance with several fuel types. The MCNPX and MONK Monte Carlo codes were used to determine effective and source neutron multiplication factors, effective delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron lifetime, neutron flux profiles and spectra, and neutron reaction rates produced from the use of three neutron sources: californium, deuterium-deuterium, and deuterium-tritium. In the latter two cases, the external neutron source operates in pulsed mode. The results discussed in the first part of this report show that the use of low enriched fuel in the fast zone of the assembly diminishes neutron multiplication. Therefore, the discussion in the second part of the report focuses on finding alternative fuel loading configurations that enhance neutron multiplication while using low enriched uranium fuel. It was found that arranging the interface absorber between the fast and the thermal zones in a circular rather than a square array is an effective method of operating the YALINA Booster subcritical assembly without downgrading neutron multiplication relative to the original value obtained with the use of the high enriched uranium fuels in the fast zone.

  11. BLV-2011 Workshop, September 22-24, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. A. Kamyshkov co-Chair of the Workshop Organizing Committee; P. Fileviez Perez co-Chair of the Workshop Organizing Committee; W. M. Snow , member of Workshop Organizing Committee; A.R. Young , member of Workshop Organizing Committee

    2011-09-24

    The 3-rd International 3-days Workshop "Baryon and Lepton Number Violations: BLV-2011" took place at Gatlinburg, TN for September 22-24, 2011. Workshop was organized by the International Organizing Committee and had received advice from the International Program Advisory Committee (see Appendix 1). Workshop was co-chaired by Pavel Fileviez Perez (University of Wisconsin) for theory and Yuri Kamyshkov (University of Tennessee) for experiment and local organization. Workshop was supported and sponsored by the University of Tennessee, Indiana University, North Carolina State University together with TUNL, and by the HEP office of the Department of Energy. DOE financial support in this sponsoring grant was $8,000; that was 23% of the overall budget of the Workshop. Remaining 77% were provided by the sponsoring Universities. Workshop sponsors including DOE are shown on the Workshop webpage. There were 90 workshop participants with 52 from US and remaining from Bosnia/Herzegovina (1), Brazil (1), China (1), Columbia (1), France (1), Germany (10), Italy (9), Japan (4), Russian Federation (3), Slovenia (2), Spain (4), and Switzerland (1). Among Workshop participants there were 17 postdocs and young researchers and 11 graduate students. Total 67 talks and 14 posters were presented at Workshop during 3 days of sessions. Appendix 2 shows the list of talks and posters. Main topic of the Workshop was Baryon and Lepton number violation that has become a vital part of the current discussions of the physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), specifically in connection with understanding the nature of neutrinos, origin of matter in universe, as well as possible Grand Unification of matter and forces. The goal of the Workshop was to have a focused comprehensive discussion of the Baryon (B) and Lepton (L) number violating processes, and possible new physics combining violation of both, including (B√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?L) violation, as a probe of unification, baryo- and lepto-genesis, Left-Right symmetry restoration, matter-antimatter asymmetry, sterile matter, mirror matter, dark matter, low-scale gravity, etc. Related experimental observations to these physics aspects included searches for Majorana neutrinos (2√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≤0√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ĺ decays), proton decays, neutron-antineutron oscillations, √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ľ-e transitions, mirror and sterile matter transformations, and possible other new phenomena that can be seen at LHC and future colliders. Combination of theoretical and experimental discussions at the Workshop was most stimulating for germinating of new theoretical ideas and promoting new experimental efforts in particle physics. As one of new developments stemmed from this Workshop was an idea of performing new neutron-antineutron transformation search at the Project X accelerator to be built at Fermilab. BLV2011 Workshop website: http://www.phys.utk.edu/BLV2011/ contains all the talks delivered at this Workshop. Agenda of the Workshop can be found in Appendix 2 to this report. During the Workshop all presentation talks were available at the web in parallel with the talks. This made the discussions of the new ideas and results at the meeting more prompt and efficient. Previous Workshops on Baryon and Lepton Number Violation search in 2007 at LBL and 2009 at the University of Wisconsin were organized essentially by the same initiative group of people as this Workshop. We are observing increased interest in the community to this physics topic. Next BLV-2013 Workshop now at bi-annual basis is being organized at the Max Plank Institute at Heidelberg b

  12. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teskeviciene, Birute [Ministry of Economy, Gedimino pr. 38/2, Vilnius, LT-01104 (Lithuania); Harrison, Peter [Central Project Management Agency, S. Konarskio 13, Vilnius, LT-03109 (Lithuania)

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel thereby reducing operating costs and the final quantity of spent fuel. Design and construction of the facilities for spent fuel storage, waste processing and free-release is ongoing. The siting of the Near Surface Repository is now in the final stages of approval and construction of the landfill facility is under tendering. In order to facilitate the approval process and minimize the transport of waste, both disposal facilities will be within the boundary of the NPP site. Approximately 450 staff are employed at the shutdown Unit 1 for the safe maintenance of essential systems. The total staffing level at the plant is currently being reduced by around 200 each year, with a larger release to take place at the closure of Unit 2. It is envisaged that 2000 staff will be required for the dismantling operations. Although Ignalina NPP is still in the early stages of closure and decommissioning, some important lessons have already been learnt: Firstly, the importance considering social and financial issues as well as technical factors in deciding the decommissioning strategy. This should be done before the preparation is started of the FDP. The same broad consideration should also be given to the economic restructuring of the local area. Consultation is necessary with local and national authorities, and other stakeholders up to ensure a common vision. At Ignalina NPP it was considered essential to staff morale and the maintenance of a strong safety culture to guarantee the special social and employment benefits to dismissed staff in law [9]. At the same time, measures were also adopted to encourage certain key personnel to remain at the plant until closure. The case of Lithuania, which at independence had no legislative framework or management infrastructure for radioactive waste, may be exceptional; however, for all decommissioning projects it is necessary to have, from the outset, a clear strategy on waste storage and disposal. Finally, coordination at all levels must be assured, especially with the involvement of the nuclear regulators and other regulatory authorities, t

  13. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.