National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for axial-flow air compressor

  1. Rotating stall control of an axial flow compressor using pulsed air injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Andrea, R.; Behnken, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents the use of pulsed air injection to control rotating stall in a low-speed, axial flow compressor. In the first part of the paper, the injection of air is modeled as an unsteady shift of the compressor characteristic, and incorporated into a low dimensional model of the compressor. By observing the change in the bifurcation behavior of this model subject to nonlinear feedback, the viability of various air injection orientations is established. An orientation consistent with this analysis is then used for feedback control. By measuring the unsteady pressures near the rotor face, a control algorithm determines the magnitude and phase of the first mode of rotating stall and controls the injection of air in the front of the rotor face. Experimental results show that this technique eliminates the hysteresis loop normally associated with rotating stall. A parametric study is used to determine the optimal control parameters for suppression of stall. The resulting control strategy is also shown to suppress surge when a plenum is present. Using a high-fidelity model, the main features of the experimental results are duplicated via simulations.

  2. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

  3. Rotor whirl forces induced by the tip clearance effect in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrich, F. )

    1993-10-01

    It is now widely recognized that destabilizing forces, tending to generate forward rotor whirl, are generated in axial flow turbines as a result of the nonuniform torque induced by the nonuniform tip-clearance in a deflected rotor--the so called Thomas/Alford force. It is also recognized that there will be a similar effect in axial flow compressors, but qualitative considerations cannot definitively establish the magnitude or even the direction of the induced whirling forces--that is, if they will tend to forward or backward whirl. Applying a parallel compressor model to simulate the operation of a compressor rotor deflected radially in its clearance, it is possible to derive a quantitative estimate of the proportionality factor [beta] which relates the Thomas/Alford force in axial flow compressors (i.e., the tangential force generated by a radial deflection of the rotor) to the torque level in the compressor. The analysis makes use of experimental data from the GE Aircraft Engines Low Speed Research Compressor facility comparing the performance of three different axial flow compressors, each with four stages (typical of a mid-block of an aircraft gas turbine compressor) at two different clearances. It is found that the value of [beta] is in the range of +0.27 to [minus]0.71 in the vicinity of the stages' nominal operating line and +0.08 to [minus]1.25 in the vicinity of the stages' operation at peak efficiency. The value of [beta] reaches a level of between [minus]1.16 and [minus]3.36 as the compressor is operated near its stalled condition.

  4. Dynamic control of rotating stall in axial flow compressors using aeromechanical feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gysling, D.L.; Greitzer, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Dynamic control of rotating stall in an axial flow compressor has been implemented using aeromechanical feedback. The control strategy developed used an array of wall jets, upstream of a single-stage compressor, which were regulated by locally reacting reed valves. These reed valves responded to the small-amplitude flow-field pressure perturbations that precede rotating stall. The valve design was such that the combined system, compressor plus reed valve controller, was stable under operating conditions that had been unstable without feedback. A 10 percent decrease in the stalling flow coefficient was obtained using the control strategy, and the extension of stall flow range was achieved with no measurable change in the steady-state performance of the compression system. The experiments demonstrate the first use of aeromechanical feedback to extend the stable operating range of an axial flow compressor, and the first use of local feedback and dynamic compensation techniques to suppress rotating stall. The design of the experiment was based on a two-dimensional stall inception model, which incorporated the effect of the aeromechanical feedback. The physical mechanism for rotating stall in axial flow compressors was examined with focus on the role of dynamic feedback in stabilizing compression system instability. As predicted and experimentally demonstrated, the effectiveness of the aeromechanical control strategy depends on a set of nondimensional control parameters that determine the interaction of the control strategy and the rotating stall dynamics.

  5. Analysis of instability inception in high-speed multistage axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, G.J.; Sabnis, J.S.; Feulner, M.R.

    1997-10-01

    A nonlinear, two-dimensional, compressible dynamic model has been developed to study rotating stall/surge inception and development in high-speed, multistage, axial flow compressors. The flow dynamics are represented by the unsteady Euler equations, solved in each interblade row gap and inlet and exit ducts as two-dimensional domains, and in each blade passage as a one-dimensional domain. The resulting equations are solved on a computational grid. The boundary conditions between domains are represented by ideal turning coupled with empirical loss and deviation correlations. Results are presented comparing model simulations to instability inception data of an eleven stage, high-pressure-ratio compressor operating at both part and full power, and the results analyzed in the context of a linear modal analysis.

  6. Bifurcation analysis of surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abed, E.H. ); Houpt, P.K. . Corporate Research and Development Center); Hosny, W.M. . Engine Operability Div.)

    1993-10-01

    The surge and rotating stall post-instability behaviors of axial flow compressors are investigated from a bifurcation-theoretic perspective, using a model and system data presented by Greitzer (1976a). For this model, a sequence of local and global bifurcations of the nonlinear system dynamics is uncovered. This includes a global bifurcation of a pair of large-amplitude periodic solutions. Resulting from this bifurcation are a stable oscillation (surge) and an unstable oscillation (antisurge). The latter oscillation is found to have a deciding significance regarding the particular post-instability behavior experienced by the compressor. These results are used to reconstruct Greitzer's (1976b) findings regarding the manner in which post-instability behavior depends on system parameters. Although the model does not directly reflect non axisymmetric dynamics, use of a steady-state compressor characteristic approximating the measured characteristic of Greitzer (1976a) is found to result in conclusions that compare well with observation. Thus, the paper gives a convenient and simple explanation of the boundary between surge and rotating stall behaviors, without the use of more intricate models and analyses including non axisymmetric flow dynamics.

  7. Stage effects on stalling and recovery of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenhaver, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor test involving overall compressor and individual stage performance while stalling and operating in quasi-steady rotating stall are described. Test procedures and data-acquisition methods used to obtain the dynamic stalling and quasi-steady in-stall data are explained. Unstalled and in-stall time-averaged data obtained from the compressor operating at five different shaft speeds and one off-schedule variable vane condition are presented. Effects of compressor speed and variable geometry on overall compressor in-stall pressure rise and hysteresis extent are illustrated through the use of quasi-steady-stage temperature rise and pressure-rise characteristics. Results indicate that individual stage performance during overall compressor rotating stall operation varies considerably throughout the length of the compressor. The measured high-speed 10-stage test compressor individual stage pressure and temperature characteristics were input into a stage-by-stage dynamic compressor performance model. Comparison of the model results and measured pressures provided the additional validation necessary to demonstrate the model's ability to predict high-speed multistage compressor stalling and in-stall performance.

  8. Development of a transonic front stage of an axial flow compressor for industrial gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Y.; Ishii, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Yanagida, M. . Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.); Kashiwabara, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the aerodynamic blade design of a highly loaded three-stage compressor, which is a model compressor for the front stage of an industrial gas turbine. Test results are presented that confirm design performance. Some surge and rotating stall measurement results are also discussed. The first stator blade in this test compressor operates in the high subsonic range at the inlet. To reduce the pressure loss due to blade surface shock waves, a shock-free airfoil is designed to replace the first stator blade in an NACA-65 airfoil in a three-stage compressor. Comparison of the performance of both blades shows that the shock-free airfoil blade reduces pressure loss. This paper also presents some experimental results for MCA (multicircular arc) airfoils, which are used for first rotor blades.

  9. Axial flow rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loran, W.; Robinson, M.A.

    1989-07-18

    This paper describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a housing having an intake port at one end thereof and an exhaust port at the other end thereof; a compression chamber in the housing near the one end; compressor means in the compression chamber; a compressor transfer port opening through the downstream outlet wall; an expansion chamber in the housing near the other end thereof to receive combusted gases; work means in the expansion chamber driven by expanding, combusted gases; means rotating the compressor outlet wall at the same rotational drive speed as the expander inlet wall; an expansion chamber inlet port opening extending through the upstream inlet wall; a cylindrical combustion chamber block rotatable in the housing intermediate the compression chamber and the expansion chamber; at least two combustion chambers in the block; means rotating the block at a reduced speed relative to the speed of rotation of the compressor outlet wall and the expander inlet wall; means for igniting the charge of compressed gas during the intermediate portion of each revolution of the combustion chamber block. The combustion chambers being substantially hemispherical; the speed of rotation of the compressor outlet wall is in the same ratio to the speed of rotation of the combustion chamber block as the number of combustion chambers in the block is to the number of combustion chambers less one.

  10. Effect of Intake Air on Compressor Performance; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Inspect the entry to the compressor air intake pipe and ensure that it is free of contaminants. * Inspect the ...

  11. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ASECAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency On April 25, 2013, several representatives of energy ... Natural Gas Transmission, Storage and Distribution System ...

  12. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercAirCompressors | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UsePercAirCompressors" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 1.86951260628 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  13. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Little, David A.

    1998-01-01

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant.

  14. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chupp, R.E.; Little, D.A.

    1998-01-06

    The inter-disk cavity between turbine rotor disks is used to pressurize cooling air. A plurality of ridges extend radially outwardly over the face of the rotor disks. When the rotor disks are rotated, the ridges cause the inter-disk cavity to compress air coolant flowing through the inter-disk cavity en route to the rotor blades. The ridges eliminate the need for an external compressor to pressurize the air coolant. 5 figs.

  15. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  16. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  17. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Berrahou, Philip Fadhel; Jandrisevits, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  18. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency On April 25, 2013, several representatives of energy efficiency advocacy organizations met with staff and members of the Compressed Air and Gas Institute (CAGI) along with some compressed air experts at the offices of the Alliance to Save Energy to explore and discuss a consensus approach to advancing energy efficiency of

  19. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2AirCompressors...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    seKwhM2AirCompressors" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 1.33591087145 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  20. Axial flow heat exchanger devices and methods for heat transfer using axial flow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2016-02-16

    Systems and methods described herein are directed to rotary heat exchangers configured to transfer heat to a heat transfer medium flowing in substantially axial direction within the heat exchangers. Exemplary heat exchangers include a heat conducting structure which is configured to be in thermal contact with a thermal load or a thermal sink, and a heat transfer structure rotatably coupled to the heat conducting structure to form a gap region between the heat conducting structure and the heat transfer structure, the heat transfer structure being configured to rotate during operation of the device. In example devices heat may be transferred across the gap region from a heated axial flow of the heat transfer medium to a cool stationary heat conducting structure, or from a heated stationary conducting structure to a cool axial flow of the heat transfer medium.

  1. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  2. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 8th, Cincinnati, OH, June 14-19, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on air-breathing aircraft engine technology considers topics in inlet design, radial-flow turbomachinery, fuel injection and combustion systems, axial flow compressor design and performance, ramjet configurations, turbine flow phenomena, engine control and service life, fluid flow-related problems, engine diagnostic methods, propfan design, combustor performance and pollutant chemistry, combustion dynamics, and engine system analysis. Attention is given to thrust-vectoring systems, supersonic missile air intakes, three-dimensional centrifugal compressors, airblast atomizers, secondary flows in axial flow compressors, axial compressor blade tip clearance flows, hydrogen scramjets with sidewall injection, the performance of a variable-geometry turbine, advanced tip clearance control systems, rotary jet mixing, fan blade aeroelastic behavior, flow dynamics in combustion processes, and the technology of low cost turbomachinery.

  3. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, David Allen

    2001-01-01

    A combustion turbine may have a cooling circuit for directing a cooling medium through the combustion turbine to cool various components of the combustion turbine. This cooling circuit may include a compressor, a combustor shell and a component of the combustion turbine to be cooled. This component may be a rotating blade of the combustion turbine. A pressure changing mechanism is disposed in the combustion turbine between the component to be cooled and the combustor shell. The cooling medium preferably flows from the compressor to the combustor shell, through a cooler, the component to the cooled and the pressure changing mechanism. After flowing through the pressure changing mechanism, the cooling medium is returned to the combustor shell. The pressure changing mechanism preferably changes the pressure of the cooling medium from a pressure at which it is exhausted from the component to be cooled to approximately that of the combustor shell.

  4. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Mumpower, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  6. Mid-section of a can-annular gas turbine engine with an improved rotation of air flow from the compressor to the turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, David A.; Schilp, Reinhard; Ross, Christopher W.

    2016-03-22

    A midframe portion (313) of a gas turbine engine (310) is presented and includes a compressor section with a last stage blade to orient an air flow (311) at a first angle (372). The midframe portion (313) further includes a turbine section with a first stage blade to receive the air flow (311) oriented at a second angle (374). The midframe portion (313) further includes a manifold (314) to directly couple the air flow (311) from the compressor section to a combustor head (318) upstream of the turbine section. The combustor head (318) introduces an offset angle in the air flow (311) from the first angle (372) to the second angle (374) to discharge the air flow (311) from the combustor head (318) at the second angle (374). While introducing the offset angle, the combustor head (318) at least maintains or augments the first angle (372).

  7. 2014-03-12 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Air Compressors; Notice of Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting and extension of public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for commercial and industrial air compressors, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 12, 2014.

  8. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  9. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elpern, David G.; McCabe, Niall; Gee, Mark

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  10. An analytical model of axial compressor off-design performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camp, T.R.; Horlock, J.H. . Whittle Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis is presented of the off-design performance of multistage axial-flow compressors. It is based on an analytical solution, valid for small perturbations in operating conditions from the design point, and provides an insight into the effects of choices made during the compressor design process on performance and off-design stage matching. It is shown that the mean design value of stage loading coefficient ([psi] = [Delta]h[sub 0]/U[sup 2]) has a dominant effect on off-design performance, whereas the stage-wise distribution of stage loading coefficient and the design value of flow coefficient have little influence. The powerful effects of variable stator vanes on stage-matching are also demonstrated and these results are shown to agree well with previous work. The slope of the working line of a gas turbine engine, overlaid on overall compressor characteristics, is shown to have a strong effect on the off-design stage-matching through the compressor. The model is also used to analyze design changes to the compressor geometry and to show how errors in estimates of annulus blockage, decided during the design process, have less effect on compressor performance than has previously been thought.

  11. Centrifugal Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-02-06

    The article discusses small high speed centrifugal compressors. This topic was covered in a previous ASHRAE Journal column (2003). This article reviews another configuration which has become an established product. The operation, energy savings and market potential of this offering are addressed as well.

  12. Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total cost of ownership for data center cooling systems.. Download the Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling. (1.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Left: Environmental chamber to evaluate the performance of air-conditioning systems. Right: Compressor Calorimeter at ORNL. Source: ORNL. CBERD: Advanced HVAC Systems Yahoo! Compute Coop Next

  13. Supersonic compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having an axially oriented compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which forms a supersonic shockwave axially, between adjacent strakes. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the gas compression ramp on a strake, the shock capture lip on the adjacent strake, and captures the resultant pressure within the stationary external housing while providing a diffuser downstream of the compression ramp.

  14. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Salzano, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  15. Evaluation of behavior and survival of fish exposed to an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaral, Stephen V.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; ?ada, Glenn F.; Giza, Daniel J.; Jacobson, Paul T.; McMahon, Brian J.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2015-02-06

    Previous studies have evaluated fish injury and mortality at hydrokinetic (HK) turbines, but because these studies focused on the impacts of these turbines in situ they were unable to evaluate fish responses to controlled environmental characteristics (e.g., current velocity and light or dark conditions). In this study, we used juvenile hybrid Striped Bass (HSB; Striped Bass Morone saxatilis White Bass M. chrysops; N D 620), Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (N D 3,719), and White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (N D 294) in a series of laboratory experiments to (1) evaluate the ability of fish to avoid entrainment through an axial-flow HK turbine, (2) evaluate fish injury and survival associated with turbine entrainment, and (3) compare the effects of different HK turbines on fish. We found that the probability of turbine entrainment was species dependent and highest for HSB. Across species, current velocity influenced entrainment probability. Among entrained fish, observed survival rates were generally >0.95. The probability of injury for surviving entrained fish only differed from that for nonentrained fish for Rainbow Trout and in general was not >0.20. The probability of injury following entrainment was greater only for HSB, although there were no differences in injury rates between fish that were turbine entrained and those that were not, suggesting that injuries were not turbine related. Taking turbine entrainment, survival, and injury estimates together allowed us to estimate the probability of a randomly selected fish in a population proximate to an HK turbine surviving passage or remaining uninjured after passage. For species and current velocities for which there was a significant effect due to entrainment, we estimated, for instance, that HSB had a survival probability of 0.95 and that Rainbow Trout and White Sturgeon had a >0.99 probability of survival. By combining these estimates with those from previous studies, we

  16. Evaluation of behaviour and survival of fish exposed to an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Stephen; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Cada, Glenn F; Giza, Daniel; Jacobsen, Paul; McMahon, Brian; Pracheil, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated fish injury and mortality at hydrokinetic (HK) turbines, but because these studies focused on the impacts of these turbines in situ they were unable to evaluate fish responses to controlled environmental characteristics (e.g., current velocity and light or dark conditions). In this study, we used juvenile hybrid Striped Bass (HSB; Striped Bass Morone saxatilis White Bass M. chrysops; N D 620), Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (N D 3,719), and White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (N D 294) in a series of laboratory experiments to (1) evaluate the ability of fish to avoid entrainment through an axial-flow HKmore »turbine, (2) evaluate fish injury and survival associated with turbine entrainment, and (3) compare the effects of different HK turbines on fish. We found that the probability of turbine entrainment was species dependent and highest for HSB. Across species, current velocity influenced entrainment probability. Among entrained fish, observed survival rates were generally >0.95. The probability of injury for surviving entrained fish only differed from that for nonentrained fish for Rainbow Trout and in general was not >0.20. The probability of injury following entrainment was greater only for HSB, although there were no differences in injury rates between fish that were turbine entrained and those that were not, suggesting that injuries were not turbine related. Taking turbine entrainment, survival, and injury estimates together allowed us to estimate the probability of a randomly selected fish in a population proximate to an HK turbine surviving passage or remaining uninjured after passage. For species and current velocities for which there was a significant effect due to entrainment, we estimated, for instance, that HSB had a survival probability of 0.95 and that Rainbow Trout and White Sturgeon had a >0.99 probability of survival. Similarly, by combining these estimates with those from previous studies, we derived total

  17. Evaluation of behavior and survival of fish exposed to an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Stephen V.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; ?ada, Glenn F.; Giza, Daniel J.; Jacobson, Paul T.; McMahon, Brian J.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2015-02-06

    Previous studies have evaluated fish injury and mortality at hydrokinetic (HK) turbines, but because these studies focused on the impacts of these turbines in situ they were unable to evaluate fish responses to controlled environmental characteristics (e.g., current velocity and light or dark conditions). In this study, we used juvenile hybrid Striped Bass (HSB; Striped Bass Morone saxatilis White Bass M. chrysops; N D 620), Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (N D 3,719), and White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (N D 294) in a series of laboratory experiments to (1) evaluate the ability of fish to avoid entrainment through an axial-flow HKmore »turbine, (2) evaluate fish injury and survival associated with turbine entrainment, and (3) compare the effects of different HK turbines on fish. We found that the probability of turbine entrainment was species dependent and highest for HSB. Across species, current velocity influenced entrainment probability. Among entrained fish, observed survival rates were generally >0.95. The probability of injury for surviving entrained fish only differed from that for nonentrained fish for Rainbow Trout and in general was not >0.20. The probability of injury following entrainment was greater only for HSB, although there were no differences in injury rates between fish that were turbine entrained and those that were not, suggesting that injuries were not turbine related. Taking turbine entrainment, survival, and injury estimates together allowed us to estimate the probability of a randomly selected fish in a population proximate to an HK turbine surviving passage or remaining uninjured after passage. For species and current velocities for which there was a significant effect due to entrainment, we estimated, for instance, that HSB had a survival probability of 0.95 and that Rainbow Trout and White Sturgeon had a >0.99 probability of survival. By combining these estimates with those from previous studies, we derived total passage

  18. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  19. Supersonic compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.; Breidenthal, Robert E.

    2016-04-12

    A supersonic compressor including a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a diffuser. The diffuser includes a plurality of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions, for deceleration of gas to subsonic conditions and then for expansion of subsonic gas, to change kinetic energy of the gas to static pressure. The aerodynamic ducts include vortex generating structures for controlling boundary layer, and structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when the aerodynamic ducts are designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of in excess of two to one, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  20. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  1. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  2. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  3. 2014-01-24 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Air Compressors; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting and availability of the framework document regarding energy conservation standards for commercial and industrial compressors, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 24, 2014.

  4. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  5. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  6. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  7. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  8. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  9. Axial flow plasma shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krausse, George J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1988-01-01

    A shutter (36) is provided for controlling a beam, or current, of charged particles in a device such as a thyratron (10). The substrate (38) defines an aperture (60) with a gap (32) which is placeable within the current. Coils (48) are formed on the substrate (38) adjacent the aperture (60) to produce a magnetic field for trapping the charged particles in or about aperture (60). The proximity of the coils (48) to the aperture (60) enables an effective magnetic field to be generated by coils (48) having a low inductance suitable for high frequency control. The substantially monolithic structure including the substrate (38) and coils (48) enables the entire shutter assembly (36) to be effectively located with respect to the particle beam.

  10. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  11. Commercial Compressed Air Systems Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load screw and vane compressors, cycling refrigerated thermal mass dryers (up to 30...

  12. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2007-11-13

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  13. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2012-04-10

    A supersonic gas compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated on a rotor journaled in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. The convergent inlet is adjacent to a bleed air collector, and during acceleration of the rotor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via a collector to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is eliminated.

  14. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  15. Standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  16. Compressor surge counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  17. An analysis of axial compressor fouling and a blade cleaning method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarabrin, A.P.; Schurovsky, V.A.; Bodrov, A.I.; Stalder, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of axial compressor fouling due to aerosols contained in the air. Key parameters having effect on the level of fouling are determined. A mathematical model of a progressive compressor fouling using the stage-by-stage calculation method is developed. Calculation results on the influence of fouling on the compressor performance are presented. A new index of sensitivity of axial compressors to fouling is suggested. The paper gives information about Turbotect`s deposit cleaning method of compressor blading and the results of its application on an operating industrial gas turbine. Regular on-line and off-line washings of the compressor flow path made it possible to maintain a high level of engine efficiency and output.

  18. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  19. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W.; Kartsounes, George T.

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  20. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, F.W.; Kartsounes, G.T.

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  1. Compressed Air Storage Strategies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies (August 2004) (258.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air System Control Strategies Stabilizing System Pressure Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance

  2. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  3. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 1: A model for subsonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. In the first part of this paper two proved and well-established profile loss correlations for subsonic flows are extended to quasi-two-dimensional conditions and to custom-tailored blade designs. Instead of a deviation angle correlation, a simple method based on singularities is utilized. The comparison between the new model and a recently published model demonstrates the improved accuracy in prediction of cascade performance achieved by the new model.

  4. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 2: A model for supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. The second part of the present report focuses on the extension of a well-known correlation for cascade losses at supersonic inlet flows. It was originally established for DCA bladings and is now modified to reflect the flow situation in blade rows having low-cambered, arbitrarily designed blades including precompression blades. Finally, the steady loss increase from subsonic to supersonic inlet-flow velocities demonstrates the matched performance of the different correlations of the new model.

  5. Free piston inertia compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, W.D.C.; Bilodeau, D.; Marusak, T.; Dutram, L. Jr.; Brady, J.

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to escape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  6. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  7. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  8. Free piston inertia compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, William D. C.; Bilodeau, Denis; Marusak, Thomas; Dutram, Jr., Leonard; Brady, Joseph

    1981-01-01

    A free piston inertia compressor comprises a piston assembly including a connecting rod having pistons on both ends, the cylinder being split into two substantially identical portions by a seal through which the connecting rod passes. Vents in the cylinder wall are provided near the seal to permit gas to excape the cylinder until the piston covers the vent whereupon the remaining gas in the cylinder functions as a gas spring and cushions the piston against impact on the seal. The connecting rod has a central portion of relatively small diameter providing free play of the connecting rod through the seal and end portions of relatively large diameter providing a limited tolerance between the connecting rod and the seal. Finally, the seal comprises a seal ring assembly consisting of a dampener plate, a free floating seal at the center of the dampener plate and a seal retainer plate in one face of the dampener plate.

  9. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  10. Semi-active compressor valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brun, Klaus; Gernentz, Ryan S.

    2010-07-27

    A method and system for fine-tuning the motion of suction or discharge valves associated with cylinders of a reciprocating gas compressor, such as the large compressors used for natural gas transmission. The valve's primary driving force is conventional, but the valve also uses an electromagnetic coil to sense position of the plate (or other plugging element) and to provide an opposing force prior to impact.

  11. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  12. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  13. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  14. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  15. Unique compressor passes field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Revolutionary pipeline compression concept has proved successful at a Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line facility in Alabama. In April 1992, the MOPICO electric drive compressor completed 5,000 hours of successful operation at Transcontinental Gas Pipeline's Station 100 at Billingsley, Ala. The revolutionary gas pipeline compression concept eliminates many of the traditional complexities of a pipeline compressor station and has benefits not possible with conventional compressor systems. This paper reports that this is accomplished through the integration of technologies developed over the past 10 years into a design concept unique in the industry. Ross Hill Controls Inc., Houston, provides the adjustable-speed variable frequency drive unit that allows the electric motor to operate at speeds from 6,2000 rpm to 10,000 rpm. Transco Energy Ventures, a division of Transco Energy, participated in the development and assisted in placing the prototype unit on the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline system.

  16. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Aftercooler and Lubricant Cooler Control Panel Air Inlet ... The oldest method of driving compressors is through the use ... Less sophisticated network controls use the cascade set ...

  17. Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E.

    1986-01-01

    A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

  18. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Individual electrochemical compressor cells are arranged in stacks. (Image: Cary Zachary, 2015) Electrochemical compressor research unit designed to test component properties. (Image: William

  19. SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

    2008-03-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

  20. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A.; Young, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  1. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  2. High-Efficiency Low-GWP Compressor

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Project: * 30% primary energy savings and with low GWP enabled through: - 2 ... compressor design experience & tools. * Carrier proprietary software to design rooftop ...

  3. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  4. Fact Sheet: Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors Summary: DOE will take the first step toward establishing energy efficiency standards for new natural gas compressor ...

  5. EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor EERE Success Story-Xergy Develops Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and an ...

  6. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  7. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  8. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  9. Magnetic-Bearing Chiller Compressors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Deployment » Magnetic-Bearing Chiller Compressors Magnetic-Bearing Chiller Compressors Centrifugal, two-stage, magnetic-bearing chiller compressors equipped with variable-speed drives are a relatively new technology that operates at a high efficiency. Based on this case study, independent analysis by the U.S. Department of the Navy has verified that magnetic bearing compressors operate more efficiently than reciprocating and screw compressors, especially during partial load

  10. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  11. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  12. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 9th, Athens, Greece, Sept. 3-8, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the National Aerospace Plane Program, highly loaded axial flow compressors, Swedish philosophy in aeroengine development, the active control of engine instabilities, and turbulent free shear layer mixing and combustion. Consideration is also given to direct and hybrid solutions of three-dimensional flow in axial radial turbomachines using the mean stream surface method, the numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with a simple ONERA model of viscous effects, and the combustion characteristics of a boron-fueled SFRJ with aft burner. Other topics include studies on the influence of Mach number on profile losses of a reaction turbine cascade, flow in compressor interstage ducts, and full-scale liquid fuel ramjet combustor tests.

  13. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P

    2013-08-06

    A supersonic gas compressor with bleed gas collectors, and a method of starting the compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated for rotary movement in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. A convergent inlet is provided adjacent to a bleed gas collector, and during startup of the compressor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via the bleed gas collector, to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is effectively eliminated.

  14. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.

    2011-07-15

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful

  15. RELAP5-3D Compressor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver

    2005-06-01

    A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.

  16. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  17. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  18. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  19. Transonic airfoil and axial flow rotary machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagai, Naonori; Iwatani, Junji

    2015-09-01

    Sectional profiles close to a tip 124 and a part between a midportion 125 and a hub 123 are shifted to the upstream of an operating fluid flow in a sweep direction. Accordingly, an S shape is formed in which the tip 124 and the part between the midportion 125 and the hub 123 protrude. As a result, it is possible reduce various losses due to shook, waves, thereby forming a transonic airfoil having an excellent aerodynamic characteristic.

  20. Membrane Based Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Johnson, brian.johnson@daisanalytic.com Dais Analytic Corporation INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2015 NEW PROJECT Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. System Design Review; March 2016 2. Compressor testing review; September 2016 3. Go/No-Go based on bench testing; September 2016 4. Experimental evaluation of V1 prototype;

  1. Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems This tip sheet discusses preventive maintenance strategies for compressed air systems to avoid high equipment repair and replacement costs. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #6 Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems (August 2004) (245.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance Maintaining System Air Quality

  2. IEMDC - In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley

    2004-03-31

    This report covers the fifth quarter (01/01/04 to 03/31/04) of the In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC) project. Design efforts on the IEMDC continued with compressor efforts focused on performing aerodynamic analyses. These analyses were conducted using computational fluid dynamics. Compressor efforts also entailed developing mechanical designs of components through the use of solid models and working on project deliverables. Electric motor efforts focused on the design of the magnetic bearing system, motor pressure housing, and the motor-compressor interface. The mechanical evaluation of the main interface from both the perspective of the compressor manufacturer and electric motor manufacturer indicates that an acceptable design has been achieved. All mechanical and aerodynamic design efforts have resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the compressor and electric motor design and towards the successful completion of the IEMDC unit.

  3. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  4. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  5. Request for Information on Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors Request for Information on Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors Ormat Technologies is headquartered in Reno Nevada and designs and manufactures waste heat recovery units that are commonly applied on natural gas pipeline compressor stations Ormat EERE meeting memo (31.06 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Meeting Memorandum: Ex Parte Communications Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and

  6. Fact Sheet: Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fact Sheet: Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors Fact Sheet: Efficiency Standards for Natural Gas Compressors The following fact sheet outlines one of the Department of Energy's series of actions, partnerships, and stakeholder commitments to help modernize the nationÂąs natural gas transmission and distribution systems and reduce methane emissions. DOE will take the first step toward establishing energy efficiency standards for new natural gas compressor units by

  7. New Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range New Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range Advanced turbocharger compressor design with active casing treatment and advanced mixed flow turbine design provided improved performance and efficiency over the base turbocharger deer12_sun.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Boost System Development for Diesel HCCI/LTC Application Optimization of a turbocharger for high EGR applications

  8. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stations Compressor Stations Illustration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Illustration, 2008 Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Compressor Stations Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil & Gas, Natural Gas Division, Natural Gas Transportation Information System. The EIA has determined that the informational map displays here do not raise security

  9. Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies The purpose of the work was to explore advanced boost technologies to support clean diesel combustion, such as HCCI/LTC applications. deer08_sun.pdf (189.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Numerical Investigation of Advanced Compressor Technologies Advanced boost system development for diesel HCCI/LTC applications Advanced Boost System Development for Diesel HCCI/LTC

  10. Viscous throughflow modeling for multistage compressor design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, M.A.; Gallimore, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    An existing throughflow method for axial compressors, which accounts for the effects of spanwise mixing using a turbulent diffusion model, has been extended to include the viscous shear force on the endwall. The use of a shear force, consistent with a no-slip condition, on the annulus walls in the throughflow calculations allows realistic predictions of the velocity and flow angle profiles near the endwalls. The annulus wall boundary layers are therefore incorporated directly into the throughflow prediction. This eliminates the need for empirical blockage factors or independent annulus boundary layer calculations. The axisymmetric prediction can be further refined by specifying realistic spanwise variations of loss coefficient and deviation to model the three-dimensional endwall effects. The resulting throughflow calculation gives realistic predictions of flow properties across the whole span of a compressor. This is confirmed by comparison with measured data from both low and high-speed multistage machines. The viscous throughflow method has been incorporated into an axial compressor design system. The method predicts the meridional velocity defects in the endwall region and consequently blading can be designed that allows for the increased incidence, and low dynamic head, near the annulus walls.

  11. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  12. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation Technologies (BENEFIT) - 2015, DE-FOA-0001166 Project Objective United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) proposes to demonstrate a high-efficiency compressor design ...

  13. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  14. The unstable behavior of low and high-speed compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, I.J. . Whittle Lab.); Freeman, C. )

    1994-04-01

    By far the greater part of the understanding about stall and surge in axial compressors comes from work on low-speed laboratory machines. As a general rule, these machines do not model the compressibility effects present in high-speed compressors and therefore doubt has always existed about the application of low-speed results to high-speed machines. In recent years interest in active control has led to a number of studies of compressor stability in engine-type compressors. The instrumentation used in these experiments has been sufficiently detailed that, for the first time, adequate data are available to make direct comparisons between high-speed and low-speed compressors. This paper presents new data from an eight-stage fixed geometry engine compressor and compares then with low-speed laboratory data. The results show remarkable similarities in both the stalling and surging behavior of the two machines, particularly when the engine compressor is run at intermediate speeds. The engine results also show that, as in the laboratory tests, surge is precipitated by the onset of rotating stall. This is true even at very high speeds where it had previously been thought that surge might be the result of a blast wave moving through the compressor. This paper therefore contains new information about high-speed compressors and confirms that low-speed testing is an effective means of obtaining insight into the behavior of high-speed machines.

  15. Compressed Air System Project Improves Production at a Candy Making Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    The H.B. Reese Company successfully completed an upgrade of this compressed air system at its facility in Hershey, PA. The plant took two compressors offline while increasing throughput and quality.

  16. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.

    2015-09-08

    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  17. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J.; Horazak, Dennis A.

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  18. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success.

  19. Pressure field study of the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebaner, A.L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2003-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40 and 95 krpm, with a speed of 80 krpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  20. Gas turbine engine with supersonic compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, II, William Byron; Lawlor, Shawn P.

    2015-10-20

    A gas turbine engine having a compressor section using blades on a rotor to deliver a gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes one or more of aerodynamic ducts that have converging and diverging portions for deceleration of the gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure gas to combustors. The aerodynamic ducts include structures for changing the effective contraction ratio to enable starting even when designed for high pressure ratios, and structures for boundary layer control. In an embodiment, aerodynamic ducts are provided having an aspect ratio of two to one (2:1) or more, when viewed in cross-section orthogonal to flow direction at an entrance to the aerodynamic duct.

  1. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Bella, Francis A.

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  2. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  3. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br /> Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid Image: Xergy Xergy's technology has the potential to move away from vapor compression

  4. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  5. IEMDC--IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Considerable effort was put forth on the mechanical design of the compressor section of the IEMDC. These efforts focused on the main compressor case design and included an evaluation of the motor-compressor interface. The initial mechanical evaluation of the compressor motor interface indicates that the integration of an electric motor and compressor can be made successfully. All mechanical design efforts resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the mechanical design of the compressor section and towards the design of the IEMDC unit. During the fourth quarter, one of the primary objectives was to select the magnetic bearing supplier and to begin finalizing the design of various motor components. Consequently, the design proposals from the three magnetic bearing suppliers were evaluated and Kingsbury magnetic Bearings (KMB) was selected for the design of the magnetic bearing system. A purchase order was issued to KMB and design kick-off meeting was held at EMD on December 11, 2003 with the KMB/S2M/DR teams, to discuss the project requirements. A joint DR/EMD/Robicon IEMDC Compressor-Motor-VFD Drive technical status update presentation was prepared, and was presented at the GMRC meeting on October 5, 2003 at Salt Lake City, UT. Considerable effort was expended in evaluating the fatigue life of the motor rotor via FEA modeling. The purpose of this analysis was two fold: (1) to establish the motor start-stop cycle life and (2) to evaluate the applicability of lower cost connection ring copper alloys. The FEA modal frequency analysis of relatively softer motor mount concepts instead of the hard mounts was continued. The intent of the design effort is to develop an optimum motor support. The results are not yet conclusive. Therefore further analysis is planned in the next quarter. The EMD design team worked with the KMB design team to develop design concepts for the magnetic bearing housings. Significant progress was made in interfacing the

  6. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R32 + R-134a Mixture using a Scroll Compressor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compressor Calorimeter Test of ...

  7. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  8. Development of an Electrochemical Separator and Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent Molter

    2011-04-28

    Global conversion to sustainable energy is likely to result in a hydrogen-based economy that supports U.S. energy security objectives while simultaneously avoiding harmful carbon emissions. A key hurdle to successful implementation of a hydrogen economy is the low-cost generation, storage, and distribution of hydrogen. One of the most difficult requirements of this transformation is achieving economical, high density hydrogen storage in passenger vehicles. Transportation applications may require compression and storage of high purity hydrogen up to 12,000 psi. Hydrogen production choices range from centralized low-pressure generation of relatively impure gas in large quantities from steam-methane reformer plants to distributed generation of hydrogen under moderate pressure using water electrolysis. The Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator + Compressor (EHS+C) technology separates hydrogen from impurities and then compresses it to high pressure without any moving parts. The Phase I effort resulted in the construction and demonstration of a laboratory-scale hardware that can separate and compress hydrogen from reformate streams. The completion of Phase I has demonstrated at the laboratory scale the efficient separation and compression of hydrogen in a cost effective manner. This was achieved by optimizing the design of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) cell hardware and verified by parametric testing in single cell hardware. A broad range of commercial applications exist for reclamation of hydrogen. One use this technology would be in combination with commercial fuel cells resulting in a source of clean power, heat, and compressed hydrogen. Other applications include the reclamation of hydrogen from power plants and other industrial equipment where it is used for cooling, recovery of process hydrogen from heat treating processes, and semiconductor fabrication lines. Hydrogen can also be recovered from reformate streams and cryogenic boil-offs using this

  9. Valve, compressor contracts awarded for Western Hemisphere projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-19

    Major valve and compressor contracts have been let for projects in the Western Hemisphere. Petrobras has awarded Nuovo Pignone, Florence, a $10.5 million contract to supply 400 valves for the 1,975-mile natural-gas pipeline being constructed from Bolivia into Brazil. Additionally, Brazilian company Maritima Petroleo and TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, have awarded Nuovo Pignone separate contracts to supply turbocompressor packages. The Brazilian contract is for offshore Campos Basin; the Canadian, for a major expansion of TCPL`s system delivering natural gas out of Alberta. The paper discusses the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, compressor orders, and the companies.

  10. Test results on a supercharged compressor for commercial refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Wilhelm, W.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objective was to quantify the technical benefits of using refrigerant R-502 in a supercharged reciprocating compressor for commercial refrigeration applications. The supercharged compressor concept used a special heat exchanger that subcools the major portion of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser. This subcooling is achieved by flashing the remaining portion of the condensed liquid through an expansion valve, thereby cooling it, and using it to absorb heat from the rest of the refrigerant. This supercharged stream is then fed to the cylinders through ports in the cylinder walls that are uncovered when the piston reaches bottom dead center.

  11. Measurement and computation of heat transfer in high-pressure compressor drum geometries with axial throughflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.A.; Morse, A.P.; Tucker, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper makes comparisons between CFD computations and experimental measurements of heat transfer for the axial throughflow of cooling air in a high-pressure compressor spool rig and a plane cavity rig. The heat transfer measurements are produced using fluxmeters and by the conduction solution method from surface temperature measurements. Numerical predictions are made by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in a full three-dimensional, time-dependent form using the finite-volume method. Convergence is accelerated using a multigrid algorithm and turbulence modeled using a simple mixing length formulation. Notwithstanding systematic differences between the measurements and the computations, the level of agreement can be regarded as promising in view of the acknowledged uncertainties in the experimental data, the limitations of the turbulence model and, perhaps more importantly, the modest grid densities used for the computations.

  12. ISSUANCE 2016-04-29: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Compressors, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Compressors, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  13. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  14. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  15. Practical control strategy eliminates FCCU compressor surge problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos, M.C.M.M.; Rodriques, P.S.B. )

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that the control system originally designed for the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) compressor at Petroleo Brasileiro SA's (Petrobras) Presidente Bernardes refinery, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, was inadequate. The system required almost permanent flow recirculation to prevent surge. An improved antisurge control strategy was implemented in mid-1990. Since then, the unit has operated without the former surge problems.

  16. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Scrivner, Christine M.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  17. IEMDC -IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Dresser-Rand completed the preliminary aerodynamic flowpath of the volute and inlet design for the compressor section. This has resulted in considerable progress being made on the development of the compressor section and ultimately towards the successful integration of the IEMDC System design. Significant effort was put forth in the design of aerodynamic components which resulted in a design that meets the limits of aerodynamically induced radial forces previously established. Substantial effort has begun on the mechanical design of the compressor pressure containing case and other internal components. These efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. All efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design. During the third quarter reporting period, the focus was to further refine the motor design and to ensure that the IEMDC rotor system supported on magnetic bearing is in compliance with the critical speed and vibration requirements of the API standards 617 and 541. Consequently specification to design magnetic bearings was developed and an RFQ to three magnetic bearing suppliers was issued. Considerable work was also performed to complete preliminary reports on some of the deliverable tasks under phase 1.0. These include specification for the VFD, RFQ for the magnetic bearings, and preliminary write-up for motor instrumentation and control schematic. In order to estimate motor efficiency at various operating points, plots of calculated motor losses, and motor cooling gas flow rates were also prepared. Preliminary evaluations of motor support concepts were performed via FEA to determine modal frequencies. Presentation was made at DOE Morgantown on August 12, 2003 to provide project status update. Preparations for the IEMDC motor-compressor presentation, at the GMRC conference in Salt Lake City to be held on October 5, 2003, were also

  18. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  19. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow

  20. Effects of Large Energetic Vortices on Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B. Gunawan 1 , V.S. Neary 1 C. Hill 2 and L.P. Chamorro 2 1 Energy-Water-Ecosystems Engineering, Wind and Water Power Technologies, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge...

  1. Effects of Large Energetic Vortices on Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    around large or full scale MHK machines in the field. In this study three synchronized acoustic Doppler velocimeters ... The SAFL Main Channel Data Acquisition (DAQ) Carriage, ...

  2. Hydro-FAST Axial Flow Simulation Code Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing a S uite o f N umerical M odeling Tools f or S imula8ng A xial---Flow M HK T urbines Contributors Michael L awson Levi Kilcher Marco M asciola DOE M HK W orkshop Broomfield, C O July 9 th - 1 0 th NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY 2 Presenta8on o verview Introduction and objective Development strategy Summary of work to date * HydroTurbSim (turbulence) * MAP (mooring) * HydroFAST (hydro-servo-elastic) Path forward Aquantis Verdant NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY What p hysical

  3. Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This tip sheet briefly describes the effect of intake air on compressed air system performance, offers guidance on selecting intake air filters, and outlines when to pursue filter ...

  4. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  5. IEMDC-IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2003-06-01

    During this reporting period, significant progress has been made towards the development of the IEMDC System design. Considerable effort was put forth by Curtiss-Wright EMD in the resolution of the technical issue of aerodynamically induced radial forces. This has provided a design basis with which to establish the radial magnetic bearing load capacity and the rotordynamic design. Dresser-Rand has made considerable progress on the flowpath design for the compressor section particularly on the volute and inlet aerodynamic design. All efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. These efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design.

  6. Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

  7. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  8. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  9. Refrigerator with variable capacity compressor and cycle priming action through capacity control and associated methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2016-03-15

    A refrigerator appliance (and associated method) that includes a condenser, evaporator and a multi-capacity compressor. The appliance also includes a pressure reducing device arranged within an evaporator-condenser refrigerant circuit, and a valve system for directing or restricting refrigerant flow through the device. The appliance further includes a controller for operating the compressor upon the initiation of a compressor ON-cycle at a priming capacity above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration.

  10. Application of Ti-alloys as compressor discs and blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helm, D.

    1999-07-01

    Ti-alloys are widely used as materials for compressor discs, blades, vanes and housings in modern aero-engines due to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio. Their high corrosion resistance and good weldability are additional factors for their application as main compressor components. A variety of different Ti-alloys have been developed in recent years and introduced into jet engines in order to fulfill the large spectrum of required mechanical properties. The main topic of the present paper is to describe the correlation between essential microstructural features of a number of Ti-alloys for compressor disc and blade applications and such mechanical properties as strength, creep and fatigue resistance, fracture toughness, and crack propagation behavior. It will be shown that for different engine requirements the choice of the suitable alloy, as well as tailoring of microstructural features with the aim to achieve an optimized balance of relevant mechanical properties, is necessary. The influence of thermomechanical treatment on morphology and dimensions of phases, and the resulting correlation to mechanical properties, will be discussed in detail for selected Ti-alloys, i.e., Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo and IMI 834 (Ti-5.8Al-4Sn-3.5Zr-0.5Mo-0.7Nb-0.35Si-0.06C). Additionally, effects of surface conditions caused by surface treatment (shot peening) or by service exposure (surface oxidation) will be presented.

  11. A new endwall model for axial compressor throughflow calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham, J.

    1995-10-01

    It is well recognized that the endwall regions of a compressor--in which the annulus wall flow interacts with the mainstream flow--have a major influence on its efficiency and surge margin. Despite many attempts over the years to predict the very complex flow patterns in the endwall regions, current compressor design methods still rely largely on empirical estimates of the aerodynamic losses and flow angle deviations in these regions. This paper describes a new phenomenological model of the key endwall flow phenomena treated in a circumferentially averaged way. It starts from Hirsch and de Ruyck`s annulus wall boundary layer approach, but makes some important changes. The secondary vorticities arising from passage secondary flows and from tip clearance flows are calculated. Then the radial interchanges of momentum, energy, and entropy arising from both diffusion and convection are estimated. The model is incorporated into a streamline curvature program. The empirical blade force defect terms in the boundary layers are selected from cascade data. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by comparing the predictions with experimental results on both low-speed and high-speed multistage compressors. It is found that the radial variation of flow parameters is quite well predicted, and so is the overall performance, except when significant endwall stall occurs.

  12. Rotor dynamic analysis of GCEP (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant) Tails Withdrawal Test Facility AC-12 compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.W.

    1982-01-22

    The reliable operation of the centrifugal compressors utilized in the gaseous diffusion process is of great importance due to the critical function of these machines in product and tails withdrawal, cascade purge and evacuation processes, the purge cascade and product booster applications. The same compressors will be used in equally important applications within the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). In response to concern over the excessive vibration exhibited by the AC-12 compressor in the No. 3 position of the GCEP Tails Withdrawal Test Facility, a rotor-bearing dynamic analysis was performed on the compressor. This analysis included the acquisition and reduction of compressor vibration data, characterization and modeling of the rotorbearing system, a computer dynamic study, and recommendations for machine modification. The compressor dynamic analysis was performed for rotor speeds of 9000 rpm and 7200 to 7800 rpm, which includes all possible opreating speeds of the compressor in the GCEP Test Facility. While the analysis was performed on this particular AC-12 compressor, the results should be pertinent to other AC-12 applications as well. Similar diagnostic and analytical techniques can be used to evaluate operation of other types of centrifugal compressors.

  13. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  14. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore » R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  15. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  16. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S.; Baguer, G. M. Gistau

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  17. Background review on compressors for gas engine-driven heat pumps. Technical report, September 1985-March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.L.; Swain, J.C.

    1986-04-01

    The investigation focused on the efficiency and durability of various types of open-shaft compressors for potential application to residential and light commercial gas-engine-driven heat-pump applications. Variable speed efficiency data for hermetic, semihermetic, and open shaft compressors were obtained from the public literature and from compressor manufacturers in the US, Japan, and in Europe. Efficiency comparisons based upon refrigerants R12 and R22 at a fixed compressor pressure ratio indicate that reciprocating compressors have the highest coefficients of performance (COP's) for compressor speeds ranging from 1000 to 2500 rpm. Scroll and Wankel compressors appear to offer the highest COP's above 2500 rpm. An important finding of the work is that open shaft compressors with proven life and reliability for residential gas engine heat-pump applications do not appear to be available as production units.

  18. Performance Testing of Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Helium Screw Compressors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-08-10

    Oil injected screw compressors have essentially superseded all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, reliability, minimal vibration, and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium refrigeration systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. It is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design the compression system to match the refrigeration process. It is also important to identify those primary compressor skid exergetic loss mechanisms which maymore » be reduced, thereby offering the possibility of significantly reducing the input power to helium refrigeration processes which are extremely energy intensive. This paper summarizes the results collected during the commissioning of the new compressor system for Jefferson Lab's (JLab's) 12 GeV upgrade. The compressor skid packages were designed by JLab and built to print by industry. They incorporate a number of modifications not typical of helium screw compressor packages and most importantly allow a very wide range of operation so that JLab's patented Floating Pressure Process can be fully utilized. This paper also summarizes key features of the skid design that allow this process and facilitate the maintenance and reliability of these helium compressor systems.« less

  19. Performance Testing of Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Helium Screw Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-08-10

    Oil injected screw compressors have essentially superseded all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, reliability, minimal vibration, and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium refrigeration systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. It is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design the compression system to match the refrigeration process. It is also important to identify those primary compressor skid exergetic loss mechanisms which may be reduced, thereby offering the possibility of significantly reducing the input power to helium refrigeration processes which are extremely energy intensive. This paper summarizes the results collected during the commissioning of the new compressor system for Jefferson Lab's (JLab's) 12 GeV upgrade. The compressor skid packages were designed by JLab and built to print by industry. They incorporate a number of modifications not typical of helium screw compressor packages and most importantly allow a very wide range of operation so that JLab's patented Floating Pressure Process can be fully utilized. This paper also summarizes key features of the skid design that allow this process and facilitate the maintenance and reliability of these helium compressor systems.

  20. Compressed Air

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Compressed Air ESUE Motors Federal Agriculture Compressed Air Compressed Air Roadmap The Bonneville Power Administration created the roadmap to help utilities find energy...

  1. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  2. Experiments and modelling of surge in small centrifugal compressor for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galindo, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Climent, H.; Tiseira, A.

    2008-01-15

    In this paper the surge phenomenon in small centrifugal compressors used for turbocharging internal combustion engines is analyzed. The experimental work was focused on the measurement of compressor behaviour within the surge zone by means of a specifically designed facility. The presented model is based on the introduction of a fluid inertia term that accounts for the non quasi steady effects and the use of a compressor map extended to the surge and negative flows zone obtained from experimental tests. The compressor model was implemented in a one-dimensional gas-dynamic model. The comparison of the modelled and measured evolution of instantaneous pressure during deep surge operation shows good agreement. Furthermore, the model is also able to predict the amplitude and frequency of pressure pulses when the compressor operates in surge with different outlet duct lengths. (author)

  3. The use of neural nets for matching compressors with diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.A. II; Filipi, Z.S.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A technique which uses trained neural nets to model the compressor in the context of a turbocharged diesel engine simulation is introduced. This technique replaces the usual interpolation of compressor maps with the evaluation of a smooth mathematical function, thus providing engine simulations with greater robustness and flexibility. Following presentation of the methodology, the proposed neural net technique is validated against data from a truck type, 6-cylinder, 14 liter diesel engine. Furthermore, with the introduction of an additional parameter, the proposed neural net can be trained to simulate an entire family of compressors. As a demonstration, five compressors of different sizes are represented with the neural net model, and used for matching calculations with intercooled and non-intercooled engine configurations at different speeds. This novel approach readily allows for evaluation of various options prior to prototype production, and is thus a powerful design tool for selection of the best compressor for a given diesel engine system.

  4. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  5. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Castleberry, Kim N.

    1998-01-01

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

  6. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  7. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  8. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2004-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the third year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report introduces the benefits of improved surge detection and summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors. Early research results and findings concerning surge in centrifugal compressors and possible precursors to surge are presented. Laboratory test results in modern compressors with 3D impellers are described in detail and used to show the changes in internal flow patterns that occur as a compressor approaches surge. It was found that older compressors with recessed impeller blading (2D geometry) do not have the same accessible flow patterns. The laboratory test results indicate a large increase in potential operating range for modern compressors. This annual report also presents results from the field testing conducted during the course of this third year. The field test results showed similar changes in the surge probe strain signals and the same type, although of less magnitude, of indication that the compressor is approaching surge. An algorithm for identifying the nearness of surge has been proposed and evaluated with the available data. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The results of the project include a step-by-step process for design, sizing, and installation of surge detection probes and for implementation of the direct surge control in centrifugal compressor controllers. This work is considered a step towards the successful implementation of direct surge control for improved flexibility and efficiency in natural gas transmission compressors.

  9. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  10. De-icing thermostat for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.R.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes an electronic thermostat adapted to be connected to an air-cooling apparatus to control the operative state of the apparatus. The thermostat includes a means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of a desired temperature setpoint and means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of the ambient temperature at the thermostat. The improvement described here comprises: means for generating control signals for the aircooling apparatus in order to inhibit the accumulation of ice on the cooling element of the air-cooling apparatus when the ambient temperature is above the temperature setpoint; means, responsive to the control signals, for deenergizing the compressor in the air-cooling apparatus for a first preselected period of time whenever the compressor is determined to have run continuously for a second preselected period of time; and means for adaptively adjusting the length of at least one of the first or second preselected periods of time as a function of the change in the rate of change of the ambient temperature.

  11. Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

  12. Forging of compressor blades: Temperature and ram velocity effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigal, A.; Zhen, K.; Chan, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Forging is one of the most widely used manufacturing process for making high-strength, structurally integrated, impact and creep-resistant Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades for jet engines. In addition, in modern metal forming technology, finite element analysis method and computer modeling are being extensively employed for initial evaluation and optimization of various processes, including forging. In this study, DEFORM, a rigid viscoplastic two-dimensional finite element code was used to study the effects of initial die temperature and initial ram velocity on the forging process. For a given billet, die temperature and ram velocity influence the strain rate, temperature distribution,and thus the flow stress of the material. The die temperature and the ram velocity were varied over the range 300 to 700 F and 15--25 in./sec, respectively, to estimate the maximum forging load and the total energy required to forge compressor blades. The ram velocity was assumed to vary linearly as a function of stroke. Based on the analysis,it was found the increasing the die temperature from 300 to 700 F decreases the forging loads by 19.9 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 43 F. Similarly, increasing the initial ram velocity from 15 to 25 in./sec decreases the forging loads by 25.2 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 36 F. The nodal temperature distribution is bimodal in each case. The forging energy required to forge the blades is approximately 18 kips *in./in.

  13. Measurement of the three-dimensional tip region flow field in an axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauter, R.C. )

    1993-07-01

    A two-color, five-beam LDV system has been configured to make simultaneous three-component velocity measurements of the flow field in a two-stage axial compressor model. The system has been used to make time-resolved measurements both between compressor blade rows and within the rotating blade passages in an axial compressor. The data show the nature and behavior of the complex, three-dimensional flow phenomena present in the tip region of a compressor as the convect downstream. In particular, the nature of the tip leakage vortex is apparent, being manifested by high blockage as well as the expected vortical motion. The data indicate that the radial flows associated with the tip leakage vortex begin to decrease while within the rotor passage, and that they temporarily increase aft of the passage.

  14. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  15. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  16. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  17. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996 This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 States. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas. Questions or comments on the contents of this article may be directed to

  18. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor Image courtesy of United Technologies Research Center and BTO Peer Review. Image courtesy of United Technologies Research Center and BTO Peer Review. Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT DOE Total Funding: $974,000 Cost Share: $417,000 Project Term: Sep 2015 - Aug 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and

  19. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  20. Apparatus and methods for cooling and sealing rotary helical screw compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fresco, A.N.

    1997-08-05

    In a compression system which incorporates a rotary helical screw compressor, and for any type of gas or refrigerant, the working liquid oil is atomized through nozzles suspended in, and parallel to, the suction gas flow, or alternatively the nozzles are mounted on the suction piping. In either case, the aim is to create positively a homogeneous mixture of oil droplets to maximize the effectiveness of the working liquid oil in improving the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies. The oil stream to be atomized may first be degassed at compressor discharge pressure by heating within a pressure vessel and recovering the energy added by using the outgoing oil stream to heat the incoming oil stream. The stripped gas is typically returned to the compressor discharge flow. In the preferred case, the compressor rotors both contain a hollow cavity through which working liquid oil is injected into channels along the edges of the rotors, thereby forming a continuous and positive seal between the rotor edges and the compressor casing. In the alternative method, working liquid oil is injected either in the same direction as the rotor rotation or counter to rotor rotation through channels in the compressor casing which are tangential to the rotor edges and parallel to the rotor center lines or alternatively the channel paths coincide with the helical path of the rotor edges. 14 figs.

  1. Apparatus and methods for cooling and sealing rotary helical screw compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fresco, Anthony N.

    1997-01-01

    In a compression system which incorporates a rotary helical screw compressor, and for any type of gas or refrigerant, the working liquid oil is atomized through nozzles suspended in, and parallel to, the suction gas flow, or alternatively the nozzles are mounted on the suction piping. In either case, the aim is to create positively a homogeneous mixture of oil droplets to maximize the effectiveness of the working liquid oil in improving the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies. The oil stream to be atomized may first be degassed at compressor discharge pressure by heating within a pressure vessel and recovering the energy added by using the outgoing oil stream to heat the incoming oil stream. The stripped gas is typically returned to the compressor discharge flow. In the preferred case, the compressor rotors both contain a hollow cavity through which working liquid oil is injected into channels along the edges of the rotors, thereby forming a continuous and positive seal between the rotor edges and the compressor casing. In the alternative method, working liquid oil is injected either in the same direction as the rotor rotation or counter to rotor rotation through channels in the compressor casing which are tangential to the rotor edges and parallel to the rotor centerlines or alternatively the channel paths coincide with the helical path of the rotor edges.

  2. Active stabilization of rotating stall in a three-stage axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, J.M.; Hendricks, G.J.; Epstein, A.H. . Gas Turbine Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    A three-stage, low-speed axial research compressor has been actively stabilized by damping low-amplitude circumferentially traveling waves, which can grow into rotating stall. Using a circumferential array of hot-wire sensors, and an array of high-speed individually positioned control vanes as the actuator, the first and second spatial harmonics of the compressor were stabilized down to a characteristic slope of 0.9, yielding an 8 percent increase in operating flow range. Stabilization of the third spatial harmonic did not alter the stalling flow coefficient. The actuators were also used open loop to determine the forced response behavior of the compressor. A system identification procedure applied to the forced response data then yielded the compressor transfer function. The Moore-Greitzer two-dimensional stability model was modified as suggested by the measurements to include the effect of blade row time lags on the compressor dynamics. This modified Moore-Greitzer model was then used to predict both the open and closed-loop dynamic response of the compressor. The model predictions agreed closely with the experimental results. In particular, the model predicted both the mass flow at stall without control and the design parameters needed by, and the range extension realized from, active control.

  3. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  4. Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This fact sheet describes ventilation and the importance of sealing air leaks and providing controlled ventilation.

  5. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump with Lennox

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ultimate goal of this project is to collaborate with Lennox under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop efficiency-doubling residential space conditioning and water heating technology based on the air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept developed by ORNL for the Department of Energy (DOE)/Building Technologies Office (BTO). The CRADA collaboration with Lennox has resulted in a two-compressor (or two box) prototype design; a VS air-source heat pump coupled with a separate water heating-dehumidification (WH/DH) module.

  6. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  7. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  8. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  9. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  10. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R32 + R-134a Mixture using a Scroll Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2013-08-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of four lower-GWP alternative refrigerants, ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-404A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for medium temperature refrigeration applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-404A and having a nominal rated capacity of 23,500 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of -10 F to 35 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 10 F to 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. However, the cooling capacities reported in this study are normalized for 0 F subcooling. The tests showed that the compressor energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity with all four alternative refrigerants tested are higher at higher saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature and lower at lower saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature, compared to that of R-404A. Discharge temperatures of all the alternative refrigerants were higher than that of R-404A at all test conditions.

  11. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  12. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Mckee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2003-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the second year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors and focuses on accessing factors that affect pre-surge detection. An attempt is made in this analysis to identify and quantify factors concerning compressor design and operations that affect the detection of pre-surge conditions. This progress report presents results from recent laboratory tests conducted during the course of this second year. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The most recently available measured pre-surge internal flow data is parameterized to help identify factors that affect the indications that a compressor is approaching surge. Theoretical arguments are applied to access the factors that influence surge precursors and surge initiation in different centrifugal compressors. This work is considered a step in accessing the factors that affect the success or limitations of pre-surge detection in natural gas pipeline compressors.

  13. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Shane P. Siebenaler; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-02-25

    The objective of this Direct Surge Control project was to develop a new internal method to avoid surge of pipeline compressors. This method will safely expand the range and flexibility of compressor operations, while minimizing wasteful recycle flow at the lower end of the operating envelope. The approach is to sense the onset of surge with a probe that directly measures re-circulation at the impeller inlet. The signals from the probe are used by a controller to allow operation at low flow conditions without resorting to a predictive method requiring excessive margin to activate a recycle valve. The sensor developed and demonstrated during this project was a simple, rugged, and sensitive drag probe. Experiments conducted in a laboratory compressor clearly showed the effectiveness of the technique. Subsequent field demonstrations indicated that the increase in range without the need to recycle flow was on the order of 19% to 25%. The cost benefit of applying the direct surge control technology appears to be as much as $120 per hour per compressor for operation without the current level of recycle flow. This could amount to approximately $85 million per year for the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission industry, if direct surge control systems are applied to most pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  14. A study of spike and modal stall phenomena in a low-speed axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camp, T.R.; Day, I.J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a study of stall inception mechanisms in a low-speed axial compressor. Previous work has identified two common flow breakdown sequences, the first associated with a short length-scale disturbance known as a spike, and the second with a longer length-scale disturbance known as a modal oscillation. In this paper the physical differences between these two mechanisms are illustrated with detailed measurements. Experimental results are also presented that relate the occurrence of the two stalling mechanisms to the operating conditions of the compressor. It is shown that the stability criteria for the two disturbances are different: Long length-scale disturbances are related to a two-dimensional instability of the whole compression system, while short length-scale disturbances indicate a three-dimensional breakdown of the flow-field associated with high rotor incidence angles. Based on the experimental measurements, a simple model is proposed that explains the type of stall inception pattern observed in a particular compressor. Measurements from a single-stage low-speed compressor and from a multistage high-speed compressor are presented in support of the model.

  15. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  16. Air filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.E.; Sparks, J.E.

    1981-03-03

    An air filter is described that has a counter rotating drum, i.e., the rotation of the drum is opposite the tangential intake of air. The intake air has about 1 lb of rock wool fibers per 107 cu. ft. of air sometimes at about 100% relative humidity. The fibers are doffed from the drum by suction nozzle which are adjacent to the drum at the bottom of the filter housing. The drum screen is cleaned by periodically jetting hot dry air at 120 psig through the screen into the suction nozzles.

  17. A Five-Leg Inverter for Driving a Traction Motor and a Compressor Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Hsu, John S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated inverter for speed control of a traction motor and a compressor motor to reduce the compressor drive cost in EV/HEV applications. The inverter comprises five phase-legs; three of which are for control of a three-phase traction motor and the remaining two for a two-phase compressor motor with three terminals. The common terminal of the two-phase motor is tied to the neutral point of the three-phase traction motor to eliminate the requirement of a third phase leg. Further cost savings are made possible by sharing the switching devices, dc bus filter capacitors, gate drive power supplies, and control circuit. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify that speed control of the two motors is independent from each other.

  18. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Gong; Beale, William T.

    1990-01-01

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand.

  19. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, G.; Beale, W.T.

    1990-04-03

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand. 6 figs.

  20. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  1. 100,000 hour design life of turbo compressor packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-20

    Many turbomachinery manufacturers and operators typically quote 100,000 hours as a design limit for service life of turbo compressor components. The Pipeline Research Committee initiated this study to review the life limiting criteria for certain critical components and determine if the design target of 100,000 hours can be safely and reliably met or extended with special component management practices. The first phase of the project was to select the turbomachinery components that would be included in the review. Committee members were surveyed with a detailed questionnaire designed to identify critical components based on: high hours (e.g. at or approaching 100,000 hours) the most common engine types operated by the member organizations, and the components of greatest concern from a risk and expense point of view. The selection made covers a wide range of engine types that are of interest to most of the committee companies. This selection represents some 78% of the high hour units operated by the committee and includes components from GE Frame 3 and Frame 5, Solar Saturn, Rolls Royce Avon, and Cooper RT56 engines. The report goes into detail regarding the various damage mechanism which can be the main life limiting factor of the component; creep, fatigue, environmental attack, wear and microstructure instability. For each of the component types selected, the study identifies the life limiting criteria and outlines how the components may be managed for extended life. Many of the selected components can be reliably operated beyond 100,000 hours by following the management practices set out in the report.

  2. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhne, Jens

    2014-01-29

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%{sup 1}. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  3. Test report for calibration grooming and alignment of the LDUA purge air supply (LDUA SYSTEM 5230)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J.D.

    1996-05-21

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. National Electric Code requirements mandate that the in-tank portions of the LDUA be maintained at a positive pressure for entrances into a flammable atmosphere. The LDUA Purge Air Supply System (PASS) uses small portable air compressors to provide a constant low flow of instrument grade air for this purpose. This document contains the results, conclusions and recommendations arrived at by the calibration grooming and alignment tests performed on the PASS in accordance with WHC-SD-WM-TC-070.

  4. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  5. air force

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    en NNSA, Air Force Complete Successful B61-12 Life Extension Program Development Flight Test at Tonopah Test Range http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleases...

  6. On the effect of pulsating flow on surge margin of small centrifugal compressors for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galindo, J.; Climent, H.; Guardiola, C.; Tiseira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Surge is becoming a limiting factor in the design of boosting systems of downsized diesel engines. Although standard compressor flowcharts are used for the selection of those machines for a given application, on-engine conditions widely differ from steady flow conditions, thus affecting compressor behaviour and consequently surge phenomenon. In this paper the effect of pulsating flow is investigated by means of a steady gas-stand that has been modified to produce engine-like pulsating flow. The effect of pressure pulses' amplitude and frequency on the compressor surge line location has been checked. Results show that pulsating flow in the 40-67 Hz range (corresponding to characteristic pulsation when boosting an internal combustion engine) increases surge margin. This increased margin is similar for all the tested frequencies but depends on pulsation amplitude. In a further step, a non-steady compressor model is used for modelling the tests, thus allowing a deeper analysis of the involved phenomena. Model results widely agree with experimental results. (author)

  7. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.

  8. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee

    2003-05-01

    This preliminary phase 1 report summarizes the background and the work on the ''Increased Flexibility of Turbo-Compressors in Natural Gas Transmission through Direct Surge Control'' project to date. The importance of centrifugal compressors for natural gas transmission is discussed, and the causes of surge and the consequences of current surge control approaches are explained. Previous technology development, including findings from early GMRC research, previous surge detection work, and selected publications, are presented. The project is divided into three Phases to accomplish the project objectives of verifying near surge sensing, developing a prototype surge control system (sensor and controller), and testing/demonstrating the benefits of direct surge control. Specification for the direct surge control sensor and controller developed with guidance from the industry Oversight Committee is presented in detail. Results of CFD modeling conducted to aid in interpreting the laboratory test results are shown and explained. An analysis of the system dynamics identified the data sampling and handling requirements for direct surge control. A detailed design process for surge detection probes has been developed and explained in this report and has been used to prepare drag probes for the laboratory compressor test and the first field test. The surge detection probes prepared for testing have been bench tested and flow tested to determine and calibrate their sensitivity to flow forces as shown in data presented in this report. The surge detection drag probes have been shown to perform as expected and as required to detect approaching surge. Laboratory test results of surge detection in the SwRI centrifugal compressor demonstrated functionality of the surge detection probes and a change in the impeller inlet flow pattern prior to surge. Although the recirculation cannot be detected because of the specific geometry of this compressor, there are changes that indicate the

  9. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  10. Effects of nonaxisymmetric tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, M.B.; Wong, T.S.; Greitzer, E.M.; Marble, F.E.; Tan, C.S.; Shin, H.W.; Wisler, D.C.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of circumferentially nonuniform tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability have been investigated experimentally and analytically. A theoretical model for compressor behavior with nonaxisymmetric tip clearance has been developed and used to design a series of first-of-a-kind experiments on a four-stage, low-speed compressor. The experiments and computational results together show clearly the central physical features and controlling parameters of compressor response to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance. It was found that the loss in stall margin was more severe than that estimated based on average clearance. The stall point was, in fact, closer to that obtained with uniform clearance at the maximum clearance level. The circumferential length scale of the tip clearance (and accompanying flow asymmetry) was an important factor in determining the stall margin reduction. For the same average clearance, the loss in peak pressure rise was 50 percent higher for an asymmetry with fundamental wavelength equal to the compressor circumference than with wavelength equal to one-half the circumference. The clearance asymmetry had much less of an effect on peak efficiency; the measured maximum efficiency decrease obtained was less than 0.4 percent compared to the 8 percent decrease in peak pressure rise due to the asymmetric clearance. The efficiency penalty due to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance was thus close to that obtained with a uniform clearance at the circumferentially averaged level. The theoretical model accurately captured the decreases in both steady-state pressure rise and stable operating range which are associated with clearance asymmetry.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  12. A modified post damping ring bunch compressor beamline for the TESLA linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippe R.-G. Piot; Winfried Decking

    2004-03-23

    We propose a modified bunch compressor beamline, downstream of the damping ring, for the TESLA linear collider. This modified beamline uses a third harmonic radio-frequency section based on the 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity under development at Fermilab. In our design the beam deceleration is about {approx}50 MeV instead of {approx}450 MeV in the original design proposed.

  13. Modeling for control of rotating stall in high-speed multistage axial compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feulner, M.R.; Hendricks, G.J.; Paduano, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional compressible flow representation of axial compressor dynamics, a control-theoretic input-output model is derived, which is of general utility in rotating stall/surge active control studies. The derivation presented here begins with a review of the fluid dynamic model, which is a two-dimensional stage stacking technique that accounts for blade row pressure rise, loss, and deviation as well as blade row and interblade row compressible flow. This model is extended to include the effects of the upstream and downstream geometry and boundary conditions, and then manipulated into a transfer function form that dynamically relates actuator motion to sensor measurements. Key relationships in this input-output form are then approximated using rational polynomials. Further manipulation yields an approximate model in standard form for studying active control of rotating stall and surge. As an example of high current relevance, the transfer function from an array of jet actuators to an array of static pressure sensors is derived. Numerical examples are also presented, including a demonstration of the importance of proper choice of sensor and actuator locations, as well as a comparison between sensor types. Under a variety of conditions, it was found that sensor locations near the front of the compressor or in the downstream gap are consistently the best choices, based on a quadratic optimization criterion and a specific three-stage compressor model. The modeling and evaluation procedures presented here are a first step toward a rigorous approach to the design of active control systems for high-speed axial compressors.

  14. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  15. The design, fabrication, operation and maintenance of (41) 400 H. P. -600 SCFM helium screw compressor systems (Five-year operation report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallaver, C.

    1988-12-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) uses thirty-four (34) identical compressor systems connected to a common header to supply clean high pressure helium gas feeding 26 refrigerators supplying liquid helium to 777 super conducting magnets. There are seven (7) similar compressor packages in other locations. The purpose of this paper is (after five years of operation) to present all the problems, modifications and experiences associated with the design and operation of these compressor systems.

  16. Controlling output pulse and prepulse in a resonant microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A.; Artemenko, S.; Chumerin, P.; Yushkov, Yu.

    2013-02-07

    A resonant microwave pulse compressor with a waveguide H-plane-tee-based energy extraction unit was studied in terms of its capability to produce output pulses that comprise a low-power long-duration (prepulse) and a high-power short-duration part. The application of such combined pulses with widely variable prepulse and high-power pulse power and energy ratios is of interest in the research area of electronic hardware vulnerability. The characteristics of output radiation pulses are controlled by the variation of the H-plane tee transition attenuation at the stage of microwave energy storage in the compressor cavity. Results of theoretical estimations of the parameters tuning range and experimental investigations of the prototype S-band compressor (1.5 MW, 12 ns output pulse; {approx}13.2 dB gain) are presented. The achievable maximum in the prepulse power is found to be about half the power of the primary microwave source. It has been shown that the energy of the prepulse becomes comparable with that of the short-duration (nanosecond) pulse, while the power of the latter decreases insignificantly. The possible range of variation of the prepulse power and energy can be as wide as 40 dB. In the experiments, the prepulse level control within the range of {approx}10 dB was demonstrated.

  17. Raytheon: Compressed Air System Upgrade Saves Energy and Improves Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01

    In 2003, Raytheon Company upgraded the efficiency of the compressed air system at its Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Massachusetts, to save energy and reduce costs. Worn compressors and dryers were replaced, a more sophisticated control strategy was installed, and an aggressive leak detection and repair effort was carried out. The total cost of these improvements was $342,000; however, National Grid, a utility service provider, contributed a $174,000 incentive payment. Total annual energy and maintenance cost savings are estimated at $141,500, and energy savings are nearly 1.6 million kWh. This case study was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program.

  18. Three-wheel air turbocompressor for PEM fuel cell systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehg, Tim; Gee, Mark; Emerson, Terence P.; Ferrall, Joe; Sokolov, Pavel

    2003-08-19

    A fuel cell system comprises a compressor and a fuel processor downstream of the compressor. A fuel cell stack is in communication with the fuel processor and compressor. A combustor is downstream of the fuel cell stack. First and second turbines are downstream of the fuel processor and in parallel flow communication with one another. A distribution valve is in communication with the first and second turbines. The first and second turbines are mechanically engaged to the compressor. A bypass valve is intermediate the compressor and the second turbine, with the bypass valve enabling a compressed gas from the compressor to bypass the fuel processor.

  19. Internally-cooled centrifugal compressor with cooling jacket formed in the diaphragm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James J.; Lerche, Andrew H.; Moreland, Brian S.

    2014-08-26

    An internally-cooled centrifugal compressor having a shaped casing and a diaphragm disposed within the shaped casing having a gas side and a coolant side so that heat from a gas flowing though the gas side is extracted via the coolant side. An impeller disposed within the diaphragm has a stage inlet on one side and a stage outlet for delivering a pressurized gas to a downstream connection. The coolant side of the diaphragm includes at least one passageway for directing a coolant in a substantially counter-flow direction from the flow of gas through the gas side.

  20. Active control of low frequency sound in a gas turbine compressor installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinbanks, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    During the last decade, the development of active attenuators has progressed from theoretical analysis, through laboratory experiments of increasing sophistication to the stage where their practical application to certain large scale industrial sources has finally become reality. This paper outlines some features which the author has investigated in the laboratory, and concludes with a description of the results achieved in applying these techniques to an 11 M.W. Avon Gas Turbine Compressor Installation. The active control hardware necessary to achieve these results represented a very considerable cost saving compared to the estimated cost of achieving similar performance by passive means.

  1. Tips: Air Conditioners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How to operate your air conditioner efficiently, or consider alternatives to air conditioning that can cool effectively in many climates.

  2. Maintaining System Air Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment.

  3. Self-consistent evolution of plasma discharge and electromagnetic fields in a microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A. S.; Beilin, L.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Hadas, Y.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-07-15

    Nanosecond-scale evolution of plasma and RF electromagnetic fields during the release of energy from a microwave pulse compressor with a plasma interference switch was investigated numerically using the code MAGIC. The plasma was simulated in the scope of the gas conductivity model in MAGIC. The compressor embodied an S-band cavity and H-plane waveguide tee with a shorted side arm filled with pressurized gas. In a simplified approach, the gas discharge was initiated by setting an external ionization rate in a layer crossing the side arm waveguide in the location of the electric field antinode. It was found that with increasing ionization rate, the microwave energy absorbed by the plasma in the first few nanoseconds increases, but the absorption for the whole duration of energy release, on the contrary, decreases. In a hybrid approach modeling laser ignition of the discharge, seed electrons were set around the electric field antinode. In this case, the plasma extends along the field forming a filament and the plasma density increases up to the level at which the electric field within the plasma decreases due to the skin effect. Then, the avalanche rate decreases but the density still rises until the microwave energy release begins and the electric field becomes insufficient to support the avalanche process. The extraction of the microwave pulse limits its own power by terminating the rise of the plasma density and filament length. For efficient extraction, a sufficiently long filament of dense plasma must have sufficient time to be formed.

  4. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  5. Viscous throughflow modeling of axial compressor bladerows using a tangential blade force hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallimore, S.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the modeling of axial compressor blade rows in an axisymmetric viscous throughflow method. The basic method, which has been reported previously, includes the effects of spanwise mixing, using a turbulent diffusion model, and endwall shear within the throughflow calculation. The blades are modeled using a combination of existing two-dimensional blade performance predictions for loss and deviation away from the annulus walls and a novel approach using tangential blade forces in the endwall regions. Relatively simple assumptions about the behavior of the tangential static pressure force imposed by the blades allow the secondary deviations produced by tip clearance flows and the boundary layer flows at fixed blade ends to be calculated in the axisymmetric model. Additional losses are assigned in these regions based on the calculated deviations. The resulting method gives realistic radial distributions of loss and deviation across the whole span at both design and off-design operating conditions, providing a quick method of estimating the magnitudes of these effects in the preliminary design process. Results from the method are compared to measured data in low and high-speed compressors and multistage three-dimensional viscous CFD predictions.

  6. Numerical simulation of the compressor coil of the plasma dynamic accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, P.

    1997-01-01

    The plasma dynamic accelerator accelerates a plasma to very high velocities in a coaxial accelerator and then compresses it in a compressor coil, achieving high densities. The axial component of the current distribution, extending from the tip of the coaxial accelerator`s center electrode to the coil turns, causes compressing forces, the radial component yields accelerating forces. The rapid change of the coil current induces azimuthal eddy currents in the plasma that interact with the coil`s magnetic field, again yielding Lorentz forces. Aerodynamic compression may also be an important effect. A new two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code is used to investigate which of these effects are really important for the compression. The code allows one to simulate all effects mentioned separately and in combination. In a first step only aerodynamic compression is considered. Then each electromagnetic effect is imposed on the system. Finally, a complete simulation of the compressor coil is performed. The analysis of the results provides new insights in the way the coil operates. This paper presents important aspects of the mathematical model and of the numerical implementation and reports results.

  7. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  8. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy at a Lehigh Southwest Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  9. Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the project's cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

  10. Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2001-03-01

    In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the projects cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

  11. Operating Experience Level 3, Laboratory Tests Indicate Conditions...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    provides new information on a potential performance issue associated with certain axial flow high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that do not contain separators in the...

  12. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  13. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    122011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring ...

  14. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G.

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  15. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  16. High-Power Plasma Switch for 11.4 GHz Microwave Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2010-03-04

    Results obtained in several experiments on active RF pulse compression at X-band using a magnicon as the high-power RF source are presented. In these experiments, microwave energy was stored in high-Q TE01 and TE02 modes of two parallel-fed resonators, and then discharged using switches activated with rapidly fired plasma discharge tubes. Designs and high-power tests of several versions of the compressor are described. In these experiments, coherent pulse superposition was demonstrated at a 5–9 MW level of incident power. The compressed pulses observed had powers of 50–70 MW and durations of 40–70 ns. Peak power gains were measured to be in the range of 7:1–11:1 with efficiency in the range of 50–63%.

  17. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  18. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  19. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  20. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  1. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  2. Clean Air Act

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state, local and tribal air programs in protecting and improving the nation’s air quality and stratospheric ozone layer by regulating emissions from mobile and stationary sources.

  3. Isokinetic air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, George A.

    1979-01-01

    An isokinetic air sampler includes a filter, a holder for the filter, an air pump for drawing air through the filter at a fixed, predetermined rate, an inlet assembly for the sampler having an inlet opening therein of a size such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained at a particular wind speed, a closure for the inlet opening and means for simultaneously opening the closure and turning on the air pump when the wind speed is such that isokinetic air sampling is obtained. A system incorporating a plurality of such samplers provided with air pumps set to draw air through the filter at the same fixed, predetermined rate and having different inlet opening sizes for use at different wind speeds is included within the ambit of the present invention as is a method of sampling air to measure airborne concentrations of particulate pollutants as a function of wind speed.

  4. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-03-01

    This report documents the third year's effort towards a 3-year program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. Two earlier phases of development precede this report. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) systems for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system for an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Installation efforts at Window Rock were completed towards the end of the budget period, which did not leave sufficient time to complete the durability testing. These efforts are ongoing, with funding provided by El Paso Pipeline Group, and the results will be documented in a report

  5. Simple Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Models for better air quality (SIM-air) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Simple Interactive Models (SIM-air) AgencyCompany Organization:...

  6. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW ÎĽs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  7. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  8. MHD compressor---expander conversion system integrated with GCR inside a deployable reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuninetti, G. . Research Div.); Botta, E.; Criscuolo, C.; Riscossa, P. . Nuclear Div.); Giammanco, F. . Dipt. di Fisica); Rosa-Clot, M. . Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-04-20

    This work originates from the proposal MHD Compressor-Expander Conversion System Integrated with a GCR Inside a Deployable Reflector''. The proposal concerned an innovative concept of nuclear, closed-cycle MHD converter for power generation on space-based systems in the multi-megawatt range. The basic element of this converter is the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) consisting of a gas core reactor directly coupled to an MHD expansion channel. Integrated with the PCU, a deployable reflector provides reactivity control. The working fluid could be either uranium hexafluoride or a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and helium, added to enhance the heat transfer properties. The original Statement of Work, which concerned the whole conversion system, was subsequently redirected and focused on the basic mechanisms of neutronics, reactivity control, ionization and electrical conductivity in the PCU. Furthermore, the study was required to be inherently generic such that the study was required to be inherently generic such that the analysis an results can be applied to various nuclear reactor and/or MHD channel designs''.

  9. Fluid handling device useful as a pump, compressor or rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.R.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes a fluid handling device having variable volume chambers for use as a pump, compressor or rotary engine which comprises: a. a first rotary shaft member supported by bearings and carrying variable volume chamber forming components having at least a pair of angularly disposed flat surfaces and a curvilinear shell portion, b. a second rotary shaft member supported by bearings and carrying variable volume chamber forming components having at least a pair of angularly disposed flat surfaces and a curvilinear shell portion, (1) the shaft members being disposed at an angle other than 180/sup 0/ to one another, c. a centrally disposed disk member forming a plurality of variable volume chambers with the flat surfaces of the variable volume chamber forming components, (1) the centrally disposed disk member carrying a curvilinear shell member engageable in sealing relationship with the curvilinear shell portions of each of the variable volume chamber forming components, (2) and the centrally disposed disk member being journalled within bearings carried by a pair of yoke members externally of the curvilinear shell member carried by the disk member and with one of the yoke members being displaced 90/sup 0/ with respect to the other yoke member, (3) one of the yoke members being attached to the first rotary shaft member and the other of the yoke members being attached to the second rotary shaft member.

  10. Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal’, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Stal’tsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ? = (2–3) × 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ? < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 15–17 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.