National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for axial-flow air compressor

  1. Rotating stall control of an axial flow compressor using pulsed air injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Andrea, R.; Behnken, R.L.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents the use of pulsed air injection to control rotating stall in a low-speed, axial flow compressor. In the first part of the paper, the injection of air is modeled as an unsteady shift of the compressor characteristic, and incorporated into a low dimensional model of the compressor. By observing the change in the bifurcation behavior of this model subject to nonlinear feedback, the viability of various air injection orientations is established. An orientation consistent with this analysis is then used for feedback control. By measuring the unsteady pressures near the rotor face, a control algorithm determines the magnitude and phase of the first mode of rotating stall and controls the injection of air in the front of the rotor face. Experimental results show that this technique eliminates the hysteresis loop normally associated with rotating stall. A parametric study is used to determine the optimal control parameters for suppression of stall. The resulting control strategy is also shown to suppress surge when a plenum is present. Using a high-fidelity model, the main features of the experimental results are duplicated via simulations.

  2. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

  3. Rotor whirl forces induced by the tip clearance effect in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrich, F. )

    1993-10-01

    It is now widely recognized that destabilizing forces, tending to generate forward rotor whirl, are generated in axial flow turbines as a result of the nonuniform torque induced by the nonuniform tip-clearance in a deflected rotor--the so called Thomas/Alford force. It is also recognized that there will be a similar effect in axial flow compressors, but qualitative considerations cannot definitively establish the magnitude or even the direction of the induced whirling forces--that is, if they will tend to forward or backward whirl. Applying a parallel compressor model to simulate the operation of a compressor rotor deflected radially in its clearance, it is possible to derive a quantitative estimate of the proportionality factor [beta] which relates the Thomas/Alford force in axial flow compressors (i.e., the tangential force generated by a radial deflection of the rotor) to the torque level in the compressor. The analysis makes use of experimental data from the GE Aircraft Engines Low Speed Research Compressor facility comparing the performance of three different axial flow compressors, each with four stages (typical of a mid-block of an aircraft gas turbine compressor) at two different clearances. It is found that the value of [beta] is in the range of +0.27 to [minus]0.71 in the vicinity of the stages' nominal operating line and +0.08 to [minus]1.25 in the vicinity of the stages' operation at peak efficiency. The value of [beta] reaches a level of between [minus]1.16 and [minus]3.36 as the compressor is operated near its stalled condition.

  4. Dynamic control of rotating stall in axial flow compressors using aeromechanical feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gysling, D.L.; Greitzer, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Dynamic control of rotating stall in an axial flow compressor has been implemented using aeromechanical feedback. The control strategy developed used an array of wall jets, upstream of a single-stage compressor, which were regulated by locally reacting reed valves. These reed valves responded to the small-amplitude flow-field pressure perturbations that precede rotating stall. The valve design was such that the combined system, compressor plus reed valve controller, was stable under operating conditions that had been unstable without feedback. A 10 percent decrease in the stalling flow coefficient was obtained using the control strategy, and the extension of stall flow range was achieved with no measurable change in the steady-state performance of the compression system. The experiments demonstrate the first use of aeromechanical feedback to extend the stable operating range of an axial flow compressor, and the first use of local feedback and dynamic compensation techniques to suppress rotating stall. The design of the experiment was based on a two-dimensional stall inception model, which incorporated the effect of the aeromechanical feedback. The physical mechanism for rotating stall in axial flow compressors was examined with focus on the role of dynamic feedback in stabilizing compression system instability. As predicted and experimentally demonstrated, the effectiveness of the aeromechanical control strategy depends on a set of nondimensional control parameters that determine the interaction of the control strategy and the rotating stall dynamics.

  5. Analysis of instability inception in high-speed multistage axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, G.J.; Sabnis, J.S.; Feulner, M.R.

    1997-10-01

    A nonlinear, two-dimensional, compressible dynamic model has been developed to study rotating stall/surge inception and development in high-speed, multistage, axial flow compressors. The flow dynamics are represented by the unsteady Euler equations, solved in each interblade row gap and inlet and exit ducts as two-dimensional domains, and in each blade passage as a one-dimensional domain. The resulting equations are solved on a computational grid. The boundary conditions between domains are represented by ideal turning coupled with empirical loss and deviation correlations. Results are presented comparing model simulations to instability inception data of an eleven stage, high-pressure-ratio compressor operating at both part and full power, and the results analyzed in the context of a linear modal analysis.

  6. Bifurcation analysis of surge and rotating stall in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abed, E.H. ); Houpt, P.K. . Corporate Research and Development Center); Hosny, W.M. . Engine Operability Div.)

    1993-10-01

    The surge and rotating stall post-instability behaviors of axial flow compressors are investigated from a bifurcation-theoretic perspective, using a model and system data presented by Greitzer (1976a). For this model, a sequence of local and global bifurcations of the nonlinear system dynamics is uncovered. This includes a global bifurcation of a pair of large-amplitude periodic solutions. Resulting from this bifurcation are a stable oscillation (surge) and an unstable oscillation (antisurge). The latter oscillation is found to have a deciding significance regarding the particular post-instability behavior experienced by the compressor. These results are used to reconstruct Greitzer's (1976b) findings regarding the manner in which post-instability behavior depends on system parameters. Although the model does not directly reflect non axisymmetric dynamics, use of a steady-state compressor characteristic approximating the measured characteristic of Greitzer (1976a) is found to result in conclusions that compare well with observation. Thus, the paper gives a convenient and simple explanation of the boundary between surge and rotating stall behaviors, without the use of more intricate models and analyses including non axisymmetric flow dynamics.

  7. Stage effects on stalling and recovery of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenhaver, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor test involving overall compressor and individual stage performance while stalling and operating in quasi-steady rotating stall are described. Test procedures and data-acquisition methods used to obtain the dynamic stalling and quasi-steady in-stall data are explained. Unstalled and in-stall time-averaged data obtained from the compressor operating at five different shaft speeds and one off-schedule variable vane condition are presented. Effects of compressor speed and variable geometry on overall compressor in-stall pressure rise and hysteresis extent are illustrated through the use of quasi-steady-stage temperature rise and pressure-rise characteristics. Results indicate that individual stage performance during overall compressor rotating stall operation varies considerably throughout the length of the compressor. The measured high-speed 10-stage test compressor individual stage pressure and temperature characteristics were input into a stage-by-stage dynamic compressor performance model. Comparison of the model results and measured pressures provided the additional validation necessary to demonstrate the model's ability to predict high-speed multistage compressor stalling and in-stall performance.

  8. Impact of unsteady flow processes on the performance of a high speed axial flow compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botros, Barbara Brenda

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the unsteady interactions between blade rows in a high Mach number, highly-loaded compressor stage. Two straight vane/rotor configurations with different axial spacing between vane and rotor are ...

  9. Development of a transonic front stage of an axial flow compressor for industrial gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, Y.; Ishii, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Yanagida, M. . Mechanical Engineering Research Lab.); Kashiwabara, Y. . Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the aerodynamic blade design of a highly loaded three-stage compressor, which is a model compressor for the front stage of an industrial gas turbine. Test results are presented that confirm design performance. Some surge and rotating stall measurement results are also discussed. The first stator blade in this test compressor operates in the high subsonic range at the inlet. To reduce the pressure loss due to blade surface shock waves, a shock-free airfoil is designed to replace the first stator blade in an NACA-65 airfoil in a three-stage compressor. Comparison of the performance of both blades shows that the shock-free airfoil blade reduces pressure loss. This paper also presents some experimental results for MCA (multicircular arc) airfoils, which are used for first rotor blades.

  10. Power Characteristics of Industrial Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, C.; Kissock, K.

    2003-01-01

    common types of compressor control for small reciprocating and rotary air compressors, and derive relations for estimating compressed air output as a function of the type of control and motor loading. Using these relations, we develop a method to estimate...

  11. Cycling Losses During Screw Air Compressor Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, J. B.; Wheeler, G.; Bushnell, D.

    1995-01-01

    Air compressors use 10-13 % of a typical industrial facilities' total electricity. Because they often operate at part load, their part load efficiency significantly affects plant energy cost. An intensive study of screw ...

  12. Master Control of Multiple Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    of air compressors in the most efficient manner for any air demand. This system can be further enhanced by the addition of a remote set point signal based on air-flow. This signal is calibrated to reduce the set-point during periods of low demand when...

  13. Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu

    2008-09-05

    During the past three years, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF) has led the effort to develop the new modeling approach. As part of this effort, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Southern California Edison (SCE), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Solutions tested 27 residential air-conditioning units to assess their response to delayed voltage recovery transients. After completing these tests, different modeling approaches were proposed, among them a performance modeling approach that proved to be one of the three favored for its simplicity and ability to recreate different SVR events satisfactorily. Funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC) under its load modeling project, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) led the follow-on task to analyze the motor testing data to derive the parameters needed to develop a performance models for the single-phase air-conditioning (SPAC) unit. To derive the performance model, PNNL researchers first used the motor voltage and frequency ramping test data to obtain the real (P) and reactive (Q) power versus voltage (V) and frequency (f) curves. Then, curve fitting was used to develop the P-V, Q-V, P-f, and Q-f relationships for motor running and stalling states. The resulting performance model ignores the dynamic response of the air-conditioning motor. Because the inertia of the air-conditioning motor is very small (H<0.05), the motor reaches from one steady state to another in a few cycles. So, the performance model is a fair representation of the motor behaviors in both running and stalling states.

  14. Effect of Intake Air on Compressor Performance; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Inspect the entry to the compressor air intake pipe and ensure that it is free of contaminants. * Inspect the...

  15. POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Chris Schmidt Graduate Assistant / Project of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT The power draw to energy input, which we call the average operating efficiency, based on input power to the compressor

  16. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, it could not be operated at air cooled condensing temperatures. (7) The two-stage impellers/diffusers worked well separately but combined did not match well.

  17. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  18. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-04-08

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  19. Reducing Air Compressor Work by Using Inlet Air Cooling and Dehumidification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Mark James

    2011-02-22

    both vapor compression and absorption cycle chillers to cool and dehumidify the inlet air. The results show that the performance increases as much as 8 percent for the compressor system with absorption inlet cooling and as much as 5 percent when using...

  20. Simulating Energy Efficient Control of Multiple-Compressor Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, S.

    2015-01-01

    with multiple compressors contain greater opportunity for controls optimization. The three main types of multiple- compressor control strategies which will be discussed in this paper are: pressure band control, network sequencer control, and automatic..., the basic principles and control algorithms are detailed for pressure band control, network sequencer control, and automatic sequencer control strategies for multiple-compressor compressed air systems. Finally, a case study is presented demonstrating...

  1. 241-U-701 new compressor building and instrument air piping analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.H.

    1994-08-25

    Building anchorage analysis is performed to qualify the design of the new compressor building foundation given in the ECN ``241-U-701 New Compressor Building.`` Recommendations for some changes in the ECN are made accordingly. Calculations show that the 6-in.-slab is capable of supporting the pipe supports, and that the building foundation, air compressor and dryer anchorage, and electric rack are adequate structurally. Analysis also shows that the instrument air piping and pipe supports for the compressed air system meet the applicable code requirements and are acceptable. The building is for the U-Farm instrument air systems.

  2. Using Outside Air for Flooded Oil Screw Compressors at an Industrial Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, D. G.; Terry, S.

    2014-01-01

    A study has been performed to determine if inlet air temperature provides an increase in compressor efficiency, seen through reduced power for some specified mass flow. A theoretical analysis suggests that power is not a function of volumetric flow...

  3. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  4. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 8th, Cincinnati, OH, June 14-19, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on air-breathing aircraft engine technology considers topics in inlet design, radial-flow turbomachinery, fuel injection and combustion systems, axial flow compressor design and performance, ramjet configurations, turbine flow phenomena, engine control and service life, fluid flow-related problems, engine diagnostic methods, propfan design, combustor performance and pollutant chemistry, combustion dynamics, and engine system analysis. Attention is given to thrust-vectoring systems, supersonic missile air intakes, three-dimensional centrifugal compressors, airblast atomizers, secondary flows in axial flow compressors, axial compressor blade tip clearance flows, hydrogen scramjets with sidewall injection, the performance of a variable-geometry turbine, advanced tip clearance control systems, rotary jet mixing, fan blade aeroelastic behavior, flow dynamics in combustion processes, and the technology of low cost turbomachinery.

  5. OPTIMAL CONTROL EXPERIMENTATION OF COMPRESSION TRAJECTORIES FOR A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    compressor is the critical part of a Compressed Air En- ergy Storage (CAES) system. Efficient and fast Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. In the proposed CAES system, high pressure (20-30MPa) compressed air is stored in a dual chamber storage vessel

  6. Abstract--For a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) approach to be viable, the air compressor/expander must be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Abstract-- For a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) approach to be viable, the air compressor (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine has been proposed in [1, 2] (Fig. 1). It uses the open Storage (CAES) System for Offshore Wind Turbine Although the heat transfer models above are reasonable

  7. Turbine inter-disk cavity cooling air compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, David Allen (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A combustion turbine may have a cooling circuit for directing a cooling medium through the combustion turbine to cool various components of the combustion turbine. This cooling circuit may include a compressor, a combustor shell and a component of the combustion turbine to be cooled. This component may be a rotating blade of the combustion turbine. A pressure changing mechanism is disposed in the combustion turbine between the component to be cooled and the combustor shell. The cooling medium preferably flows from the compressor to the combustor shell, through a cooler, the component to the cooled and the pressure changing mechanism. After flowing through the pressure changing mechanism, the cooling medium is returned to the combustor shell. The pressure changing mechanism preferably changes the pressure of the cooling medium from a pressure at which it is exhausted from the component to be cooled to approximately that of the combustor shell.

  8. NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    NOISE CONTROL METHODS FOR A RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR USED IN FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNIT What is Fuel Cell APU? Why use APU? To reduce overall noise levels in a fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) Main Components Foundation Power source Microphones Spectrum analyzer Stack of fuel cells

  9. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy in Industry, West Point, NY, July 19-22. 1 Modeling and Simulation of Air Compressor Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    of Air Compressor Energy Use Chris Schmidt, Energy & Resource Solutions, Inc. Kelly Kissock, Department compressor energy use to estimate energy savings in compressed air systems from air use reduction and other of this method to estimate energy savings from changing control modes and reducing air use is described

  10. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Axial Flow AG-1 FC and Prototype FM (High Strength) HEPA Filters - 13123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Wilson, John A.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)] [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are routinely used in DOE nuclear containment activities. The Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) stipulates that air cleaning devices and equipment used in DOE nuclear applications must meet the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) standard. This testing activity evaluates two different axial flow HEPA filters, those from AG-1 Sections FC and FM. Section FM is under development and has not yet been added to AG-1 due to a lack of qualification data available for these filters. Section FC filters are axial flow units that utilize a fibrous glass filtering medium. The section FM filters utilize a similar fibrous glass medium, but also have scrim backing. The scrim-backed filters have demonstrated the ability to endure pressure impulses capable of completely destroying FC filters. The testing activities presented herein will examine the total lifetime loading for both FC and FM filters under ambient conditions and at elevated conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Results will include loading curves, penetration curves, and testing condition parameters. These testing activities have been developed through collaborations with representatives from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), New Mexico State University, and Mississippi State University. (authors)

  12. Effects of Large Energetic Vortices on Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines B. Gunawan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Effects of Large Energetic Vortices on Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines B. Gunawan1 , V.S. Neary1 C production in a model MHK turbine. Results show that the power generated by the turbine is significantly at the centerline of the energy extraction plane, or axial-flow turbine hub elevation, provide high resolution

  13. Performance characteristics of a low pressure cyclone for axial-flow fan exhausts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Shay Lynn

    1996-01-01

    on axial-flow fan exhausts to significantly reduce particulate emissions. Average emission concentrations, cut-point diameters, PMIO emission concentrations, and fractional efficiencies from this cyclone operating at different cyclone inlet velocities...

  14. 2014-03-12 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Air Compressors; Notice of Public Meeting and Extension of Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting and extension of public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for commercial and industrial air compressors, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 12, 2014.

  15. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  16. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    - sor/expander is the key element in a Compressed Air Energy Stor- age (CAES) approach. Efficiency can Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  17. Iterative Optimal and Adaptive Control of a Near Isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    /expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the one in the Com- pressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [2], [5]. In the proposed CAES system, high pressure (20-30MPa) compressed air is stored

  18. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elpern, David G. (Los Angeles, CA); McCabe, Niall (Torrance, CA); Gee, Mark (South Pasadena, CA)

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  19. Demonstration of Natural Gas Engine Driven Air Compressor Technology at Department of Defense Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, M.; Aylor, S. W.; Van Ormer, H.

    2002-01-01

    . In an effort to reduce its over-all environmental impact and energy consumption, the U.S. Army plans to apply NGEDAC technology in support of fixed facilities compressed air systems. Site assessment and demonstration results are presented in this paper....

  20. Towards development of an incipient surge detection device for centrifugal compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassinger, David Alan

    1978-01-01

    the centrifugal compressor does have a higher pressure ratio, the axial flow compressor has a The citations on the following pages follow the style of t. h ASME Jo 1 f E~ f po Surge Line / ( I I I I / / / / / / / ncreasin m 0 0 e '4 C4 8 0 D...TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF AN INCIPIENT SURGE DETECTION DEVICE FOR CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS A Thesis DAVID ALAN HASSINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  1. Centrifugal Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-02-06

    The article discusses small high speed centrifugal compressors. This topic was covered in a previous ASHRAE Journal column (2003). This article reviews another configuration which has become an established product. The operation, energy savings and market potential of this offering are addressed as well.

  2. An analytical model of axial compressor off-design performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camp, T.R.; Horlock, J.H. . Whittle Lab.)

    1994-07-01

    An analysis is presented of the off-design performance of multistage axial-flow compressors. It is based on an analytical solution, valid for small perturbations in operating conditions from the design point, and provides an insight into the effects of choices made during the compressor design process on performance and off-design stage matching. It is shown that the mean design value of stage loading coefficient ([psi] = [Delta]h[sub 0]/U[sup 2]) has a dominant effect on off-design performance, whereas the stage-wise distribution of stage loading coefficient and the design value of flow coefficient have little influence. The powerful effects of variable stator vanes on stage-matching are also demonstrated and these results are shown to agree well with previous work. The slope of the working line of a gas turbine engine, overlaid on overall compressor characteristics, is shown to have a strong effect on the off-design stage-matching through the compressor. The model is also used to analyze design changes to the compressor geometry and to show how errors in estimates of annulus blockage, decided during the design process, have less effect on compressor performance than has previously been thought.

  3. Supersonic compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2008-02-26

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having an axially oriented compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which forms a supersonic shockwave axially, between adjacent strakes. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the gas compression ramp on a strake, the shock capture lip on the adjacent strake, and captures the resultant pressure within the stationary external housing while providing a diffuser downstream of the compression ramp.

  4. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R. (Wading River, NY); Salzano, Francis J. (Patchogue, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  5. Evaluation of behaviour and survival of fish exposed to an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Stephen; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Cada, Glenn F; Giza, Daniel; Jacobsen, Paul; McMahon, Brian; Pracheil, Brenda M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated fish injury and mortality at hydrokinetic (HK) turbines, but because these studies focused on the impacts of these turbines in situ they were unable to evaluate fish responses to controlled environmental characteristics (e.g., current velocity and light or dark conditions). In this study, we used juvenile hybrid Striped Bass (HSB; Striped Bass Morone saxatilis White Bass M. chrysops; N D 620), Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (N D 3,719), and White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (N D 294) in a series of laboratory experiments to (1) evaluate the ability of fish to avoid entrainment through an axial-flow HKmore »turbine, (2) evaluate fish injury and survival associated with turbine entrainment, and (3) compare the effects of different HK turbines on fish. We found that the probability of turbine entrainment was species dependent and highest for HSB. Across species, current velocity influenced entrainment probability. Among entrained fish, observed survival rates were generally >0.95. The probability of injury for surviving entrained fish only differed from that for nonentrained fish for Rainbow Trout and in general was not >0.20. The probability of injury following entrainment was greater only for HSB, although there were no differences in injury rates between fish that were turbine entrained and those that were not, suggesting that injuries were not turbine related. Taking turbine entrainment, survival, and injury estimates together allowed us to estimate the probability of a randomly selected fish in a population proximate to an HK turbine surviving passage or remaining uninjured after passage. For species and current velocities for which there was a significant effect due to entrainment, we estimated, for instance, that HSB had a survival probability of 0.95 and that Rainbow Trout and White Sturgeon had a >0.99 probability of survival. Similarly, by combining these estimates with those from previous studies, we derived total passage survival probabilities >0.90 but generally approaching 1.00 across different HK turbine types, fish species, and fish lengths.« less

  6. Evaluation of behavior and survival of fish exposed to an axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Stephen V.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; ?ada, Glenn F.; Giza, Daniel J.; Jacobson, Paul T.; McMahon, Brian J.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2015-02-06

    Previous studies have evaluated fish injury and mortality at hydrokinetic (HK) turbines, but because these studies focused on the impacts of these turbines in situ they were unable to evaluate fish responses to controlled environmental characteristics (e.g., current velocity and light or dark conditions). In this study, we used juvenile hybrid Striped Bass (HSB; Striped Bass Morone saxatilis White Bass M. chrysops; N D 620), Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (N D 3,719), and White Sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus (N D 294) in a series of laboratory experiments to (1) evaluate the ability of fish to avoid entrainment through an axial-flow HKmore »turbine, (2) evaluate fish injury and survival associated with turbine entrainment, and (3) compare the effects of different HK turbines on fish. We found that the probability of turbine entrainment was species dependent and highest for HSB. Across species, current velocity influenced entrainment probability. Among entrained fish, observed survival rates were generally >0.95. The probability of injury for surviving entrained fish only differed from that for nonentrained fish for Rainbow Trout and in general was not >0.20. The probability of injury following entrainment was greater only for HSB, although there were no differences in injury rates between fish that were turbine entrained and those that were not, suggesting that injuries were not turbine related. Taking turbine entrainment, survival, and injury estimates together allowed us to estimate the probability of a randomly selected fish in a population proximate to an HK turbine surviving passage or remaining uninjured after passage. For species and current velocities for which there was a significant effect due to entrainment, we estimated, for instance, that HSB had a survival probability of 0.95 and that Rainbow Trout and White Sturgeon had a >0.99 probability of survival. By combining these estimates with those from previous studies, we derived total passage survival probabilities >0.90 but generally approaching 1.00 across different HK turbine types, fish species, and fish lengths.« less

  7. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  8. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  9. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    2003-01-01

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  10. Exit blade geometry and part-load performance of small axial flow propeller turbines: An experimental investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz

    2010-09-15

    A detailed experimental investigation of the effects of exit blade geometry on the part-load performance of low-head, axial flow propeller turbines is presented. Even as these turbines find important applications in small-scale energy generation using micro-hydro, the relationship between the layout of blade profile, geometry and turbine performance continues to be poorly characterized. The experimental results presented here help understand the relationship between exit tip angle, discharge through the turbine, shaft power, and efficiency. The modification was implemented on two different propeller runners and it was found that the power and efficiency gains from decreasing the exit tip angle could be explained by a theoretical model presented here based on classical theory of turbomachines. In particular, the focus is on the behaviour of internal parameters like the runner loss coefficient, relative flow angle at exit, mean axial flow velocity and net tangential flow velocity. The study concluded that the effects of exit tip modification were significant. The introspective discussion on the theoretical model's limitation and test facility suggests wider and continued experimentation pertaining to the internal parameters like inlet vortex profile and exit swirl profile. It also recommends thorough validation of the model and its improvement so that it can be made capable for accurate characterization of blade geometric effects. (author)

  11. Compressed Air System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  12. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  13. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  14. Compressed Air Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receivers/tanks for load/no-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers (up to 200 CFM capacity), no-loss...

  15. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2007-11-13

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  16. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA)

    2012-04-10

    A supersonic gas compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated on a rotor journaled in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. The convergent inlet is adjacent to a bleed air collector, and during acceleration of the rotor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via a collector to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is eliminated.

  17. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  18. Energy Savings for Centrifugal Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Current design improvements of both the rotating and stationary aerodynamic components of centrifugal compressors can greatly increase the efficiency of vintage machines. A centrifugal compressor built in the 1970's or 1980's might have an external...

  19. Standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (4614 River Mill Ct., Glen Allen, VA 23060)

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  20. Compressor surge counter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castleberry, Kimberly N. (Harriman, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  1. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  2. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  3. An analysis of axial compressor fouling and a blade cleaning method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarabrin, A.P.; Schurovsky, V.A.; Bodrov, A.I.; Stalder, J.P.

    1998-04-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of axial compressor fouling due to aerosols contained in the air. Key parameters having effect on the level of fouling are determined. A mathematical model of a progressive compressor fouling using the stage-by-stage calculation method is developed. Calculation results on the influence of fouling on the compressor performance are presented. A new index of sensitivity of axial compressors to fouling is suggested. The paper gives information about Turbotect`s deposit cleaning method of compressor blading and the results of its application on an operating industrial gas turbine. Regular on-line and off-line washings of the compressor flow path made it possible to maintain a high level of engine efficiency and output.

  4. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC)...

  5. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Robert W. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  6. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  7. Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant; Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    air for your plant by periodically monitoring the compressor oper- ating hours and load duty cycle. * Use a systems approach while operating and maintaining a compressed air...

  8. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  9. Semi-active compressor valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brun, Klaus (Helotes, TX); Gernentz, Ryan S. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-07-27

    A method and system for fine-tuning the motion of suction or discharge valves associated with cylinders of a reciprocating gas compressor, such as the large compressors used for natural gas transmission. The valve's primary driving force is conventional, but the valve also uses an electromagnetic coil to sense position of the plate (or other plugging element) and to provide an opposing force prior to impact.

  10. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  11. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 1: A model for subsonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. In the first part of this paper two proved and well-established profile loss correlations for subsonic flows are extended to quasi-two-dimensional conditions and to custom-tailored blade designs. Instead of a deviation angle correlation, a simple method based on singularities is utilized. The comparison between the new model and a recently published model demonstrates the improved accuracy in prediction of cascade performance achieved by the new model.

  12. Improved blade profile loss and deviation angle models for advanced transonic compressor bladings. Part 2: A model for supersonic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, W.M.; Hennecke, D.K.; Fottner, L.

    1996-01-01

    New blading concepts as used in modern transonic axial-flow compressors require improved loss and deviation angle correlations. The new model presented in this paper incorporates several elements and treats blade-row flows having subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions separately. The second part of the present report focuses on the extension of a well-known correlation for cascade losses at supersonic inlet flows. It was originally established for DCA bladings and is now modified to reflect the flow situation in blade rows having low-cambered, arbitrarily designed blades including precompression blades. Finally, the steady loss increase from subsonic to supersonic inlet-flow velocities demonstrates the matched performance of the different correlations of the new model.

  13. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  14. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  15. Economics of Electric Compressors for Gas Transmission 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Hibbs, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Three new factors are coming together to motivate gas pipeline firms to consider electric motors for replacement of older reciprocating gas engines for compressor systems, and for new compressor installations. These factors are environmental...

  16. Unique compressor passes field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Revolutionary pipeline compression concept has proved successful at a Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line facility in Alabama. In April 1992, the MOPICO electric drive compressor completed 5,000 hours of successful operation at Transcontinental Gas Pipeline's Station 100 at Billingsley, Ala. The revolutionary gas pipeline compression concept eliminates many of the traditional complexities of a pipeline compressor station and has benefits not possible with conventional compressor systems. This paper reports that this is accomplished through the integration of technologies developed over the past 10 years into a design concept unique in the industry. Ross Hill Controls Inc., Houston, provides the adjustable-speed variable frequency drive unit that allows the electric motor to operate at speeds from 6,2000 rpm to 10,000 rpm. Transco Energy Ventures, a division of Transco Energy, participated in the development and assisted in placing the prototype unit on the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline system.

  17. Multiple volume compressor for hot gas engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotts, Robert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A multiple volume compressor for use in a hot gas (Stirling) engine having a plurality of different volume chambers arranged to pump down the engine when decreased power is called for and return the working gas to a storage tank or reservoir. A valve actuated bypass loop is placed over each chamber which can be opened to return gas discharged from the chamber back to the inlet thereto. By selectively actuating the bypass valves, a number of different compressor capacities can be attained without changing compressor speed whereby the capacity of the compressor can be matched to the power available from the engine which is used to drive the compressor.

  18. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  19. Student Code Number: Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    Student Code Number: Thermodynamics Ph.D. Qualifying Exam Department of Mechanical Engineering;Thermodynamics Qualifier January 2013 Problem 1 Air is compressed in an axial-flow compressor operating at steady of exergy destruction within the compressor, in kJ per kg of air flowing. #12;Thermodynamics Qualifier

  20. A Study to Determine the Energy Impact of Adding Polarshield to Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    PolarShield is a polarized refrigerant compressor oil additive containing the a-olefin molecule which is a commonly used oil additive to reduce high pressure viscosity breakdown. The manufacturers of this air conditioner compressor oil additive (COA...

  1. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  2. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  3. Digital Dynamic Range Compressor Design--A Tutorial and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiss, Josh

    PAPERS Digital Dynamic Range Compressor Design-- A Tutorial and Analysis DIMITRIOS GIANNOULIS formal knowledge and analysis of compressor design techniques. In this tutorial we describe several become audio engineers' favorites for certain types of signal. The analysis of compressor designs

  4. Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compressor-Based Cooling Guide to Minimizing Compressor-Based Cooling Guide describes best practices for reducing energy use and total cost of ownership for data center cooling...

  5. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications...

  6. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  7. HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HELIUM COMPRESSOR MONITORING SYSTEM Donna Kubik Arecibo Observatory #12;1 CONTENTS 1. Design goals for Phaseloss Detection Lambda +15V Power Supply Distribution Remote Control of 120VC to Compressor Monitoring System Fiber and Network Connections #12;3 1. Design goals Helium refrigerators cool the cryogenically

  8. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  9. Probabilistic Aerothermal Design of Compressor Airfoils Victor E. Garzon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    and operating condition uncertainty on axial compressor performance. High-fidelity models of geometric-line multi-stage axial compressor model was used to estimate the impact of geometric variability on overall compressor performance. Probabilistic loss and turning models were exercised on a six-stage compressor model

  10. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

  11. Development of a Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McTaggart, Paul

    2004-12-31

    In this program TIAX LLC conducted the development of an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The overall objective of this program was to develop a hybrid compressor/expander module, based on both scroll and high-speed turbomachinery technologies, which will combine the strengths of each technology to create a concept with superior performance at minimal size and cost. The resulting system was expected to have efficiency and pressure delivery capability comparable to that of a scroll-only machine, at significantly reduced system size and weight when compared to scroll-only designs. Based on the results of detailed designs and analyses of the critical system elements, the Hybrid Compressor/Expander Module concept was projected to deliver significant improvements in weight, volume and manufacturing cost relative to previous generation systems.

  12. Robust design and tolerancing of compressor blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dow, Eric Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the geometry of compressor blades can be introduced by variability in the manufacturing process or by in-service erosion. Recent research efforts have focused on characterizing the impacts of this geometric ...

  13. Method and apparatus for starting supersonic compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P

    2013-08-06

    A supersonic gas compressor with bleed gas collectors, and a method of starting the compressor. The compressor includes aerodynamic duct(s) situated for rotary movement in a casing. The aerodynamic duct(s) generate a plurality of oblique shock waves for efficiently compressing a gas at supersonic conditions. A convergent inlet is provided adjacent to a bleed gas collector, and during startup of the compressor, bypass gas is removed from the convergent inlet via the bleed gas collector, to enable supersonic shock stabilization. Once the oblique shocks are stabilized at a selected inlet relative Mach number and pressure ratio, the bleed of bypass gas from the convergent inlet via the bypass gas collectors is effectively eliminated.

  14. Probabilistic analysis of meanline compressor rotor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Nathan Andrew, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses variability in aerodynamic performance of a compressor rotor due to geometric variation. The performance of the rotor is computed using a meanline model that includes the effect of tip clearance ...

  15. Probabilistic aerothermal design of compressor airfoils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garzón, Víctor E., 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Despite the generally accepted notion that geometric variability is undesirable in turbomachinery airfoils, little is known in detail about its impact on aerothermal compressor performance. In this work, statistical and ...

  16. A methodology for centrifugal compressor stability prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benneke, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The stable operation of centrifugal compressors is limited by well-known phenomena, rotating stall and surge. Although the manifestation of the full scale instabilities is similar to the ones observed in axial machines, ...

  17. Improved return passages for multistage centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass, Benjamin W., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a design concept for return passages in multistage centrifugal compressors. Flow in a baseline return passage is analyzed to identify loss sources that have substantial potential for reduction. For the ...

  18. Hydrogen pipeline compressors annual progress report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.

    2011-07-15

    The objectives are: (1) develop advanced materials and coatings for hydrogen pipeline compressors; (2) achieve greater reliability, greater efficiency, and lower capital in vestment and maintenance costs in hydrogen pipeline compressors; and (3) research existing and novel hydrogen compression technologies that can improve reliability, eliminate contamination, and reduce cost. Compressors are critical components used in the production and delivery of hydrogen. Current reciprocating compressors used for pipeline delivery of hydrogen are costly, are subject to excessive wear, have poor reliability, and often require the use of lubricants that can contaminate the hydrogen (used in fuel cells). Duplicate compressors may be required to assure availability. The primary objective of this project is to identify, and develop as required, advanced materials and coatings that can achieve the friction, wear, and reliability requirements for dynamically loaded components (seal and bearings) in high-temperature, high-pressure hydrogen environments prototypical of pipeline and forecourt compressor systems. The DOE Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop identified critical needs in the development of advanced hydrogen compressors - notably, the need to minimize moving parts and to address wear through new designs (centrifugal, linear, guided rotor, and electrochemical) and improved compressor materials. The DOE is supporting several compressor design studies on hydrogen pipeline compression specifically addressing oil-free designs that demonstrate compression in the 0-500 psig to 800-1200 psig range with significant improvements in efficiency, contamination, and reliability/durability. One of the designs by Mohawk Innovative Technologies Inc. (MiTi{reg_sign}) involves using oil-free foil bearings and seals in a centrifual compressor, and MiTi{reg_sign} identified the development of bearings, seals, and oil-free tribological coatings as crucial to the successful development of an advanced compressor. MiTi{reg_sign} and ANL have developed potential coatings for these rigorous applications; however, the performance of these coatings (as well as the nickel-alloy substrates) in high-temperature, high-speed hydrogen environments is unknown at this point.

  19. Pressurized solid oxide fuel cell integral air accumular containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Basel, Richard A.

    2004-02-10

    A fuel cell generator apparatus contains at least one fuel cell subassembly module in a module housing, where the housing is surrounded by a pressure vessel such that there is an air accumulator space, where the apparatus is associated with an air compressor of a turbine/generator/air compressor system, where pressurized air from the compressor passes into the space and occupies the space and then flows to the fuel cells in the subassembly module, where the air accumulation space provides an accumulator to control any unreacted fuel gas that might flow from the module.

  20. RELAP5-3D Compressor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Fisher; Cliff B. Davis; Walter L. Weaver

    2005-06-01

    A compressor model has been implemented in the RELAP5-3D© code. The model is similar to that of the existing pump model, and performs the same function on a gas as the pump performs on a single-phase or two-phase fluid. The compressor component consists of an inlet junction and a control volume, and optionally, an outlet junction. This feature permits cascading compressor components in series. The equations describing the physics of the compressor are derived from first principles. These equations are used to obtain the head, the torque, and the energy dissipation. Compressor performance is specified using a map, specific to the design of the machine, in terms of the ratio of outlet-to-inlet total (or stagnation) pressure and adiabatic efficiency as functions of rotational velocity and flow rate. The input quantities are specified in terms of dimensionless variables, which are corrected to stagnation density and stagnation sound speed. A small correction was formulated for the input of efficiency to account for the error introduced by assumption of constant density when integrating the momentum equation. Comparison of the results of steady-state operation of the compressor model to those of the MIT design calculation showed excellent agreement for both pressure ratio and power.

  1. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  2. International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, 9th, Athens, Greece, Sept. 3-8, 1989, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billig, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the National Aerospace Plane Program, highly loaded axial flow compressors, Swedish philosophy in aeroengine development, the active control of engine instabilities, and turbulent free shear layer mixing and combustion. Consideration is also given to direct and hybrid solutions of three-dimensional flow in axial radial turbomachines using the mean stream surface method, the numerical simulation of turbomachinery flows with a simple ONERA model of viscous effects, and the combustion characteristics of a boron-fueled SFRJ with aft burner. Other topics include studies on the influence of Mach number on profile losses of a reaction turbine cascade, flow in compressor interstage ducts, and full-scale liquid fuel ramjet combustor tests.

  3. Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE Xergy Ships First Breakthrough Water Heater Compressor to GE September 15, 2015 - 3:41pm Addthis Xergy Inc. and GE...

  4. Impact of geometric variability on compressor repeating-stage performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Antoine, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    The impact of geometric variability on compressor performance is investigated using a compressor repeating-stage model based on well-known correlations for profile losses, endwall blockage, deviation, and the onset of ...

  5. Aerodynamic performance measurements in a counter-rotating aspirated compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onnée, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental investigation of the aerodynamic performances of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor. This compressor is implemented in a blow-down facility, which gives rigorous simulation of the ...

  6. Development of a body force model for centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kottapalli, Anjaney Pramod

    2013-01-01

    This project is focused on modeling the internal ow in centrifugal compressors for the purpose of assessing the onset of rotating stall and surge. The current methods to determine centrifugal compressor stability limits ...

  7. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  8. Active surge control of centrifugal compressors using drive torque

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Active surge control of centrifugal compressors using drive torque Jan Tommy Gravdahl , Olav control is presented. A centrifugal compressor driven by an electrical motor is studied, and the drive of centrifugal com- pressors, which occurs when the operating point of the compressor is located to the left

  9. Internal combustion engine with compound air compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, M.A.; Paul, A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine in combination with a compound air compression system. It comprises: a reciprocator with at least one cylinder, at least one piston reciprocal in the cylinder and a combustion chamber formed in substantial part by portions of the piston and cylinder, the reciprocator having a drive shaft; a rotary compressor having a drive shaft mechanically coupled to the drive shaft of the reciprocator, the rotary compressor having a Wankel-type, three-lobe, epitrochiodal configuration sides having a conduit conjected to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air to the reciprocator; a turbocharged with a gas turbine and a turbocompressor, the turbocompressor having an air conduit connected to the expander side of the rotary compressor; and a bypass conduit with a valve means connecting the turbocharger to the reciprocator for supplying compressed air directly to the reciprocator wherein the drive shaft of the reciprocator and the drive shaft of the compressor have connecting means for transmitting mechanical energy to the reciprocator at mid to high operating speeds of the engine when the turbocharge supplies compressed air to the rotary compressor and, at least in part, drives the rotary compressor.

  10. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  11. Viscous throughflow modeling for multistage compressor design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, M.A.; Gallimore, S.J. )

    1993-04-01

    An existing throughflow method for axial compressors, which accounts for the effects of spanwise mixing using a turbulent diffusion model, has been extended to include the viscous shear force on the endwall. The use of a shear force, consistent with a no-slip condition, on the annulus walls in the throughflow calculations allows realistic predictions of the velocity and flow angle profiles near the endwalls. The annulus wall boundary layers are therefore incorporated directly into the throughflow prediction. This eliminates the need for empirical blockage factors or independent annulus boundary layer calculations. The axisymmetric prediction can be further refined by specifying realistic spanwise variations of loss coefficient and deviation to model the three-dimensional endwall effects. The resulting throughflow calculation gives realistic predictions of flow properties across the whole span of a compressor. This is confirmed by comparison with measured data from both low and high-speed multistage machines. The viscous throughflow method has been incorporated into an axial compressor design system. The method predicts the meridional velocity defects in the endwall region and consequently blading can be designed that allows for the increased incidence, and low dynamic head, near the annulus walls.

  12. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  13. IEMDC - In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley

    2004-03-31

    This report covers the fifth quarter (01/01/04 to 03/31/04) of the In-Line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC) project. Design efforts on the IEMDC continued with compressor efforts focused on performing aerodynamic analyses. These analyses were conducted using computational fluid dynamics. Compressor efforts also entailed developing mechanical designs of components through the use of solid models and working on project deliverables. Electric motor efforts focused on the design of the magnetic bearing system, motor pressure housing, and the motor-compressor interface. The mechanical evaluation of the main interface from both the perspective of the compressor manufacturer and electric motor manufacturer indicates that an acceptable design has been achieved. All mechanical and aerodynamic design efforts have resulted in considerable progress being made towards the completion of the compressor and electric motor design and towards the successful completion of the IEMDC unit.

  14. New Compressor Concept Improves Efficiency and Operation Range

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced turbocharger compressor design with active casing treatment and advanced mixed flow turbine design provided improved performance and efficiency over the base turbocharger

  15. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  16. The unstable behavior of low and high-speed compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, I.J. . Whittle Lab.); Freeman, C. )

    1994-04-01

    By far the greater part of the understanding about stall and surge in axial compressors comes from work on low-speed laboratory machines. As a general rule, these machines do not model the compressibility effects present in high-speed compressors and therefore doubt has always existed about the application of low-speed results to high-speed machines. In recent years interest in active control has led to a number of studies of compressor stability in engine-type compressors. The instrumentation used in these experiments has been sufficiently detailed that, for the first time, adequate data are available to make direct comparisons between high-speed and low-speed compressors. This paper presents new data from an eight-stage fixed geometry engine compressor and compares then with low-speed laboratory data. The results show remarkable similarities in both the stalling and surging behavior of the two machines, particularly when the engine compressor is run at intermediate speeds. The engine results also show that, as in the laboratory tests, surge is precipitated by the onset of rotating stall. This is true even at very high speeds where it had previously been thought that surge might be the result of a blast wave moving through the compressor. This paper therefore contains new information about high-speed compressors and confirms that low-speed testing is an effective means of obtaining insight into the behavior of high-speed machines.

  17. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System AHRIAdvocate Ex Parte Memo 2.5.15 Meeting U.S. Department of Energy's Motor Challenge Program: A National Strategy for Energy Efficient Industrial Motor-Driven...

  18. Unwinding the Spin on Variable Speed Drive Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C. E.

    2006-01-01

    – The Elimination of Moisture” 9 Industries Audited Aircraft Fasteners Aluminum Cans Aluminum Can Lids Automotive Batteries Automotive Dashboards Automotive Door Panels Automotive Frames Automotive Seating Automotive Tires Bottle Blowing... of expertise or experience in the industry. n clients have asked us to review these “free When clients have asked us to review these “free audit” reports we generally find that the salesperson has misinterpreted the data, the proposals are incomplete...

  19. Metering Air Compressor Systems for Efficiency: A Progress Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2005-01-01

    was termed CASE Index, which varies from 0 to about 320, and has the units of SCF/KWH. The procedure we developed, involved metering of input (KWH) and output (SCFM), in and out of the central plant. After the initial beta testing of the procedure, as more...

  20. Energy Efficiency in Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hingorani, A.; Pavlov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy use in compressed air systems accounts for typically 10% of the total industrial electricity consumption. It also accounts for close to 99% of the CO2 footprint of an air compressor and approximately 80% of the life cycle costs of a...

  1. FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR-FIRED, COMPRESSOR-ASSISTED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR-FIRED, COMPRESSOR-ASSISTED ABSORPTION CHILLERS Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) FEASIBILITY OF SOLAR FIRED, COMPRESSOR ASSISTED ABSORPTION CHILLERS EISG AWARDEE Bergquam.csus.edu Principal Investigator: James Bergquam AUTHOR EISG Program Administrator Grant #: 99-15 Grant Funding: $75

  2. Introducing Back-up to Active Compressor Surge Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    to compressor blades and bearings. Most industrial compressors are equipped with a surge avoidance system by recycling flow from downstream to upstream when the operating point reach a surge control line Jager This work was supported Siemens Oil and Gas Solutions Offshore through the Siemens

  3. Modeling and Control of Surge and Rotating Stall in Compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Modeling and Control of Surge and Rotating Stall in Compressors Dr.ing. thesis Jan Tommy Gravdahl varying disturbances in mass ow and pressure. A novel model for an axial compression system with non-constant compressor speed is derived by extending the Moore-Greitzer model. Rotating stall and surge is studied

  4. Small core axial compressors for high efficiency jet aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiOrio, Austin Graf

    2012-01-01

    This thesis quantifies mechanisms that limit efficiency in small core axial compressors, defined here as compressor exit corrected flow between 1.5 and 3.0 lbm/s. The first part of the thesis describes why a small engine ...

  5. Padding with Compressed Air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01

    , while the plant air pressure drops 9 psi to 79 psi. Four psi of the pressure drop is due to compressor setpoints, while the remaining fall in pressure is due to the increased airflow through the cleanup equipment and piping. Figure 3... pressure variations. Figure 3, depicts the proper application of dedicated storage with metered recovery. In this arrangement, the metering valve paces the airflow into the dedicated storage and prevents pressure variations from having Tanks Chemical...

  6. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-410A Alternatives R-32, DR-5, and L-41a

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Mahderekal, Isaac [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-02-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares performance of alternative refrigerants R32, DR-5, and L-41A to that of refrigerant R-410A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for air-conditioning and heat pump applications. Compressor calorimeter tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the lower-GWP alternative refrigerants in place of the common refrigerant R-410A in a 36,000 Btu/hr compressor calorimeter using a compressor having a nominal rated capacity of 21,300 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of 10 F to 55 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. The tests showed that performance of these three lower-GWP alternative refrigerants is comparable to that of R-410A. For the 20 F superheat and 15 F subcooling test conditions, EERs of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 90% to 99%, 96% to 99%, and 94% to 101%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A. Similarly, cooling capacities of R32, DR-5, and L-41A were 98% to 103%, 92% to 96%, and 84% to 92%, respectively, compared to that of R-410A.

  7. Drive actuation in active control of centrifugal compressors Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav Egeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Pipeline compressor map for natural gas (=1.3) System trajectory Throttle line Surge line Compressor map does not cross this line. Usually a recycle valve around the compressor is used as actuation. A simulation of active surge control on a industrial size nat- ural gas pipeline compressor using drive torque

  8. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success.

  9. Pressure field study of the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebaner, A.L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2003-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40 and 95 krpm, with a speed of 80 krpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  10. Compressed Air System Analysis and Retrofit for Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, C.; Nutter, D.

    2014-01-01

    . Therefore, high quality compressed air is a key component of that objective. The compressed air used in the manufacturing process at this facility is held to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) class 2 air quality standards.... The compressor room contained two wet storage tanks, with a total capacity of 1,800 gallons. A heated desiccant dryer with associated filters was also located in the compressor room. Dry air was sent into the plant to a 2,000 gallon dry storage tank, which...

  11. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.

    2015-09-08

    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  12. Simultaneous Robust Design and Tolerancing of Compressor Blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qiqi

    The manufacturing processes used to create compressor blades inevitably introduce geometric variability to the blade surface. In addition to increasing the performance variability, it has been observed that introducing ...

  13. Characterization of unsteady flow processes in a centrifugal compressor stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Arthur)

    2006-01-01

    Numerical experiments have been implemented to characterize the unsteady loading on the rotating impeller blades in a modem centrifugal compressor. These consist of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes simulations of ...

  14. Forced response predictions in modern centrifugal compressor design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smythe, Caitlin J. (Caitlin Jeanne)

    2005-01-01

    A computational interrogation of the time-averaged and time-unsteady flow fields of two centrifugal compressors of nearly identical design (the enhanced, which encountered aeromechanical difficulty, and production, which ...

  15. Return channel loss reduction in multi-stage centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubry, Anne-Raphaëlle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents concepts for improving the performance of return channels in multi-stage centrifugal compressors. Geometries have been developed to reduce both separation and viscous losses. A number of different ...

  16. Multi-parameter control for centrifugal compressor performance optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannai, Sébastien (Sébastien Karim)

    2014-01-01

    The potential performance benefit of actuating inlet guide vane (IGV) angle, variable diffuser vane (VDV) angle and impeller speed to implement a multi-parameter control on a centrifugal compressor system is assessed. The ...

  17. New Twin Screw Compressor Design by Deviation Function Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Chih-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Gear Geometry," Transaction of ASME: Journal of Mechanical Design,Gear Pump," Trans. ASME Journal of Mechanisms, and Transmissions, and Automation in Design,design is an oil-free compressor and is driven by a pair of timing gears.

  18. Energy conversion using thermal transpiration : optimization of a Knudsen compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Toby A. (Toby Anna)

    2012-01-01

    Knudsen compressors are devices without any moving parts that use the nanoscale phenomenon of thermal transpiration to pump or compress a gas. Thermal transpiration takes place when a gas is in contact with a solid boundary ...

  19. Active control of tip clearance flow in axial compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jinwoo W

    2001-01-01

    Control of compressor tip clearance flows is explored in a linear cascade using three types of fluidic actuators; Normal Synthetic Jet (NSJ; unsteady jet normal to the mean flow with zero net mass flux), Directed Synthetic ...

  20. Non-intrusive fault detection in reciprocating compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schantz, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a set of techniques for non-intrusive sensing and fault detection in reciprocating compressors driven by induction motors. The procedures developed here are "non-intrusive" because they rely only on ...

  1. Development Of A Centrifugal Hydrogen Pipeline Gas Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Bella, Francis A.

    2015-04-16

    Concepts NREC (CN) has completed a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project to analyze, design, and fabricate a pipeline capacity hydrogen compressor. The pipeline compressor is a critical component in the DOE strategy to provide sufficient quantities of hydrogen to support the expected shift in transportation fuels from liquid and natural gas to hydrogen. The hydrogen would be generated by renewable energy (solar, wind, and perhaps even tidal or ocean), and would be electrolyzed from water. The hydrogen would then be transported to the population centers in the U.S., where fuel-cell vehicles are expected to become popular and necessary to relieve dependency on fossil fuels. The specifications for the required pipeline hydrogen compressor indicates a need for a small package that is efficient, less costly, and more reliable than what is available in the form of a multi-cylinder, reciprocating (positive displacement) compressor for compressing hydrogen in the gas industry.

  2. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  3. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P. J. (Hayward, CA)

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  4. Development of Inexpensive Turbo Compressor/Expanders for Industrial Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacox, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    designed, coordinated and partially performed by NUCON. The turbocharger consists of a radial inflow turbine and a centrifugal compressor mounted on a common shaft supported on oil lubricated floating bushing type journal bearings. The axial thrust.... The TCE performance was not as serious a problem, except to achieve both high and matched efficiency for the expander AND compressor when operated in the reverse mode. Locating a cost effective mass produced TCE was the most difficult of the three...

  5. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  6. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Air-conditioning Component Models Using Limited Sensor Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Natarajkumar

    2011-08-08

    This thesis presents an approach for identifying critical model parameters in dynamic air-conditioning systems using limited sensor information. The expansion valve model and the compressor model parameters play a crucial ...

  7. Compressed Air System Project Improves Production at a Candy Making Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-03-01

    The H.B. Reese Company successfully completed an upgrade of this compressed air system at its facility in Hershey, PA. The plant took two compressors offline while increasing throughput and quality.

  8. Want Some Money Back from your Compressed Air System? Check Out These Top 10 Areas to Look 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ormer, H.

    2004-01-01

    calculate the most effective and efficient answer: • Use a separate air compressor and system to supply dedicated air to the process • Use a booster compressor or hydraulic booster to supply high-pressure air. See Fig. 6 • Use storage... of blow off air to the process and generate a savings of a 15 cfm compressed air per ¼-inch blow off. Vacuum Generators / Air Operated BACKGROUND In order to create a vacuum, some kind of air pump or vacuum pump is required to evacuate the volume...

  9. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL); Horazak, Dennis A. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  10. Advanced Controls for Industrial Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vold, P.; Gabel, S.; Carmichael, L.; Curtner, K.; Cirillo, N. C. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    at a Goulds Pumps manufacturing plant in Seneca Falls, New York, and is currently undergoing field testing. The compressed air system will optimize the energy efficiency of the 7 compressor system (1,850hp) at Goulds, while reducing system pressure...

  11. Development of an Electrochemical Separator and Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent Molter

    2011-04-28

    Global conversion to sustainable energy is likely to result in a hydrogen-based economy that supports U.S. energy security objectives while simultaneously avoiding harmful carbon emissions. A key hurdle to successful implementation of a hydrogen economy is the low-cost generation, storage, and distribution of hydrogen. One of the most difficult requirements of this transformation is achieving economical, high density hydrogen storage in passenger vehicles. Transportation applications may require compression and storage of high purity hydrogen up to 12,000 psi. Hydrogen production choices range from centralized low-pressure generation of relatively impure gas in large quantities from steam-methane reformer plants to distributed generation of hydrogen under moderate pressure using water electrolysis. The Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator + Compressor (EHS+C) technology separates hydrogen from impurities and then compresses it to high pressure without any moving parts. The Phase I effort resulted in the construction and demonstration of a laboratory-scale hardware that can separate and compress hydrogen from reformate streams. The completion of Phase I has demonstrated at the laboratory scale the efficient separation and compression of hydrogen in a cost effective manner. This was achieved by optimizing the design of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) cell hardware and verified by parametric testing in single cell hardware. A broad range of commercial applications exist for reclamation of hydrogen. One use this technology would be in combination with commercial fuel cells resulting in a source of clean power, heat, and compressed hydrogen. Other applications include the reclamation of hydrogen from power plants and other industrial equipment where it is used for cooling, recovery of process hydrogen from heat treating processes, and semiconductor fabrication lines. Hydrogen can also be recovered from reformate streams and cryogenic boil-offs using this technology.

  12. Design and operation of a counter-rotating aspirated compressor blowdown test facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, David V. (David Vickery)

    2005-01-01

    A unique counter-rotating aspirated compressor was tested in a blowdown facility at the Gas Turbine Laboratory at MIT. The facility expanded on experience from previous blowdown turbine and blowdown compressor experiments. ...

  13. Application of a design optimization strategy to multi-stage compressor matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bert, Jérôme

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge in the design of multi-stage compressors is the matching of stages to enable stable operation over a large range of mass flows and operating conditions. Particularly in turbofan low-pressure compressors, ...

  14. Optimal dimensionless design and analysis of jet ejectors as compressors and thrust augmenters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Ganesh

    2006-08-16

    A jet ejector may be used as a compressor or to enhance thrust of watercraft or aircraft. Optimization of jet ejectors as compressors and thrust augmenters was conducted using the software GAMBIT (Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tool for geometry...

  15. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  16. The State of the Industrial Compressor Market 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, W.

    1998-01-01

    , they must feel that there is a substantial profit potential. As outsourcing begins, utility companies will look for the lowest hanging fruit. Very large, very poorly nul compressed air systems will be targeted first. In these types of systems...

  17. Investigation of Non-synchronous Vibration Mechanism for a High Speed Axial Compressor Using Delayed DES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Gecheng

    Investigation of Non-synchronous Vibration Mechanism for a High Speed Axial Compressor Using compressor. DDES is a hybrid model for turbulence simulation, which uses RANS model within the wall boundary a torsion moment causing NSV. 1 Introduction Non-synchronous vibration of axial fan/compressor is a non

  18. A Moore-Greitzer axial compressor model with spool Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav Egeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    A Moore-Greitzer axial compressor model with spool dynamics. Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav Egeland applies to centrifugal compressors. It seems that the modeling and control of an axial com- pression) Table 1: Development in compressor stall/surge- control. A=Axial, C=Centrifugal, M=Modeling, C

  19. High Speed Compressors P.B. Bailey, M. W. Dadd, C. R. Stone.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the compressor. The `Oxford' type clearance seal/flexure bearing compressors are typically operated close to the main piston. Use of such a gas spring has some disadvantages: there is a second piston of small compact cryocooler compressors. INTRODUCTION The "Oxford" type of flexure bearing/clearance seal

  20. Test results on a supercharged compressor for commercial refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Wilhelm, W.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objective was to quantify the technical benefits of using refrigerant R-502 in a supercharged reciprocating compressor for commercial refrigeration applications. The supercharged compressor concept used a special heat exchanger that subcools the major portion of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser. This subcooling is achieved by flashing the remaining portion of the condensed liquid through an expansion valve, thereby cooling it, and using it to absorb heat from the rest of the refrigerant. This supercharged stream is then fed to the cylinders through ports in the cylinder walls that are uncovered when the piston reaches bottom dead center.

  1. High-current, low-energy synchrotrons and compressor rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kustom, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    The primary application of high-current, low-energy synchrotrons and linac compressor rings is as proton drivers for pulsed-spallation neutron sources. They operate in the range of 500 to 1500 MeV with extracted beam repetition rates between 12 to 100 Hz. The time-averaged currents on target are a few tens of microamperes today, soon will be a few thousand in the future. The characteristics for the accelerators and compressor rings, their limitations, and existing and proposed major facilities are described. 22 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  2. Measurement and computation of heat transfer in high-pressure compressor drum geometries with axial throughflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.A.; Morse, A.P.; Tucker, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper makes comparisons between CFD computations and experimental measurements of heat transfer for the axial throughflow of cooling air in a high-pressure compressor spool rig and a plane cavity rig. The heat transfer measurements are produced using fluxmeters and by the conduction solution method from surface temperature measurements. Numerical predictions are made by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in a full three-dimensional, time-dependent form using the finite-volume method. Convergence is accelerated using a multigrid algorithm and turbulence modeled using a simple mixing length formulation. Notwithstanding systematic differences between the measurements and the computations, the level of agreement can be regarded as promising in view of the acknowledged uncertainties in the experimental data, the limitations of the turbulence model and, perhaps more importantly, the modest grid densities used for the computations.

  3. Compressor Selection and Equipment Sizing for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In order to limit heating capacity degradation at -25 C (-13 F) ambient to 25%, compared to the nominal rating point capacity at 8.3 C (47 F), an extensive array of design and sizing options were investigated, based on fundamental equipment system modeling and building energy simulation. Sixteen equipment design options were evaluated in one commercial building and one residential building, respectively in seven cities. The energy simulation results were compared to three baseline cases: 100% electric resistance heating, a 9.6 HSPF single-speed heat pump unit, and 90% AFUE gas heating system. The general recommendation is that variable-speed compressors and tandem compressors, sized such that their rated heating capacity at a low speed matching the building design cooling load, are able to achieve the capacity goal at low ambient temperatures by over-speeding, for example, a home with a 3.0 ton design cooling load, a tandem heat pump could meet this cooling load running a single compressor, while running both compressors to meet heating load at low ambient temperatures in a cold climate. Energy savings and electric resistance heat reductions vary with building types, energy codes and climate zones. Oversizing a heat pump can result in larger energy saving in a less energy efficient building and colder regions due to reducing electric resistance heating. However, in a more energy-efficient building or for buildings in warmer climates, one has to consider balance between reduction of resistance heat and addition of cyclic loss.

  4. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

  5. Speed and surge control for a low order centrifugal compressor model Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav Egeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    a model for axial compressor mass ow and pressure rise was presented. In 13] it was shown that the modelSpeed and surge control for a low order centrifugal compressor model Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav of the compressor. First a low order centrifugal compressor model is presented where the states are mass ow

  6. 83-9E9-TOPIC-P3 Unrestricted DOMslon ManagerHIGH-EFFICIENCY DUAL-STROKE COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    , two-capacity,.three cylinder, reciprocating piston, hermetic compressor for the advanced electric heat-pump

  7. IEMDC -IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2004-01-01

    Dresser-Rand completed the preliminary aerodynamic flowpath of the volute and inlet design for the compressor section. This has resulted in considerable progress being made on the development of the compressor section and ultimately towards the successful integration of the IEMDC System design. Significant effort was put forth in the design of aerodynamic components which resulted in a design that meets the limits of aerodynamically induced radial forces previously established. Substantial effort has begun on the mechanical design of the compressor pressure containing case and other internal components. These efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. All efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design. During the third quarter reporting period, the focus was to further refine the motor design and to ensure that the IEMDC rotor system supported on magnetic bearing is in compliance with the critical speed and vibration requirements of the API standards 617 and 541. Consequently specification to design magnetic bearings was developed and an RFQ to three magnetic bearing suppliers was issued. Considerable work was also performed to complete preliminary reports on some of the deliverable tasks under phase 1.0. These include specification for the VFD, RFQ for the magnetic bearings, and preliminary write-up for motor instrumentation and control schematic. In order to estimate motor efficiency at various operating points, plots of calculated motor losses, and motor cooling gas flow rates were also prepared. Preliminary evaluations of motor support concepts were performed via FEA to determine modal frequencies. Presentation was made at DOE Morgantown on August 12, 2003 to provide project status update. Preparations for the IEMDC motor-compressor presentation, at the GMRC conference in Salt Lake City to be held on October 5, 2003, were also started. Detailed calculations of cooling gas flow requirements for the motor and magnetic bearings, per several new operating points designated by DR, confirmed that the required gas flow was within the compressor design guidelines. Previous thrust load calculations had confirmed that the magnetic thrust bearing design load capacity of 6,000 lb. was sufficient to handle the net thrust load produced by the motor and compressor pressure loading. Thus the design data that has been generated, for the variable speed 10 MW 12,000 rpm motor, during the last three quarters, continue to confirm the feasibility of an efficient and robust motor design.

  8. Resource Allocation with Unknown Constraints: An Extremum Seeking Control Approach and Applications to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas

    2014-01-01

    model-free optimization problem [11] and has been applied to the wind energy conversion system [12], axial-flow compressor [

  9. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenquist, Gregory; Chan, Peter; Lekov, Alex; McMahon, James; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy ConservationW.R. Coleman. 1990. “Heat Pump Life and Compressor LongevityC.C.. 1990. “Predicting Future Heat Pump Production Volume

  10. IEMDC IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal

    2004-10-01

    This report contains the final project summary and deliverables required by the award for the development of an In-line Electric Motor Driven Compressor (IEMDC). Extensive work was undertaken during the course of the project to develop the motor and the compressor section of the IEMDC unit. Multiple design iterations were performed to design an electric motor for operation in a natural gas environment and to successfully integrate the motor with a compressor. During the project execution, many challenges were successfully overcome in order to achieve the project goals and to maintain the system design integrity. Some of the challenges included limiting the magnitude of the compressor aerodynamic loading for appropriate sizing of the magnetic bearings, achieving a compact motor rotor size to meet the rotor dynamic requirements of API standards, devising a motor cooling scheme using high pressure natural gas, minimizing the impact of cooling on system efficiency, and balancing the system thrust loads for the magnetic thrust bearing. Design methods that were used on the project included validated state-of-the-art techniques such as finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics along with the combined expertise of both Curtiss-Wright Electro-Mechanical Corporation and Dresser-Rand Company. One of the most significant areas of work undertaken on the project was the development of the unit configuration for the system. Determining the configuration of the unit was a significant step in achieving integration of the electric motor into a totally enclosed compression system. Product review of the IEMDC unit configuration was performed during the course of the development process; this led to an alternate design configuration. The alternate configuration is a modular design with the electric motor and compressor section each being primarily contained in its own pressure containing case. This new concept resolved the previous conflict between the aerodynamic flow passage requirements and electric motor requirements for support and utilities by bounding the flowpath within the compressor section. However most importantly, the benefits delivered by the new design remained the same as those proposed by the goals of the project. In addition, this alternate configuration resulted in the achievement of a few additional advantages over the original concept such as easier maintenance, operation, and installation. Interaction and feedback solicited from target clients regarding the unit configuration supports the fact that the design addresses industry issues regarding accessibility, maintainability, preferred operating practice, and increased reliability.

  11. Linear Gain for the Microbunching Instability in an RF Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2009-05-01

    Velocity (or rf) compression has been suggested as a technique for bunch compression complementary to the more established technique involving magnetic chicanes and represents an important research item being investigated at the SPARC test facility. One of the aspects of this technique still not sufficiently understood is its possible impact on the microbunching instability. The purpose of this report is to present the analytical framework for investigating this instability in rf compressors. We use methods similar to those successfully applied to magnetic compressors and derive some integral equations yielding the gain for the instability in linear approximation. The focus here is on the derivation of the relevant equations. Although examples of solutions to these equations are provided we defer a more comprehensive discussion of their implication to a future report. The present study is part of a larger effort for a more comprehensive investigation that eventually will include macroparticle simulations and experiments.

  12. IEMDC-IN-LINE ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVEN COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Crowley; Prem N. Bansal; John E. Tessaro

    2003-06-01

    During this reporting period, significant progress has been made towards the development of the IEMDC System design. Considerable effort was put forth by Curtiss-Wright EMD in the resolution of the technical issue of aerodynamically induced radial forces. This has provided a design basis with which to establish the radial magnetic bearing load capacity and the rotordynamic design. Dresser-Rand has made considerable progress on the flowpath design for the compressor section particularly on the volute and inlet aerodynamic design. All efforts show progression towards the successful integration of a centrifugal compressor and variable speed electric motor ventilated by the process gas. These efforts continue to confirm the feasibility of the IEMDC system design.

  13. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  14. RF modulation studies on the S band pulse compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, G; Pei, S; Xiao, O

    2015-01-01

    An S band SLED-type pulse compressor has been manufactured by IHEP to challenge the 100 MW maximum input power, which means the output peak power is about 500 MW at the phase reversal time. In order to deal with the RF breakdown problem, the dual side-wall coupling irises model was used. To further improve the reliability at very high power, amplitude modulation and phase modulation with flat-top output were taken into account. The RF modulation studies on an S-band SLED are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a method is developed by using the CST Microwave Studio transient solver to simulate the time response of the pulse compressor, which can be a verification of the modulate theory. In addition, the experimental setup was constructed and the flat-top output is obtained in the low power tests.

  15. RF modulation studies on the S band pulse compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Shu; F. Zhao; S. Pei; O. Xiao

    2015-05-28

    An S band SLED-type pulse compressor has been manufactured by IHEP to challenge the 100 MW maximum input power, which means the output peak power is about 500 MW at the phase reversal time. In order to deal with the RF breakdown problem, the dual side-wall coupling irises model was used. To further improve the reliability at very high power, amplitude modulation and phase modulation with flat-top output were taken into account. The RF modulation studies on an S-band SLED are presented in this paper. Furthermore, a method is developed by using the CST Microwave Studio transient solver to simulate the time response of the pulse compressor, which can be a verification of the modulate theory. In addition, the experimental setup was constructed and the flat-top output is obtained in the low power tests.

  16. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.] [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  17. Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

  18. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  19. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    hand, is not affected by such problem. No special mist separator is required and, at the same time, the wet or saturated vapor compression is possible, and does not affect the efficiency of the SSHP. (3) Stability of performance for a wide... COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam...

  20. A new endwall model for axial compressor throughflow calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham, J.

    1995-10-01

    It is well recognized that the endwall regions of a compressor--in which the annulus wall flow interacts with the mainstream flow--have a major influence on its efficiency and surge margin. Despite many attempts over the years to predict the very complex flow patterns in the endwall regions, current compressor design methods still rely largely on empirical estimates of the aerodynamic losses and flow angle deviations in these regions. This paper describes a new phenomenological model of the key endwall flow phenomena treated in a circumferentially averaged way. It starts from Hirsch and de Ruyck`s annulus wall boundary layer approach, but makes some important changes. The secondary vorticities arising from passage secondary flows and from tip clearance flows are calculated. Then the radial interchanges of momentum, energy, and entropy arising from both diffusion and convection are estimated. The model is incorporated into a streamline curvature program. The empirical blade force defect terms in the boundary layers are selected from cascade data. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated by comparing the predictions with experimental results on both low-speed and high-speed multistage compressors. It is found that the radial variation of flow parameters is quite well predicted, and so is the overall performance, except when significant endwall stall occurs.

  1. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  2. ESTIMATING ENERGY SAVINGS IN COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    energy savings must be calculated in order to justify the cost of implementing the savings opportunity. It is important to calculate projected energy and cost savings as accurately as possible. Unfortunately, savings is presented for modeling air compressor performance and calculating projected energy savings from easily

  3. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    and fault diagnosis of vapor-compression equipment." HVAC&R Research 15.3 (2009): 597-616. (12) N, Lu et al., ?Air Conditioner Compressor Performance Model,? Pac. NW Nat. Lib., Richland, WA, Rep. PNNL-17796, 2008. (13) A. Maier, ?Troubleshooting Thermal...

  4. Rotor dynamic analysis of GCEP (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant) Tails Withdrawal Test Facility AC-12 compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.W.

    1982-01-22

    The reliable operation of the centrifugal compressors utilized in the gaseous diffusion process is of great importance due to the critical function of these machines in product and tails withdrawal, cascade purge and evacuation processes, the purge cascade and product booster applications. The same compressors will be used in equally important applications within the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). In response to concern over the excessive vibration exhibited by the AC-12 compressor in the No. 3 position of the GCEP Tails Withdrawal Test Facility, a rotor-bearing dynamic analysis was performed on the compressor. This analysis included the acquisition and reduction of compressor vibration data, characterization and modeling of the rotorbearing system, a computer dynamic study, and recommendations for machine modification. The compressor dynamic analysis was performed for rotor speeds of 9000 rpm and 7200 to 7800 rpm, which includes all possible opreating speeds of the compressor in the GCEP Test Facility. While the analysis was performed on this particular AC-12 compressor, the results should be pertinent to other AC-12 applications as well. Similar diagnostic and analytical techniques can be used to evaluate operation of other types of centrifugal compressors.

  5. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A HIGH PRESSURE COMBINED AIR/FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Chao Yong Eric J. Barth.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu ABSTRACT A high pressure combined air-fuel injection system is designed and tested for an experimental free the compressor's reservoir, and high pressure fuel to mix and then inject into a combustion chamber. This paper

  6. Background review on compressors for gas engine-driven heat pumps. Technical report, September 1985-March 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.L.; Swain, J.C.

    1986-04-01

    The investigation focused on the efficiency and durability of various types of open-shaft compressors for potential application to residential and light commercial gas-engine-driven heat-pump applications. Variable speed efficiency data for hermetic, semihermetic, and open shaft compressors were obtained from the public literature and from compressor manufacturers in the US, Japan, and in Europe. Efficiency comparisons based upon refrigerants R12 and R22 at a fixed compressor pressure ratio indicate that reciprocating compressors have the highest coefficients of performance (COP's) for compressor speeds ranging from 1000 to 2500 rpm. Scroll and Wankel compressors appear to offer the highest COP's above 2500 rpm. An important finding of the work is that open shaft compressors with proven life and reliability for residential gas engine heat-pump applications do not appear to be available as production units.

  7. Three-dimensional flow visualization in a centrifugal compressor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevillion, William Lee

    1976-01-01

    of this boundary layer problem should enable designers to design compressors with higher efficiencies and larger surge-to-stall margins. Wiesner Stodola Busemann Eck 0. 9 B 0 m 0. 8 pfleiderer Senoo a Nakase ~ ~ 0. 7 ~ Experimental results 0. 6 0... increase during its flow through the impeller. The outer diameter of the rotor, D , was designed to be 7. 00 inches with an exit blade height, b2, of 0. 50 inches. The hub and blades were machined from aluminum and polished to aid observation...

  8. Passivity based compressor surge control using a close-coupled valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Passivity based compressor surge control using a close-coupled valve Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav-coupled valve. The analysis shows that the system has certain passivity properties which leads to a simple controller for the close- coupled valve. 1 Introduction If the ow through a compressor is throttled

  9. Design of a Free Piston Pneumatic Compressor as a Mobile Robot Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    technology is intended to provide a compact pneumatic power supply source appropriate for human-scale robotsDesign of a Free Piston Pneumatic Compressor as a Mobile Robot Power Supply Jose A. Riofrio.j.barth@vanderbilt.edu Abstract ­ The design of a free piston compressor (FPC) intended as a pneumatic power supply

  10. 1275, Page 1 ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A TURBIVO COMPRESSOR FOR MVR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dryers is the use of a compressor with high efficiency in an open cycle and at high evaporating development issue. Typical clothe dryers consume 750 Wh/kg of dry clothes. Dryers with thermodynamic cycle can-stage configuration for high flow rate and high compression power (> 100 kW) [2]. Volumetric compressors are divided

  11. High Fidelity Modeling of Blade Row Interaction in a Transonic Compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    High Fidelity Modeling of Blade Row Interaction in a Transonic Compressor Michael G. List on the compressor. Three dierent axial spacings between the rotor and the upstream blade row have been simulated of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 45221 In order to accurately model the physics associated with losses

  12. A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    A Model of Compressor Blade Row Interaction with Shock Induced Vortex Shedding Mark G. Turner". The mid and far spacings represent typical axial gaps found in operational fans and compressors. However behind a stator are modeled. The model is based on a Burger vortex core model for shed vortices

  13. Performance Testing of Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Helium Screw Compressors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-08-10

    Oil injected screw compressors have essentially superseded all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, reliability, minimal vibration, and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression. At the present state of compressor system designs for helium refrigeration systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. It is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design the compression system to match the refrigeration process. It is also important to identify those primary compressor skid exergetic loss mechanisms which maymore »be reduced, thereby offering the possibility of significantly reducing the input power to helium refrigeration processes which are extremely energy intensive. This paper summarizes the results collected during the commissioning of the new compressor system for Jefferson Lab's (JLab's) 12 GeV upgrade. The compressor skid packages were designed by JLab and built to print by industry. They incorporate a number of modifications not typical of helium screw compressor packages and most importantly allow a very wide range of operation so that JLab's patented Floating Pressure Process can be fully utilized. This paper also summarizes key features of the skid design that allow this process and facilitate the maintenance and reliability of these helium compressor systems.« less

  14. Testing and modeling of compressors for low-lift cooling applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willingham, Ryan Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, an inverter-driven variable speed scroll compressor is tested on a de-superheater test stand to determine its performance in areas of low-lift and low compressor speed. The goal is to adapt this test stand ...

  15. Bunch Compressor for the TESLA Linear Collider W. Decking, G. Hoffstaetter, T. Limberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    Bunch Compressor for the TESLA Linear Collider W. Decking, G. Hoffstaetter, T. Limberg DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22603 Hamburg, Germany September 2000 Abstract TESLA-2000-40 (2000) We discuss different bunch compression systems for the TESLA collider. The best alternative is a wiggler type compressor, where we list

  16. 2009-32-0176/20097176 Miniature HCCI Free-Piston Engine Compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durfee, William K.

    -cycle combustion is used. Free-piston engine compressor Accumulator Rotary actuator #12;SETC2009 ComparedSETC2009 2009-32-0176/20097176 Miniature HCCI Free-Piston Engine Compressor For Orthosis Application Lei Tian, David B. Kittelson, William K. Durfee Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota

  17. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 567 Centrifugal Compressor Surge and Speed Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 1999 567 Centrifugal of the compressor. First a low-order centrifugal compressor model is presented where the states are mass flow] showed that it is also applicable to centrifugal compressors. The model has two states, normalized mass

  19. Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane) and R407C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Performance analysis of a series of hermetic reciprocating compressors working with R290 (propane with propane as refrigerant are analyzed in terms of the compressor model developed by [E. Navarro, E. Granryd. In addition, a comparison study between propane and R407C was carried out for one compressor and the observed

  20. The use of neural nets for matching compressors with diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.A. II; Filipi, Z.S.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A technique which uses trained neural nets to model the compressor in the context of a turbocharged diesel engine simulation is introduced. This technique replaces the usual interpolation of compressor maps with the evaluation of a smooth mathematical function, thus providing engine simulations with greater robustness and flexibility. Following presentation of the methodology, the proposed neural net technique is validated against data from a truck type, 6-cylinder, 14 liter diesel engine. Furthermore, with the introduction of an additional parameter, the proposed neural net can be trained to simulate an entire family of compressors. As a demonstration, five compressors of different sizes are represented with the neural net model, and used for matching calculations with intercooled and non-intercooled engine configurations at different speeds. This novel approach readily allows for evaluation of various options prior to prototype production, and is thus a powerful design tool for selection of the best compressor for a given diesel engine system.

  1. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN); Castleberry, Kim N. (Harriman, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value.

  2. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  3. Ali Akturk1 e-mail: akturkali@gmail.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    the breakdown of the tip leakage vortex in a low speed axial flow compressor. Reducing the tip leakage mass flow rate, in general, improves the aerodynamic performance of axial flow fans and compressors in this study included a 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier­Stokes (RANS) based compu- tational fluid dynamics model

  4. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2004-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the third year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report introduces the benefits of improved surge detection and summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors. Early research results and findings concerning surge in centrifugal compressors and possible precursors to surge are presented. Laboratory test results in modern compressors with 3D impellers are described in detail and used to show the changes in internal flow patterns that occur as a compressor approaches surge. It was found that older compressors with recessed impeller blading (2D geometry) do not have the same accessible flow patterns. The laboratory test results indicate a large increase in potential operating range for modern compressors. This annual report also presents results from the field testing conducted during the course of this third year. The field test results showed similar changes in the surge probe strain signals and the same type, although of less magnitude, of indication that the compressor is approaching surge. An algorithm for identifying the nearness of surge has been proposed and evaluated with the available data. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The results of the project include a step-by-step process for design, sizing, and installation of surge detection probes and for implementation of the direct surge control in centrifugal compressor controllers. This work is considered a step towards the successful implementation of direct surge control for improved flexibility and efficiency in natural gas transmission compressors.

  5. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de Clémencières, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  6. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, andmore »R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.« less

  7. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-07-24

    This paper presents the technical development of a high efficiency window air conditioner. In order to achieve higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of the R410A unit was downgraded by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. The other subsequent major modifications included – the AC fan motor being replaced with a brushless high efficiency electronically commuted motor (ECM) motor, the capillary tube being replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and R410A being replaced with drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (85% molar concentration)/R125 (15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant EER enhancement of the modified unit.

  8. Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1988-01-01

    A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

  9. Stretchers and compressors for ultra-high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    This review is concerned with pulse stretchers and compressors as key components of ultra-high power laser facilities that take advantage of chirped-pulse amplification. The potentialities, characteristics, configurations and methods for the matching and alignment of these devices are examined, with particular attention to the history of the optics of ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses before and after 1985, when the chirped-pulse amplification method was proposed, which drastically changed the view of the feasibility of creating ultra-high power laser sources. The review is intended primarily for young scientists and experts who begin to address the amplification and compression of chirped pulses, experts in laser optics and all who are interested in scientific achievements in the field of ultra-high power laser systems. (review)

  10. Forging of compressor blades: Temperature and ram velocity effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigal, A.; Zhen, K.; Chan, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Forging is one of the most widely used manufacturing process for making high-strength, structurally integrated, impact and creep-resistant Ti-6Al-4V compressor blades for jet engines. In addition, in modern metal forming technology, finite element analysis method and computer modeling are being extensively employed for initial evaluation and optimization of various processes, including forging. In this study, DEFORM, a rigid viscoplastic two-dimensional finite element code was used to study the effects of initial die temperature and initial ram velocity on the forging process. For a given billet, die temperature and ram velocity influence the strain rate, temperature distribution,and thus the flow stress of the material. The die temperature and the ram velocity were varied over the range 300 to 700 F and 15--25 in./sec, respectively, to estimate the maximum forging load and the total energy required to forge compressor blades. The ram velocity was assumed to vary linearly as a function of stroke. Based on the analysis,it was found the increasing the die temperature from 300 to 700 F decreases the forging loads by 19.9 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 43 F. Similarly, increasing the initial ram velocity from 15 to 25 in./sec decreases the forging loads by 25.2 percent and increases the average temperature of the workpiece by 36 F. The nodal temperature distribution is bimodal in each case. The forging energy required to forge the blades is approximately 18 kips *in./in.

  11. Effects of rotor tip blade loading variation on compressor stage performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiralap, Aniwat

    2015-01-01

    Changes in loss generation associated with altering the rotor tip loading of an embedded compressor stage is assessed. Steady and unsteady three-dimensional computations, complemented by control volume analyses, for varying ...

  12. Optimal Design and Tolerancing of Compressor Blades Subject to Manufacturing Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qiqi

    This paper presents a computational approach for optimal robust design and tolerancing of turbomachinery compressor blades that are subject to geometric variability. This approach simultaneously determines the optimal blade ...

  13. Adjustable Speed- A Tool for Saving Energy Losses in Pumps, Fans, Fans, Blowers and Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickok, H. N.

    1985-01-01

    Petroleum and chemical plants of today are effectively cutting energy losses in their plants thermally, electrically, and mechanically in their process equipment. In rotating process equipment such as pumps, fans, compressors, and blowers, much...

  14. Forced response of a centrifugal compressor stage due to the impeller-diffuser interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Edward James

    2014-01-01

    The unsteady pressure field experienced by a centrifugal compressor stage can be dominated by of the impeller-diffuser interaction. The energy of the unsteady field, under certain aerodynamic and structural conditions, is ...

  15. Effects of upstream wake phasing on the performance of transonic compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Sean Patrick Rock

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the upstream wake phase on the work input (i.e., rise in stagnation enthalpy across the blade row) of a transonic rotor is examined computationally and analytically. It is found that the compressor work depends ...

  16. Discharge characteristics and dynamics of compressive plasma streams generated by a compact magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Tereshin, V. I.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Solyakov, D. G.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Marchenko, A. K.; Staltsov, V. V.; Yelisyeyev, D. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology,' (Ukraine)

    2011-11-15

    Results from experimental studies of a compact magnetoplasma compressor designed for operation with heavy gases are presented. The integral characteristics of the discharge and the energy contents and other parameters of the generated xenon plasma streams are determined.

  17. Effect of circumferential groove casing treatment parameters on axial compressor flow range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanley, Brian K. (Brian Kyle)

    2010-01-01

    The impact on compressor flow range of circumferential casing grooves of varying groove depth, groove axial location, and groove axial extent is assessed against that of a smooth casing wall using computational experiments. ...

  18. Measurement of the three-dimensional tip region flow field in an axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauter, R.C. )

    1993-07-01

    A two-color, five-beam LDV system has been configured to make simultaneous three-component velocity measurements of the flow field in a two-stage axial compressor model. The system has been used to make time-resolved measurements both between compressor blade rows and within the rotating blade passages in an axial compressor. The data show the nature and behavior of the complex, three-dimensional flow phenomena present in the tip region of a compressor as the convect downstream. In particular, the nature of the tip leakage vortex is apparent, being manifested by high blockage as well as the expected vortical motion. The data indicate that the radial flows associated with the tip leakage vortex begin to decrease while within the rotor passage, and that they temporarily increase aft of the passage.

  19. Effects of rotor tip clearance on an embedded compressor stage performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakulkaew, Sitanun

    2012-01-01

    Compressor efficiency variation with rotor tip gap is assessed using numerical simulations on an embedded stage representative of that in a large industrial gas turbine with Reynolds number being approximately 2 x 106 to ...

  20. An improved blade passage model for estimating off-design axial compressor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brand, Maximilian Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates of multistage axial compressor performance at off-design operating conditions are essential to the determination of key performance metrics of aircraft gas turbine engines, such as fuel burn, thrust ...

  1. A novel design methodology for enhanced compressor performance based on a dynamic stability metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castiella Ruiz de Velasco, Juan Carlos, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) compressor design optimization framework allows a versatile definition of the objective function such that any combination of pressure ratio, efficiency and dynamic stability can be prescribed at various operating ...

  2. Three-dimensional rotating stall inception and effects of rotating tip clearance asymmetry in axial compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Kenneth A. (Kenneth Andrew), 1970-

    1999-01-01

    The effects of two types of flow nonuniformity on stall inception behavior were assessed with linearized stability analyses of two compressor flow models. Response to rotating tip clearance asymmetries induced by a whirling ...

  3. Characterization of the flow field response to vaneless space reduction in centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villanueva V., Alfonso D. (Villanueva Villarreal)

    2006-01-01

    The unsteady three-dimensional flow field for two centrifugal compressors of nearly identical design (one with a marginally smaller impeller-diffuser gap) is interrogated to assess the difference in the time averaged ...

  4. Characterization of unsteady loading due to impeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusardi, Christopher (Christopher Dean)

    2012-01-01

    Time dependent simulations are used to characterize the unsteady impeller blade loading due to imipeller-diffuser interaction in centrifugal compressor stages. The capability of simulations are assessed by comparing results ...

  5. Three-dimensional hybrid grid generator and unstructured flow solver for compressors and turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyusup

    2005-02-17

    . The Menter?s k ?? model is implemented to simulate the turbulence e?ects. The ?ow solver is validated against the analytical and experimental results. A parametric study is performed for a high speed centrifugal compressor....

  6. Tip clearance flows in axial compressors: stall inception and stability enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weichert, Stephanie April

    2012-02-07

    and 91 figures. Part of this dissertation has been presented in the following publication: Weichert, S., Day, I. & Freeman, C. (2011) Self-Regulating Casing Treat- ment for Axial Compressor Stability Enhancement. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, June... -span if unspecified W Rotor Relative Flow Velocity, mid-span if unspecified xii Superscripts and Subscripts 0 Stagnation condition 1 Rotor inlet conditions 2 Rotor exit, stator inlet conditions 3 Stator exit conditions a1 Deverson compressor bellmouth inlet d2...

  7. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  8. Approaches Toward Achieving Optimum Efficiency in Rerates of Large Centrifugal Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudisel, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    outcome. Figure 7 Case 3 Compressor Schematic Once the boundaries were established, and feasible methods of working within those constraints identified, the expected installed cost for the machine replacement was determined, and the project found... in the 10,000 to 50,000 horsepower range. When new, the machines are aerodynamically and mechanically designed and built to the state of the art as it exists at that time. However, these compressor casings are commonly rerated in later years when...

  9. Development of a dry linear compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Höhne, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Pressure Wave Systems GmbH has developed a dry compressor for GM and pulse tube cryocoolers. The concept is based on hydraulically driven metal bellows in which the Helium working gas is compressed. The system is operated in the region of 1 kW of electrical input power and has been successfully tested with a SHI RDK-101D GM cryocooler cold head. Set-up, performance and reliability of the compressor system will be discussed.

  10. Active stabilization of rotating stall in a three-stage axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, J.M.; Hendricks, G.J.; Epstein, A.H. . Gas Turbine Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    A three-stage, low-speed axial research compressor has been actively stabilized by damping low-amplitude circumferentially traveling waves, which can grow into rotating stall. Using a circumferential array of hot-wire sensors, and an array of high-speed individually positioned control vanes as the actuator, the first and second spatial harmonics of the compressor were stabilized down to a characteristic slope of 0.9, yielding an 8 percent increase in operating flow range. Stabilization of the third spatial harmonic did not alter the stalling flow coefficient. The actuators were also used open loop to determine the forced response behavior of the compressor. A system identification procedure applied to the forced response data then yielded the compressor transfer function. The Moore-Greitzer two-dimensional stability model was modified as suggested by the measurements to include the effect of blade row time lags on the compressor dynamics. This modified Moore-Greitzer model was then used to predict both the open and closed-loop dynamic response of the compressor. The model predictions agreed closely with the experimental results. In particular, the model predicted both the mass flow at stall without control and the design parameters needed by, and the range extension realized from, active control.

  11. Apparatus and methods for cooling and sealing rotary helical screw compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fresco, Anthony N. (P.O. Box 734, Upton, NY 11973)

    1997-01-01

    In a compression system which incorporates a rotary helical screw compressor, and for any type of gas or refrigerant, the working liquid oil is atomized through nozzles suspended in, and parallel to, the suction gas flow, or alternatively the nozzles are mounted on the suction piping. In either case, the aim is to create positively a homogeneous mixture of oil droplets to maximize the effectiveness of the working liquid oil in improving the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies. The oil stream to be atomized may first be degassed at compressor discharge pressure by heating within a pressure vessel and recovering the energy added by using the outgoing oil stream to heat the incoming oil stream. The stripped gas is typically returned to the compressor discharge flow. In the preferred case, the compressor rotors both contain a hollow cavity through which working liquid oil is injected into channels along the edges of the rotors, thereby forming a continuous and positive seal between the rotor edges and the compressor casing. In the alternative method, working liquid oil is injected either in the same direction as the rotor rotation or counter to rotor rotation through channels in the compressor casing which are tangential to the rotor edges and parallel to the rotor centerlines or alternatively the channel paths coincide with the helical path of the rotor edges.

  12. Apparatus and methods for cooling and sealing rotary helical screw compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fresco, A.N.

    1997-08-05

    In a compression system which incorporates a rotary helical screw compressor, and for any type of gas or refrigerant, the working liquid oil is atomized through nozzles suspended in, and parallel to, the suction gas flow, or alternatively the nozzles are mounted on the suction piping. In either case, the aim is to create positively a homogeneous mixture of oil droplets to maximize the effectiveness of the working liquid oil in improving the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies. The oil stream to be atomized may first be degassed at compressor discharge pressure by heating within a pressure vessel and recovering the energy added by using the outgoing oil stream to heat the incoming oil stream. The stripped gas is typically returned to the compressor discharge flow. In the preferred case, the compressor rotors both contain a hollow cavity through which working liquid oil is injected into channels along the edges of the rotors, thereby forming a continuous and positive seal between the rotor edges and the compressor casing. In the alternative method, working liquid oil is injected either in the same direction as the rotor rotation or counter to rotor rotation through channels in the compressor casing which are tangential to the rotor edges and parallel to the rotor center lines or alternatively the channel paths coincide with the helical path of the rotor edges. 14 figs.

  13. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  14. Recovering Energy with a Compressed Air System Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nipper, J.

    2014-01-01

    ESL-IE-14-05-38 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 ? Air Leak Surveys ? Nitrogen Leak Surveys ? Gas Leak Surveys ? Steam Leak Surveys ? Steam Trap Surveys ESL-IE-14... Chemical Energy’s Air and Steam leak surveys have helped clients all over the world shut down air compressors and boilers, resulting in saving our customers of dollars annually. Estimated Annual Savings Identified: $227,171,069.09 ESL-IE-14...

  15. Using System Pressure Control to Improve the Compressed Air System at Goulds Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caropolo, B.; Sember, P.; Glace, P.

    1998-01-01

    controller that will optimally schedule the set points of multiple compressor systems in response to demand for air in the plant has been undertaken at Goulds Pumps in Seneca Falls, New York. The project is cosponsored by the New York State Energy Research...

  16. Compressed Air System Retrofitting Project Improves Productivity at a Foundry (Cast Masters, Bowling Green, OH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    This case study highlights International Truck and Engine Corporation's optimization project on the compressed air system that serves its foundry, Indianapolis Casting Corporation. Due to the project's implementation, the system's efficiency was greatly improved, allowing the foundry to operate with less compressor capacity, which resulted in reduced energy consumption, significant maintenance savings, and more reliable production.

  17. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  18. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  19. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2AirCompressors | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly SmartDB-2,InformationAwardeeEnergy Information

  20. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercAirCompressors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation Misc Jump to: navigation,

  1. ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed Air System Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks25CommunicationAPBFARPA-e OPENASAP & NRDC

  2. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  3. Applications of AirMaster+ in Real Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moray, S.; D'Antonio, M.; Patil, Y.; MacDougall, A.

    2005-01-01

    this understanding. A typical assessment is comprised of: 4. Modeling part load system operation for interconnected multiple-stage lubricant-free or lubricant-injected rotary screw, reciprocating, and centrifugal air compressors operating simultaneously... below shows the main menu of AIRMaster+ upon starting the application. 4. Detailed investigation for potential areas identified for improvement to establish consumption and pressure data locally and to establish pressure drops at various...

  4. Compressor Calorimeter Test of R-404A Alternatives ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R32 + R-134a Mixture using a Scroll Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    As a contribution to the AHRI Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), this study compares the performance of four lower-GWP alternative refrigerants, ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and R-32 + R-134a mixture, to that of refrigerant R-404A (baseline) in a scroll compressor designed for medium temperature refrigeration applications. These comparisons were carried out via compressor calorimeter tests performed on a compressor designed for refrigerant R-404A and having a nominal rated capacity of 23,500 Btu/hr. Tests were conducted over a suction dew point temperature range of -10 F to 35 F in 5 F increments and a discharge dew point temperature range of 70 F to 140 F in 10 F increments. All the tests were performed with 20 F superheat, 40 F superheat, and 65 F suction temperature. A liquid subcooling level of 10 F to 15 F was maintained for all the test conditions. However, the cooling capacities reported in this study are normalized for 0 F subcooling. The tests showed that the compressor energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity with all four alternative refrigerants tested are higher at higher saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature and lower at lower saturation suction and saturation discharge temperature, compared to that of R-404A. Discharge temperatures of all the alternative refrigerants were higher than that of R-404A at all test conditions.

  5. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Mckee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2003-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the second year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors and focuses on accessing factors that affect pre-surge detection. An attempt is made in this analysis to identify and quantify factors concerning compressor design and operations that affect the detection of pre-surge conditions. This progress report presents results from recent laboratory tests conducted during the course of this second year. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The most recently available measured pre-surge internal flow data is parameterized to help identify factors that affect the indications that a compressor is approaching surge. Theoretical arguments are applied to access the factors that influence surge precursors and surge initiation in different centrifugal compressors. This work is considered a step in accessing the factors that affect the success or limitations of pre-surge detection in natural gas pipeline compressors.

  6. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Shane P. Siebenaler; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-02-25

    The objective of this Direct Surge Control project was to develop a new internal method to avoid surge of pipeline compressors. This method will safely expand the range and flexibility of compressor operations, while minimizing wasteful recycle flow at the lower end of the operating envelope. The approach is to sense the onset of surge with a probe that directly measures re-circulation at the impeller inlet. The signals from the probe are used by a controller to allow operation at low flow conditions without resorting to a predictive method requiring excessive margin to activate a recycle valve. The sensor developed and demonstrated during this project was a simple, rugged, and sensitive drag probe. Experiments conducted in a laboratory compressor clearly showed the effectiveness of the technique. Subsequent field demonstrations indicated that the increase in range without the need to recycle flow was on the order of 19% to 25%. The cost benefit of applying the direct surge control technology appears to be as much as $120 per hour per compressor for operation without the current level of recycle flow. This could amount to approximately $85 million per year for the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission industry, if direct surge control systems are applied to most pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  7. A study of spike and modal stall phenomena in a low-speed axial compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camp, T.R.; Day, I.J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a study of stall inception mechanisms in a low-speed axial compressor. Previous work has identified two common flow breakdown sequences, the first associated with a short length-scale disturbance known as a spike, and the second with a longer length-scale disturbance known as a modal oscillation. In this paper the physical differences between these two mechanisms are illustrated with detailed measurements. Experimental results are also presented that relate the occurrence of the two stalling mechanisms to the operating conditions of the compressor. It is shown that the stability criteria for the two disturbances are different: Long length-scale disturbances are related to a two-dimensional instability of the whole compression system, while short length-scale disturbances indicate a three-dimensional breakdown of the flow-field associated with high rotor incidence angles. Based on the experimental measurements, a simple model is proposed that explains the type of stall inception pattern observed in a particular compressor. Measurements from a single-stage low-speed compressor and from a multistage high-speed compressor are presented in support of the model.

  8. Control of outdoor air source water heating using variable-speed heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.; Paige, L.E.; Dunshee, K.B.; Voorhis, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process of controlling an integrated heat pump system of the type. It comprises a variable speed compressor having a discharge port and a suction port; a water heater exchanger coupled to the discharge port of the compressor for heating water by transfer of heat from a compressed heat exchange fluid; an outdoor evaporator heat exchanger having an outdoor fan and a coil receiving the heat exchange fluid from the water heat exchanger and coupled also to the suction port of the compressor, for drawing heat from the outdoor air which heat is transferred to the water in the water heat exchanger; a controller having output channels to control an outdoor fan and the speed of the variable speed compressor and inputs respectively coupled to a water heater setpoint adjustment means, an outdoor air temperature sensor for sensing the outdoor temperature of the outdoor air; and a water temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the water heated by the water heat exchanger; the process comprising the steps of sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub o}.

  9. A Five-Leg Inverter for Driving a Traction Motor and a Compressor Motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Hsu, John S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated inverter for speed control of a traction motor and a compressor motor to reduce the compressor drive cost in EV/HEV applications. The inverter comprises five phase-legs; three of which are for control of a three-phase traction motor and the remaining two for a two-phase compressor motor with three terminals. The common terminal of the two-phase motor is tied to the neutral point of the three-phase traction motor to eliminate the requirement of a third phase leg. Further cost savings are made possible by sharing the switching devices, dc bus filter capacitors, gate drive power supplies, and control circuit. Simulation and experimental results are included to verify that speed control of the two motors is independent from each other.

  10. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Gong (Athens, OH); Beale, William T. (Athens, OH)

    1990-01-01

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand.

  11. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, G.; Beale, W.T.

    1990-04-03

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand. 6 figs.

  12. Gas Spring Losses in Linear Clearance Seal Compressors P.B. Bailey, M.W. Dadd, J.S. Reed*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gas Spring Losses in Linear Clearance Seal Compressors P.B. Bailey, M.W. Dadd, J.S. Reed* , C, and the simplest demonstration of this can be observed in a gas spring. Our understanding of these gas spring with a clearance seal linear compressor attached to a plain gas spring volume. The static flow through

  13. Improving performance and rotordynamic characteristics of injection compressors via much longer balance-piston and division-wall seals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues Rodrigues, Margarita

    2009-05-15

    Predictions are presented for a selected compressor using longer hole-pattern seals with L/D ratios from 0.5 to 2.5. Results were obtained for back-to-back and in-line compressors with the seal located at mid-span and at ...

  14. Stability analysis and testing of a train of centrifugal compressors for high pressure gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Memmott, E.A. [Dresser-Rand Co., Olean, NY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the rotor dynamic stability analysis and the PTC-10 Class 1 test of a three body centrifugal compressor train for high pressure natural gas injection services. This train had a full load full pressure string test on hydrocarbon gases to a final discharge pressure of 500 BAR (7250 PSIA). Each compressor is of the back to back configuration, and is equipped with tilting pad seals, damper bearings, and a honeycomb labyrinth at the division wall with shunt holes. The driver is a gas turbine.

  15. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhne, Jens

    2014-01-29

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%{sup 1}. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  18. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  19. Bond Graph Modeling of Centrifugal Compressor System Nur Uddin and Jan Tommy Gravdahl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    . A model of a compression system with recycle flow is derived in this work. 1. INTRODUCTION Compressors are widely applied in industries, for exam- ples in pipeline natural gas transportation system, extraction in oil fields, and process chemical and petrochemical plants [1]. A model of a compression system

  20. Two results on compressor surge control with disturbance rejection Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav Egeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    ] that the surge model of 7], which was derived for an axial compression system and is going to be usedTwo results on compressor surge control with disturbance rejection Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav- bilities. First, constant disturbances are included in the Greitzer model, and adaptive backstepping is em

  1. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This special report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.

  2. Evolution of pulse shapes during compressor scans in a CPA system and control of electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Evolution of pulse shapes during compressor scans in a CPA system and control of electron Ti:sapphire laser pulses has been controlled by appropriate choice of the higher order spectral phase The delicate details of the envelope function of ultrashort light pulses (`pulse shape') play an important role

  3. STUDY OF WORKING FLUID MIXTURES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE WORKING FLUIDS FOR COMPRESSOR DRIVEN SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Discussion 17 Heat transfer in condensation 19 References 20 3. SYSTEM ASPECTS OF HEAT PUMPS WITH NONAZEOTROPIC MIXTURES 23 Conclusions 32 4. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HEAT PUMPS 33 study with finite heat exchanger areas and realistic compressor efficiencies 50 Industrial case 51 Space

  4. Effects of nonaxisymmetric tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, M.B.; Wong, T.S.; Greitzer, E.M.; Marble, F.E.; Tan, C.S.; Shin, H.W.; Wisler, D.C.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of circumferentially nonuniform tip clearance on axial compressor performance and stability have been investigated experimentally and analytically. A theoretical model for compressor behavior with nonaxisymmetric tip clearance has been developed and used to design a series of first-of-a-kind experiments on a four-stage, low-speed compressor. The experiments and computational results together show clearly the central physical features and controlling parameters of compressor response to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance. It was found that the loss in stall margin was more severe than that estimated based on average clearance. The stall point was, in fact, closer to that obtained with uniform clearance at the maximum clearance level. The circumferential length scale of the tip clearance (and accompanying flow asymmetry) was an important factor in determining the stall margin reduction. For the same average clearance, the loss in peak pressure rise was 50 percent higher for an asymmetry with fundamental wavelength equal to the compressor circumference than with wavelength equal to one-half the circumference. The clearance asymmetry had much less of an effect on peak efficiency; the measured maximum efficiency decrease obtained was less than 0.4 percent compared to the 8 percent decrease in peak pressure rise due to the asymmetric clearance. The efficiency penalty due to nonaxisymmetric tip clearance was thus close to that obtained with a uniform clearance at the circumferentially averaged level. The theoretical model accurately captured the decreases in both steady-state pressure rise and stable operating range which are associated with clearance asymmetry.

  5. Air-Breathing Propulsion Qualifier Question -2012 A gas turbine jet engine, shown schematically in Figure 1, is operated on a stationary test stand.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Air-Breathing Propulsion Qualifier Question - 2012 A gas turbine jet engine, shown schematically compressor, a combustion chamber (combustor), a single stage turbine, and an ideally expanded nozzle (nozzle ratio ( C = Tt2 /Tt1 ), what is the turbine stagnation temperature ratio T = Tt4 /Tt3 ? (Suggestion

  6. Life-Cycle Cost Reduction for High Speed Turbomachinery Utilizing Aerothermal - Mechanical Conditioning Monitoring Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Bowman, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for high performance, centrifugal and axial flow turbomachinery such as gas turbines, compressors and pumps is very strongly influenced by fuel (energy) consumption and by maintenance costs. Additionally, the penalty costs...

  7. 18 153-159 2001 4 [3,4,12,15,29,30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guanrong "Ron"

    -47] [5] [55,65,67,92] (axial flow compressor) (gas turbine jet engine) ("") [34-38] [91-93] 5 model, Int. J. of Bifur. Chaos, 1996, 6:497-512. [10] Senjyu, T. and Uezato, K., Stability analysis

  8. VRF on-site Measurement by Compressor Curve Method of VRF and the applications-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kan,Y.; Shiochi,S.

    2014-01-01

    by Compressor Curve Method and Its Application Sumio Shiochi (Daikin Industries,ltd.) Yurino Kan* (Daikin Industries,ltd.) APCBC presentation in ICEBO (Asia Pacific Conference on Building Commissioning) Sept. 2014, Beijing, China ESL-IC-14...-09-34 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ICEBO 2014 Beijing + APCBC Meeting 2014.9.15-16 1. Background and Purpose of This Study ?Background? Stereotype of VRF from Architectural...

  9. Modeling for control of rotating stall in high-speed multistage axial compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feulner, M.R.; Hendricks, G.J.; Paduano, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional compressible flow representation of axial compressor dynamics, a control-theoretic input-output model is derived, which is of general utility in rotating stall/surge active control studies. The derivation presented here begins with a review of the fluid dynamic model, which is a two-dimensional stage stacking technique that accounts for blade row pressure rise, loss, and deviation as well as blade row and interblade row compressible flow. This model is extended to include the effects of the upstream and downstream geometry and boundary conditions, and then manipulated into a transfer function form that dynamically relates actuator motion to sensor measurements. Key relationships in this input-output form are then approximated using rational polynomials. Further manipulation yields an approximate model in standard form for studying active control of rotating stall and surge. As an example of high current relevance, the transfer function from an array of jet actuators to an array of static pressure sensors is derived. Numerical examples are also presented, including a demonstration of the importance of proper choice of sensor and actuator locations, as well as a comparison between sensor types. Under a variety of conditions, it was found that sensor locations near the front of the compressor or in the downstream gap are consistently the best choices, based on a quadratic optimization criterion and a specific three-stage compressor model. The modeling and evaluation procedures presented here are a first step toward a rigorous approach to the design of active control systems for high-speed axial compressors.

  10. A modified post damping ring bunch compressor beamline for the TESLA linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippe R.-G. Piot; Winfried Decking

    2004-03-23

    We propose a modified bunch compressor beamline, downstream of the damping ring, for the TESLA linear collider. This modified beamline uses a third harmonic radio-frequency section based on the 3.9 GHz superconducting cavity under development at Fermilab. In our design the beam deceleration is about {approx}50 MeV instead of {approx}450 MeV in the original design proposed.

  11. Practical exergy analysis of centrifugal compressor performance using ASME-PTC-10 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carranti, F.J. [Hoffman Air and Filtration Systems, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    It has been shown that measures of performance currently in use for industrial and process compressors do not give a true measure of energy utilization, and that the required assumptions of isentropic or adiabatic behavior are now always valid. A better indication of machine or process performance can be achieved using exergetic (second law) efficiencies and by employing the second law of thermodynamics to indicate the nature of irreversibilities and entropy generation in the compression process. In this type of analysis, performance is related to an environmental equilibrium condition, or dead state. Often, the differences between avoidable and unavoidable irreversibilities ca be interpreted from these results. A general overview of the techniques involved in exergy analysis as applied to compressors and blowers is presented. A practical method to allow the calculation of exergetic efficiencies by manufacturers and end users is demonstrated using data from ASME Power Test Code input. These data are often readily available from compressor manufacturers for both design and off-design conditions, or can sometimes be obtained from field measurements. The calculations involved are simple and straightforward, and can demonstrate the energy usage situation for a variety of conditions. Here off-design is taken to mean at different rates of flow, as well as at different environmental states. The techniques presented are also applicable to many other equipment and process types.

  12. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  13. Lehigh Southwest Cement Company: Compressed Air System Improvement Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-10-01

    In 2001, Lehigh Southwest Cement Company improved the compressed air system at its cement plant in Tehachapi, California. Consequently, the system was able to operate more efficiently with less compressor capacity and at a lower system pressure. The project yielded total annual savings of 895,000 kWh and $199,000. The initial project cost was $417,000, but Southern California Edison provided a $90,000 incentive payment to reduce the cost to $327,000. Simple payback was about 20 months.

  14. Air System Management for Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joshua M

    2001-01-01

    fuel cell applications. Wankel Compressor: An additionalsimilar to that of the Wankel rotary engine. This technology

  15. Internally-cooled centrifugal compressor with cooling jacket formed in the diaphragm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, James J.; Lerche, Andrew H.; Moreland, Brian S.

    2014-08-26

    An internally-cooled centrifugal compressor having a shaped casing and a diaphragm disposed within the shaped casing having a gas side and a coolant side so that heat from a gas flowing though the gas side is extracted via the coolant side. An impeller disposed within the diaphragm has a stage inlet on one side and a stage outlet for delivering a pressurized gas to a downstream connection. The coolant side of the diaphragm includes at least one passageway for directing a coolant in a substantially counter-flow direction from the flow of gas through the gas side.

  16. Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963Residential2, 2014ProvedYear Jan FebYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayCompressor

  17. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  18. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  19. FINAL DESIGN OF ILC RTML EXTRACTION LINE FOR SINGLE STAGE BUNCH COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Solyak, N.

    2011-03-28

    The use of single stage bunch compressor (BC) in the International Linear Collider (ILC) Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) requires new design for the extraction line (EL). The EL located downstream of the BC will be used for both an emergency abort dumping of the beam and the tune-up continuous train-by-train extraction. It must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spread of 3.54% and 0.15% respectively. In this paper we report the final design that allowed minimizing the length of such extraction line while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by 5m distance required for acceptable radiation level in the service tunnel. Proposed extraction line can accommodate beams with different energy spreads at the same time providing the beam size suitable for the aluminum ball dump window. We described the final design of the ILC RTML extraction line located downstream of the new single-stage bunch compressor. The extraction line is only 24m long and is capable of accepting and transmitting 220kW of beam power. The EL can be used for both fast intra-train and continual extraction, and is capable of accepting both 0.15% and 3.54% energy spread beams at 5MeV and 4.37MeV respectively.

  20. Viscous throughflow modeling of axial compressor bladerows using a tangential blade force hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallimore, S.J.

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the modeling of axial compressor blade rows in an axisymmetric viscous throughflow method. The basic method, which has been reported previously, includes the effects of spanwise mixing, using a turbulent diffusion model, and endwall shear within the throughflow calculation. The blades are modeled using a combination of existing two-dimensional blade performance predictions for loss and deviation away from the annulus walls and a novel approach using tangential blade forces in the endwall regions. Relatively simple assumptions about the behavior of the tangential static pressure force imposed by the blades allow the secondary deviations produced by tip clearance flows and the boundary layer flows at fixed blade ends to be calculated in the axisymmetric model. Additional losses are assigned in these regions based on the calculated deviations. The resulting method gives realistic radial distributions of loss and deviation across the whole span at both design and off-design operating conditions, providing a quick method of estimating the magnitudes of these effects in the preliminary design process. Results from the method are compared to measured data in low and high-speed compressors and multistage three-dimensional viscous CFD predictions.

  1. Numerical simulation of the compressor coil of the plasma dynamic accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, P.

    1997-01-01

    The plasma dynamic accelerator accelerates a plasma to very high velocities in a coaxial accelerator and then compresses it in a compressor coil, achieving high densities. The axial component of the current distribution, extending from the tip of the coaxial accelerator`s center electrode to the coil turns, causes compressing forces, the radial component yields accelerating forces. The rapid change of the coil current induces azimuthal eddy currents in the plasma that interact with the coil`s magnetic field, again yielding Lorentz forces. Aerodynamic compression may also be an important effect. A new two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code is used to investigate which of these effects are really important for the compression. The code allows one to simulate all effects mentioned separately and in combination. In a first step only aerodynamic compression is considered. Then each electromagnetic effect is imposed on the system. Finally, a complete simulation of the compressor coil is performed. The analysis of the results provides new insights in the way the coil operates. This paper presents important aspects of the mathematical model and of the numerical implementation and reports results.

  2. Dynamically balanced, hydraulically driven compressor/pump apparatus for resonant free piston Stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1984-05-29

    A compressor, pump, or alternator apparatus is designed for use with a resonant free piston Stirling engine so as to isolate apparatus fluid from the periodically pressurized working fluid of the Stirling engine. The apparatus housing has a first side closed by a power coupling flexible diaphragm (the engine working member) and a second side closed by a flexible diaphragm gas spring. A reciprocally movable piston is disposed in a transverse cylinder in the housing and moves substantially at right angles relative to the flexible diaphragms. An incompressible fluid fills the housing which is divided into two separate chambers by suitable ports. One chamber provides fluid coupling between the power diaphragm of the RFPSE and the piston and the second chamber provides fluid coupling between the gas spring diaphragm and the opposite side of the piston. The working members of a gas compressor, pump, or alternator are driven by the piston. Sealing and wearing parts of the apparatus are mounted at the external ends of the transverse cylinder in a double acting arrangement for accessibility. An annular counterweight is mounted externally of the reciprocally movable piston and is driven by incompressible fluid coupling in a direction opposite to the piston so as to damp out transverse vibrations.

  3. A New Approach for Determining Optimal Air Compressor Location in A Manufacturing Facility to Increase Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahlan, J.; Avci, M.; Asfour, S.

    2014-01-01

    12 15% 144 2 Nailer #2 80 12 15% 144 3 Z29 Stapler #1 80 10 15% 120 4 Stapler #2 80 10 15% 120 5 Z32 Drill #1 70 120 20% 1680 6 Drill #2 85 100 20% 1700 7 Dusting Blow Gun 80 10 30% 240 8 Z34 Dusting Bolw Gun 80 10 30% 240 9 Grinder 75 40 30% 900 10... Vacum Cleaner Shop 100 12 40% 480 11 Z48 CNC 80 16 20% 256 12 Dusting Blow Gun 80 10 30% 240 13 Z49 Riviters 90 24 15% 324 14 Screw Drivers 90 10 15% 135 15 Z65 Drill 80 120 20% 1920 16 Dusting Blow Gun 80 10 30% 240 17 Z78 Impact Wrench 80 20 30% 480 18...

  4. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Liquid Piston Compressor/Expander Using Porous Media Inserts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    or a compressor for compressed natural gas (CNG). Highlights · Porous medias role to improve compres- sor is the predominant contribution to im- provements Keywords: Liquid piston, porous media, gas compression / expansion combined with natural gas in a gas turbine to boost9 combustion e ciency. As a storage device, its e -10

  5. PLA FOR A COMPUTER-BASED CONSULTANT SYSTEM Ni Is J. Ni lsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OF A SIMPLE AIR COMPRESSOR ANALYSIS OF AIR COMPRESSOR CHECKOUT TASK REFERENCES #12;ABSTRACT Thi s report

  6. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustin Mihi andAir Leaks inAir

  7. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  8. Three-wheel air turbocompressor for PEM fuel cell systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehg, Tim; Gee, Mark; Emerson, Terence P.; Ferrall, Joe; Sokolov, Pavel

    2003-08-19

    A fuel cell system comprises a compressor and a fuel processor downstream of the compressor. A fuel cell stack is in communication with the fuel processor and compressor. A combustor is downstream of the fuel cell stack. First and second turbines are downstream of the fuel processor and in parallel flow communication with one another. A distribution valve is in communication with the first and second turbines. The first and second turbines are mechanically engaged to the compressor. A bypass valve is intermediate the compressor and the second turbine, with the bypass valve enabling a compressed gas from the compressor to bypass the fuel processor.

  9. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J. (San Mateo, CA)

    1985-01-01

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270.degree. around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass 74 of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions.

  10. Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Development and Modeling for the ITER Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Edgemon, Timothy D [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Kersevan, R. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [General Atomics, San Diego; Pearce, R.J.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant

    2011-01-01

    The ITER vacuum system requires a roughing pump system that can pump the exhaust gas from the torus cryopumps to the tritium exhaust processing plant. The gas will have a high tritium content and therefore conventional vacuum pumps are not suitable. A pump called a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed for the roughing system to pump from ~500 Pa to 10 Pa at flow rates of 200 Pa-m3/ s. A unique feature of this pump is that is allows any helium in the gas to flow through the pump where it is sent to the detritiation system before exhausting to atmosphere. A small scale prototype of the CVC is being tested for heat transfer characteristics and compared to modeling results to ensure reliable operation of the full scale CVC. Keywords- ITER; vacuum; fuel cycle

  11. Dynamics of Longitudinal Phase-Space Modulations in an rf Compressor for Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-21

    Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the UV or x-ray radiation spectrum require peak beam currents that are generally higher than those obtainable by present electron sources, thus making bunch compression necessary. Compression, however, may heighten the effects of collective forces and degrade the beam quality. In this paper they provide a framework for investigating some of these effects in rf compressors by focusing on the longitudinal dynamics of small-amplitude density perturbations, which have the potential to cause the disruptive appearance of the so-called microbunching instability. They develop a linear theory valid for low-to-moderate compression factors under the assumption of a 1D impedance model of longitudinal space charge and provide validation against macroparticle simulations.

  12. High-Power Plasma Switch for 11.4 GHz Microwave Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2010-03-04

    Results obtained in several experiments on active RF pulse compression at X-band using a magnicon as the high-power RF source are presented. In these experiments, microwave energy was stored in high-Q TE01 and TE02 modes of two parallel-fed resonators, and then discharged using switches activated with rapidly fired plasma discharge tubes. Designs and high-power tests of several versions of the compressor are described. In these experiments, coherent pulse superposition was demonstrated at a 5–9 MW level of incident power. The compressed pulses observed had powers of 50–70 MW and durations of 40–70 ns. Peak power gains were measured to be in the range of 7:1–11:1 with efficiency in the range of 50–63%.

  13. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  14. Self-latching eccentric cam for dual stroke compressor or pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, F.J.

    1985-01-22

    For a dual capacity refrigerant compressor of the type which has an eccentric cam rotatable on a crankpin between two opposite positions which changes the total eccentricity of the crankpin and cam so as to obtain two different stroke lengths, the rotation of the cam on the crankpin being effected by a reversal of motor operation, the cam moves through an angle of about 270[degree] around the crankpin so that a centrifugal force torque tending to hold the cam in place is available at least in the reduced stroke length position of the cam, and by providing lightening cavities and eccentric weightings, the center of mass of the cam can be shifted to obtain the centrifugal torque in the proper direction at both the maximum and reduced stroke positions. 7 figs.

  15. Operating Experience Level 3, Laboratory Tests Indicate Conditions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    provides new information on a potential performance issue associated with certain axial flow high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that do not contain separators in the...

  16. Proceedingsof the American Control Conference San Diego, California June I999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem in axial flow compressors has been studied in several recent papers [1]-[3], and others controller is applied to the three-state, one-mode Moore-Greitzer Compres- sor model. A benchmark is first. The control mo- tivation being that at the maximum efficiency op- erating condition, the compressor

  17. Research Area Research Instruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    -machinery system (centrifugal and axial flow fans and compressors), research on aeroacoustics and unsteady data of Engineering (Univ. of Tokyo.) TEZUKA Asei Machine engine (numerical modelings on turbulence, combustion and compressor) by numerical simulation and experiment concerning internal flow, flow induced vibration

  18. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications Plant Air Air tools, general plant air Instrument Air Laboratories, paint spraying, powder coating, climate control Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process...

  19. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  20. Numerical simulations of output pulse extraction from a high-power microwave compressor with a plasma switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, Anatoli; Beilin, Leonid; Bliokh, Yuri; Donskoy, Moshe; Krasik, Yakov E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Hadas, Yoav [Department of Applied Physics, Rafael, PO Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel); Schamiloglu, Edl [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Numerical simulations of the process of electromagnetic energy release from a high-power microwave pulse compressor comprising a gas-filled cavity and interference switch were carried out. A microwave plasma discharge in a rectangular waveguide H-plane tee was modeled with the use of the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code MAGIC. The gas ionization, plasma evolution, and interaction with RF fields accumulated within the compressor were simulated using different approaches provided by the MAGIC code: particle-in-cell approach accounting for electron-neutral collisions, gas conductivity model based on the concept of mobility, and hybrid modeling. The dependences of the microwave output pulse peak power and waveform on parameters that can be controlled in experiments, such as an external ionization rate, RF field amplitude, and background gas pressure, were investigated.

  1. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N AManaged bynuevo sistemaAir

  2. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    2009-01-01

    Control Parameters C1: Compressor specifications C2: Condenser specifications C3: Capillary specifications C4: Evaporator specifications Fig. 2 – Parameter diagram of refrigeration cycle.To introduce the Bx life, the characteristic life in the Weibull... ofcharacteristic life in Eq. (4). When the number of failed samples is below four, it follows the Poisson distribution (Ryu and Chang, 2005). At a sixty-percent confidence level, the characteristic life is defined as on refrigeration cycle.cycles and the number...

  3. Techni-Cast: Foundry Saves Energy with Compressed Air System Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    In 2002, Techni-Cast improved its compressed air system at its foundry in Southgate, California. The project allowed the foundry to reduce its compressor capacity by 50%, which greatly reduced the foundry's energy and maintenance costs. The annual energy and maintenance savings from the project implementation are 242,000 kWh and $24,200, and the project's cost was $38,000. Because the plant received a $10,000 incentive payment from the California Public Utilities Commission, the total project cost was reduced to $28,000, yielding a 14-month simple payback.

  4. 2006-01-1085 Air Path Estimation on Diesel HCCI Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are detailed in Section 7. 1 #12;Cylinders Variable Geometry Turbocharger Compressor Exhaust Gas Recirculation

  5. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW ?s-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  6. Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal’, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Stal’tsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ? = (2–3) × 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ? < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 15–17 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.

  7. Aerodynamically induced radial forces in a centrifugal gas compressor: Part 2 -- Computational investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flathers, M.B.; Bache, G.E.

    1999-10-01

    Radial loads and direction of a centrifugal gas compressor containing a high specific speed mixed flow impeller and a single tongue volute were determined both experimentally and computationally at both design and off-design conditions. The experimental methodology was developed in conjunction with a traditional ASME PTC-10 closed-loop test to determine radial load and direction. The experimental study is detailed in Part 1 of this paper (Moore and Flathers, 1998). The computational method employs a commercially available, fully three-dimensional viscous code to analyze the impeller and the volute interaction. An uncoupled scheme was initially used where the impeller and volute were analyzed as separate models using a common vaneless diffuser geometry. The two calculations were then repeated until the boundary conditions at a chosen location in the common vaneless diffuser were nearly the same. Subsequently, a coupled scheme was used where the entire stage geometry was analyzed in one calculation, thus eliminating the need for manual iteration of the two independent calculations. In addition to radial load and direction information, this computational procedure also provided aerodynamic stage performance. The effect of impeller front face and rear face cavities was also quantified. The paper will discuss computational procedures, including grid generation and boundary conditions, as well as comparisons of the various computational schemes to experiment. The results of this study will show the limitations and benefits of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for determination of radial load, direction, and aerodynamic stage performance.

  8. MHD compressor---expander conversion system integrated with GCR inside a deployable reflector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuninetti, G. . Research Div.); Botta, E.; Criscuolo, C.; Riscossa, P. . Nuclear Div.); Giammanco, F. . Dipt. di Fisica); Rosa-Clot, M. . Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-04-20

    This work originates from the proposal MHD Compressor-Expander Conversion System Integrated with a GCR Inside a Deployable Reflector''. The proposal concerned an innovative concept of nuclear, closed-cycle MHD converter for power generation on space-based systems in the multi-megawatt range. The basic element of this converter is the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) consisting of a gas core reactor directly coupled to an MHD expansion channel. Integrated with the PCU, a deployable reflector provides reactivity control. The working fluid could be either uranium hexafluoride or a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and helium, added to enhance the heat transfer properties. The original Statement of Work, which concerned the whole conversion system, was subsequently redirected and focused on the basic mechanisms of neutronics, reactivity control, ionization and electrical conductivity in the PCU. Furthermore, the study was required to be inherently generic such that the study was required to be inherently generic such that the analysis an results can be applied to various nuclear reactor and/or MHD channel designs''.

  9. Multi-bottle, no compressor, mean pressure control system for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus for mean pressure control of a Stirling engine without the need for a compressor. The invention includes a multi-tank system in which there is at least one high pressure level tank and one low pressure level tank wherein gas flows through a maximum pressure and supply line from the engine to the high pressure tank when a first valve is opened until the maximum pressure of the engine drops below that of the high pressure tank opening an inlet regulator to permit gas flow from the engine to the low pressure tank. When gas flows toward the engine it flows through the minimum pressure supply line 2 when a second valve is opened from the low pressure tank until the tank reaches the engine's minimum pressure level at which time the outlet regulator opens permitting gas to be supplied from the high pressure tank to the engine. Check valves between the two tanks prevent any backflow of gas from occurring.

  10. Fluid handling device useful as a pump, compressor or rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.R.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes a fluid handling device having variable volume chambers for use as a pump, compressor or rotary engine which comprises: a. a first rotary shaft member supported by bearings and carrying variable volume chamber forming components having at least a pair of angularly disposed flat surfaces and a curvilinear shell portion, b. a second rotary shaft member supported by bearings and carrying variable volume chamber forming components having at least a pair of angularly disposed flat surfaces and a curvilinear shell portion, (1) the shaft members being disposed at an angle other than 180/sup 0/ to one another, c. a centrally disposed disk member forming a plurality of variable volume chambers with the flat surfaces of the variable volume chamber forming components, (1) the centrally disposed disk member carrying a curvilinear shell member engageable in sealing relationship with the curvilinear shell portions of each of the variable volume chamber forming components, (2) and the centrally disposed disk member being journalled within bearings carried by a pair of yoke members externally of the curvilinear shell member carried by the disk member and with one of the yoke members being displaced 90/sup 0/ with respect to the other yoke member, (3) one of the yoke members being attached to the first rotary shaft member and the other of the yoke members being attached to the second rotary shaft member.

  11. Suction recirculation and its effects upon axial-flow pump power consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Tony M.

    1983-01-01

    1 Test Procedure Outline 2 Section and Pump Critical Flowrates and Speeds. 63 91 3 Power Coefficient and Reynolds Number Based on Cone Radius. 100 4 Power Coefficient and Reynolds Number Based on Surface Area. 101 5 Power Coefficient... Variation with NPSH with Q rl 54 Head Variation with NPSH with Q 2 . r2 55 Head Variation with NPSH with Q 3. r3' 120 128 129 130 131 134 135 136 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Pumps of different types are used to displace liquids from one location...

  12. Effects of inlet geometries on flow recirculation in an axial-flow pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpan, Kenan

    1984-01-01

    , e) hydraulic surging on the suction side, f) intense vortices with high velocities resulting with high wall static pressures at the pump inlet, g) formation of intense cavitation, h) severe pressure pulsations and noise, i) loss of energy...) mechanical seal damage. Despite elaborate research in the field of cavitation no study has been done to determine its interaction with recirculation. It is believed that they both contribute to the blade erosion. Homogenous liquids such as water are more...

  13. Molecular tagging velocimetry measurements of axial flow in a concentrated vortex core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    , hydrocyclones) and natural (e.g., tornadoes, hurricanes, dust devils) flow fields. The interaction of vortices

  14. Design, build and test of an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine with fatigue analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketcham, Jerod W

    2010-01-01

    OpenProp is an open source propeller and turbine design and analysis code that has been in development since 2007 by MIT graduate students under the supervision of Professor Richard Kimball. In order to test the performance ...

  15. Effects of Large Energetic Vortices on Axial-Flow Hydrokinetic Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear Profile 2010MesoscopyStaff »VehicleEffective

  16. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  17. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  18. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  19. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  20. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T. [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear System Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P. [U.S. ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boissin, J.-C. [Consultant, Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-29

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  1. Evaluation of Static Mixer Flow Enhancements for Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Prototype for ITER Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL] [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL] [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrow, Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Pearce, R.J.H. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France] [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France] [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant] [Consultant

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype

  2. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  3. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  4. Chapter 21 Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are in the PortlandVancouver metro area where there are more industrial sources of air pollution and higher levels of traffic congestion that create more air emissions....

  5. Experimental Assessment of a Free Elastic-Piston Engine Compressor with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    pumping of air into a reservoir. 1. INTRODUCTION Ongoing research endeavors in electromechanical of magnitude better volumetric power density and five times better mass specific power density than state

  6. Assessment of gas engine drives for CNG compressors at NGV fueling stations. Final technical report, June 1993-April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keder, J.; Darrow, K.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report assesses the technical and economic issues associated with the use of gas engine drives for gas compressors at natural gas vehicle (NGV) fueling stations. The use of gas engine drives and electric motor drives is compared for typical time fill, fast fill, and combined fill applications. NGV fueling station equipment is described with an emphasis on gas engine and electric motor drives, their installation, operation, and maintenance. The economic benefits of gas engine drives and electric motor drives are compared using sensitivity and operating cost analyses. A perspective of the current market for gas engine drives is also presented, as well as several case histories.

  7. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  8. Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New Air Conditioning System Uses Desiccant to Transfer Moisture and Increase Efficiency and Capacity

  9. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Bestor

    2003-03-04

    This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

  10. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  11. Thrust Area 2 Free-Piston Compressor for Portable Fluid-Powered Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    · Utilize a free piston engine configuration to compress air by extracting energy from combustion of propane times batteries) Ideal operational parameters are 4 MPa Combustion Pressure and 650 kPa Reservoir Pressure Experimental Parameters were 0.75 MPa Combustion Pressure and 230 kPa Reservoir Pressure Fuel

  12. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Basin Electric Project at Northern Border Pipeline Company's Compressor Station #7, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweetzer, Richard [Exergy Partners Corp.; Leslie, Neil [Gas Technology Institute

    2008-02-01

    A field research test and verification project was conducted at the recovered energy generation plant at Northern Border Pipeline Company Compressor Station #7 (CS#7) near St. Anthony. Recovered energy generation plant equipment was supplied and installed by ORMAT Technologies, Inc. Basin Electric is purchasing the electricity under a purchase power agreement with an ORMAT subsidiary, which owns and operates the plant.

  13. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1992.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 1990.

  14. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  15. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  16. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Bestor

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5''Hg lower and the minimum pilot quantity that the engine would operate on was roughly cut in half. (3) A successful concept demonstration of engine lube oil pilot injection was performed where the minimum operational boost was reduced by another 5''Hg to a boost level of 3''Hg; this is, depending on altitude, in the range of boost levels of many blower and piston scavenged low BMEP engines. (4) Micropilot ignition compares very favorably to other ignitions systems. The performance of micropilot ignition with mechanical gas admission valves is very similar to the performance of precombustion chamber ignition with high pressure fuel injection. Compared to spark ignition with mechanical gas admission valves the lean limit of operation is extended by about 5''Hg. These laboratory results will be enhanced, demonstrated and commercialized by others, with management and support from CSU, during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program.

  17. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  18. Clean Air Bill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Her Majesty's Stationary Office

    1955-01-01

    The object of this Bill is to implement the principal recommendations in the Report of the Committee on Air Pollution

  19. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  20. Effects of vaned diffuser pressure recovery on centrifugal compressor stage performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eason, Robyn Monique

    1985-01-01

    efficiency 6 ? diffuser channel divergence semi-angle u ? absolute viscosity p ? density o ? factor applied to inducer choking flow coefficient ? flow angle measured from axis in meridional plane () ? rotational speed (rad per sec) ? diffuser vane... on the respective pressure and temperature measurements. 'The pressure differential across the flow nozzle was measured with a sixty-inch water mananeter. Air mass flow rate was an- alytically determined with manufacturer supplied flaw coefficients. All...

  1. Planar solid oxide fuel cell with staged indirect-internal air and fuel preheating and reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2003-10-21

    A solid oxide fuel cell arrangement and method of use that provides internal preheating of both fuel and air in order to maintain the optimum operating temperature for the production of energy. The internal preheat passes are created by the addition of two plates, one on either side of the bipolar plate, such that these plates create additional passes through the fuel cell. This internal preheat fuel cell configuration and method reduce the requirements for external heat exchanger units and air compressors. Air or fuel may be added to the fuel cell as required to maintain the optimum operating temperature through a cathode control valve or an anode control valve, respectively. A control loop comprises a temperature sensing means within the preheat air and fuel passes, a means to compare the measured temperature to a set point temperature and a determination based on the comparison as to whether the control valves should allow additional air or fuel into the preheat or bypass manifolds of the fuel cell.

  2. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to several on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

  3. Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

    1997-01-01

    and recommended at each of the seven plants audited material costs, and typically includes only minor except for the metal fabrication plant that already capital cost. The Payback period is the total used unloading controls. Savings for unloading... Shutdown Timer Separate Compressor for Sand Transport System 1. Bakery 1. Bakery 1. Bakery, 2. Sawmill, 3. Millwork 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 5. Foundry 1 * Measure...

  4. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  5. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  7. Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System - Compressed Air Tip Sheet #5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-08-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing how to determine the right air quality for compressed air systems.

  8. Indoor Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Focus For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health-from cognitive ability to personal comfort...

  9. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  10. Advantages of enhanced synchronous motors in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morash, R.T. [Precise Power Corp., Bradenton, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new synchronous motor is a high-efficiency AC machine that has a low starting current. It may be used for conventional loads and also to start high inertia loads, delivering a constant torque during starting. Acceleration to synchronous speed can be allowed to take several minutes, if necessary, because the low starting current precludes excessive heating in the motor. Some of these motors are constructed with integral high inertia rotors that act as flywheels. These synchronous motors can ride through power sags and interruptions up to 30 seconds or more while still delivering useful load to pumps, fans, blowers, and compressors. The motors also restart instantly and resynchronize when utility power recovers. The motor can be useful in many heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) applications including those where machines and processes might otherwise be forced to shut down during momentary power interruptions.

  11. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Air LiAison officer Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) operations. Provides Command and Control, and Execution of Air, Space, and Cyber power. Primary advisor and advocate to the Ground Force Commander ensuring effective Air, Space, and Cyber power integration with US

  13. Appendix F. Air Permits Appendix F. Air Permits F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix F. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix F. Air Permits F-3 Table F.1. Air Permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Purification Facility #12;Oak Ridge Reservation F-4 Appendix F. Air Permits Table F.2. Oak Ridge National

  14. Appendix E. Air Permits Appendix E. Air Permits E-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Appendix E. Air Permits #12;#12;Appendix E. Air Permits E-3 Table E.1. Air permits at the Y-12 Chemical Process Operation 01-0020-21 554701 Air Bearing Operation 01-0020-05 554701 Special Processing Operation 01-0020-68 554701 Disassembly and Storage Operation #12;Oak Ridge Reservation E-4 Appendix E. Air

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Compressed Air Systems There are incentives for variable frequency drive screw compressors (10-40 HP), air receiverstanks for loadno-load compressors, cycling refrigerated dryers...

  16. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  17. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  18. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner (Pleasanton, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage eleode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  19. Course alpha, number, title file:///W|/me/NEW-drupal-web/Undergraduate-%20Current/Syllabi/ME442.htm[9/11/2013 3:01:25 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    /Laboratory/Discussion Hours: 3/0/0 Topics covered a. Continuity & Momentum Equation b. Energy Equation c. Centrifugal Pumps d. Wind Turbines j. One D Compressible Flow k. Centrifugal Compressor l. Axial Flow Gas Turbine Course practice--2 (l) application of advanced mathematics--1 (m) design, build, and test in mechanical systems

  20. JOURNAL OF MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS J. Multi-Crit. Decis. Anal. 15: 4561 (2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statnikov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    , 2005; Statnikov and Matusov, 1995), truck frame, multi- stage axial flow compressor for an aircraft stages. In the first stage, based on the tests one must identify the mathematical model of the object and computed data, the latter being determined on the basis of mathematical model. The number of adequacy

  1. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning or fluorinated greenhouse gases (air conditioning units, refrigeration units etc.) 2. Several approved

  2. A numerical investigation of transonic axial compressor rotor flow using a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arima, T.; Sonoda, T.; Shirotori, M.; Tamura, A.; Kikuchi, K.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer simulation code for three-dimensional viscous flow in turbomachinery based on the time-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. It is described in detail in this paper. The code is used to compute the flow fields for two types of rotor (a transonic fan NASA Rotor 67 and a transonic axial compressor NASA rotor 37), and numerical results are compared to experimental data based on aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer measurements. In the case of Rotor 67, calculated and experimental results are compared under the design speed to validate the code. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data, such as the rotor performance map and the spanwise distribution of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle downstream of the rotor. In the case of Rotor 37, detailed comparisons between the numerical results and the experimental data are made under the design speed condition to assess the overall quality of the numerical solution. Furthermore, comparisons under the part-speed condition are used to investigate a flow field without passage shock. The results are well predicted qualitatively. However, considerable quantitative discrepancies remain in predicting the flow near the tip. In order to assess the predictive capabilities of the developed code, computed flow structures are presented with the experimental data for each rotor and the cause of the discrepancies is discussed.

  3. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  4. Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable...

  5. Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for hazardous air...

  6. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  7. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  8. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  9. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  10. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  11. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  12. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  13. Guide to Air Sealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    Air sealing is one of the most cost-effective ways to improve the comfort and energy efficiency of your home. Hire a certified professional contractor for best results.

  14. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  15. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  16. Combustion Air Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    to 100%. If the air and fuel controls are on automatic but the flue gas oxygen content cannot be lowered to 4% oxygen without the boiler smoking, burner problems may be suspected. The trouble may be traced to dirty or improperly assembled oil guns..., combustion air distribution problems, vaporizing steam control problems, oil viscosity, or flow control problems. It is very important to have all oil guns operating properly before proceeding with a combustion test. The minimum stack gas oxygen level you...

  17. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  18. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  20. Global Optimization of Compressor/inter-cooler Sequences for Constant Compressibility Factor and Variable Heat Capacity Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SUN, WENBO

    2015-01-01

    of Multistage Adiabatic CAES,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 2,D. Wolf and M. Budt, “LTA-CAES – A low-temperature approachCompressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems. These are used

  1. Empirical Modeling of a Rolling-Piston Compressor Heat Pump for Predictive Control in Low-Lift Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gayeski, Nicholas

    Inverter-driven variable-capacity air conditioners, heat pumps, and chillers can provide energy-efficient cooling, particularly at part-load capacity. Varying the capacity of vapor compression systems enables operation at ...

  2. Interactions between turbulent open channel flow, power and the wake of an axial-flow marine turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    turbine Leonardo P. Chamorro1 , Craig Hill1 , Vincent Neary2 , Budi Gunawan2 , Roger Arndt1 , Fotis-flow marine hydrokinetic turbines was lacking. Advancing this area of knowledge within the field of marine and hydrokinetic energy research, development, and deployment will lead to more efficient turbine operations

  3. Effect of boundary conditions on axial flow in a concentrated vortex core Richard K. Cohn and Manoochehr M. Koochesfahani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koochesfahani, Manoochehr M.

    of confined flows such as vortex chambers, and swirl separators (e.g., hydrocyclones). More recently

  4. Inertial waves and mean velocity profiles in a rotating pipe and a circular annulus with axial flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yantao; Wu, J Z; Orlandi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we solve the inviscid inertial wave solutions in a circular pipe or annulus rotating constantly about its axis with moderate angular speed. The solutions are constructed by the so-called helical wave functions. We reveal that the mean velocity profiles must satisfy certain conditions to accommodate the inertial waves at the bulk region away from boundary. These conditions require the axial and azimuthal components of the mean velocity take the shapes of the zeroth and first order Bessel functions of the first kind, respectively. The theory is then verified by data obtained from direct numerical simulations for both rotating pipe and circular annulus, and excellent agreement is found between theory and numerical results. Large scale vortex clusters are found in the bulk region where the mean velocity profiles match the theoretical predictions. The success of the theory in rotating pipe, circular annulus, and streamwise rotating channel suggests that such inertial waves are quite common in wall bo...

  5. air traffic the polytechnic school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    air traffic management the polytechnic school innovation.asu.edu #12;undergraduate degree program B.S., air traffic management Our undergraduate air traffic management program offers students exceptional training and state-of-the-art air traffic control simulators to enhance and reinforce classroom study. You

  6. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

  7. Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air...

  8. Portable air monitoring laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehntholt, D.J.; Beltis, K.J.; McCullough, J.E.; Valentine, J.R. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. was contracted by the US Army to design, fabricate, test and deliver a series of portable air monitoring laboratories which could be used to detect trace levels of toxic chemicals on board cargo ships. The labs were designed to be completely self-sufficient, containing all supplies necessary for a 75-day mission, and to operate under rugged conditions. They were used to monitor for parts-per-billion concentrations of chemical agents in air and to provide information equivalent to high quality fixed laboratory analyses. The mission was successfully completed; independent design awards were received for the laboratories, and they were subsequently diverted to other uses.

  9. History of the Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Rivoli Theater in New York, Carrier publicly debuted a new type of system that used a centrifugal chiller, which had fewer moving parts and compressor stages than existing...

  10. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for...

  11. Canned Air in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-10-23

    Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government officials and the rest...

  12. Zach Harmon Air Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    in the Troposphere Summary of Problem/Impact United States dependency on foreign oil and increased energy consumptionZach Harmon 810907207 Air Chemistry Natural Gas Production Impacts on levels of ozone administration to encourage fast growth to reduce dependency of foreign oil and be energy independent. It

  13. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  14. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  15. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  16. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    air condition (heat pump) unit Industrial Small and mediumheat pump) systems, displacement compressors; (5) Industrial

  17. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  18. Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than adults to the health effects caused by air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air_health.htm #SummerSafety Twitter: Children and teens may be more sensitive than adults to air pollution. http://cdc.gov/air/air Social Media: Air Quality #SummerSafety Please help the NWS spread these important safety

  19. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19

    Systems based on the vapor compression cycle are the most widely used in a variety of air conditioning applications. Despite the vast growth of modern control systems in the field of air conditioning systems, industry standard control is still...

  20. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  1. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  2. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  3. Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucher, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Review: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly DevelopingFrank Murray (Eds. ). Air Pollution & Health in Rapidlyand researchers alike, Air Pollution & Health provides a

  4. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  5. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  6. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    Ext. 6782 Combustion -Generated Indoor Air Pollution Craigcontrol of air pollution from indoor combustion sources. Ifocused on combustion-generated indoor air pollution, namely

  7. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  8. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  9. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  10. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  11. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  12. Air Pollution Socio-Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

  13. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  14. Fresh air indoors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kull, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes and compares ventilation systems for the control of indoor air pollution in residential housing. These include: local exhaust fans, whole-house fans, central exhaust with wall ports, and heat-recovery central ventilation (HRV). HRV's have a higher initial cost than the other systems but they are the only ones that save energy. Homeowners are given guidelines for choosing the system best suited for their homes in terms of efficiency and payback period.

  15. Combustion air preheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, T.A.; Petterson, W.C.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a process for steam cracking hydrocarbons to cracked gases in a tubular furnace heated by burning a mixture of fuel and combustion air and subsequently quenching the cracked gases. Waste heat is recovered in the form of high pressure steam and the combustion air is preheated prior to introduction into the furnace. The improvement described here comprises: (a) superheating the high pressure steam and expanding at least a portion of the superheated high pressure steam through a first turbine to produce shaft work and superheated medium pressure steam at a temperature between 260/sup 0/ and 465/sup 0/ C.; (b) expanding at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure steam through a second turbine to produce shaft work and low pressure steam at a temperature between 120/sup 0/ and 325/sup 0/ C.; and (c) preheating the combustion air by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of the superheated medium pressure stream and at least a portion of the low pressure steam.

  16. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J.

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  17. AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIR LECTURES HANDOUT 3 P Rhines 21 Feb 03 AIR: THE SMALL (AIR POLLUTION) SMOG ­ cold London fog. Mega cities Roughly 50% of world population lives in cities, 25% along coasts Asia: 2000 population: motor vehicles 600,000 in 1980 increased to 4M in 1997 90% are 2 stroke engines...high pollution Table

  18. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  19. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 559: T Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 559, T-Tunnel Compressor/Blower Pad. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 559 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): • 12-25-13, Oil Stained Soil and Concrete The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure in place with use restrictions for CAU 559.

  1. The Ohio State University Air Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Bunny

    The Ohio State University Air Science Approved by the College of Arts and Sciences Air Science Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 292-5441 http://afrotc.osu.edu/ A Minor in Air Science is for students who seek. The Air Science Minor curriculum: 14 hours Air Science 2001 The Evolution of Air & Space Power I (1 sem

  2. Air Pollution - Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ontario Ministry of the Environment The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces...

  3. Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown, failure, and...

  4. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant....

  5. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01

    caused by office's thermal Environment, J. Archit. Plann.Standard 55- 2010. Thermal environment conditions for humanindoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and

  6. Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2003 2003 ASME TURBO EXPO 2003 Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    , in the compressor and the turbine section, the flow solver has to be able to handle the moving blades, model velocity components (i = 1,2,3) in cartesian coordinates Ux axial velocity component in cylindrical the development of the interface and proves its accuracy and efficiency on simple test- cases. Compressor

  7. Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenger, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    payback and must not compromise re1 iabil i ty. POSS IB ILITIES FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION To offer reduced energy consumption during periods of 1 ow wbi ent temperature, computer room air handlers can be fitted with economizer coils to precool... the air using fluid from a sensible, or for lower fluid temperatures, an evaporative heat rejector (Figure 1). As the ambient temperature rises close to the required supply air temperature, operation of the economizer coil is limited...

  8. 13 EER Window Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    13 EER Window Air Conditioner 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Broadway Apartment Building with WACs in NYC Pradeep Bansal, bansalpk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National...

  9. Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

  10. Indoor air quality: Selected references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This document was compiled in response to an increasing number of requests for information about indoor air quality, including sick-building syndrome. Included in the publication are the NIOSH Congressional testimony presented before the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications; two articles describing the results of NIOSH research and findings on indoor air-quality problems; NIOSH guidance on conducting indoor-air-quality investigations; and a description of the NIOSH health-hazard evaluation program, which can provide NIOSH assistance in evaluating indoor-air-quality problems.

  11. Underfloor air distribution: thermal stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, T.; Bauman, Fred; Reese, J.

    2002-01-01

    Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification By Tom Webster, Pthermal bypassing of convective loads that occurs above the stratificationthermal plumes that develop over heat sources in the room. A stratification

  12. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  13. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    fossil-fuel combustion, are the source of air pollution. Thepollution episodes is clearly associated with areas of high fossil-fuel combustion and

  14. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment....

  15. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  16. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  17. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  18. D0 Instrument Air System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-09-15

    The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air quality data. Methods: Measurements of 5 pollutants (particulate matter PM10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide NO2

  20. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore »and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  3. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  4. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  5. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  6. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.W. Traynor Introduction Air pollution research has focused

  7. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners July 1, 2012 - 5:35pm Addthis A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling part of a house. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  8. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  9. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Movement – Good or Bad? Indoor Air 14: 40-45. Toftum, J (Quality Survey. Indoor Air 14 (8): 65–74. Internationalon the Perception of Indoor Air Quality during Immediate and

  10. Understanding the Basics of Compressed Air Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Compressed air can be a manufacturing facilities' most expensive utility. Estimates and actual measurements of compressed air systems indicate ten to thirty-five percent of all compressed air generated is lost to leakage or improper use. Proper...

  11. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    of indoor combustion-generated air pollution in residen-LBL-S9lS COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D.L,BL-5918 COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION C. D.

  12. Supply Fan Control for Constant Air Volume Air Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Since terminal boxes do not have a modulation damper in constant volume (CV) air handling unit (AHU) systems, zone reheat coils have to be modulated to maintain the space temperature with constant supply airflow. This conventional control sequence...

  13. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  14. Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

  15. Optimising the Fresh Air Economiser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biship, R.

    2013-01-01

    and operation of the Fresh Air Economizer is well described in the literature (Zhou 2008, Wang 2007). A typical Fresh Air Economizer varies the OA damper position to target the lowest possible mixed-air, on-coil temperature, when ambient temperatures... in a steady-state rise of 590 ppm above ambient, or 1040 ppm at 450 ppm ambient. However, at higher densities, say 20 people/100 m2 (20 people/1,000 ft2), the required ventilation totals only 0.80 L/s.m2 (160 cfm/1000 ft2), or effectively 4 L...

  16. Making Compressed Air System Decisions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5121 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-96-04-32.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 MAKING COMPRESSED AIR... SYSTEM DECISIONS Richard E. Porri Product Manager ABSTRACT This paper presents a decision making process that will pennit the design, installation and operation ofa high efficiency and reliable compressed air system. The design of a compressed air...

  17. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  18. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  19. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  20. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  1. Exergy Analysis of Industrial Air Compression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bader, W. T.; Kissock, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    outdoor air temperature 50?F Average indoor air temperature 80?F Ambient air pressure 14.7 psia Compressed air pressure 115 psig = 129.7 psia Energy-Saving Recommendations Five recommendations to reduce operating costs of the compressed air system... were made. The first was to lower the activation setpoint pressure to 100 psig and standby setpoint pressure to 110 psig. This would reduce average plant air pressure from 115 to 105 psig, cutting energy costs and reducing wear and...

  2. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  3. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01

    in air pollution risk assessment and management. With thepollution." In: Total Exposure Assessment Methodology: A New Horizon, 166-195, Air and Waste Management

  4. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01

    human exposure to air pollution." SIMS Technical Report No.human exposure to air pollution." Environment International.Annual Meeting of the A i r Pollution Control Association,

  5. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometNovakov, T. : Formation of Pollution Particulate NitrogenGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.

  6. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  7. Meteorological Effects on Air/Fuel Ratio 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    temperature and humidity variations. Also shown are the minimal effects of higher excess air rates on fuel consumption when preheated combustion air is used....

  8. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System...

  9. Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits Forms and Air Pollutant Emission Notices (APENs) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  10. Maintaining Your Air Conditioner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with a clean one can lower your air conditioner's energy consumption by 5% to 15%. For central air conditioners, filters are generally located somewhere along the return duct's...

  11. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  12. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhotoYinYang. Air-Source Heat Pumps...

  13. Seasonality in air transportation demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichard Megwinoff, H?tor Nicolas

    1988-01-01

    This thesis investigates the seasonality of demand in air transportation. It presents three methods for computing seasonal indices. One of these methods, the Periodic Average Method, is selected as the most appropriate for ...

  14. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. AIR -Slide-1 MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    TX-2500 AIR - Slide-1 MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-2500 An Interactive, On-Demand Rapid by the Department of the Air Force under Air Force contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions-2500 AIR - Slide-2 MIT Lincoln Laboratory · Motivation · HPEC Software Design Workflow Outline

  16. Fuel cell stack with passive air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-01-17

    A fuel cell stack has a plurality of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) where each PEFC includes a rectangular membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having a fuel flow field along a first axis and an air flow field along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis, where the fuel flow field is long relative to the air flow field. A cathode air flow field in each PEFC has air flow channels for air flow parallel to the second axis and that directly open to atmospheric air for air diffusion within the channels into contact with the MEA.

  17. Strategies and Technologies for Improving Air Quality Around Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammad Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    urbanair/ 2. Lewtas, J. Air pollution combustion emissions:Lewtas. Air pollution combustion emissions: Characterization

  18. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  19. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  20. Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    CHAPTER 7 Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS 7.3 THE CLEAN AIR ACT 7.4 THE POLLUTANT STANDARDS INDEX 7.5 CRITERIA POLLUTANTS 7.6 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS 7.7 AIR POLLUTION IN THE WORLD'S MEGACITIES 7.8 MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS 7.9 STATIONARY SOURCES 7.10 AIR POLLUTION AND METEOROLOGY 7

  1. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  2. PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study , C. Honor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    PREV'AIR, a modeling platform for the air quality predictability study Menut L.1 , C. Honoré2 , L Ministère de l'écologie et du développement durable, Paris, France This platform is proposed by the PREV'AIR about PREV'AIR ? please send an e-mail to cecile.honore@ineris.fr 1. Introduction Since 2002, the PREV'AIR

  3. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    and health from people who are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide

  4. 3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Welcome and thank you for choosing the 3MTM Air-MateTM Belt Mounted High Efficiency Powered Air Purifying Respirator text #12;Double click picture to start video Click button to view video text #12;3MTM Air-MateTM Belt

  5. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evapo rator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means... Process Equipment Harvey,IL Here it can be seen that the economy or the pounds of water evaporated per pound of heating element is slightly less than 1.0. The vapors leaving the evapo rator flow to a condenser when their latent heat is absorbed...

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  7. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    energy for fan, cooling and heating energy. In this paper a simple energy consumption model is established for AHU systems during the economizer and then a optimal supply air temperature control is developed to minimize the total cost of the mechanical...

  8. AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Kitchen Range Hood Kitchen and bath vents provide spot ventilation Annual Energy Costs for 1300 sq. ft AND RENEWABLE ENERGY · U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY #12; W H A T A RAIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh

  9. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  10. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Emissions 7.3 Impacts of LNG on Air Quality 8. References 9.El Paso at Blythe. Chapter 3: Air Quality Impact AssessmentRespect to the South Coast Air Quality Management District

  11. Review: Clearing the Air: The Health and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    and Economic Damages of Air Pollution in China Mun S. Ho andEconomic Damages of Air Pollution in China. Cambridge, MA:the assessment of air pollution and its health and economic

  12. AIRS Project Science Team Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JPL Fusion of AIRS and OCO-2 carbon dioxide data for mapping lower-atmospheric CO2 3:30 PM Le = Remote Presentation Tuesday, April 21, 2015 Light Refreshments: 7:30 a.m. Session 1: Project Status Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) 8:30 AM Kevin Bowman NASA JPL Invited Talk: Observational constraints

  13. Air Capture Introduction and Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    largely eliminated centralized sources of CO2 emissions, especially at coal and natural gas power plants buildings and vehicles, which prove expensive to reduce by other means. It can be useful in niche CO2 first." It is much cheaper to capture CO2 from the flue gas of a coal power plant than from ambient air

  14. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

    2011-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  15. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    emissions or decreasing car use. An air pollution model is never exact in its attempt to simulate if factories put out half as much carbon monoxide", or "what if car traffic is reduced by one-third". Using, anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and amount of sunlight are a few of these components. The model takes

  16. Compressed Air Load Reduction Approaches and Innovations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Antonio, M.; Epstein, G.; Moray, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2005-01-01

    milling machine air gun 3/8 Plastic 105 3.8 Quick connect at air gun 00-836 Tool Room Sharp milling machine regulator 3/8 Rubber 105 1.3 Brass coupling-outlet of regulator 00-837 Wax Dept Assembly line- hose to air gun 1/4 Plastic 65... 1.6 Leak in air hose (taped up at leak) 00-838 Wax Dept Assembly line regulator 1/2 Copper 45 1.1 Regulator at 10' height, undertimined fitting 00-839 Wax Dept Solubles area air gun 1/2 Rubber 45 1.6 Brass coupling into air gun 45...

  17. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these systems have been most commonly installed in open-plan office buildings in which they provide supply air and (in some cases) radiant heating directly into workstations. TAC systems can be classified into the following two major categories: (1) furniture-based, and (2) floor-based, underfloor air distribution (UFAD). A large majority of these systems include a raised floor system with which underfloor plenums are used to deliver conditioned air to the space through floor grills, or in conjunction with the workstation furniture and partitions.

  18. Unequal State Air Pollution: Adopting and Adapting to State Clean Air Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, Derek John

    2015-05-31

    context can limit its ability to regulate air pollution. These factors contribute to the unequal protection of air quality across the United States....

  19. On-line vibration and analysis system at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herricks, D.M.; Strunk, W.D.

    1988-02-01

    The enrichment facility in Paducah, KY uses a unique hard-wired vibration monitoring and analysis system for gaseous diffusion equipment. The axial flow and centrifugal flow compressors used in uranium enrichment range in size from 6 feet in diameter to less than one foot in diameter. These compressors must operate smoothly and safely, without breech of containment, since the working fluid of gaseous diffusion is gaseous UF/sub 6/. The condition of 1925 compressors is monitored by use of the 2500 point vibration analysis system. Since the failure mechanisms of the compressors are well known and documented, only one accelerometer per machine is needed for most machines. The system is completely automated and can generate spectra or broadband levels in either acceleration or velocity units. Levels are stored for historical review. The analyst can, via a custom telecommunications link, view and analyze data from all monitored points with an office PC. 4 figs.

  20. Air Sealing Your Home | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Save on heating and cooling costs by checking for air leaks in common trouble spots in your home. Save on heating and cooling costs by checking for air leaks in common trouble...