Sample records for axial electric field

  1. Axial Current Generation from Electric Field: Chiral Electric Separation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu-Guang Huang; Jinfeng Liao

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external electric field. We show that with the presence of both vector and axial charge densities, the electric field can induce an axial current along its direction and thus cause chirality separation. We call it the Chiral Electric Separation Effect (CESE). On very general basis, we argue that the strength of CESE is proportional to $\\mu_V\\mu_A$ with $\\mu_V$ and $\\mu_A$ the chemical potentials for vector charge and axial charge. We then explicitly calculate this CESE conductivity coefficient in thermal QED at leading-log order. The CESE can manifest a new gapless wave mode propagating along the electric field. Potential observable of CESE in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  2. Axial Current Generation from Electric Field: Chiral Electric Separation Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a relativistic plasma containing charged chiral fermions in an external electric field. We show that with the presence of both vector and axial charge densities, the electric field can induce an axial current along its direction and thus cause chirality separation. We call it the Chiral Electric Separation Effect (CESE). On very general basis, we argue that the strength of CESE is proportional to $\\mu_V\\mu_A$ with $\\mu_V$ and $\\mu_A$ the chemical potentials for vector charge and axial charge. We then explicitly calculate this CESE conductivity coefficient in thermal QED at leading-log order. The CESE can manifest a new gapless wave mode propagating along the electric field. Potential observable of CESE in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  3. Computation of the Field in an Axial Gap, Trapped-Flux Type Superconducting Electric Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zejun; Ainslie, Mark D.; Campbell, Archie M.; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—The Bulk Superconductivity Group at the University of Cambridge is currently investigating the use of high temper- ature superconductors in wire and bulk form to increase the electrical and magnetic loading of an axial gap, trapped flux... electric machines are an importantapplication of superconducting materials in both bulk and wire forms. Bulk high temperature superconductors, in partic- ular, are capable of trapping magnetic fields greater than 17 T below 30 K [1], [2], as well as up to 3...

  4. Volume 152, number 4,s CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 18 November 1988 NON-INTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT OF AXIAL ELECTRIC FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Volume 152, number 4,s CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 18 November 1988 NON-INTRUSIVE MEASUREMENT OF AXIAL pertur- bations by sheath accumulation. Non-intrusive mea- surements of the electric fields through for the non- perturbative measurement of the axial electric fields in glow discharges. The A `n, + X I&+ (4

  5. Evaporative capillary instability for flow in porous media under the influence of axial electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshiitr.kumar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the linear analysis of electrohydrodynamic capillary instability of the interface between two viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluids in a fully saturated porous medium, when the phases are enclosed between two horizontal cylindrical surfaces coaxial with the interface and, when there is mass and heat transfer across the interface. The fluids are subjected to a constant electric field in the axial direction. Here, we use an irrotational theory in which the motion and pressure are irrotational and the viscosity enters through the jump in the viscous normal stress in the normal stress balance at the interface. A quadratic dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is obtained and stability criterion is given in terms of a critical value of wave number as well as electric field. It is observed that heat transfer has stabilizing effect on the stability of the considered system while medium porosity destabilizes the interface. The axial electric field has dual effect on the stability analysis.

  6. Field Examples of Axial Cracked Bearings in Wind Turbine Gearboxes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Examples of Axial Cracked Bearings in Wind Turbine Gearboxes Presented by Paul John Baker of FrontierPro Services at the Wind Turbine Tribology Seminar 2014. 141030 Axial...

  7. Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current...

  8. Design and market considerations for axial flux superconducting electric machine design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ainslie, Mark D; Shaw, Robert; Dawson, Lewis; Winfield, Andy; Steketee, Marina; Stockley, Simon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the authors investigate a number of design and market considerations for an axial flux superconducting electric machine design that uses high temperature superconductors. This work was carried out as part of the University of Cambridge's Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning ETECH Project programme, designed to accelerate entrepreneurship and diffusion of innovations based on early stage and potentially disruptive technologies from the University. The axial flux machine design is assumed to utilise high temperature superconductors in both wire (stator winding) and bulk (rotor field) forms, to operate over a temperature range of 65-77 K, and to have a power output in the range from 10s of kW up to 1 MW (typical for axial flux machines), with approximately 2-3 T as the peak trapped field in the bulk superconductors. The authors firstly investigate the applicability of this type of machine as a generator in small- and medium-sized wind turbines, including the current and forecasted market and pricin...

  9. AXIAL-FIELD SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE WITH HOMOPOLAR FLUX IN THE AIRGAP FOR A FLYWHEEL ACCUMULATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AXIAL-FIELD SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE WITH HOMOPOLAR FLUX IN THE AIRGAP FOR A FLYWHEEL ACCUMULATOR@bretagne.ens-cachan.fr Abstract: A new axial-field synchronous machine designed for a flywheel accumulator is presented herein with experimental results. Keywords: flywheel accumulator, axial-field synchronous machine, double-face printed

  10. Axial SiGe Heteronanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, Son T.; Jannaty, P.; Luo, Xu; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present silicon-compatible tri-gated p-Ge/i-Si/n-Si axial heteronanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), where on-state tunneling occurs in the Ge drain section, while off-state leakage is dominated by the Si junction in the source. Our TFETs have high ION ~ 2 µA/µm, fully suppressed ambipolarity, and a sub-threshold slope SS ~ 140 mV/decade over 4 decades of current with lowest SS ~ 50 mV/decade. Device operation in the tunneling mode is confirmed by three-dimensional TCAD simulation. Interestingly, in addition to the TFET mode, our devices work as standard nanowire FETs with good ION/IOFF ratio when the source-drain junction is forward-biased. The improved transport in both biasing modes confirms the benefits of utilizing bandgap engineered axial nanowires for enhancing device performance.

  11. Electrostatic waves in carbon nanotubes with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdikian, Alireza [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Malayer University, Malayer 65719-95863 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Mehran [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran 19835-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a linearized hydrodynamic model and within the quasi-static approximation, the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating through single-walled carbon nanotubes subject to an axial magnetic field is theoretically explored. In the classical limit, we obtain two main possible waves which in turn are divided into two branches, a low-frequency acoustical and a high-frequency optical plasmon branch. In the quantum case, we have found that the dispersion relation is substantially modified when the electron wavelength becomes large enough compared to the propagation wavelength of the electrostatic waves in the quantum plasma. We also show that the axial magnetic field manifest itself on the perturbed electron density through the quantum term and gives rise to the propagation of the electrostatic waves within the quantum plasma. As a result, the effect of the magnetic field is pronounced in the plasma dispersion relations in such a way that their curves approach to zero when the magnetic field is weak; and for the strong magnetic field, they asymptotically meet the constant lines.

  12. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16844 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread.

  13. Laser cooling in the Penning trap: an analytical model for cooling rates in the presence of an axializing field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hendricks; E. S. Phillips; D. M. Segal; R. C. Thompson

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions stored in Penning traps may have useful applications in the field of quantum information processing. There are, however, difficulties associated with the laser cooling of one of the radial motions of ions in these traps, namely the magnetron motion. The application of a small radio-frequency quadrupolar electric potential resonant with the sum of the two radial motional frequencies has been shown to couple these motions and to lead to more efficient laser cooling. We present an analytical model that enables us to determine laser cooling rates in the presence of such an 'axializing' field. It is found that this field leads to an averaging of the laser cooling rates for the two motions and hence improves the overall laser cooling efficiency. The model also predicts shifts in the motional frequencies due to the axializing field that are in qualitative agreement with those measured in recent experiments. It is possible to determine laser cooling rates experimentally by studying the phase response of the cooled ions to a near resonant excitation field. Using the model developed in this paper, we study the expected phase response when an axializing field is present.

  14. Møller Energy-Momentum Complex for an Axially Symmetric Scalar Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Radinschi

    2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the energy-distribution for an axially symmetric scalar field in the M{\\o}ller prescription. The total energy is given by the parameter m of the space-time.

  15. Strong Room-temperature Negative Transconductance In An Axial Si/Ge Hetero-nanowire Tunneling Field-effect Transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio > 45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC characteristics over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = –50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional TCAD simulations.

  16. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  17. PIC simulation of electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Nishida, Hiroyuki [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    For longer lifetime of electric propulsion system, an electrodeless plasma thruster with rotating electric field have been proposed utilizing a helicon plasma source. The rotating electric field may produce so-called Lissajous acceleration of helicon plasma in the presence of diverging magnetic field through a complicated mechanism originating from many parameters. Two-dimensional simulations of the Lissajous acceleration were conducted by a code based on Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method and Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) method for understanding plasma motion in acceleration area and for finding the optimal condition. Obtained results show that azimuthal current depends on ratio of electron drift radius to plasma region length, AC frequency, and axial magnetic field. When ratio of cyclotron frequency to the AC frequency is higher than unity, reduction of the azimuthal current by collision effect is little or nothing.

  18. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  19. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  20. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  1. Properties of an axially periodic magnetic field in a betatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvontsov, A.A.; Filinova, V.A.; Chakhlov, V.L.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown by solving an equation for the vector potential A (r, z) of the magnetic field that under appropriate conditions the focusing properties of a betatron magnetic field are periodic with respect to the z coordinate. Under these conditions there may be several equilibrium orbits lying in parallel planes z = 0, z = z/sub 01/ xxx, z = mz/sub 01/ in the accelerator. An equation is derived for the distance z/sub 01/ between the equilibrium orbit planes for a given orbit radius r/sub 0/ and field decay exponent n/sub 0/. The operation of such accelerators is described.

  2. Axial SiGe Heteronanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), where on-state tunneling occurs in the Ge drain section, while off-state leakage is dominated by the Si junction in the source. Our...

  3. Proterozoic low orbital obliquity and axial-dipolar geomagnetic field from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    record. Magnetic inclinations are consistent with low orbital obliquity and a geocentric-axial-dipole magnetic field for most of the past two billion years, and the snowball Earth hypothesis accordingly tropical oceans6,7 . An alternative to global refrigeration invokes a high Precambrian planetary obliquity

  4. 10 Ways to "See" the Electric Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How can you demonstrate the electric field if it's invisible? This video shows you 10 activities and experiments that help to teach about the electric field using various apparatuses, such as a plasma ball or a Van de Graaff generator.

  5. Self-field effects on instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohsenpour, Taghi, E-mail: mohsenpour@umz.ac.ir; Rezaee Rami, Omme Kolsoum [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Free electron lasers (FEL) play major roles in the Raman Regime, due to the charge and current densities of the beam self-field. The method of perturbation has been applied to study the influence of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. A dispersion relation for two-stream free electron lasers with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field has been found. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to investigate the influence of self-fields on the FEL coupling and the two-stream instability. It was found that self-fields can produce very large effects on the FEL coupling, but they have almost negligible effects on two-stream instability.

  6. Radiofrequency hydrogen ion source with permanent magnets providing axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oikawa, Kohei, E-mail: oikawa@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Yuta; Komizunai, Shota; Takahashi, Kazunori; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform axial magnetic field of about 70 G is applied to a radiofrequency (rf) hydrogen ion source by arrays of permanent magnets. The plasma density and electron temperature downstream of the source and near the magnetic filter are compared with those in the previously described ion source, where the axial field has been applied by two solenoids. The source is operated at ?350 kHz and above 10 kW rf power with a field-effect-transistor-based invertor power supply in 1.5 Pa hydrogen. The results show that the plasma density of ?10{sup 19} m{sup ?3} near the source exit and ?10{sup 18} m{sup ?3} near the magnetic filter can be obtained, which are higher than those with the solenoids.

  7. Axial anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field and noncommutative anomaly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadooghi, N. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari Salim, A. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly of a 3+1 dimensional QED is calculated in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance a dimensional reduction from D=4 to D=2 dimensions occurs in the longitudinal sector of the low energy effective field theory. In the chiral limit, the resulting anomaly is therefore comparable with the axial anomaly of a two-dimensional massless Schwinger model. It is further shown that the U{sub A}(1) anomaly of QED in a strong magnetic field is closely related to the nonplanar axial anomaly of a conventional noncommutative U(1) gauge theory.

  8. Entanglement Generation by Electric Field Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahra Ebadi; Behrouz Mirza

    2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum vacuum is unstable under the influence of an external electric field and decays into pairs of charged particles, a process which is known as the Schwinger pair production. We propose and demonstrate that this electric field can generate entanglement. Using the Schwinger pair production for constant and pulsed electric fields, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spins and Dirac fermions. One can observe the variation of the entanglement produced for bosonic and fermionic modes with respect to different parameters.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: optical electric field

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electric field New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial On December 12, 2014, in Capabilities, Materials Science, News, News & Events,...

  10. Quantum Electric Field Fluctuations and Potential Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haiyun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some physical effects of time averaged quantum electric field fluctuations are discussed. The one loop radiative correction to potential scattering are approximately derived from simple arguments which invoke vacuum electric field fluctuations. For both above barrier scattering and quantum tunneling, this effect increases the transmission probability. It is argued that the shape of the potential determines a sampling function for the time averaging of the quantum electric field operator. We also suggest that there is a nonperturbative enhancement of the transmission probability which can be inferred from the probability distribution for time averaged electric field fluctuations.

  11. Thermodynamics of Blue Phases In Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Henrich; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present extensive numerical studies to determine the phase diagrams of cubic and hexagonal blue phases in an electric field. We confirm the earlier prediction that hexagonal phases, both 2 and 3 dimensional, are stabilized by a field, but we significantly refine the phase boundaries, which were previously estimated by means of a semi-analytical approximation. In particular, our simulations show that the blue phase I -- blue phase II transition at fixed chirality is largely unaffected by electric field, as observed experimentally.

  12. Electric field gradient, generalized Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient polarizabilities by multiconfigurational SCF response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    Electric field gradient, generalized Sternheimer shieldings and electric field gradient at the nuclei, the generalized Sternheimer shielding constants and the EFG electric dipole polarizabilities discussed by Egstro¨m and co-workers4 and recently in a more general way by Fowler and co-workers.5

  13. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  14. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  15. Axial interaction free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron orbits from a helical axial wiggler in an axial guide field are absolutely unstable as power is extracted from the particles. For off-axis beams an axial FEL mechanism exists when the axial electric field in a TM mode is wiggled to interact with the axial velocity of the electrons that form the beam. The interaction strength is comparable to that for helical FELs and is insensitive to beam orbit errors. The orbits for this mechanism are extremely stable in the absence of space charge and lead to high extraction efficiencies without particle phasing incoherence or interception. This interaction mechanism is suitable for use with intense annular electron beams for high power generation at microwave frequencies.

  16. Axial interaction free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron orbits from a helical axial wiggler in an axial guide field are absolutely unstable as power is extracted from the particles. For off-axis beams an axial FEL mechanism exists when the axial electric field in a TM mode is wiggled to interact with the axial velocity of the electrons that form the beam. The interaction strength is comparable to that for helical FELs and is insensitive to beam orbit errors. The orbits for this mechanism are extremely stable in the absence of space charge and lead to high extraction efficiencies without particle phasing incoherence or interception. This interaction mechanism is suitable for use with intense annular electron beams for high power generation at microwave frequencies. 5 figs.

  17. Hamiltonian dynamics of a symmetric top in external fields having axial symmetry. Levitating Orbitron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislav S. Zub; Sergiy I. Zub

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The symmetric top is a special case of the general top, and canonical Poisson structure on $T^*SE(3)$ is the common method of its description. This structure is invariant under the right action of $SO(3)$, but the Hamiltonian of the symmetric top is invariant only under the right action of subgroup $S^1$ that corresponds to the rotation around the symmetry axis of the symmetric top. So, its Poisson structure was obtained as the reduction $T^*SE(3)/S^1$. Next we propose the Hamiltonian that describes the wide class of the interaction models of symmetric top and axially-symmetric external field. The stability of the levitating Orbitron in relative equilibrium was proved.

  18. Exact analysis of particle dynamics in combined field of finite duration laser pulse and static axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamics of a charged particle is studied in the field of a relativistically intense linearly polarized finite duration laser pulse in the presence of a static axial magnetic field. For a finite duration laser pulse whose temporal shape is defined by Gaussian profile, exact analytical expressions are derived for the particle trajectory, momentum, and energy as function of laser phase. From the solutions, it is shown that, unlike for the monochromatic plane wave case, resonant phase locking time between the particle and laser pulse is finite. The net energy transferred to the particle does not increase monotonically but tends to saturate. It is further shown that appropriate tuning of cyclotron frequency of the particle with the characteristic frequency in the pulse spectrum can lead to the generation of accelerated particles with variable energies in MeV-TeV range.

  19. Dynamics of multiple viscoelastic carbon nanotube based nanocomposites with axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karli?i?, Danilo; Caji?, Milan [Mathematical Institute of the SASA, Kneza Mihaila 36, Belgrade 11001 (Serbia); Murmu, Tony [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA12BE (United Kingdom); Kozi?, Predrag [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Niš, A. Medvedeva 14, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Adhikari, Sondipon [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposites and magnetic field effects on nanostructures have received great attention in recent years. A large amount of research work was focused on developing the proper theoretical framework for describing many physical effects appearing in structures on nanoscale level. Great step in this direction was successful application of nonlocal continuum field theory of Eringen. In the present paper, the free transverse vibration analysis is carried out for the system composed of multiple single walled carbon nanotubes (MSWCNT) embedded in a polymer matrix and under the influence of an axial magnetic field. Equivalent nonlocal model of MSWCNT is adopted as viscoelastically coupled multi-nanobeam system (MNBS) under the influence of longitudinal magnetic field. Governing equations of motion are derived using the Newton second low and nonlocal Rayleigh beam theory, which take into account small-scale effects, the effect of nanobeam angular acceleration, internal damping and Maxwell relation. Explicit expressions for complex natural frequency are derived based on the method of separation of variables and trigonometric method for the “Clamped-Chain” system. In addition, an analytical method is proposed in order to obtain asymptotic damped natural frequency and the critical damping ratio, which are independent of boundary conditions and a number of nanobeams in MNBS. The validity of obtained results is confirmed by comparing the results obtained for complex frequencies via trigonometric method with the results obtained by using numerical methods. The influence of the longitudinal magnetic field on the free vibration response of viscoelastically coupled MNBS is discussed in detail. In addition, numerical results are presented to point out the effects of the nonlocal parameter, internal damping, and parameters of viscoelastic medium on complex natural frequencies of the system. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested methodology to find the closed form solutions for the free vibration response of multiple nanostructure systems under the influence of magnetic field.

  20. ECE 390 Electric & Magnetic Fields Catalog Description: Static and quasi-static electric and magnetic fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Magnetics, ECE 593 Structure: Three 80-minute lectures per week Instructors: A. Weisshaar (primaryECE 390 ­ Electric & Magnetic Fields Catalog Description: Static and quasi-static electric and magnetic fields. Credits: 4 Terms Offered: Fall Prerequisites: MTH 255, ENGR 203 (concurrent enrollment

  1. Schwinger Pair Production in Pulsed Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Remo Ruffini

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically investigate the temporal behavior and the structure of longitudinal momentum spectrum and the field polarity effect on pair production in pulsed electric fields in scalar quantum electrodynamics (QED). Using the evolution operator expressed in terms of the particle and antiparticle operators, we find the exact quantum states under the influence of electric pulses and measure the number of pairs of the Minkowski particle and antiparticle. The number of pairs, depending on the configuration of electric pulses, exhibits rich structures in the longitudinal momentum spectrum and undergoes diverse dynamical behaviors at the onset of the interaction but always either converges to a momentum-dependent constant or oscillates around a momentum-dependent time average after the completion of fields.

  2. Electric Field Quench, Equilibration and Universal Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali-Akbari, M; Sepangi, H R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electric field quench in N=2 strongly coupled gauge theory, using the AdS/CFT correspondence. To do so, we consider the aforementioned system which is subjected to a time-dependent electric field indicating an out of equilibrium system. Defining the equilibration time t_{eq}, at which the system relaxes to its final equilibrium state after injecting the energy, we find that the rescaled equilibriation time k^{-1}t_{eq} decreases as the transition time k increases. Therefore, we expect that for sufficiently large transition time, k ->infinity, the relaxation of the system to its final equilibrium can be an adiabatic process. On the other hand, we observe a universal behavior for the fast quenches, k electric field. Our calculations generalized to systems in various dimensions also confirm universalization process which seems to be a typical feature of all strongly coupled gauge theories th...

  3. Electric Field Quench, Equilibration and Universal Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ali-Akbari; S. Amiri-Sharifi; H. R. Sepangi

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study electric field quench in N=2 strongly coupled gauge theory, using the AdS/CFT correspondence. To do so, we consider the aforementioned system which is subjected to a time-dependent electric field indicating an out of equilibrium system. Defining the equilibration time t_{eq}, at which the system relaxes to its final equilibrium state after injecting the energy, we find that the rescaled equilibriation time k^{-1}t_{eq} decreases as the transition time k increases. Therefore, we expect that for sufficiently large transition time, k ->infinity, the relaxation of the system to its final equilibrium can be an adiabatic process. On the other hand, we observe a universal behavior for the fast quenches, k electric field. Our calculations generalized to systems in various dimensions also confirm universalization process which seems to be a typical feature of all strongly coupled gauge theories that admit a gravitational dual.

  4. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  5. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Riccardo; Filippone, B W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}\\mathrm{He}$ atoms at temperatures below $600 \\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, ...

  6. Motional Spin Relaxation in Large Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Schmid; B. Plaster; B. W. Filippone

    2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the precession of spin-polarized Ultra Cold Neutrons (UCN) and $^{3}$He atoms in uniform and static magnetic and electric fields and calculate the spin relaxation effects from motional $v\\times E$ magnetic fields. Particle motion in an electric field creates a motional $v\\times E$ magnetic field, which when combined with collisions, produces variations of the total magnetic field and results in spin relaxation of neutron and $^{3}$He samples. The spin relaxation times $T_{1}$ (longitudinal) and $T_{2}$ (transverse) of spin-polarized UCN and $^{3}$He atoms are important considerations in a new search for the neutron Electric Dipole Moment at the SNS \\emph{nEDM} experiment. We use a Monte Carlo approach to simulate the relaxation of spins due to the motional $v\\times E$ field for UCN and for $^{3}$He atoms at temperatures below $600,\\mathrm{mK}$. We find the relaxation times for the neutron due to the $v\\times E$ effect to be long compared to the neutron lifetime, while the $^{3}$He relaxation times may be important for the \\emph{nEDM} experiment.

  7. Electric Field Imaging Joshua Reynolds Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    Reynolds Smith Submitted to the Program in Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and PlanningElectric Field Imaging by Joshua Reynolds Smith B.A., Williams College 1991 S.M., Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1995 M.A., University of Cambridge 1997 Submitted to the Program in Media Arts

  8. Electric-field-induced flame speed modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcum, S.D. [Department of Physics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Ganguly, B.N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of pulsed and continuous DC electric fields on the reaction zones of premixed propane-air flames have been investigated using several types of experimental measurements. All observed effects on the flame are dependent on the applied voltage polarity, indicating that negatively charged flame species do not play a role in the perturbation of the reaction zone. Experiments designed to characterize the electric-field-induced modifications of the shape and size of the inner cone, and the concomitant changes in the temperature profiles of flames with equivalence ratios between 0.8 and 1.7, are also reported. High-speed two-dimensional imaging of the flame response to a pulsed DC voltage shows that the unperturbed conical flame front (laminar flow) is driven into a wrinkled laminar flamelet (cellular) geometry on a time scale of the order of 5 ms. Temperature distributions derived from thin filament pyrometry (TFP) measurements in flames perturbed by continuous DC fields show similar large changes in the reaction zone geometry, with no change in maximum flame temperature. All measurements are consistent with the observed flame perturbations being a fluid mechanical response to the applied field brought about by forcing positive flame ions counter to the flow. The resulting electric pressure decreases Lewis numbers of the ionic species and drives the effective flame Lewis number below unity. The observed increases in flame speed and the flame fronts trend toward turbulence can be described in terms of the flame front wrinkling and concomitant increase in reaction sheet area. This effect is a potentially attractive means of controlling flame fluid mechanical characteristics. The observed effects require minimal input electrical power (<1 W for a 1 kW burner) due to the much better electric field coupling achieved in the present experiments compared to the previous studies.

  9. Arrangement for measuring the field angle of a magnetic field as a function of axial position within a magnet bore tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pidcoe, Stephen V. (Bonita, CA); Zink, Roger A. (Desoto, TX); Boroski, William N. (Aurora, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An arrangement for measuring the field angle of a magnetic field as a function of axial position within a magnet bore tube of a magnet such as is used with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The arrangement includes a magnetic field alignment gauge that is carried through the magnet bore tube by a positioning shuttle in predetermined increments. The positioning shuttle includes an extensible body assembly which is actuated by an internal piston arrangement. A pair of spaced inflatable cuffs are carried by the body assembly and are selectively actuated in cooperation with pressurizing of the piston to selectively drive the positioning shuttle in an axial direction. Control of the shuttle is provided by programmed electronic computer means located exteriorly of the bore tube and which controls valves provided pressurized fluid to the inflatable cuss and the piston arrangement.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  11. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric Multiferroic Print Magnetoelectric multiferroics-materials that simultaneously show some form of magnetic and...

  12. Electronic Phase Control with an Electric Field | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Phase Control with an Electric Field Wednesday, April 29, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Hongtao Yuan, Stanford University Program...

  13. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Feldman, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  14. Electric field effects in liquid crystals with dielectric dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D. [Kent State University

    2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is focused on the experimental and theoretical exploration of the coupling of an externally applied electric field and a nematic liquid crystal.

  15. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally-unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of ...

  16. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ki Ha (Lafayette, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  17. Quantitative, directional measurement of electric field heterogeneity in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Steven G.

    Quantitative, directional measurement of electric field heterogeneity in the active site SUMMARY Extensive structural studies of enzymes have revealed that biological catalysis occurs within substantial electrostatic field heterogeneity, widely differing sensitivities of discrete probes to a set

  18. Radial electric field 3D modeling for wire arrays driving dynamic hohlraums on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anode-cathode structure of the Z-machine wire array results in a higher negative radial electric field (Er) on the wires near the cathode relative to the anode. The magnitude of this field has been shown to anti-correlate with the axial radiation top/bottom symmetry in the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum). Using 3D modeling, the structure of this field is revealed for different wire-array configurations and for progressive mechanical alterations, providing insight for minimizing the negative Er on the wire array in the anode-to-cathode region of the DH. Also, the 3D model is compared to Sasorov's approximation, which describes Er at the surface of the wire in terms of wire-array parameters.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM A STRONG DC ELECTRIC FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guedel, Manuel

    ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM A STRONG DC ELECTRIC FIELD Manuel G¨udel 1 and Donat G. Wentzel 2 1 accelerated by a strong dc electric field show not only very efficient generation of beam waves but also emission of o­mode radiation. We present a set of particle simulations for which we study the behavior

  20. Electric Field Quench in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Hashimoto; Shunichiro Kinoshita; Keiju Murata; Takashi Oka

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric field quench, a suddenly applied electric field, can induce nontrivial dynamics in confining systems which may lead to thermalization as well as a deconfinement transition. In order to analyze this nonequilibrium transitions,we use the AdS/CFT correspondence for $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric QCD that has a confining meson sector. We find that the electric field quench causes the deconfinement transition even when the magnitude of the applied electric field is smaller than the critical value for the static case (which is the QCD Schwinger limit for quark-antiquark pair creation). The time dependence is crucial for this phenomenon, and the gravity dual explains it as an oscillation of a D-brane in the bulk AdS spacetime. Interestingly, the deconfinement time takes only discrete values as a function of the magnitude of the electric field. We advocate that the new deconfinement phenomenon is analogous to the exciton Mott transition.

  1. Electric and magnetic fields and field derivatives from lightning stepped leaders and first return strokes measured at distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Electric and magnetic fields and field derivatives from lightning stepped leaders and first return; published 5 September 2008. [1] Using electric and magnetic field and field derivative sensors arrayed over-peak width of the stepped-leader/return-stroke electric field waveform; the stepped-leader electric field

  2. Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Blagojevi?; B. Cvetkovi?

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.

  3. Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.

  4. Blade tip clearance effect on the performance and flow field of a three stage axial turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Fattah, Sharef Aly

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a 1.5 % blade tip clearance on a rotating three stage turbine under different operating points was investigated using radially and circumferentially traversed five hole pressure probes. The probes were used to obtain flow field total...

  5. The hydrogen atom in plasmas with an external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahar, M. K. [Department of Physics, Karamano?lu Mehmetbey University, 70100 Karaman (Turkey); Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Ni?de University, 51240 Ni?de (Turkey)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically solve the Schrödinger equation, using a more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential with an electric field, in order to investigate the screening and weak external electric field effects on the hydrogen atom in plasmas. The MGECSC potential is examined for four different cases, corresponding to different screening parameters of the potential and the external electric field. The influences of the different screening parameters and the weak external electric field on the energy eigenvalues are determined by solving the corresponding equations using the asymptotic iteration method (AIM). It is found that the corresponding energy values shift when a weak external electric field is applied to the hydrogen atom in a plasma. This study shows that a more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential allows the influence of an applied, weak, external electric field on the hydrogen atom to be investigated in detail, for both Debye and quantum plasmas simultaneously. This suggests that such a potential would be useful in modeling similar effects in other applications of plasma physics, and that AIM is an appropriate method for solving the Schrödinger equation, the solution of which becomes more complex due to the use of the MGECSC potential with an applied external electric field.

  6. Molecular-scale measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Carl C.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially resolved measurements of electric fields at electrochemical interfaces would be a critical step toward further understanding and modeling the detailed structure of electric double layers. The goal of this project was to perform proof-of-principle experiments to demonstrate the use of field-sensitive dyes for optical measurements of fields in electrochemical systems. A confocal microscope was developed that provides sensitive detection of the lifetime and high resolution spectra of excited fluorescence for dyes tethered to electrically conductive surfaces. Excited state lifetimes for the dyes were measured and found to be relatively unquenched when linked to indium tin oxide, but strongly quenched on gold surfaces. However, our fluorescence detection is sufficiently sensitive to measure spectra of submonolayer dye coatings even when the fluorescence was strongly quenched. Further work to create dye labeled interfaces on flat, uniform and durable substrates is necessary to make electric field measurements at interfaces using field sensitive dyes.

  7. Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, Markus A [ORNL; Pester, Christian W [ORNL; Langner, Karol M [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Sevink, Geert [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Schoberth, Heiko [University of Bayreuth; Schmidt, Kristin [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Boker, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

  8. Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures at low fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Electric field dependent radiative decay kinetics of polar InGaN/GaN quantum heterostructures with increasing external electric field, with the radiative component exhibiting weaker field dependence. © 2009 applied electric field in Ref. 12, the electric field dependent radiative recombination in particular has

  9. EFFECT OF FIELD POLARITY IN GUIDING SALMON FINGERLINGS BY ELECTRICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in limited quantities for bfficial use of Federal, State or cooperating agencies and In processed form319 EFFECT OF FIELD POLARITY IN GUIDING SALMON FINGERLINGS BY ELECTRICITY SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT SALMON FINGERLINGS BY ELECTRICITY by H. William Newman Fishery Research Biologist Bureau of Commercial

  10. Semiclassical pair production rate for rotating electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckhard Strobel; She-Sheng Xue

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We semiclassically investigate Schwinger pair production for pulsed rotating electric fields depending on time. To do so we solve the Dirac equation for two-component fields in a WKB-like approximation. The result shows that for two-component fields the spin distribution of produced pairs is generally not $1:1$. As a result the pair creation rates of spinor and scalar quantum electro dynamics (QED) are different even for one pair of turning points. For rotating electric fields the pair creation rate is dominated by particles with a specific spin depending on the sense of rotation for a certain range of pulse lengths and frequencies. We present an analytical solution for the momentum spectrum of the constant rotating field. We find interference effects not only in the momentum spectrum but also in the total particle number of rotating electric fields.

  11. Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum gaps with small tunnel currents at large electric field and its potential applications for energy storage, charge storage and power supplies. Friday, May 27, 2011 - 4:00pm...

  12. The effect of a radial electric field on ripple-trapped ions observed by neutral particle fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)] [VTT Energy, Euratom-TEKES Association, P.O. Box 1604, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Herrmann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik--EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kurki-Suonio, T. [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)] [Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Euratom-TEKES Association, FIN-02150 Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a radial electric field on nonthermal ripple-trapped ions is investigated using toroidal Monte Carlo simulations for edge tokamak plasmas. The increase in the neutral particle flux from the ions trapped in local magnetic wells observed by the charge exchange (CX) detector at a low confinement to high confinement transition at ASDEX (Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment). Upgrade tokamak [{ital Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics}, Lisbon (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, 1993), Vol. 17C, Part I, p. 267] is reproduced in the simulations by turning on a radial electric field near the plasma periphery. The poloidal and toroidal angles at which the CX detector signal is most sensitive to the radial electric field are determined. A fast response time of the signal in the range of 50{endash}100 {mu}s to the appearance of the electric field can be found in the simulations with a relatively large half-width of the negative electric field region. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Polyelectrolytes polarization in non-uniform electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farnoush Farahpour; Fathollah Varnik; Mohammad Reza Ejtehadi

    2014-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Stretching dynamics of polymers in microfluidics is of particular interest for polymer scientists. As a charged polymer, a polyelectrolyte can be deformed from its coiled equilibrium configuration to an extended chain by applying uniform or non-uniform electric fields. By means of hybrid lattice Boltzmann-molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate how the condensed counterions around the polyelectrolyte contribute to the polymer stretching in inhomogeneous fields. As an application, we discuss the translocation phenomena and entropic traps, when the driving force is an applied external electric field.

  14. Carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers in electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field dependence of charge carrier transport and the effect of carrier heating in disordered conjugated polymers were investigated. A parameter-free multiscale methodology consisting of classical molecular dynamics simulation for the generation of the atomic structure, large system electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling constants calculations and the procedure for extracting the bulk polymer mobility, was used. The results suggested that the mobility of a fully disordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer increases with electric field which is consistent with the experimental results on samples of regiorandom P3HT and different from the results on more ordered regioregular P3HT polymers, where the opposite trend is often observed at low electric fields. We calculated the electric field dependence of the effective carrier temperature and showed however that the effective temperature cannot be used to replace the joint effect of temperature and electric field, in contrast to previous theoretical results from phenomenological models. Such a difference was traced to originate from the use of simplified Miller-Abrahams hopping rates in phenomenological models in contrast to our considerations that explicitly take into account the electronic state wave functions and the interaction with all phonon modes.

  15. Axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions in the dense plasma focus are natural consequences of conservation laws in the curved axisymmetric geometry of the current sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auluck, S. K. H. [Physics Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct measurement of axial magnetic field in the PF-1000 dense plasma focus (DPF), and its reported correlation with neutron emission, call for a fresh look at previous reports of existence of axial magnetic field component in the DPF from other laboratories, and associated data suggesting toroidal directionality of fast ions participating in fusion reactions, with a view to understand the underlying physics. In this context, recent work dealing with application of the hyperbolic conservation law formalism to the DPF is extended in this paper to a curvilinear coordinate system, which reflects the shape of the DPF current sheath. Locally unidirectional shock propagation in this coordinate system enables construction of a system of 7 one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations with geometric source terms, taking into account all the components of magnetic field and flow velocity. Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for this system lead to expressions for the axial magnetic field and three components of fluid velocity having high ion kinetic energy.

  16. Instability of wave modes in a two-stream free-electron laser with a helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohsenpour, Taghi; Mehrabi, Narges [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion relation of a two-stream free-electron laser (TSFEL) with a one-dimensional helical wiggler and an axial magnetic field is studied. Also, all relativistic effects on the space-charge wave and radiation are considered. This dispersion relation is solved numerically to find the unstable interaction among the all wave modes. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate is considerably enhanced in comparison with single-stream FEL. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams on the two-stream instability and the FEL resonance is investigated. The maximum growth rate of FEL resonance is investigated numerically as a function of the axial magnetic field.

  17. Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Vesicles in DC Electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebrahim M. Kolahdouz; David Salac

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical and systematic parameter study of three-dimensional vesicle electrohydrodynamics is presented to investigate the effects of different fluid and membrane properties. The dynamics of vesicles in the presence of DC electric fields is considered, both in the presence and absence of linear shear flow. For suspended vesicles it is shown that the conductivity ratio and viscosity ratio between the interior and exterior fluids, as well as the vesicle membrane capacitance, substantially affect the minimum electric field strength required to induce a full Prolate-Oblate-Prolate transition.In addition, there exists a critical electric field strength above which a vesicle will no longer tumble when exposed to linear shear flow.

  18. Method of using an electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.C.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figures.

  19. Polarizable vacuum analysis of electric and magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing-Hao Ye

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric and magnetic fields are investigated on the basis of quantum vacuum. The analysis of the electromagnetic energy and force indicates that an electric field is a polarized distribution of the vacuum virtual dipoles, and that a magnetic field in vacuum is a rearrangement of the vacuum polarization. It means that an electromagnetic wave is a successional changing of the vacuum polarization in space. Also, it is found that the average half length of the virtual dipoles around an elementary charge is a=2.8 *10^(-15)m. The result leads to the step distribution of the field energy around an electron, the relation between the fine structure constant and the vacuum polarization distribution, and an extremely high energy density of the electromagnetic field.

  20. Improved Approximations for Fermion Pair Production in Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Don N. Page

    2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reformulating the instantons in a complex plane for tunneling or transmitting states, we calculate the pair-production rate of charged fermions in a spatially localized electric field, illustrated by the Sauter electric field E_0 sech^2 (z/L), and in a temporally localized electric field such as E_0 sech^2 (t/T). The integration of the quadratic part of WKB instanton actions over the frequency and transverse momentum leads to the pair-production rate obtained by the worldline instanton method, including the prefactor, of Phys. Rev. D72, 105004 (2005) and D73, 065028 (2006). It is further shown that the WKB instanton action plus the next-to-leading order contribution in spinor QED equals the WKB instanton action in scalar QED, thus justifying why the WKB instanton in scalar QED can work for the pair production of fermions. Finally we obtain the pair-production rate in a spatially localized electric field together with a constant magnetic field in the same direction.

  1. Field examples of electrical resistivity changes during steamflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansure, A.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Meldau, R.F.; Weyland, H.V.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An essential part of using electrical geodiagnostic techniques to map thermal recovery processes is understanding the relationship between the process and the formation resistivity. This paper shows how the relationship used to interpret electrical well logs can be used to understand steamflood resistivity changes. Examples are presented of data from steamfloods in fields with different reservoir characteristics. Included is a typical heavy-oil steamflood (Kern River field) and a steamflood where fresh water is used for the steam generator feedwater (Elk Hills field). Because of differences in reservoir characteristics, changes in resistivity vary from reservoir to reservoir. The information presented include well logs taken before and after steamflooding and petrophysical measurements sufficient to determine the factors that controlled the resistivity changes in each field.

  2. Radiation from electrons in graphene in strong electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Yokomizo

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the interaction of electrons in graphene with the quantized electromagnetic field in the presence of an applied uniform electric field using the Dirac model of graphene. Electronic states are represented by exact solutions of the Dirac equation in the electric background, and amplitudes of first-order Feynman diagrams describing the interaction with the photon field are calculated for massive Dirac particles in both valleys. Photon emission probabilities from a single electron and from a many-electron system at the charge neutrality point are derived, including the angular and frequency dependence, and several limiting cases are analyzed. The pattern of photon emission at the Dirac point in a strong field is determined by an interplay between the nonperturbative creation of electron-hole pairs and spontaneous emission, allowing for the possibility of observing the Schwinger effect in measurements of the radiation emitted by pristine graphene under DC voltage.

  3. Generated using version 3.1.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Electric Field Reversal in Sprite Electric Field Signature1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hager, William

    Electric Field Signature1 Richard G. Sonnenfeld Langmuir Laboratory and Physics Department, New Mexico trigonometry), resulting in a net positive39 electric field at the observer. The intermediate point between P1Generated using version 3.1.2 of the official AMS LATEX template Electric Field Reversal in Sprite

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026704 (2011) Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: Direct coupling of electric fields to a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at very high electric fields, as well as the general behavior of a metal surface in this conditionPHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026704 (2011) Atomistic modeling of metal surfaces under electric fields: Direct coupling of electric fields to a molecular dynamics algorithm F. Djurabekova,* S. Parviainen, A

  5. Noncommuting Electric Fields and Algebraic Consistency in Noncommutative Gauge theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin Banerjee

    2003-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that noncommuting electric fields occur naturally in $\\theta$-expanded noncommutative gauge theories. Using this noncommutativity, which is field dependent, and a hamiltonian generalisation of the Seiberg-Witten Map, the algebraic consistency in the lagrangian and hamiltonian formulations of these theories, is established. A comparison of results in different descriptions shows that this generalised map acts as canonical transformation in the physical subspace only. Finally, we apply the hamiltonian formulation to derive the gauge symmetries of the action.

  6. DIVERSION OF ADULT SALMON BY AN ELECTRICAL FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVERSION OF ADULT SALMON BY AN ELECTRICAL FIELD Marine Biological Laboratory : -1958 WOODS HOLE or legislative action. It is issued in limited quantities for official use of Federal, State or cooperating agencies and in processed form for economy and to avoid delay in publication . #12;United States Department

  7. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri Kornyushin

    2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  8. Video-rate terahertz electric-field vector imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takai, Mayuko; Takeda, Masatoshi; Sasaki, Manabu; Tachizaki, Takehiro; Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi, E-mail: watanabe@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental setup to dramatically reduce a measurement time for obtaining spatial distributions of terahertz electric-field (E-field) vectors. The method utilizes the electro-optic sampling, and we use a charge-coupled device to detect a spatial distribution of the probe beam polarization rotation by the E-field-induced Pockels effect in a ?110?-oriented ZnTe crystal. A quick rotation of the ZnTe crystal allows analyzing the terahertz E-field direction at each image position, and the terahertz E-field vector mapping at a fixed position of an optical delay line is achieved within 21 ms. Video-rate mapping of terahertz E-field vectors is likely to be useful for achieving real-time sensing of terahertz vector beams, vector vortices, and surface topography. The method is also useful for a fast polarization analysis of terahertz beams.

  9. Electric Fields and Chiral Magnetic Effect in Cu + Au Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Tian Deng; Xu-Guang Huang

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-central Cu + Au collisions can create strong out-of-plane magnetic fields and in-plane electric fields. By using the HIJING model, we study the general properties of the electromagnetic fields in Cu + Au collisions at 200 GeV and their impacts on the charge-dependent two-particle correlator $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}=$ (see main text for definition) which was used for the detection of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Compared with Au + Au collisions, we find that the in-plane electric fields in Cu + Au collisions can strongly suppress the two-particle correlator or even reverse its sign if the lifetime of the electric fields is long. Combining with the expectation that if $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$ is induced by elliptic-flow driven effects we would not see such strong suppression or reversion, our results suggest to use Cu + Au collisions to test CME and understand the mechanisms that underlie $\\gamma_{q_1q_2}$.

  10. Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis Romain Couillet, Samir M interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil- electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting electricity peak demand. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEV

  11. Electric Field in a Double Layer and the Imparted Momentum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruchtman, A. [Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the net momentum delivered by the large electric field inside a one-dimensional double layer is zero. This is demonstrated through an analysis of the momentum balance in the double layer at the boundary between the ionosphere and the aurora cavity. For the recently observed double layer in a current-free plasma expanding along a divergent magnetic field, an analysis of the evolution of the radially averaged variables shows that the increase of plasma thrust results from the magnetic-field pressure balancing the plasma pressure in the direction of acceleration, rather than from electrostatic pressure.

  12. Estimating of pulsed electric fields using optical measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, Timothy McGuire; Chantler, Gary R.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed optical electric field measurements ion nanosecond time scales using the electrooptic crystal beta barium borate (BBO). Tests were based on a preliminary bench top design intended to be a proofofprinciple stepping stone towards a modulardesign optical Efield diagnostic that has no metal in the interrogated environment. The long term goal is to field a modular version of the diagnostic in experiments on large scale xray source facilities, or similarly harsh environments.

  13. Study of the electric field formation in a multi-cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui, E-mail: hlying@gmail.com; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [Lab of Plasma Propulsion, Mail Box 458, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yinjian; Ma, Chengyu; Wang, Di; Wei, Haoyu [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-cusped field thruster is a kind of electric thruster adopting a cusped magnetic field to achieve a potentially longer lifetime. It is observed in some experiments that the main electric potential drop forms near the exhaust plane, but the formation mechanism of the electric field in this kind of thrusters is not fully clear yet. Based on the analysis of the electron movement, a 2D Particle-in-Cell plus Monte Carlo model is built to reveal the difference of the constraint to electrons between the central leak path and the lateral region of the thruster. Electron trajectories from cathode are analyzed furthermore. It is found that the central leak path inside the discharge channel may play a significant role in the formation of the main electric potential drop near the exhaust plane.

  14. Tuning linear and nonlinear optical properties of wurtzite GaN by c-axial stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Duanjun; 10.1088/0022-3727/42/18/185107

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the linear and nonlinear optical properties of wurtzite GaN under c-axial stress field, using density functional theory calculations. The fully structural optimization at each c-axial strain was performed. The calculated dielectric functions show that tensile c-axial strain effectively improves the linear optical efficiency, especially for the band-edge transitions, and significantly increase the mobility of electrons in the conduction band. Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities show that the tensile c-axial strain will enhance the zero- and low-frequency nonlinear responses of GaN. The enhancement of the nonlinear optical property is explained by the reduction of the polarization of wurtzite GaN under tensile c-axial strains. Based on these findings, we propose a method for improving the electrical and optical properties of the crystal through imposing appropriate stress on the high symmetry crystalline directions.

  15. The effect of electric fields upon liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of mass transfer studies were conducted for the extraction of solute from droplets falling in an electric field. The experiments were planned such that the dispersed phase resistance was controlling. In one series of experiments single drops were formed from a charged nozzle and allowed to fall through a continuous, dielectric phase. The drop size and velocity were correlated by means of a simple force balance. Drop mass transfer coefficients were calculated for the drop free fall period and were compared to predictions based upon literature correlations for an oscillating droplet in-the absence of an electric field. Droplet size and velocity were approximately predicted by a staple force balance whereas the mass transfer coefficient was approximately 25--250% higher than that predicted. Droplet extraction efficiencies Increased about 20--30% in the presence of electric fields up to 2 kv/cm. For the same field, the drop diameter decreased 30--50% and the terminal velocity increased by up to 50%. The enhancements for the toluene-water system can be ascribed to increases in terminal velocity and decreases in drop diameter. The mass transfer model for freely falling drops proposed by Skelland and Wellek roughly predicts the moderate mass transfer efficiency increases (about 18% at 1 kv/cm) for the toluene water system but failed to predict the increases (about 25% at 0.5 kv/cm) for the heptane furfural system. The second series of experiments involved the formation of a swarm of droplets In a three stage sieve tray column. In a separate series of experiments. the effect of the electric field upon mass transfer from drops exhibiting interfacial turbulence was evaluated.

  16. The effect of electric fields upon liquid extraction. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of mass transfer studies were conducted for the extraction of solute from droplets falling in an electric field. The experiments were planned such that the dispersed phase resistance was controlling. In one series of experiments single drops were formed from a charged nozzle and allowed to fall through a continuous, dielectric phase. The drop size and velocity were correlated by means of a simple force balance. Drop mass transfer coefficients were calculated for the drop free fall period and were compared to predictions based upon literature correlations for an oscillating droplet in-the absence of an electric field. Droplet size and velocity were approximately predicted by a staple force balance whereas the mass transfer coefficient was approximately 25--250% higher than that predicted. Droplet extraction efficiencies Increased about 20--30% in the presence of electric fields up to 2 kv/cm. For the same field, the drop diameter decreased 30--50% and the terminal velocity increased by up to 50%. The enhancements for the toluene-water system can be ascribed to increases in terminal velocity and decreases in drop diameter. The mass transfer model for freely falling drops proposed by Skelland and Wellek roughly predicts the moderate mass transfer efficiency increases (about 18% at 1 kv/cm) for the toluene water system but failed to predict the increases (about 25% at 0.5 kv/cm) for the heptane furfural system. The second series of experiments involved the formation of a swarm of droplets In a three stage sieve tray column. In a separate series of experiments. the effect of the electric field upon mass transfer from drops exhibiting interfacial turbulence was evaluated.

  17. NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    WEIF-49 NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC>;ics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2OY@-4lll, USA Abstract We describe the near-field scanning methods of scanning probe microscopy have been developed. Generally spea- king one can divide

  18. Acceleration of electric current-carrying string loop near a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arman Tursunov; Martin Kološ; Zden?k Stuchlík; Bobomurat Ahmedov

    2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the acceleration of an electric current-carrying and axially-symmetric string loop initially oscillating in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field. The plane of the string loop is orthogonal to the magnetic field lines and the acceleration of the string loop occurs due to the transmutation effect turning in the deep gravitational field the internal energy of the oscillating strings to the energy of their translational motion along the axis given by the symmetry of the black hole spacetime and the magnetic field. We restrict our attention to the motion of string loop with energy high enough, when it can overcome the gravitational attraction and escape to infinity. We demonstrate that for the current-carrying string loop the transmutation effect is enhanced by the contribution of the interaction between the electric current of the string loop and the external magnetic field and we give conditions that have to be fulfilled for an efficient acceleration. The Schwarzschild black hole combined with the strong external magnetic field can accelerate the current-carrying string loop up to the velocities close to the speed of light $v \\sim c$. Therefore, the string loop transmutation effect can potentially well serve as an explanation for acceleration of highly relativistic jets observed in microquasars and active galactic nuclei.

  19. Gas storage and separation by electric field swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P; Obrey, Stephen J; Devlin, David J; Sansinena, Jose Maria

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gases are stored, separated, and/or concentrated. An electric field is applied across a porous dielectric adsorbent material. A gas component from a gas mixture may be selectively separated inside the energized dielectric. Gas is stored in the energized dielectric for as long as the dielectric is energized. The energized dielectric selectively separates, or concentrates, a gas component of the gas mixture. When the potential is removed, gas from inside the dielectric is released.

  20. Measuring Helical FCG Voltage with an Electric Field Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, A D; Anderson, R A; Javedani, J B; Reisman, D B; Goerz, D A; Ferriera, A J; Speer, R D

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring the voltage produced by a helical explosive flux compression generator using a remote electric field antenna is described in detail. The diagnostic has been successfully implemented on several experiments. Measured data from the diagnostic compare favorably with voltages predicted using the code CAGEN, validating our predictive modeling tools. The measured data is important to understanding generator performance, and is measured with a low-risk, minimally intrusive approach.

  1. Electric field unbinding of solid-supported lipid multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doru Constantin; Christoph Ollinger; Michael Vogel; Tim Salditt

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied by X-ray reflectivity the behaviour of fully hydrated solid-supported lipid multilayers under the influence of a transverse electric field, under conditions routinely used in the electroformation process. The kinetics of sample loss (unbinding) was measured as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the applied field by monitoring the integrated intensity of the Bragg peaks. We also performed a time-resolved analysis of the intensity of the first Bragg peak and characterized the final state of the sample.

  2. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: EfficientMultiferroic Electric Field

  3. Dynamics of lysozyme and its hydration water under electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Favi; Q. Zhang; H. O'Neill; E. Mamontov; S. O. Diallo

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of static electric field on the dynamics of lysozyme and its hydration water have been investigated by means of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). Measurements were performed on lysozyme samples, hydrated respectively with heavy water (D2O) to capture the protein dynamics, and with light water (H2O), to probe the dynamics of the hydration shell, in the temperature range from 210 $hydration fraction in both cases was about $\\sim$ 0.38 gram of water per gram of dry protein. The field strengths investigated were respectively 0 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm (2 10$^6$ V/m) for the protein hydrated with D2O and 0 kV and 1 kV/mm for the H2O hydrated counterpart. While the overall internal protons dynamics of the protein appears to be unaffected by the application of electric field up to 2 kV/mm, likely due to the stronger intra-molecular interactions, there is also no appreciable quantitative enhancement of the diffusive dynamics of the hydration water, as would be anticipated based on our recent observations in water confined in silica pores under field values of 2.5 kV/mm. This may be due to the difference in surface interactions between water and the two adsorption hosts (silica and protein), or to the existence of a critical threshold field value Ec $\\sim$ 2-3 kV/mm for increased molecular diffusion, for which electrical breakdown is a limitation for our sample.

  4. A note on axial symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Beetle; Shawn Wilder

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This note describes a local scheme to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period $2 \\pi$. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties.

  5. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature...

  6. A mean field game analysis of electric vehicles in the smart grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A mean field game analysis of electric vehicles in the smart grid Romain Couillet1, Samir Medina electrical vehicles (EV) or electrical hybrid oil-electricity vehicles (PHEV) in the smart grid energy market It is widely recognized [1], [2], [3] that the future intense penetration of electrical vehicles (EV) and plug

  7. Parallel electric field generation by Alfven wave turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, N H; Brown, J C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    {This work aims to investigate the spectral structure of the parallel electric field generated by strong anisotropic and balanced Alfvenic turbulence in relation with the problem of electron acceleration from the thermal population in solar flare plasma conditions.} {We consider anisotropic Alfvenic fluctuations in the presence of a strong background magnetic field. Exploiting this anisotropy, a set of reduced equations governing non-linear, two-fluid plasma dynamics is derived. The low-$\\beta$ limit of this model is used to follow the turbulent cascade of the energy resulting from the non-linear interaction between kinetic Alfven waves, from the large magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) scales with $k_{\\perp}\\rho_{s}\\ll 1$ down to the small "kinetic" scales with $k_{\\perp}\\rho_{s} \\gg 1$, $\\rho_{s}$ being the ion sound gyroradius.} {Scaling relations are obtained for the magnitude of the turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations, as a function of $k_{\\perp}$ and $k_{\\parallel}$, showing that the electric field develops ...

  8. Tokamak with liquid metal for inducing toroidal electrical field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tokamak apparatus includes a vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within said vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner confines gas therein. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside the liner. A magnetic field is established in the liquid metal to develop magnetic flux linking the toroidal space. The gas is ionized. The liquid metal and the toroidal space are moved relative to one another transversely of the space to generate electric current in the ionized gas in the toroidal space about its major axis and thereby heat plasma developed in the toroidal space.

  9. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: Efficient WaterMultiferroic Electric

  10. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: EfficientMultiferroic Electric

  11. Radiative acceleration and transient, radiation-induced electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zampieri; R. Turolla; L. Foschini; A. Treves

    2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiative acceleration of particles and the electrostatic potential fields that arise in low density plasmas hit by radiation produced by a transient, compact source are investigated. We calculate the dynamical evolution and asymptotic energy of the charged particles accelerated by the photons and the radiation-induced electric double layer in the full relativistic, Klein-Nishina regime. For fluxes in excess of $10^{27}$ ${\\rm erg} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$, the radiative force on a diluted plasma ($n\\la 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$) is so strong that electrons are accelerated rapidly to relativistic speeds while ions lag behind owing to their larger inertia. The ions are later effectively accelerated by the strong radiation-induced double layer electric field up to Lorentz factors $\\approx 100$, attainable in the case of negligible Compton drag. The asymptotic energies achieved by both ions and electrons are larger by a factor 2--4 with respect to what one could naively expect assuming that the electron-ion assembly is a rigidly coupled system. The regime we investigate may be relevant within the framework of giant flares from soft gamma-repeaters.

  12. On the Influence of Weak Magnetic and Electric Fields on the Fluctuations of Ionic Electric Currents in Blood Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakirjon Kanokov; Juern W. P. Schmelzer; Avazbek K. Nasirov

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of a variety of existing experimental data leads to the conclusion on the existence of a resonance mechanism allowing weak magnetic fields to affect biological processes. These fields may either be static magnetic fields comparable in magnitude with the magnetic field of the earth or weak ultra-low frequency time-dependent fields. So far, a generally accepted theoretical model allowing one to understand the effect of magnetic and electric fields on biological processes is not available. By this reason, it is not clear which characteristics of the fields, like magnetic and electric field strength, frequency of change of the field, shape of the electromagnetic wave, the duration of the magnetic or electric influence or some particular combination of them, are responsible for the biological effect. In the present analysis it is shown that external time-independent magnetic fields may cause a resonance amplification of ionic electric currents in biological tissues and, in particular, in the vasculature system due to a Brownian motion of charges. These resonance electric currents may cause necrotic changes in the tissues or blood circulation and in this way significantly affect the biological organism. The magnitude of the magnetic fields leading to resonance effects is estimated, it is shown that it depends significantly on the radius of the blood capillaries.

  13. Molecular Surgery with Pulsed Electric Fields: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanopore Formation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Molecular Surgery with Pulsed Electric Fields: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanopore Formation Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, §Department of Electrical Engineering of water molecules spanning the membrane, decay within a few nanoseconds when the electric field is removed

  14. Effective zero-thickness model for a conductive membrane driven by an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    The behavior of a conductive membrane in a static (dc) electric field is investigated theoretically. An effective zero-thickness model is constructed based on a Robin-type boundary condition for the electric potential at ...

  15. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and electric polarization in a single-phase material. The control of the magnetic of the two interactions. Moderate biaxial compression precipitates local magnetic competition

  16. Debye size microprobes for electric field measurements in laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pribyl, P.; Gekelman, W.; Nakamoto, M.; Lawrence, E.; Chiang, F.; Stillman, J.; Judy, J.; Katz, N.; Kintner, P.; Niknejadi, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachussetts (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Cal Poly, Pomona, California 91768 (United States)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have led to the development of a host of tiny machines and sensors over the past decade. Plasma physics is in great need of small detectors for several reasons. First of all, very small detectors do not disturb a plasma, and secondly some detectors can only work because they are very small. We report on the first of a series of small (sub-Debye length) probes for laboratory plasmas undertaken at the basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA. The goal of the work is to develop robust and sensitive diagnostic probes that can survive in a plasma. The probes must have electronics packages in close proximity. We report on the construction and testing of probes that measure the electric field.

  17. Kerr electro-optic measurements for electric field and space charge distributions using similar and dissimilar electrode pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowocin, John Kendall

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical breakdown strength of insulating materials is a major limiting factor of reliability in electric power, medical devices, and other high electric field applications. Electrical breakdown strength increase ...

  18. Notes on Gauss law applied for time varying electric field in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhakatayev, Altay

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gauss's law in integral form states that closed surface integral of electric field is proportional to net charge present within the volume bounded by this closed surface. Gauss's law in differential form states that divergence of electric field is proportional to charge's volume density. From Gauss's law it is concluded that in vacuum, where no electric charges are present, divergence of electric field and closed surface integral of electric field are zero. In this paper we make an attempt to theoretically prove that for time-varying electric fields Gauss's law is not valid. In other words, for time-varying electric field even in vacuum divergence of electric field and closed surface integral of electric field are non-zero. We do this by considering simple sinusoidal motion of the charge and then by calculating closed surface integral at specific time of time-varying electric field due to charge motion. Results show that for charges at still and at motion with constant velocity Gauss's law is valid. However f...

  19. The electromagnetic fields and the radiation of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Lazar

    2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric and magnetic fields of a spatio-temporally varying electric current loop are calculated using the Jefimenko equations. The radiation and the nonradiation parts of the electromagnetic fields are derived in the framework of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic fields. In this way, a new, exact, analytical solution of the Maxwell equation is found.

  20. Creation of vector bosons by an electric field in curved spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kangal, E. Ersin; Yanar, Hilmi; Havare, Ali; Sogut, Kenan, E-mail: kenansogut@gmail.com

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the creation rate of massive spin-1 bosons in the de Sitter universe by a time-dependent electric field via the Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau (DKP) equation. Complete solutions are given by the Whittaker functions and particle creation rate is computed by using the Bogoliubov transformation technique. We analyze the influence of the electric field on the particle creation rate for the strong and vanishing electric fields. We show that the electric field amplifies the creation rate of charged, massive spin-1 particles. This effect is analyzed by considering similar calculations performed for scalar and spin-1/2 particles. -- Highlights: •Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau equation is solved exactly in the presence of an electrical field. •Solutions were made in (1+1)-dimensional curved spacetime. •Particle creation rate for the de Sitter model is calculated. •Pure gravitational or pure electrical field effect on the creation rate is analyzed.

  1. A small unperturbing probe for the measurement and mapping of electric fields at extremely low frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrekenhamer, Abraham

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by means of optical fibers to eliminate perturbation of the measured electric field. The instrument utilizes the phenomenon of charge induction in con- ductors in the presence of an electric field. The charge induced on the exterior of the probe... conceptual circuit for electric field to analog voltage conversion. . 29 15 Induced-charge to analog-voltage converter. . . 35 16 Probe component layout . 36 17 Axis selector, optoelectronic converter and battery switching circuits. 18 Receiver...

  2. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields in the Waianae, Hawaii area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantiply, E.D.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During November 27--30, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement survey of electric and magnetic field levels along the southwest coast of Oahu, Hawaii. These measurements were requested by the State of Hawaii to determine the levels of radiofrequency (RF) electric and magnetic fields near Naval radio transmitters at Lualualei. The objective was to determine maximum fields in residential areas. This report documents the measurement results. Also, a few measurements were made of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields at 60 hertz, the frequency used for electrical power.

  3. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  4. Development of a 2D Analytical Model for the Electromagnetic Computation of Axial-Field Magnetic Gears

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , they present many advantages compared to mechanical gearboxes such as low acoustic noise, low vibrations geometry such as coaxial magnetic gear [17], [18] or radial-field PMs motors with semi-closed slots [19], [20]. In these cases, the slots are open on two sides (tooth-tips for PMs motors), hence the problem

  5. Field Labeling to Ensure the Electrical Safety of Production Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Todd

    2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that all equipment that uses electrical power be certified as electrically safe by a Nationally Recognized Testing Lab (NRTL) or Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to being...

  6. Electron-positron pair oscillation in spatially inhomogeneous electric fields and radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Biao Han; Remo Ruffini; She-Sheng Xue

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that strong electric fields produce electron and positron pairs from the vacuum, and due to the back-reaction these pairs oscillate back and forth coherently with the alternating electric fields in time. We study this phenomenon in spatially inhomogeneous and bound electric fields by integrating the equations of energymomentum and particle-number conservations and Maxwell equations. The space and time evolutions of the pair-induced electric field, electric charge- and currentdensities are calculated. The results show that non-vanishing electric charge-density and the propagation of pair-induced electric fields, differently from the case of homogeneous and unbound electric fields. The space and time variations of pair-induced electric charges and currents emit an electromagnetic radiation. We obtain the narrow spectrum and intensity of this radiation, whose peak {\\omega}peak locates in the region around 4 KeV for electric field strength \\sim Ec. We discuss their relevances to both the laboratory experiments for electron and positron pair-productions and the astrophysical observations of compact stars with an electromagnetic structure.

  7. Reaction-Diffusion systems for the microscopic cellular model of the cardiac electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veneroni, Marco

    Reaction-Diffusion systems for the microscopic cellular model of the cardiac electric field Marco-diffusion systems arising from the math- ematical models of the electric activity of cardiac ventricular cells Veneroni Abstract. The paper deals with a mathematical model for the electric activity of the heart

  8. Electric field controlled reversible magnetic anisotropy switching studied by spin rectification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong, E-mail: fanxiaolong@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Fenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Rao, Jinwei; Zhao, Xiaobing; Xue, Desheng [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, spin rectification was used to study the electric field controlled dynamic magnetic properties of the multiferroic composite which is a Co stripe with induced in-plane anisotropy deposited onto a Pb(Mg{sub 1?3}Nb{sub 2?3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} substrate. Due to the coupling between piezoelectric and magnetoelastic effects, a reversible in-plane anisotropy switching has been realized by varying the history of the applied electric field. This merit results from the electric hysteresis of the polarization in the nonlinear piezoelectric regime, which has been proved by a butterfly type electric field dependence of the in-plane anisotropy field. Moreover, the electric field dependent effective demagnetization field and linewidth have been observed at the same time.

  9. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fischer, William H. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Meyer, Jeffry R. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  10. Theory of elastic interaction between colloidal particles in the nematic cell in the presence of the external electric or magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Chernyshuk; O. M. Tovkach; B. I. Lev

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Green function method developed in Ref.[S. B. Chernyshuk and B. I. Lev, Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{81}, 041707 (2010)] is used to describe elastic interactions between axially symmetric colloidal particles in the nematic cell in the presence of the external electric or magnetic field. General formulas for dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions in the homeotropic and planar nematic cells with parallel and perpendicular field orientations are obtained. A set of new results has been predicted: 1) \\textit{Deconfinement effect} for dipole particles in the homeotropic nematic cell with negative dielectric anisotropy $\\Delta\\epsilonfield, when electric field is approaching it's Frederiks threshold value $E\\Rightarrow E_{c}$. This means cancellation of the confinement effect found in Ref. [M.Vilfan et al. Phys.Rev.Lett. {\\bf 101}, 237801, (2008)] for dipole particles near the Frederiks transition while it remains for quadrupole particles. 2) New effect of \\textit{attraction and stabilization} of the particles along the electric field parallel to the cell planes in the homeotropic nematic cell with $\\Delta\\epsilonfield and can be ordinary for . 3) Attraction and repulsion zones for all elastic interactions are changed dramatically under the action of the external field.

  11. Electron-Positron Pair Production in Space- or Time-Dependent Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagen Kleinert; Remo Ruffini; She-Sheng Xue

    2008-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Treating the production of electron and positron pairs by a strong electric field from the vacuum as a quantum tunneling process we derive, in semiclassical approximation, a general expression for the pair production rate in a $z$-dependent electric field $E(z)$ pointing in the $z$-direction. We also allow for a smoothly varying magnetic field parallel to $E(z)$. The result is applied to a confined field $E(z)\

  12. Determination of the 85 Rb ng-series quantum defect by electric-field-induced resonant energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Determination of the 85 Rb ng-series quantum defect by electric-field-induced resonant energy of an electric field 1 . The resonant energy transfer process between Rydberg atoms is driven by the electric-series of potassium. The range of electric fields or "width" over which signifi- cant resonant energy transfer can

  13. TORSIONAL SHEAR FLOW OF LONG PITCH CHOLESTERIC MESOPHASES IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TORSIONAL SHEAR FLOW OF LONG PITCH CHOLESTERIC MESOPHASES IN ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS J. WAHL Physikalisches Institut der Universitat, D44 Munster, Germany Abstract. -- Torsional shear [1] and vertical. -- In vertical electric (or magnetic) fields thin cholesteric layers with homeotropic boun- daries and small

  14. CO on Pt(335): Electric field screening on a stepped surface Hong Wanga)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    CO on Pt(335): Electric field screening on a stepped surface Hong Wanga) and R. G. Tobin Department, Michigan 48090-9055 Received 8 March 1995; accepted 11 May 1995 We compare CO's response to electric fields and at the frequency of the C­O stretch vibration. Atop-bonded CO is observed with reflection­absorption ir

  15. An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    An Ultra-Low-Power Human Body Motion Sensor Using Static Electric Field Sensing Gabe Cohn1 an ultra-low-power method for pas- sively sensing body motion using static electric fields by measuring to infer the amount and type of body motion anywhere on the body and demonstrate an ultra-low-power motion

  16. On the kinetic equation approach to pair production by time-dependent electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Fedotov; E. G. Gelfer; K. Yu. Korolev; S. A. Smolyansky

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the quantum kinetic approach to pair production from vacuum by time-dependent electric field. Equivalence between this approach and the more familiar S-matrix approach is explicitly established for both scalar and fermion cases. For the particular case of a constant electric field exact solution for kinetic equations is provided and the accuracy of low-density approximation is estimated.

  17. Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current law

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majós, Antonio Badía

    Electric field in hard superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general critical current-28871 Alcala´ de Henares, Spain Received 18 February 2004; accepted 11 March 2004 The induced electric field E x during magnetic flux entry in superconductors with arbitrary cross section and general

  18. Strong Enhancement of Terahertz Radiation from Laser Filaments in Air by a Static Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Strong Enhancement of Terahertz Radiation from Laser Filaments in Air by a Static Electric Field radiation from the laser filament is highly sensitive to the presence of a transverse electric field. We observe a three order of magnitude enhancement of the terahertz (THz) energy radiated by a femtosecond

  19. Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA The second and fourth harmonics of low frequency electric field-optical modulation; liquid crystal; second and fourth harmonics 1. INTRODUCTION Nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been

  20. Electric-field correlations in quantum charged fluids coupled to the radiation field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jancovici

    2006-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In a recent paper [S.El Boustani, P.R.Buenzli, and Ph.A.Martin, Phys.Rev. E 73, 036113 (2006) cond-mat/0511537], about quantum charges in equilibrium with radiation, among other things the asymptotic form of the electric-field correlation has been obtained by a microscopic calculation. It has been found that this correlation has a long-range algebraic decay (except in the classical limit). The macroscopic approach, in the Course of Theoretical Physics of Landau and Lifshitz, gives no such long-range algebraic decay. In this Brief Report, we revisit and complete the macroscopic approach of Landau and Lifshitz, we confirm their result, and suggest that, perhaps, the use of a classical electromagnetic field by El Boustani et al. was not justified.

  1. Occupational Electric Shocks, Electromagnetic Fields and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Ximena Patricia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drillers (8.75) and electrician apprentices (8.25). WithinElectricians Electrician apprentices Electrical poweryear included: electrician apprentices (99.7), mechanic and

  2. Indirect determination of the electric field in plasma discharges using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaudolon, J., E-mail: julien.vaudolon@cnrs-orleans.fr; Mazouffre, S., E-mail: stephane.mazouffre@cnrs-orleans.fr [CNRS - ICARE (Institut de Combustion Aérothermique Réactivité et Environnement), 1 C Av. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaluation of electric fields is of prime interest for the description of plasma characteristics. In this work, different methods for determining the electric field profile in low-pressure discharges using one- and two-dimensional Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements are presented and discussed. The energy conservation, fluid, and kinetic approaches appear to be well-suited for the electric field evaluation in this region of the plasma flow. However, the numerical complexity of a two-dimensional kinetic model is penalizing due to the limited signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved, making the computation of the electric field subject to large error bars. The ionization contribution which appears in the fluid model makes it unattractive on an experimental viewpoint. The energy conservation and 1D1V kinetic approaches should therefore be preferred for the determination of the electric field when LIF data are used.

  3. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaune, W.T. [EM Factors, Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposure matrices based on electric- and magnetic-field measurements and estimates of worker exposures to chemicals and other factors of interest. Recent work has identified five principal sources of residential magnetic fields: electric power transmission lines, electric power distribution lines, ground currents, home wiring, and home appliances. Existing residential-exposure assessments have used one or more of the following techniques: questionnaires, wiring configuration coding, theoretical field calculations, spot electric- and magnetic-field measurements, fixed-site magnetic-field recordings, personal-exposure measurements, and geomagnetic-field measurements. Available normal-power magnetic-field data for residences differ substantially between studies. It is not known if these differences are due to geographical differences, differences in measurement protocols, or instrumentation differences. Available data suggest, but are far from proving, that spot measurements may be more effective than wire codes as predictors of long-term historical magnetic-field exposure. Two studies find that away-from-home TWA magnetic-field exposures are less variable than at home exposures. The importance of home appliances as contributors to total residential magnetic-field exposure is not known at this time. It also is not known what characteristics (if any) of residential electric and magnetic fields are determinants of human health effects. 41 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Electric field control of spin-resolved edge states in graphene quantum nanorings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farghadan, R., E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saffarzadeh, A. [Department of Physics, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric-field effect on the electronic and magnetic properties of triangular and hexagonal graphene quantum rings with zigzag edge termination is investigated by means of the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. It is shown how the electron and spin states in the nanoring structures can be manipulated by applying an electric field. We find different spin-depolarization behaviors with variation of electric field strength due to the dependence of spin densities on the shapes and edges of this kind of nanorings. In the case of triangular quantum rings, the magnetization on the inner and outer edges can be selectively tuned and the spin states depolarize gradually as the field strength is increased, while in the case of hexagonal nanorings, the transverse electric field reduces the magnetic moments on both inner and outer edges symmetrically and rapidly.

  5. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitink, S.; Huege, T.; Falcke, H; Kuijpers, J.

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are accelerated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the electric field on the shower particles. We find that the radio pulse is significantly altered in background fields of the order of ~100 V/cm and higher. Practically, this means that air showers passing through thunderstorms emit radio pulses that are not a reliable measure for the shower energy. Under other weather circumstances significant electric field effects are expected to occur rarely, but nimbostratus clouds can harbor fields that are large enough. In general, the contribution of the electric field to the radio pulse has polarization properties that are different from the geomagnetic pulse. In order to filter out radio pulses that have been affected by electric field effects, radio air shower experiments should keep weatherinformation and perform full polarization measurements of the radio signal.

  6. Biological Effects of Electrical and Magnetic Fields: Is It Real? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durham, M. O.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this conflict. The model is a composite energy approach that identifies the classical, thermal electromagnetic interaction as well as a completely independent electric and independent magnetic component. An overview of the biological investigations is presented...

  7. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the solution in the case of horizontal electric dipole (HED) radiation source and the single-component HertzThe DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three- ponents of the static (DC) fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs) and vertical electric dipoles

  8. Locking of electric-field-induced non-180 domain switching and phase transition in ferroelectric materials upon cyclic electric fatigue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsia, K Jimmy

    change in piezoelectric coefficients in these materials upon cyclic electric field. © 2003 American of ferroelectric fatigue. One approach is through investiga- tion of the change of the material properties with respect to the cause of ferroelectric fatigue. The change in materials constants usually indicates

  9. Strings in Background Electric Field, Space/Time Noncommutativity and A New Noncritical String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Seiberg; L. Susskind; N. Toumbas

    2000-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Searching for space/time noncommutativity we reconsider open strings in a constant background electric field. The main difference between this situation and its magnetic counterpart is that here there is a critical electric field beyond which the theory does not make sense. We show that this critical field prevents us from finding a limit in which the theory becomes a field theory on a noncommutative spacetime. However, an appropriate limit toward the critical field leads to a novel noncritical string theory on a noncommutative spacetime.

  10. Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Couillet, Romain; Tembine, Hamidou; Debbah, Merouane

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we investigate the competitive interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil-electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting of electricity transactions to or from an underlying electricity distribution network. We provide a mean field game formulation for this competition, and introduce the set of fundamental differential equations ruling the behavior of the vehicles at the system equilibrium, namely the mean field equilibrium. This framework allows for a consistent analysis of the evolution of the sale-and-purchase price of electricity as well as of the instantaneous total demand. Simulations precisely quantify those parameters and suggest that following the charge and discharge policy at the equilibrium allows for a significant reduction of the daily electricity peak demand.

  11. Electrical resistivity investigations at the Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhogal, P.S.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bipole-dipole, Schlumberger and in line dipole-dipole electrical resistivity configurations were used to delineate the Olkaria geothermal reservoir with the view to site boreholes for the production of electric power using the geopressurized hot water. The dipole-dipole resistivity data provided the least ambiguous and most usable data for assessing the resource. Deep drilling into two of the anomalies outlined by this survey has proved the existence of high-temperature reservoirs and a 15MW power station is under construction.

  12. Study of casing treatment effects in axial flow compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiller, Robert Neil

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to in- creased tip leakage between shroud and blade tip. Figure (I) shows a typical performance curve for an axial flow compressor. Note that as pressure ratio increases, the operating 'range between surge and stall is decreased, there by reducing... the surge to stall margin of the axial flow compressor. REFERENCES I 1 ~ 4 Koch, C. C. , "Experimental Evaluation of Outer Case Blowing or Bleeding of Single Stage Axial Flow Compressor". , Part IV. Rep. R 69AEG256, General Electric Co. , (NASA CR...

  13. Reaction-Diffusion systems for the macroscopic Bidomain model of the cardiac electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veneroni, Marco

    Reaction-Diffusion systems for the macroscopic Bidomain model of the cardiac electric field Marco Veneroni Abstract. The paper deals with a mathematical model for the electric activity of the heart the mathematical viewpoint the model is made up of a degenerate parabolic reaction diffusion system coupled

  14. Simultaneous Manipulation of Electric and Thermal Fields via Combination of Passive and Active Schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing attention has been focused on the invisibility cloak due to its novel concept for manipulation of physical field. However, it is usually realized by single scheme (namely passive or active scheme) and limited in a single field. Here, we proposed a general method to achieve simultaneous manipulation of multi-physics field via combination of passive and active schemes. Experimentally, this method was demonstrated by simultaneous manipulation of electric field and thermal field. Firstly, a device was designed to simultaneously behave as electric and thermal invisibility cloak. Secondly, another device was demonstrated to simultaneously behave as electric invisibility cloak and thermal concentrator. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones, thus confirming the feasibility of our method. Our method can also be extended to the other multi-physics fields, which would create much more freedom to design of new system and might enable new potential application in broad areas.

  15. Control of the electric-field profile in the Hall thruster A. Fruchtman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control of the electric-field profile in the Hall thruster A. Fruchtman Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102, Israel N. J. Fisch and Y. Raitses Princeton Plasma

  16. A two-phase spherical electric machine for generating rotating uniform magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawler, Clinton T. (Clinton Thomas)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and construction of a novel two-phase spherical electric machine that generates rotating uniform magnetic fields, known as a fluxball machine. Alternative methods for producing uniform ...

  17. A Model for Nonlinear Electrokinetics in Electric Field Guided Assembly of Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steuber, James G.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field guided assembly of colloids is a new area of research in colloidal science where sub-micrometer particles, or colloids, are assembled using patterned electrodes. The design of these devices is often limited by an inability...

  18. Simulation and visualization of fields and energy flows in electric circuits with idealized geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohannessian, Mesrob I., 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a method to simulate and visualize the fields and energy flows in electric circuits, using a simplified physical model based on an idealized geometry. The physical models combine and extend previously ...

  19. The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wygant, J. R.

    The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency ...

  20. A Difficult Concept The variation of electric and magnetic fields at large distances from sources.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    in a relatively general context, let us consider what the three canonical geometries we address in this course Since electric fields must begin and end on charges and, since from Gauss' Law, r r E dS Qencl = , E

  1. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Koizumi, Hiroyuki [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Togo, Hiroyoshi [Microsystem Integration Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, Morinosato, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Kuninaka, Hitoshi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  2. On electric field in anti-de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, Lee Yen, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my; Yan, Chew Xiao, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan, E-mail: lee-yencheong@petronas.com.my, E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com, E-mail: dennis.ling@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we calculate the electromagnetic field produced using retarded Green's function in Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS). Since this spacetime is non-globally hyperbolic and has no Cauchy surface, we only consider the field originated from a charge moving along its geodesic in the region consists of points covered by future null geodesic of the charge.

  3. Electric Field-Induced Skyrmion Crystals via Charged Monopoles in Insulating Helimagets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haruki Watanabe; Ashvin Vishwanath

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrons propagating in a magnetically ordered medium experience an additional gauge field associated with the Berry phase of their spin following the local magnetic texture. In contrast to the usual electromagnetic field, this gauge field admits monopole excitations, corresponding to hedgehog defects of the magnetic order. In an insulator, these hedgehogs carry a well-defined electric charge allowing for them to be controlled by electric fields. One particularly robust mechanism that contributes to the charge is the orbital magnetoelectric effect, captured by a $\\theta$ angle, which leads to a charge of $e\\theta/2\\pi$ on hedgehogs. This is a direct consequence of the Witten effect for magnetic monopoles in a $\\theta$ medium. A physical consequence is that external electric fields can induce skyrmion crystal phases in insulating helimagnets.

  4. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  5. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suchoza, Bernard P. (McMurray, PA); Becse, Imre (Washington, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  6. A novel approach to particle production in an uniform electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Srinivasan; T. Padmanabhan

    1999-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline a different method of describing scalar field particle production in a uniform electric field. In the standard approach, the (analytically continued) harmonic oscillator paradigm is important in describing particle production. However, there is another gauge in which the particle production process has striking similarities with the one used to describe Hawking radiation in black holes. The gauge we use to describe the electric field in is the lightcone gauge, so named because the mode functions for a scalar field are found to be singular on the lightcone. We use these modes in evaluating the effective Lagrangian using the proper time technique. The key feature of this analysis is that these modes can be explicitly "normalized" by using the criterion that they reduce to the usual flat space modes in the limit of the electric field tending to zero. We find that the proper time kernel is not the same as the analytically continued oscillator kernel though the effective Lagrangian is the standard result as it should be. We also consider an example of a confined electric field system using the lightcone gauge modes. Our analysis indicates that the Bogolubov coefficients, in taking the limit to the uniform electric field case, are multiplied by energy dependent boundary factors that have not been taken into account before.

  7. Energy Spectrum of the Electrons Accelerated by a Reconnection Electric Field: Exponential or Power Law?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Liu; P. F. Chen; M. D. Ding; C. Fang

    2009-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct current (DC) electric field near the reconnection region has been proposed as an effective mechanism to accelerate protons and electrons in solar flares. A power-law energy spectrum was generally claimed in the simulations of electron acceleration by the reconnection electric field. However in most of the literature, the electric and magnetic fields were chosen independently. In this paper, we perform test-particle simulations of electron acceleration in a reconnecting magnetic field, where both the electric and magnetic fields are adopted from numerical simulations of the MHD equations. It is found that the accelerated electrons present a truncated power-law energy spectrum with an exponential tail at high energies, which is analogous to the case of diffusive shock acceleration. The influences of reconnection parameters on the spectral feature are also investigated, such as the longitudinal and transverse components of the magnetic field and the size of the current sheet. It is suggested that the DC electric field alone might not be able to reproduce the observed single or double power-law distributions.

  8. Axion electrodynamics and dark matter fingerprints in the terrestrial magnetic and electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balakin; L. V. Grunskaya

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider mathematical aspects of the axion electrodynamics in application to the problem of evolution of geomagnetic and terrestrial electric fields, which are coupled by relic axions born in the early Universe and (hypothetically) forming now the cold dark matter. We find axionic analogs of the Debye potentials, well-known in the standard Faraday - Maxwell electrodynamics, and discuss exact solutions to the equations of the axion electrodynamics describing the state of axionically coupled electric and magnetic fields in a spherical resonator Earth-Ionosphere. We focus on the properties of the specific electric and magnetic oscillations, which appeared as a result of the axion-photon coupling in the dark matter environment. We indicate such electric and magnetic field configurations as longitudinal electro-magnetic clusters.

  9. An Electrical Spinning Particle In Einstein's Unified Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Pandey; B. K. Sinha; Raj Kumar

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work on exact solutions has been shown that sources need to be appended to the field equation of Einstein's unified field theory in order to achieve physically meaningful results,such sources can be included in a variational formulation by Borchsenius and moffat.The resulting field equations and conservation identities related to the theory that can be used to derive the equations of structure and motion of a pole-dipole particle according to an explicitly covariant approach by Dixon6.In this present paper it is shown that,under certain conditions for the energy tensor of the spinning particle,the equations of structure and motion in an electromagnetic field turn out to be formly identical to those occurring in Einstein-Maxwell theory.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Water between Metal Walls under Electric Field: Dielectric Response and Dynamics after Field Reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyohei Takae; Akira Onuki

    2015-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study water between parallel metal walls under applied electric field accounting for the image effect at $T=298$ K. The electric field due to the surface charges serves to attract and orient nearby water molecules, while it tends to a constant determined by the mean surface charge density away from the walls. We find Stern boundary layers with thickness about $5$ $\\rm \\AA$ and a homogeneously polarized bulk region. The molecules in the layers more sensitively respond to the applied field than in the bulk. As a result, the potential drop in the layers is larger than that in the bulk unless the cell length exceeds 10 nm. We also examine the hydrogen bonds, which tend to make small angles with respect to the walls in the layers even without applied field. The average local field considerably deviates from the classical Lorentz field and the local field fluctuations are very large in the bulk. If we suppose a nanometer-size sphere around each molecule, the local field contribution from its exterior is nearly equal to that from the continuum electrostatics and that from its interior yields the deviation from the classical Lorentz field. As a nonequilibrium problem, we investigate the dynamics after a reversal of applied field, where the relaxation is mostly caused by large-angle rotational jumps after 1 ps due to the presence of the hydrogen bond network. The molecules undergoing these jumps themselves form hydrogen-bonded clusters heterogeneously distributed in space.

  11. Axial static mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, H.E.

    1982-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Static axial mixing apparatus includes a plurality of channels, forming flow paths of different dimensions. The axial mixer includes a flow adjusting device for adjustable selective control of flow resistance of various flow paths in order to provide substantially identical flows through the various channels, thereby reducing nonuniform coating of interior surfaces of the channels. The flow adjusting device may include diaphragm valves, and may further include a pressure regulating system therefor.

  12. The development of the time dependence of the nuclear EMP electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eng, C

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) electric field calculated with the legacy code CHAP is compared with the field given by an integral solution of Maxwell's equations, also known as the Jefimenko equation, to aid our current understanding on the factors that affect the time dependence of the EMP. For a fair comparison the CHAP current density is used as a source in the Jefimenko equation. At first, the comparison is simplified by neglecting the conduction current and replacing the standard atmosphere with a constant density air slab. The simplicity of the resultant current density aids in determining the factors that affect the rise, peak and tail of the EMP electric field versus time. The three dimensional nature of the radiating source, i.e. sources off the line-of-sight, and the time dependence of the derivative of the current density with respect to time are found to play significant roles in shaping the EMP electric field time dependence. These results are found to hold even when the conduction current and the standard atmosphere are properly accounted for. Comparison of the CHAP electric field with the Jefimenko electric field offers a direct validation of the high-frequency/outgoing wave approximation.

  13. Effects on chickens of continuous exposure to low level electromagnetic, electric, and magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, Robert Sherwood

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 birds in remainder of experiment. ~fel l. ~Eff o ~* ~st ~et~ass Eeoc~of ' ~o t *l ct o *t' ~*t ', ~o~es tfc~f' lo E e et l Treatments Day 8 Day 15 Day 22 ratio& ~ %( )ratio % ratio Control 260 MHz 915 MHz Electric field-45 Hz Magnetic field...

  14. Scattering of Polarized Radiation by Atoms in Magnetic and Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee Yee Oo; K. N. Nagendra; Sharath Ananthamurthy; G. Ramachandran

    2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The polarization of radiation by scattering on an atom embedded in combined external quadrupole electric and uniform magnetic fields is studied theoretically. Analytic formulae are derived for the scattering phase matrix. Limiting cases of scattering under Zeeman effect, and Hanle effect in weak magnetic fields are discussed.

  15. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woerner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D. [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces (''rotating wall'' technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 10{sup 4}-10{sup 7} times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  16. Electric fields in a sheath near a metal-dielectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnat, E.V.; Hebner, G.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States)

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially resolved electric fields in the sheath region near a metal-dielectric junction were measured in a radio-frequency-driven argon plasma. The fields were determined by observing the Stark shifted transitions to the 13d[3/2]{sub 1} Rydberg state by laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy. Calibration of the Stark shifts for the 13d[3/2]{sub 1} Rydberg state were experimentally obtained in a separate apparatus. Maps of the electric fields illustrate that the structure of the sheath formed around the junction depended on both the surface material and on the configuration of the surface.

  17. Free Energy Barrier for Electric Field Driven Polymer Entry into Nanoscale Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narges Nikoofard; Hossein Fazli

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Free energy barrier for entry of a charged polymer into a nanoscale channel by a driving electric field is studied theoretically and using molecular dynamics simulations. Dependence of the barrier height on the polymer length, the driving field strength, and the channel entrance geometry is investigated. Squeezing effect of the electric field on the polymer before its entry to the channel is taken into account. It is shown that lateral confinement of the polymer prior to its entry changes the polymer length dependence of the barrier height noticeably. Our theory and simulation results are in good agreement and reasonably describe related experimental data.

  18. Observation of transient electric fields in particle-in-cell simulation of capacitively coupled discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S., E-mail: sarvsarvesh@gmail.com; Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, Predhiman K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical prediction of the presence of transient electric field regions between the bulk plasma and sheath edge in radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (RF-CCP) discharges has been reported by Kaganovich [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 265006 (2002)]. In this paper, we have used the semi-infinite particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation technique to verify the theoretical prediction for the existence of transient electric field in the linear regime; it is shown that the PIC simulation results are in good agreement with the results predicted by analytical model in this regime. It is also demonstrated that the linear theory overestimates the transient electric field as one moves from linear to weakly nonlinear regime. The effect of applied RF current density and electron temperature on evolution of transition field and phase mixing regime has been explored.

  19. Simulation of a small molecule analogue of a lithium ionomer in an external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, Sara M.; McCoy, John D., E-mail: mccoy@nmt.edu; Brown, Jonathan R. [Department of Materials Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States)] [Department of Materials Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Frischknecht, Amalie L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the ion dynamics in lithium-neutralized 2-pentylheptanoic acid, a small molecule analogue of a precise poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) lithium ionomer. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were performed in an external electric field. The electric field causes alignment of the ionic aggregates along the field direction. The energetic response of the system to an imposed oscillating electric field for a wide range of frequencies was tracked by monitoring the coulombic contribution to the energy. The susceptibility found in this manner is a component of the dielectric susceptibility typically measured experimentally. A dynamic transition is found and the frequency associated with this transition varies with temperature in an Arrhenius manner. The transition is observed to be associated with rearrangements of the ionic aggregates.

  20. Lyman-{alpha} radiation of a metastable hydrogen beam to measure electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lejeune, A.; Cherigier-Kovacic, L.; Doveil, F.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between a metastable H(2s) atomic hydrogen beam and an external electric field leads to the emission of the Lyman-{alpha} line. It originates in the Stark mixing of the near-degenerate 2s{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} levels separated by the Lamb shift. The quenched radiation proportional to the square of the electric field amplitude is recovered in vacuum by using such an atomic probe beam. We observe the strong enhancement of the signal when the field is oscillating at the Lamb shift frequency. This technique is applied in a plasma, offering an alternative way to measure weak electric fields by direct and non-intrusive means.

  1. Dynamics of the fast component of nano-confined water under electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar Diallo, Souleymane [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Ehlers, Georg [ORNL; Wada, Nobuo [Nagoya University, Japan; Inagaki, S [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.; Fukushima, Y [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the diffusion of water molecules confined in the pores of folded silica materials (FSM-12 with average pore diameter of $\\sim$ 16 \\AA), measured by means of quasielastic neutron scattering using the cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS). The goal is to investigate the effect of electric field on the previously observed fast component of nano-confined water. The measurements were taken at temperatures between 220 K and 245 K, and at two electric field values, 0 kV/mm and 2 kV/mm. Similar to the recently observed electric field induced enhancement of the slow translational motion of confined water, there is a an equally important impact of the field on the faster diffusion.

  2. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  3. Charge and current reservoirs for electric and magnetic field enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combines the advantages of the rod antenna and the bowtie antenna, and has higher field enhancement than, and F. Capasso, "Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna," Opt. Express 15(20), 13272­13281 (2007 the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402

  4. Phase-field simulation of electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic domain switching in magnetic/ferroelectric layered heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    ). An alternative approach to engineering low electric- field-induced magnetic domain switching at room temperaPhase-field simulation of electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic domain switching in magnetic. Phys. Lett. 99, 182510 (2011) Quantum tunneling of the Bloch point in a magnetic film with strong

  5. Electrically-gated near-field radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we propose a near-field radiative thermal transistor made of two graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) plates separated by a nanometer vacuum gap. Thick SiC plates serve as the thermal "source" and "drain", while graphene sheets function as the "gate" to modulate the near-field photon tunneling by tuning chemical potential with applied voltage biases symmetrically or asymmetrically. The radiative heat flux calculated from fluctuational electrodynamics significantly varies with graphene chemical potentials, which can tune the coupling between graphene plasmon across the vacuum gap. Thermal modulation, switching, and amplification, which are the key features required for a thermal transistor, are theoretically realized and analyzed. This work will pave the way to active thermal management, thermal circuits, and thermal computing.

  6. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications.

  7. Spatial feature tracking impedence sensor using multiple electric fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, J.L.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and other features on a workpiece are tracked by measuring the fields generated between electrodes arrayed in pairs. One electrode in each pair operates as a transmitter and the other as a receiver, and both electrodes in a pair are arrayed on a carrier. By combining and subtracting fields between electrodes in one pair and between a transmitting electrode in one pair and a receiving electrode in another pair, information describing the location and orientation of the sensor relative to the workpiece in up to six degrees of freedom may be obtained. Typical applications will measure capacitance, but other impedance components may be measured as well. The sensor is designed to track a linear feature axis or a protrusion or pocket in a workpiece. Seams and ridges can be tracked by this non-contact sensor. The sensor output is useful for robotic applications. 10 figs.

  8. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: Efficient

  9. Influence of monolayer contamination on electric-field-noise heating in ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Safavi-Naini; E. Kim; P. F. Weck; P. Rabl; H. R. Sadeghpour

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field noise is a hinderance to the assembly of large scale quantum computers based on entangled trapped ions. Apart from ubiquitous technical noise sources, experimental studies of trapped ion heating have revealed additional limiting contributions to this noise, originating from atomic processes on the electrode surfaces. In a recent work [A. Safavi-Naini et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 023412 (2011)] we described a microscopic model for this excess electric field noise, which points a way towards a more systematic understanding of surface adsorbates as progenitors of electric field jitter noise. Here, we address the impact of surface monolayer contamination on adsorbate induced noise processes. By using exact numerical calculations for H and N atomic monolayers on an Au(111) surface representing opposite extremes of physisorption and chemisorption, we show that an additional monolayer can significantly affect the noise power spectrum and either enhance or suppress the resulting heating rates.

  10. Schwinger Mechanism for Fermion Pair Production in the Presence of Arbitrary Time Dependent Background Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred Cooper; Gouranga C. Nayak

    2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Schwinger mechanism for the pair production of fermions in the presence of an arbitrary time-dependent background electric field E(t) by directly evaluating the path integral. We obtain an exact non-perturbative result for the probability of fermion-antifermion pair production per unit time per unit volume per unit transverse momentum (of the fermion or antifermion) from the arbitrary time dependent electric field E(t) via Schwinger mechanism. We find that the exact non-perturbative result is independent of all the time derivatives d^nE(t)/dt^n, where n=1,2,....\\infty. This result has the same functional dependence on E as the Schwinger's constant electric field E result with the replacement: E -> E(t).

  11. Influences of electrical field on boiling-condensation heat transfer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jiaxiang; Ding Lijian; Chi Xiaochun; Liu Ji [Harbin Inst. of Electrical Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Materials Engineering; Yang He [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China). Dept. of Thermal Energy Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the influences of electrical field on boiling-condensation heat transfer system have been investigated using a cylinder heat transfer model. Freon-11 is selected as working fluid. The condensation heat transfer coefficient, the boiling heat flux and the saturation pressure are measured in this investigation. According to the experimental results, it is found that the electrical field can influence heat transfer system. The boiling heat transfer is enhanced by the applied voltage, and the saturate vapor of working fluid is condensed on the high voltage electrode directly when the applied voltage is higher than 6 kv. The experimental results have been discussed, and it is considered that the high electrical field strength change the thermal properties of working fluid.

  12. Influence of Spinning Electric Fields on Natural Background Gamma-Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Krinker; Felix Kitaichik

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper considers influence of spinning electric field on statistics of natural background gamma-radiation. The spinning electric field, shown as a virtual gyroscope, has quantum mechanics characteristics. Interaction of the virtual fermion-like gyroscope with bosons (gamma-quanta) results in lowering intensity of the gamma-radiation and altering Poisson distribution. The statistic of the observed phenomenon depends on the direction of rotation of the virtual gyroscope. The results are discussed in a shade of spin-spin interaction having regard to realizing thermodynamically profitable conditions. Similarity of observed reduction of gamma-radiation in spinning electric fields and that for mechanical rotation stresses a special role of rotation itself, disregarding the matter of its carrier.

  13. Edge Radial Electric Field on Alcator C-Mod

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work4/11ComputationalEd Westcott: Legacy in ...Edge

  14. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: Efficient WaterMultiferroic

  15. Electric Field Control of Local Ferromagnetism with a Magnetoelectric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4: EfficientMultiferroic

  16. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  17. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  18. Effect of electric field on exfoliation of nanoplates Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    Effect of electric field on exfoliation of nanoplates Wei Lua Department of Mechanical Engineering assist or retard exfoliation depending on the angle between a collection of plates and the field. A critical electric field strength for exfoliation is predicted. Structural refinement occurs by cleavage

  19. General Physics II Exam 1 -Chs. 16,17,18 -Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 8, 2010 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    General Physics II Exam 1 - Chs. 16,17,18 - Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 8, 2010 Name. These charges produce an electric field in the surrounding region. a) (6) Find the x & y components of the electric field E at point A. b) (6) Find the magnitude and direction of the electric field at point A. c

  20. Kinetic model for electric-field induced point defect redistribution near semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G., E-mail: eseebaue@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of point defects near semiconductor surfaces affects the efficiency of devices. Near-surface band bending generates electric fields that influence the spatial redistribution of charged mobile defects that exchange infrequently with the lattice, as recently demonstrated for pile-up of isotopic oxygen near rutile TiO{sub 2} (110). The present work derives a mathematical model to describe such redistribution and establishes its temporal dependence on defect injection rate and band bending. The model shows that band bending of only a few meV induces significant redistribution, and that the direction of the electric field governs formation of either a valley or a pile-up.

  1. Simultaneous investigation of ultrafast structural dynamics and transient electric field by sub-picosecond electron pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Run-Ze; Zhu, Pengfei; Chen, Long; Chen, Jie, E-mail: jiec@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang1@sjtu.edu.cn; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie, E-mail: jiec@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang1@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao, Jianming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Physics Department and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultrafast structure dynamics and surface transient electric field, which are concurrently induced by laser excited electrons of an aluminum nanofilm, have been investigated simultaneously by the same transmission electron diffraction patterns. These two processes are found to be significantly different and distinguishable by tracing the time dependent changes of electron diffraction and deflection angles, respectively. This study also provides a practical means to evaluate simultaneously the effect of transient electric field during the study of structural dynamics under low pump fluence by transmission ultrafast electron diffraction.

  2. On the frequency of oscillations in the pair plasma generated by a strong electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Benedetti; W. -B. Han; R. Ruffini; G. V. Vereshchagin

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the frequency of the plasma oscillations of electron-positron pairs created by the vacuum polarization in an uniform electric field with strength E in the range 0.2 Ec plasma oscillation equation when E -> 0. Thereby, we focus our attention on its evolution in time studying how this oscillation frequency approaches the plasma frequency. The time-scale needed to approach to the plasma frequency and the power spectrum of these oscillations are computed. The characteristic frequency of the power spectrum is determined uniquely from the initial value of the electric field strength. The effects of plasma degeneracy and pair annihilation are discussed.

  3. Fermion production by a dependent of time electric field in de Sitter universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmin Crucean

    2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermion production by the electric field of a charge on de Sitter expanding universe is analyzed. The amplitude and probability of pair production are computed. We obtain from our calculations that the modulus of the momentum is no longer conserved and that there are probabilities for production processes where the helicity is no longer conserved. The rate of pair production in an electric field is found to be important in the early universe when the expansion factor was large comparatively with the particle mass.

  4. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  5. Electric field geometries dominate quantum transport coupling in silicon nanoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Tsung-Han, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com; Hu, Shu-Fen, E-mail: askaleeg@gmail.com, E-mail: sfhu.hu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations on the relation between the geometries of silicon nanodevices and the quantum phenomenon they exhibit, such as the Aharonov–Bohm (AB) effect and the Coulomb blockade, were conducted. An arsenic doped silicon nanoring coupled with a nanowire by electron beam lithography was fabricated. At 1.47?K, Coulomb blockade oscillations were observed under modulation from the top gate voltage, and a periodic AB oscillation of ?B?=?0.178?T was estimated for a ring radius of 86?nm under a high sweeping magnetic field. Modulating the flat top gate and the pointed side gate was performed to cluster and separate the many electron quantum dots, which demonstrated that quantum confinement and interference effects coexisted in the doped silicon nanoring.

  6. International Electric Propulsion Conference, Princeton University, October 31 November 4, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Lyon B.

    The 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference, Princeton University, October 31 ­ November at the 29th International Electric Propulsion Conference, Princeton University, October 31 ­ November 4 consisting of a magnetic monopole with a constant axial E-field is used to identify fundamentals of electron

  7. Electric-field-induced plasmon in AA-stacked bilayer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Y.C., E-mail: yingchih.chuang@gmail.com; Wu, J.Y., E-mail: yarst5@gmail.com; Lin, M.F., E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective excitations in AA-stacked bilayer graphene for a perpendicular electric field are investigated analytically within the tight-binding model and the random-phase approximation. Such a field destroys the uniform probability distribution of the four sublattices. This drives a symmetry breaking between the intralayer and interlayer polarization intensities from the intrapair band excitations. A field-induced acoustic plasmon thus emerges in addition to the strongly field-tunable intrinsic acoustic and optical plasmons. At long wavelengths, the three modes show different dispersions and field dependence. The definite physical mechanism of the electrically inducible and tunable mode can be expected to also be present in other AA-stacked few-layer graphenes. -- Highlights: •The analytical derivations are performed by the tight-binding model. •An electric field drives the non-uniformity of the charge distribution. •A symmetry breaking between the intralayer and interlayer polarizations is illustrated. •An extra plasmon emerges besides two intrinsic modes in AA-stacked bilayer graphene. •The mechanism of a field-induced mode is present in AA-stacked few-layer graphenes.

  8. Design of 4-electrode optical device for application of vector electric fields to self-assembled quantum dot complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xinran; Doty, Matthew, E-mail: doty@udel.edu [University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) are of great interest as components of optoelectronic devices that can operate at the quantum limit. The charge configuration, interdot coupling, and symmetry of complexes containing multiple QDs can all be tuned with applied electric fields, but the magnitude and angle of the electric field required to control each of these parameters depend on the orientation of the QD complex. We present a 4-electrode device compatible with optical excitation and emission that allows application of electric fields with arbitrary magnitudes and angles relative to isolated QD complexes. We demonstrate the electric field tunability of this device with numerical simulations.

  9. High-order harmonic generation in the presence of a static electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odzak, S. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Milosevic, D.B. [Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 35, 71000 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Strasse 2a, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider high-order harmonic generation by a linearly polarized laser field and a parallel static electric field. We first develop a modified saddle-point method which enables a quantitative analysis of the harmonic spectra even in the presence of Coulomb singularities. We introduce a classification of the saddle-point solutions and show that, in the presence of a static electric field which breaks the inversion symmetry, an additional classification number has to be introduced and that the usual saddle-point approximation and the uniform approximation in the case of the coalescing saddle points have to be modified. The theory developed offers a simple and accurate explanation of the static-field-induced multiplateau structure of the harmonic spectra. The longer quantum orbits are responsible for a long extension of the harmonic plateau, while the larger initial electron velocities are the reason of lower harmonic emission rates.

  10. Method of measuring the dc electric field and other tokamak parameters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ); Kirtz, Arnold H. (Princeton Junction, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method including externally imposing an impulsive momentum-space flux to perturb hot tokamak electrons thereby producing a transient synchrotron radiation signal, in frequency-time space, and the inference, using very fast algorithms, of plasma parameters including the effective ion charge state Z.sub.eff, the direction of the magnetic field, and the position and width in velocity space of the impulsive momentum-space flux, and, in particular, the dc toroidal electric field.

  11. Far-field mapping of the longitudinal magnetic and electric optical fields C. Ecoffey, T. Grosjean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in various domains such as particle accel- eration [1], laser cutting [2], lithography [3], far-field [4

  12. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  13. Field-theory calculation of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and paramagnetic atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Blundell; J. Griffith; J. Sapirstein

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric dipole moments (edms) of bound states that arise from the constituents having edms are studied with field-theoretic techniques. The systems treated are the neutron and a set of paramagnetic atoms. In the latter case it is well known that the atomic edm differs greatly from the electron edm when the internal electric fields of the atom are taken into account. In the nonrelativistic limit these fields lead to a complete suppression, but for heavy atoms large enhancement factors are present. A general bound-state field theory approach applicable to both the neutron and paramagnetic atoms is set up. It is applied first to the neutron, treating the quarks as moving freely in a confining spherical well. It is shown that the effect of internal electric fields is small in this case. The atomic problem is then revisited using field-theory techniques in place of the usual Hamiltonian methods, and the atomic enhancement factor is shown to be consistent with previous calculations. Possible application of bound-state techniques to other sources of the neutron edm is discussed.

  14. Plasmonic Near-Electric Field Enhancement Effects in Ultrafast Photoelectron Emission: Correlated Spatial and Laser Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohseni, Hooman

    ABSTRACT: Electron emission from single, supported Ag nanocubes excited with ultrafast laser pulses ( = 800 irradiated with ultrafast laser pulses at a photon energy (Eph) below the material work functionPlasmonic Near-Electric Field Enhancement Effects in Ultrafast Photoelectron Emission: Correlated

  15. Numerical analysis of electric field formulations of the eddy current model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    Numerical analysis of electric field formulations of the eddy current model Alfredo Berm´udez1 methods for the numeri- cal solution of the eddy current problem in a bounded conducting domain crossed): 78M10, 65N30 Key words Low-frequency harmonic Maxwell equations, eddy currents, finite elements

  16. Evolution of the WKB amplitude of the IBW electric field along the wave propagation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Evolution of the WKB amplitude of the IBW electric field along the wave propagation. P.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy * ENEA Guest The WKB analysis of the IBW propagation in a 2D tokamak and nonlinear studies of the IB wave-plasma interaction. #12;

  17. Surface Morphological Response of Crystalline Solids to Mechanical Stresses and Electric Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

    dynamical simulations with analytical theory to understand the underlying phenomena and to make quantitative such direction involves large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations for identification and analysis of dislocationSurface Morphological Response of Crystalline Solids to Mechanical Stresses and Electric Fields

  18. Electric field manipulation of polymer nanocomposites: processing and investigation of their physical characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banda, Sumanth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    is to achieve a good homogenous dispersion of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the polymer matrix; the second step is to manipulate the well-dispersed CNFs and SWNTs in polymers by using an AC electric field. Different...

  19. Electric field-controlled rippling of graphene Zoltn Osvth,*a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electric field-controlled rippling of graphene Zoltán Osváth,*a,b François Lefloch,a Vincent 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9, France Abstract Metal/graphene interfaces generated by electrode of graphene based devices. However, their impact on the local mechanical properties of graphene is much less

  20. Assessing the wind field over the continental shelf as a resource for electric power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Assessing the wind field over the continental shelf as a resource for electric power by Richard W. Garvine1,2 and Willett Kempton1,3,4 ABSTRACT To assess the wind power resources of a large continental for the comparison period) that the near-coast phase advantage is obviated. We also find more consistent wind power

  1. Ion-trap measurements of electric-field noise near surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Brownnutt; M. Kumph; P. Rabl; R. Blatt

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric-field noise near surfaces is a common problem in diverse areas of physics, and a limiting factor for many precision measurements. There are multiple mechanisms by which such noise is generated, many of which are poorly understood. Laser-cooled, trapped ions provide one of the most sensitive systems to probe electric-field noise at MHz frequencies and over a distance range 30 - 3000 $\\mu$m from the surface. Over recent years numerous experiments have reported spectral densities of electric-field noise inferred from ion heating-rate measurements and several different theoretical explanations for the observed noise characteristics have been proposed. This paper provides an extensive summary and critical review of electric-field noise measurements in ion traps, and compares these experimental findings with known and conjectured mechanisms for the origin of this noise. This reveals that the presence of multiple noise sources, as well as the different scalings added by geometrical considerations, complicate the interpretation of these results. It is thus the purpose of this review to assess which conclusions can be reasonably drawn from the existing data, and which important questions are still open. In so doing it provides a framework for future investigations of surface-noise processes.

  2. Proton transport along water chains in an electric field Karen Drukker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Proton transport along water chains in an electric field Karen Drukker Department of Chemistry, Indiana 46556 Received 4 November 1997; accepted 23 January 1998 Proton transport along water chains is thought to be essential for the translocation of protons over large distances in proteins. In this paper

  3. Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles with the existing observations. 1 Introduction The approach used for particle acceleration models proposed for solar

  4. EMC-ORIENTED ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC NEAR-FIELD IN HIGH FREQUENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EMC-ORIENTED ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC NEAR-FIELD IN HIGH FREQUENCY Ali Alaeldine12 , Olivier Maurice3 - 35043 Rennes Cedex - France 3 EMC for Automotive Systems Group - Research and Development Center - PSA - Route de Gachet - 44300 Nantes - France Abstract. This paper introduces an EMC-oriented study

  5. The Effect of Electric Fields In A Classic Introductory Physics Treatment of Eddy Current Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. Salzman; John Robert Burke; Susan M. Lea

    2006-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple model of eddy currents in which current is computed solely from magnetic forces acting on electrons proves accessible to introductory students and gives a good qualitative account of eddy current forces. However, this model cannot be complete; it ignores the electric fields that drive current outside regions of significant magnetic field. In this paper we show how to extend the model to obtain a boundary value problem for current density. Solution of this problem in polar coordinates shows that the electric field significantly affects the quantitative results and presents an exercise suitable for upper division students. We apply elliptic cylindrical coordinates to generalize the result and offer an exercise useful for teaching graduate students how to use non-standard coordinate systems.

  6. Cavitation nanopore in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekker, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the nanopores emerging and developing in a liquid dielectric under the action of the ponderomotive electrostrictive forces in a nonuniform electric field. It is shown that the gradient of the electric field in the vicinity of the rupture (cavitation nanopore) substantially increases and determines whether the rupture grows or collapses. The cavitation rupture in the liquid (nanopore) tends to stretch along the lines of the original field. The mechanism of the breakdown associated with the generation of secondary ruptures in the vicinity of the poles of the nanopore is proposed. The estimations of the extension time for nanopore in water and oil (polar and nonpolar liquids, respectively) are presented. A new mechanism of nano- and subnanosecond breakdown in the insulating (transformer) oil that can be realized in the vicinity of water microdroplets in modern nanosecond high-voltage devices is considered

  7. Cavitation nanopore in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Pekker; M. N. Shneider

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the nanopores emerging and developing in a liquid dielectric under the action of the ponderomotive electrostrictive forces in a nonuniform electric field. It is shown that the gradient of the electric field in the vicinity of the rupture (cavitation nanopore) substantially increases and determines whether the rupture grows or collapses. The cavitation rupture in the liquid (nanopore) tends to stretch along the lines of the original field. The mechanism of the breakdown associated with the generation of secondary ruptures in the vicinity of the poles of the nanopore is proposed. The estimations of the extension time for nanopore in water and oil (polar and nonpolar liquids, respectively) are presented. A new mechanism of nano- and subnanosecond breakdown in the insulating (transformer) oil that can be realized in the vicinity of water microdroplets in modern nanosecond high-voltage devices is considered

  8. Strain and Electric Field Control of Hyperfine Interactions for Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usman, Muhammad; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y; Rogge, Sven; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of hyperfine interactions is a fundamental requirement for quantum computing architecture schemes based on shallow donors in silicon. However, at present, there is lacking an atomistic approach including critical effects of central-cell corrections and non-static screening of the donor potential capable of describing the hyperfine interaction in the presence of both strain and electric fields in realistically sized devices. We establish and apply a theoretical framework, based on atomistic tight-binding theory, to quantitatively determine the strain and electric field dependent hyperfine couplings of donors. Our method is scalable to millions of atoms, and yet captures the strain effects with an accuracy level of DFT method. Excellent agreement with the available experimental data sets allow reliable investigation of the design space of multi-qubit architectures, based on both strain-only as well as hybrid (strain+field) control of qubits. The benefits of strain are uncovered by demonstrating that a h...

  9. EMF in your environment. Magnetic field measurements of everyday electrical devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The publication compares the strength of 60 hertz magnetic fields produced by common electrical items and shows you how their strength diminishes as you move farther away from them. The information presented here has to do with the strength of the magnetic field; however, the authors aren't certain that the strength of the field is the only important consideration. It may turn out that other factors are also important. Future research is likely to reveal that the information given in the publication is only part of the story.

  10. General Physics II Exam 1 -Chs. 1619 -Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 14, 2011 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    styrofoam ball? a. It has a negative net charge b. It has zero net charge. c. It has positive net charge. d at finite x where the electric field is zero. c) (8) Determine the magnitude of the net electric field. Its net charge changes when then rods are placed near it. 2. (6) An excess charge of -88 pC is placed

  11. Hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields: Phase space topology and torus quantization via periodic orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields: Phase space topology and torus quantization for the periodic orbits in a strongly coupled multidimen- sional Hamiltonian system, namely the hydrogen atom.15.Gy, 05.45.-a, 45.20.Jj I. INTRODUCTION The hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields

  12. Frequency-and electric-field-dependent conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube networks of varying density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    Frequency- and electric-field-dependent conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotube networks October 2007; published 20 February 2008 We present measurements of the frequency- and electric-field-dependent conductivity of single-walled car- bon nanotube SWCNT networks of various densities. The ac conductivity

  13. P- and T-Violating Lagrangians in Chiral Effective Field Theory and Nuclear Electric Dipole Moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bsaisou; Ulf-G. Meißner; A. Nogga; A. Wirzba

    2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme to derive hadronic interactions induced by effective multi-quark terms is presented within the framework of chiral effective field theory. It is employed to work out the list of parity- and time-reversal-symmetry-violating hadronic interactions that are relevant for the computation of nuclear contributions to the electric dipole moments of the hydrogen-2, helium-3 and hydrogen-3 nuclei. We also derive the scattering and Faddeev equations required to compute electromagnetic form factors in general and electric dipole moments in particular.

  14. Electric field and losses at AC self field mode in MF composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, S.; Hlasnik, I.; Tsukamoto, O.; Amemiya, N. (Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)); Polak, M.; Kottman, P. (Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of the current-voltage characteristics of typical superconducting wires under static and dynamic conditions up to 50 Hz frequency have revealed much higher instantaneous local loss power densities in an external DC magnetic field than those which occur by magnetization in a transverse AC magnetic field. In this paper, the measured loss characteristics are compared with theoretical ones derived from the critical state model, and the self field AC loss are also estimated. Possible errors that can result by applying the critical state model are discussed.

  15. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Engineering Program, Project 7: Development of Field Exposure Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, T.D.; Rankin, R.F.; Wiley, J.A.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop a conceptual model for estimating magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure (PE) of individuals or groups and construct a working model using existing data.

  16. Photospheric Electric Fields and Energy Fluxes in the Eruptive Active Region NOAA 11158

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachenko, Maria D; Welsch, Brian T; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How much electromagnetic energy crosses the photosphere in evolving solar active regions? With the advent of high-cadence vector magnetic field observations, addressing this fundamental question has become tractable. In this paper, we apply the "PTD-Doppler-FLCT-Ideal" (PDFI) electric field inversion technique of Kazachenko et al. (2014) to a 6-day HMI/SDO vector magnetogram and Doppler velocity sequence, to find the electric field and Poynting flux evolution in NOAA active region 11158, which produced an X2.2 flare early on 2011 February 15. We find photospheric electric fields ranging up to $1.5$ V/cm. The Poynting fluxes range up to $2\\times10^{10}$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with mean values around $10^8$-$10^9$ ergs$\\cdot$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$. Integrating the instantaneous energy flux over space and time, we find that the total magnetic energy accumulated above the photosphere from emergence to the moment before the X2.2 flare to be $E=10.6\\times10^{32}$ ergs, which is partitioned as $2.0\\times10^{32}$ er...

  17. Effect of a uniform electric field on soot in laminar premixed ethylene/air flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Yao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing (China); Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, S.A. 5005 (Australia); Alwahabi, Z.T.; King, K.D.; Ho, K. [School of Chemical Engineering, Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, S.A. 5005 (Australia)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of a nominally uniform electric field on the initially uniform distribution of soot has been assessed for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames from a McKenna burner. An electrophoretic influence on charged soot particles was measured through changes to the deposition rate of soot on the McKenna plug, using laser extinction (LE). Soot volume fraction was measured in situ using laser-induced incandescence (LII). Particle size and morphologies were assessed through ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using thermophoretic sampling particle diagnostics (TSPD). The results show that the majority of these soot particles are positively charged. The presence of a negatively charged plug was found to decrease the particle residence times in the flame and to influence the formation and oxidation progress. A positively charged plug has the opposite effect. The effect on soot volume fraction, particles size and morphology with electric field strength is also reported. Flame stability was also found to be affected by the presence of the electric field, with the balance of the electrophoretic force and drag force controlling the transition to unstable flame flicker. The presence of charged species generated by the flame was found to reduce the dielectric field strength to one seventh that of air. (author)

  18. Vacuum pair production of charged scalar bosons in time-dependent electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zi-Liang Li; Ding Lu; Bai-Song Xie

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the quantum mechanical scattering model, the dynamical assist effect and the multiple-slit interference effect in electron-positron pair production from vacuum are generalized to vacuum pair production of charged scalar bosons. For the former effect some combinations of a strong but slowly varying electric field and a weak but rapidly varying one with different time delay are studied. Results indicate that the oscillation intensity of momentum spectrum and the number density of created bosons reduce with increasing of the time delay. Obviously, they achieve the maximum if the time delay equals zero. For the latter effect, it is shown that this effect does not exist for equal-sign $N$-pulse electric field in contrast to its existence for alternating-sign $N$-pulse. An approximate solution of boson momentum spectrum is got and it is agreeable well with the exact numerical one in alternating-sign $N$-pulse electric field, especially for $2$-pulse field and for small longitudinal momentum. The difference of vacuum pair production between bosons and fermions are also compared for their longitudinal momentum spectra.

  19. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  20. Method of sustaining a radial electric field and poloidal plasma rotation over most of the cross-section of a tokamak

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darrow, Douglass S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Jct., NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radial electric field of a desired magnitude and configuration is created hroughout a substantial portion of the cross-section of the plasma of a tokamak. The radial electric field is created by injection of a unidirectional electron beam. The magnitude and configuration of the radial electric field may be controlled by the strength of the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak.

  1. Transport in polymer-gel composites: Theoretical methodology and response to an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reghan J. Hill

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical model of electromigrative, diffusive and convectivetransport polymer-gel composites is presented. Bulk properties are derived from the standard electrokinetic model with an impenetrable charged sphere embedded in an electrolyte-saturated Brinkman medium. Because the microstructure can be carefully controlled, these materials are promising candidates for enhanced gel-electrophoresis, chemical sensing, drug delivery, and microfluidic pumping technologies. The methodology provides `exact' solutions for situations where perturbations from equilibrium are induced by gradients of electrostatic potential, concentration and pressure. While the volume fraction of the inclusions should be small, Maxwell's well-known theory of conduction suggests that the theory may also be accurate at moderate volume fractions. In this work, the model is used to compute ion fluxes, electrical current density, and convective flow induced by an applied electric field. The electric-field-induced (electro-osmotic) flow is a sensitive indicator of the inclusion zeta-potential and size, electrolyte concentration, and Darcy permeability of the gel, while the electrical conductivity increment is most often independent of the polymer gel, and is much less sensitive to particle and electrolyte characteristics.

  2. Influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization reversal with perpendicular easy axis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Hongguang, E-mail: chenghg7932@gmail.com; Deng, Ning [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the influence of thermal agitation on the electric field induced precessional magnetization switching probability with perpendicular easy axis by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically with finite difference method. The calculated results show that the thermal agitation during the reversal process crucially influences the switching probability. The switching probability can be achieved is only determined by the thermal stability factor ? of the free layer, it is independent on the device dimension, which is important for the high density device application. Ultra-low error rate down to the order of 10{sup ?9} can be achieved for the device of thermal stability factor ? of 40. Low damping factor ? material should be used for the free layer for high reliability device applications. These results exhibit potential of electric field induced precessional magnetization switching with perpendicular easy axis for ultra-low power, high speed and high density magnetic random access memory (MRAM) applications.

  3. Temporal and temperature evolution of electric field in CdTe:In radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D?di?, V., E-mail: dedicv@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Zázvorka, J.; Rejhon, M.; Franc, J.; Grill, R. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, Prague 2 CZ-121 16 (Czech Republic); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We employed measurement of the Pockels electro-optic effect to study the electric field and space charge dynamics in semi-insulating CdTe doped with indium. We performed measurements of time and temperature dependence of the electric field. The polarization due to space charge build-up decreases with increasing temperature. Increase of temperature, therefore, leads to de-polarization in CdTe:In detectors which are opposite to the CdTe:Cl samples studied to date. We have shown that the thermally activated depolarization cannot be explained by the conventional model used for the description of space charge formation so far and an alternative model involving a recombination level was suggested and successfully used.

  4. Possible features of galactic halo with electric field and observational constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koushik Chakraborty; Farook Rahaman; Saibal Ray; Arka Nandi; Nasarul Islam

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observed rotational curves of neutral hydrogen clouds strongly support the fact that galactic halo contains huge amount of nonluminous matter, the so called gravitational dark matter. The nature of dark matter is a point of debate among the researchers. Recent observations reported the presence of ions of O, S, C, Si etc in the galactic halo and intergalactic medium. This supports the possibility of existence of electric field in the galactic halo region. We therefore propose a model of galactic halo considering this electric field arising due to charged particles as one of the inputs for the background spacetime metric. Considering dark matter as an anisotropic fluid we obtain the expressions for energy density and pressure of dark matter there and consequently the equation of state of dark matter. Various other aspects of the solutions are also analyzed along with a critical comparison with and constraints of different observational evidences.

  5. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael (Brooktondale, NY) [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  6. Excitation of helium atoms in collisions with plasma electrons in an electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate constants are evaluated for excitation of helium atoms in metastable states by electron impact if ionized helium is located in an external electric field and is supported by it, such that a typical electron energy is small compared to the atomic excitation energy. Under these conditions, atomic excitation is determined both by the electron traveling in the space of electron energies toward the excitation threshold and by the subsequent atomic excitation, which is a self-consistent process because it leads to a sharp decrease in the energy distribution function of electrons, which in turn determines the excitation rate. The excitation rate constant is calculated for the regimes of low and high electron densities, and in the last case, it is small compared to the equilibrium rate constant where the Maxwell distribution function is realized including its tail. Quenching of metastable atomic states by electron impact results in excitation of higher excited states, rather than transition to the ground electron state for the electric field strengths under consideration. Therefore, at restricted electron number densities, the rate of emission of resonant photons of the wavelength 58 nm, which results from the transition from the 2{sup 1}P state of the helium atom to the ground state, is close to the excitation rate of metastable atomic states. The efficiency of atomic excitation in ionized helium, i.e., the part of energy of an electric field injected in ionized helium that is spent on atomic excitation, is evaluated. The results exhibit the importance of electron kinetics for an ionized gas located in an electric field.

  7. Concentrating Electric and Thermal Fields Simultaneously Using Fan-shaped Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the transformation optics and metamaterial due to their fascinating phenomena and potential applications. Concentrator is one of the most representative ones, which however is limited in single physical domain. Here we propose and give the experimental demonstration of bifunctional concentrator that can concentrate electric and thermal fields into a given region simultaneously while keeping the external fields undistorted. Fan-shaped structure composed of alternating wedges made of two kinds of natural materials is proposed to achieve this goal. The simulation and experimental results show good agreement, thereby confirming the feasibility of our scheme.

  8. Detection of pico-Tesla magnetic fields using magneto-electric sensors at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai Junyi; Xing Zengping; Dong Shuxiang; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of low-frequency (10{sup -2}-10{sup 3} Hz) minute magnetic field variations (10{sup -12} Tesla) at room temperature in a passive mode of operation would be critically enabling for deployable neurological signal interfacing and magnetic anomaly detection applications. However, there is presently no magnetic field sensor capable of meeting all of these requirements. Here, we present new bimorph and push-pull magneto-electric laminate composites, which incorporate a charge compensation mechanism (or bridge) that dramatically enhances noise rejection, enabling achievement of such requirements.

  9. Scaling of the Longitudinal Electric Field and Transformer Ratio in a Nonlinear Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, I.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; /UCLA; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC; Huang, C.; /UCLA; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; /SLAC; Joshi, C.; /UCLA; Katsouleas, T.; /Southern California U.; Kirby, N.; /SLAC; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling of the two important figures of merit, the transformer ratio T and the longitudinal electric field E{sub z}, with the peak drive-bunch current I{sub p}, in a nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator is presented for the first time. The longitudinal field scales as I{sub P}{sup 0.623{+-}0.007}, in good agreement with nonlinear wakefield theory ({approx}I{sub P}{sup 0.5}), while the unloaded transformer ratio is shown to be greater than unity and scales weakly with the bunch current. The effect of bunch head erosion on both parameters is also discussed.

  10. Modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Wesley C.; Drumm, Clifton Russell; Pautz, Shawn D.; Turner, C. David

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the theoretical background on modeling electron transport in the presence of electric and magnetic fields by incorporating the effects of the Lorentz force on electron motion into the Boltzmann transport equation. Electromagnetic fields alter the electron energy and trajectory continuously, and these effects can be characterized mathematically by differential operators in terms of electron energy and direction. Numerical solution techniques, based on the discrete-ordinates and finite-element methods, are developed and implemented in an existing radiation transport code, SCEPTRE.

  11. On the Vlasov equation for Schwinger pair production in a time-dependent electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adolfo Huet; Sang Pyo Kim; Christian Schubert

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Schwinger pair creation in a purely time-dependent electric field can be described through a quantum Vlasov equation describing the time evolution of the single-particle momentum distribution function. This equation exists in two versions, both of which can be derived by a Bogoliubov transformation, but whose equivalence is not obvious. For the spinless case, we show here that the difference between these two evolution equations corresponds to the one between the "in-out" and "in-in" formalisms. We give a simple relation between the asymptotic distribution functions generated by the two Vlasov equations. As examples we discuss the Sauter and single-soliton field cases.

  12. Note: Versatile sample stick for neutron scattering experiments in high electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartkowiak, M., E-mail: marek.bartkowiak@psi.ch [Laboratory for Developments and Methods, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); White, J. S. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland) [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rønnow, H. M.; Prša, K. [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Quantum Magnetism, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a versatile high voltage sample stick that fits into all cryomagnets and standard cryostats at the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, and which provides a low effort route to neutron scattering experiments that combine electric field with low temperature and magnetic field. The stick allows for voltages up to 5 kV and can be easily adapted for different scattering geometries. We discuss the design consideration and thermal behavior of the stick, and give one example to showcase the abilities of the device.

  13. Electric fields effect on liftoff and blowoff of nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, M.K.; Ryu, S.K.; Won, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The stabilization characteristics of liftoff and blowoff in nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow have been investigated experimentally for propane fuel by applying AC and DC electric fields to the fuel nozzle with a single-electrode configuration. The liftoff and blowoff velocities have been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC and the voltage and the polarity of DC. The result showed that the AC electric fields extended the stabilization regime of nozzle-attached flame in terms of jet velocity. As the applied AC voltage increased, the nozzle-attached flame was maintained even over the blowout velocity without having electric fields. In such a case, a blowoff occurred directly without experiencing a lifted flame. While for the DC cases, the influence on liftoff was minimal. There existed three different regimes depending on the applied AC voltage. In the low voltage regime, the nozzle-detachment velocity of either liftoff or blowoff increased linearly with the applied voltage, while nonlinearly with the AC frequency. In the intermediate voltage regime, the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage and reasonably independent of the AC frequency. At the high voltage regime, the detachment was significantly influenced by the generation of discharges. (author)

  14. CO2 Capture Using Electric Fields: Low-Cost Electrochromic Film on Plastic for Net-Zero Energy Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Two faculty members at Lehigh University created a new technique called supercapacitive swing adsorption (SSA) that uses electrical charges to encourage materials to capture and release CO2. Current CO2 capture methods include expensive processes that involve changes in temperature or pressure. Lehigh University’s approach uses electric fields to improve the ability of inexpensive carbon sorbents to trap CO2. Because this process uses electric fields and not electric current, the overall energy consumption is projected to be much lower than conventional methods. Lehigh University is now optimizing the materials to maximize CO2 capture and minimize the energy needed for the process.

  15. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  16. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R. (Latham, NY); Lewandowski, Chad R. (Amsterdam, NY)

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  17. Lyman-? radiation of a probing metastable hydrogen beam to measure electric fields in diluted fluids and plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doveil, F.; Lejeune, A.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, FR-13397 Marseilles Cedex 20 (France)] [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, FR-13397 Marseilles Cedex 20 (France)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between a metastable H(2s) atomic hydrogen beam and an external electric field leads to the emission of the Lyman-? line. It originates in the Stark mixing of the near-degenerate 2s{sub 1/2} and 2p{sub 1/2} levels separated by the Lamb shift. The quenched radiation proportional to the square of the electric field amplitude is recovered in vacuum by using such an atomic probe beam. For larger electric field, saturation is observed and related to the beam finite transit time. We also observe the strong enhancement of the signal when the field is oscillating at the Lamb shift frequency. This technique is applied in a plasma, offering an alternative way to measure weak electric fields by direct and non-intrusive means.

  18. Dirac fermions in strong electric field and quantum transport in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Gavrilov; D. M. Gitman; N. Yokomizo

    2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous results on the nonperturbative calculations of the mean current and of the energy-momentum tensor in QED with the T-constant electric field are generalized to arbitrary dimensions. The renormalized mean values are found; the vacuum polarization and particle creation contributions to these mean values are isolated in the large T-limit, the vacuum polarization contributions being related to the one-loop effective Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. Peculiarities in odd dimensions are considered in detail. We adapt general results obtained in 2+1 dimensions to the conditions which are realized in the Dirac model for graphene. We study the quantum electronic and energy transport in the graphene at low carrier density and low temperatures when quantum interference effects are important. Our description of the quantum transport in the graphene is based on the so-called generalized Furry picture in QED where the strong external field is taken into account nonperturbatively; this approach is not restricted to a semiclassical approximation for carriers and does not use any statistical assumtions inherent in the Boltzmann transport theory. In addition, we consider the evolution of the mean electromagnetic field in the graphene, taking into account the backreaction of the matter field to the applied external field. We find solutions of the corresponding Dirac-Maxwell set of equations and with their help we calculate the effective mean electromagnetic field and effective mean values of the current and the energy-momentum tensor. The nonlinear and linear I-V characteristics experimentally observed in both low and high mobility graphene samples is quite well explained in the framework of the proposed approach, their peculiarities being essentially due to the carrier creation from the vacuum by the applied electric field.

  19. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin, E-mail: panxiaoyin@nbu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)] [Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Sahni, Viraht [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College and The Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York, New York 10016 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive via the interaction “representation” the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field—the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement – the uniform electron gas – the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  20. Formation of ordered films of axially bridged aluminum phthalocyanine [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O via magnetic field-induced reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basova, Tamara, E-mail: basova@niic.nsc.ru; Berezin, Aleksei; Nadolinny, Vladimir [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Pr., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentiev Pr., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Peisert, Heiko; Chassé, Thomas [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)] [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Auf der Morgenstelle 18, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Banimuslem, Hikmat; Hassan, Aseel [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)] [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ?-(oxo)bis[tetra-tert-butylphthalocyaninato] aluminum(III) [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with the crystallites oriented preferably in one direction were obtained via chemical transformation of tetra-tert-butylsubstituted chloroaluminum(III) phthalocyanine (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl film upon its annealing in magnetic field. A comparative analysis of the influence of post-deposition annealing process without and under applied magnetic field of 1 T, on the orientation and morphology of (tBu){sub 4}PcAlCl and [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films, has been carried out by the methods of UV-vis, Infrared and Raman spectroscopies, XRD as well as atomic force microscopy. The formation of [(tBu){sub 4}PcAl]{sub 2}O films with elongated crystallites having preferential orientation was observed upon heating of the films in magnetic field while annealing without magnetic field under the same conditions does not demonstrate any effect on the structure and morphology of these films. The reasons of the sensitivity of this reaction to the presence of such magnetic field is discussed and studied by electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepper, C. C., E-mail: kleppercc@ornl.gov; Isler, R. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B.; Green, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Martin, E. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States); Colas, L.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourié, B.; Jacquot, J.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Shannon, S. C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>?1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  2. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Panayotis, Stephanie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Jacquot, Jonathan [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Green, David L [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Shannon, Prof. Steven [North Carolina State University; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  3. Generation of longitudinal electric current by the transversal electromagnetic field in collisional plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latyshev, A V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional plasmas distribution function is received in square-law approximation on size of electromagnetic field. The formula for calculation electric current is deduced at any temperature (any degree of degeneration electronic gas). This formula contains one-dimension quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to the known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. When frequency of collisions tends to zero, all received results for collisional plasma pass in known corresponding formulas for collisionless plasma. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that the received quantity of longitudinal current at tendency of frequency of collisions to zero also passes in known corresponding expression of current for collisionless plasmas. Graphic comparison of dimensionless size of current is spen...

  4. Edge radial electric field structure and its connections to H-mode confinement in Alcator C-Mod Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    High-resolution charge-exchange recombination spectroscopic measurements of B[superscript 5+] ions have enabled the first spatially resolved calculations of the radial electric field (E[subscript r]) in the Alcator C-Mod ...

  5. Pre-breakdown cavitation development in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail N. Shneider; Mikhail Pekker

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  6. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M. (Mountain View, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  7. Electric field induced localization phenomena in a ladder network with superlattice configuration: Effect of backbone environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Paramita; Karmakar, S. N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata-700 108 (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field induced localization properties of a tight-binding ladder network in presence of backbone sites are investigated. Based on Green's function formalism we numerically calculate two-terminal transport together with density of states for different arrangements of atomic sites in the ladder and its backbone. Our results lead to a possibility of getting multiple mobility edges which essentially plays a switching action between a completely opaque to fully or partly conducting region upon the variation of system Fermi energy, and thus, support in fabricating mesoscopic or DNA-based switching devices.

  8. Fermion Pair Production From an Electric Field Varying in Two Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. E. Seger; A. B. Balantekin

    1995-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hamiltonian describing fermion pair production from an arbitrarily time-varying electric field in two dimensions is studied using a group-theoretic approach. We show that this Hamiltonian can be encompassed by two, commuting SU(2) algebras, and that the two-dimensional problem can therefore be reduced to two one-dimensional problems. We compare the group structure for the two-dimensional problem with that previously derived for the one-dimensional problem, and verify that the Schwinger result is obtained under the appropriate conditions.

  9. Geometric Origin of Pair Production by Electric Field in de Sitter Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The particle production in a de Sitter space provides an interesting model to understand the curvature effect on Schwinger pair production by a constant electric field or Schwinger mechanism on the de Sitter radiation. For that purpose, we employ the recently introduced complex analysis method, in which the quantum evolution in the complex time explains the pair production via the geometric transition amplitude and gives the pair-production rate as the contour integral. We compare the result by the contour integral with that of the phase-integral method.

  10. Generalized Pearson distributions for charged particles interacting with an electric and/or a magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rossani; A. M. Scarfone

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear Boltzmann equation for elastic and/or inelastic scattering is applied to derive the distribution function of a spatially homogeneous system of charged particles spreading in a host medium of two-level atoms and subjected to external electric and/or magnetic fields. We construct a Fokker-Planck approximation to the kinetic equations and derive the most general class of distributions for the given problem by discussing in detail some physically meaningful cases. The equivalence with the transport theory of electrons in a phonon background is also discussed.

  11. Spin counting in electrically detected magnetic resonance via low-field defect state mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochrane, Corey J.; Lenahan, Patrick M. [The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The work herein describes a method that allows one to measure paramagnetic defect densities in semiconductor and insulator based devices with electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR). The method is based upon the mixing of defect states which results from the dipolar coupling of paramagnetic sites at low magnetic fields. We demonstrate the measurement method with spin dependent tunneling in thin film dielectrics; however, the method should be equally applicable to paramagnetic defect density measurements in semiconductors via the more commonly utilized EDMR technique called spin dependent recombination.

  12. Electric-field-induced turbulent energy cascade in an oil-in-oil emulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atul Varshney; Mayur Sathe; Shankar Ghosh; Anand Yethiraj; S. Bhattacharya; J. B. Joshi

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe electro-hydrodynamically driven turbulent flows at low Reynolds numbers in a two-fluid emulsion consisting of micron-scale droplets. In the presence of electric fields, the droplets produce interacting hydrodynamic flows which result in a dynamical organization at a spatial scale much larger than the size of the individual droplets. We characterize the dynamics associated with these structures by both video imaging and a simultaneous, in situ, measurement of the time variation of the bulk Reynolds stress with a rheometer. The results display scale invariance in the energy spectra in both space and time.

  13. Effect of nonlinear absorption on electric field applied lead chloride by Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejeena, I. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala, India and M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India); Lillibai,; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin Kerala (India); Rahimkutty, M. H. [M.S.M. College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation, spectral response and optical nonlinearity of gel grown lead chloride single crystals subjected to electric field of 20V using parallel plate arrangements have been investigated. Optical band gap of the samples were determined using linear absorption spectra. Open aperture z-scan was employed for the determination of nonlinear absorption coefficient of PbCl{sub 2} solution. The normalized transmittance curve exhibits a valley shows reverse saturable absorption. The non linear absorption at different input fluences were recorded using a single Gaussian laser beam in tight focus geometry. The RSA nature of the sample makes it suitable for optical limiting applications.

  14. Impact of motion along the field direction on geometric-phase-induced false electric dipole moment signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Yan; B. Plaster

    2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Geometric-phase-induced false electric dipole moment (EDM) signals, resulting from interference between magnetic field gradients and particle motion in electric fields, have been studied extensively in the literature, especially for neutron EDM experiments utilizing stored ultracold neutrons and co-magnetometer atoms. Previous studies have considered particle motion in the transverse plane perpendicular to the direction of the applied electric and magnetic fields. We show, via Monte Carlo studies, that motion along the field direction can impact the magnitude of this false EDM signal if the wall surfaces are rough such that the wall collisions can be modeled as diffuse, with the results dependent on the size of the storage cell's dimension along the field direction.

  15. Mass shift effects in nonperturbative multiphoton pair production for arbitrary polarized electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. L. Li; D. Lu; B. F. Shen; L. B. Fu; J. Liu; B. S. Xie

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass shift effects in multiphoton pair production of a nonperturbative nature for arbitrary polarized electric fields are investigated numerically by employing the real-time Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, and theoretically by proposing an effective energy concept. It is found that the theoretical results are agreement with the numerical ones very well. It is the first time to consider the roles of the momenta of created particles and the polarizations of external fields played in the mass shift effects. These results can deepen the understanding of pair production in the nonperturbative threshold regime. Moreover, the distinct mass shift effects are observable in the forthcoming experiments and can be used as a probe to distinguish the electron-positron pair production from other background events.

  16. Saturated Sodium Chloride Solution under an External Static Electric Field: a Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan Ren; Yanting Wang

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of saturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under a constant external electric field (E) was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our dynamic MD simulations have indicated that the irreversible nucleation process towards crystallization is accelerated by a moderate E, but retarded or even prohibited under a stronger E, which can be understood by the competition between self-diffusion and drift motion. The former increases with E resulting in the acceleration of the nucleation process, and the latter tears oppositely charged ions more apart under a stronger E leading to the deceleration of nucleation. Moreover, our steady-state MD simulations have indicated that a first-order phase transition happens in saturated solutions only when the applied E is below a certain threshold Ec, and the ratio of crystallized ions does not change with the electric field. The magnitude of Ec increases with concentration, because larger clusters are easy to form in a more concentrated solution and require a stronger E to dissociate them.

  17. Dynamic transport simulation code including plasma rotation and radial electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: honda.mitsuru@jaea.go.jp; Fukuyama, A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional transport code named TASK/TX, which is able to describe dynamic behavior of tokamak plasmas, has been developed. It solves simultaneously a set of flux-surface averaged equations composed of Maxwell's equations, continuity equations, equations of motion, heat transport equations, fast-particle slowing-down equations and two-group neutral diffusion equations. The set of equations describes plasma rotations in both toroidal and poloidal directions through momentum transfer and evaluates the radial electric field self-consistently. The finite element method with a piecewise linear interpolation function is employed with a fine radial mesh near the plasma surface. The Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin method is also used for robust calculation. We have confirmed that the neoclassical properties are well described by the poloidal neoclassical viscous force. The modification of density profile during neutral beam injection is presented. In the presence of ion orbit loss, the generation of the inward radial electric field and torque due to radial current is self-consistently calculated.

  18. Fatigue of extracted lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuators under unipolar high field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lee, Sung Min [ORNL; Wang, James L [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing of large prototype lead zirconate titanate (PZT) stacks presents substantial technical challenges to electronic testing systems, so an alternative approach that uses subunits extracted from prototypes has been pursued. Extracted 10-layer and 20-layer plate specimens were subjected to an electric cycle test under an electric field of 3.0/0.0 kV/mm, 100 Hz to 10^8 cycles. The effects of measurement field level and stack size (number of PZT layers) on the fatigue responses of piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients were observed. On-line monitoring permitted examination of the fatigue response of the PZT stacks. The fatigue rate (based on on-line monitoring) and the fatigue index (based on the conductance spectrum from impedance measurement or small signal measurement) were developed to quantify the fatigue status of the PZT stacks. The controlling fatigue mechanism was analyzed against the fatigue observations. The data presented can serve as input to design optimization of PZT stacks and to operation optimization in critical applications such as piezoelectric fuel injectors in heavy-duty diesel engines.

  19. An Alkali-Vapor Cell with Metal Coated Windows for Efficient Application of an Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkisyan, D; Guena, J; Lintz, M; Bouchiat, M A; Sarkisyan, David; Gu\\'{e}na, Jocelyne; Lintz, Michel; Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2 kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no ...

  20. Radial electric field generated by resonant trapped electron pinch with radio frequency injection in a tokamak plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radial electric field generated by resonant trapped electron pinch with radio frequency injection of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China (Received 10 May 2011 by charge accumulation due to a resonant trapped electron pinch effect. The radial field can then drive

  1. Stochastic Acceleration in Turbulent Electric Fields Generated by 3D Reconnection Marco Onofri, Heinz Isliker, and Loukas Vlahos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isliker, Heinz

    a millisecond) the particles develop a power-law tail. The accel- eration is extremely efficient-dimensional electric and magnetic fields is studied through test particle simulations. The fields are obtained of particle acceleration. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.151102 PACS numbers: 96.60.qe, 52.35.Vd, 52.65.Cc, 96

  2. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischauf, Norbert [QASAR Technologie(s) GmbH, Johann Gottekgasse 39, A-1230, Vienna (Austria); Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas; Bartusch, Tobias [QASAR Technologie(s) GmbH, Johann Gottekgasse 39, A-1230, Vienna (Austria); Koudelka, Otto [Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communication, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, the other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)

  3. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buitink, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ected in an electric ?eld additional radiation is emitted.the e?ect of electric ?elds on the radiation of air showersincludes the radiation of acceleration in the electric ?eld.

  4. General Electric-Magnetic decomposition of fields, positivity and Rainich-like conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose M M Senovilla

    2000-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how to generalize the classical electric-magnetic decomposition of the Maxwell or the Weyl tensors to arbitrary fields described by tensors of any rank in general $n$-dimensional spacetimes of Lorentzian signature. The properties and applications of this decomposition are reviewed. In particular, the definition of tensors quadratic in the original fields and with important positivity properties is given. These tensors are usually called "super-energy" (s-e) tensors, they include the traditional energy-momentum, Bel and Bel-Robinson tensors, and satisfy the so-called Dominant Property, which is a straightforward generalization of the classical dominant energy condition satisfied by well-behaved energy-momentum tensors. We prove that, in fact, any tensor satisfying the dominant property can be decomposed as a finite sum of the s-e tensors. Some remarks about the conservation laws derivable from s-e tensors, with some explicit examples, are presented. Finally, we will show how our results can be used to provide adequate generalizations of the Rainich conditions in general dimension and for any physical field.

  5. Electric-field-induced spin wave generation using multiferroic magnetoelectric cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepov, Sergiy; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Alzate, Juan G.; Wong, Kin; Lewis, Mark; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Nath, Jayshankar; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bur, Alexandre; Wu, Tao; Carman, Gregory P. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Khitun, Alexander [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we report on the demonstration of voltage-driven spin wave excitation, where spin waves are generated by multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) cell transducers driven by an alternating voltage, rather than an electric current. A multiferroic element consisting of a magnetostrictive Ni film and a piezoelectric [Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}]{sub (1?x)}–[PbTiO{sub 3}]{sub x} substrate was used for this purpose. By applying an AC voltage to the piezoelectric, an oscillating electric field is created within the piezoelectric material, which results in an alternating strain-induced magnetic anisotropy in the magnetostrictive Ni layer. The resulting anisotropy-driven magnetization oscillations propagate in the form of spin waves along a 5??m wide Ni/NiFe waveguide. Control experiments confirm the strain-mediated origin of the spin wave excitation. The voltage-driven spin wave excitation, demonstrated in this work, can potentially be used for low-dissipation spin wave-based logic and memory elements.

  6. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  7. Harmonic propagation on an electric distribution system: Field measurements compared with computer simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, S.M. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)); Brownfield, G.T. (Union Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Duffus, J.W. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Power Electronics Research Center)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power electronic loads are occupying an increasing fraction of the total load on distribution feeders. Coincidentally, there is a greater use of power factor correction capacitors on the distribution system. These two factors can present poor operating conditions in the form of high harmonic levels propagating through a distribution system. Electric utility engineers are facing an ever increasing number of situations which require the analysis of the propagation of harmonics on a distribution system. HARMFLO was developed by EPRI for use in the analysis of harmonics on a power system. However, for a typical analysis of a distribution system, data for some of the parameters required by HARMFLO are not available. Furthermore, exact load information is usually not available. Harmonic levels determined from field tests on a distribution system are compared to results of HARMFLO simulations to determine if this analysis tool can be expected to provide useful results despite the lack of exact information for load modeling and other system parameters.

  8. Effect of the electric field on the creation of fermions in de-Sitter space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haouat, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the electric field on the creation of spin 1/2 particles from vacuum in the (1+1) dimensional de-Sitter space-time is studied. The Dirac equation with a constant electric field is solved by introducing an unitary transformation. Then the canonical method based on Bogoliubov transformation is applied to calculate the pair creation probability and the density of created particles both for positive or negative wave vector. By doing summation over all allowed states, the number of created particles per unit of time per unit of length and the imaginary part of the Schwinger effective action are expressed in closed forms. It is shown that the electric field leads to a significant enhancement of the particle creation. The weak expansion case and the limit H=0, where dS space reduces to the flat Minkowski space-time, are discussed.

  9. Soft and hybrid-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics under stress, electric field, and temperature loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suchanicz, J.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.; Konieczny, K.; Jankowska-Sumara, I. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Balogh, A. G. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the influence of uniaxial pressure (0-1000 bars) applied parallelly or perpendicularly to the ac or dc electric field (in a one-dimensional or two-dimensional manner) on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of selected soft and hybrid-doped PZT ceramics (1 mol. % Gd, 1 mol. % La and 1 mol. % (La+Fe)-doped Pb(Zr{sub 0.54}Ti{sub 0.46}) O{sub 3}). Applying uniaxial pressure leads to a reduction of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity ({epsilon}), of the frequency dispersion, and of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity of {epsilon} becomes diffused and shifts to a higher temperatures with increasing pressure. Simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and dc electric field (perpendicular to each other) in the poling process implies in improvement of the ferroelectric properties, indicating a new possibility for poling materials with a high coercive field and/or high electric conductivity. It was also found that simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and dc electric field (perpendicular to each other) allowed observation of the space charge in the depolarization process. The electrostrictive coefficient Q{sub 11} and differential permittivity were evaluated from obtained data. Our results show that applying uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti-ion concentration in the PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the Cochran soft-mode and domain switching processes under the action of pressure.

  10. Soft-Gluon Production Due to a Gluon Loop in a Constant Chromo-Electric Background Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouranga C. Nayak; Peter van Nieuwenhuizen

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain an exact result for the soft gluon production and its p_T distribution due to a gluon loop in a constant chromo-electric background field E^a with arbitrary color. Unlike Schwinger's result for e^+e^- pair production in QED which depends only on one gauge invariant quantity, the Electric field E, we find that the p_T distribution of the gluons depend on two gauge invariant quantities, E^aE^a and [d_{abc}E^aE^bE^c]^2.

  11. Non-Perturbative Quark-Antiquark Production From a Constant Chromo-Electric Field via the Schwinger Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouranga C. Nayak

    2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain an exact result for the non-perturbative quark (antiquark) production rate and its p_T distribution from a constant SU(3) chromo-electric field E^a with arbitary color index $a$ by directly evaluating the path integral. Unlike the WKB tunneling result, which depends only on one gauge invariant quantity |E|, the strength of the chromo-electric field, we find that the exact result for the p_T distribution for quark (antiquark) production rate depends on two independent Casimir (gauge) invariants, E^aE^a and [d_{abc}E^aE^bE^c]^2.

  12. Comparisons between laser damage and optical electric field behaviors for hafnia/silica antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellum, John; Kletecka, Damon; Rambo, Patrick; Smith, Ian; Schwarz, Jens; Atherton, Briggs

    2011-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare designs and laser-induced damage thresholds (LIDTs) of hafnia/silica antireflection (AR) coatings for 1054 nm or dual 527 nm/1054 nm wavelengths and 0 deg. to 45 deg. angles of incidence (AOIs). For a 527 nm/1054 nm, 0 deg. AOI AR coating, LIDTs from three runs arbitrarily selected over three years are {approx}20 J/cm{sup 2} or higher at 1054 nm and <10 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm. Calculated optical electric field intensities within the coating show two intensity peaks for 527 nm but not for 1054 nm, correlating with the lower (higher) LIDTs at 527 nm (1054 nm). For 1054 nm AR coatings at 45 deg. and 32 deg. AOIs and S and P polarizations (Spol and Ppol), LIDTs are high for Spol (>35 J/cm{sup 2}) but not as high for Ppol (>30 J/cm{sup 2} at 32 deg. AOI; {approx}15 J/cm{sup 2} at 45 deg. AOI). Field intensities show that Ppol discontinuities at media interfaces correlate with the lower Ppol LIDTs at these AOIs. For Side 1 and Side 2 dual 527 nm/1054 nm AR coatings of a diagnostic beam splitter at 22.5 deg. AOI, Spol and Ppol LIDTs (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm; >35 J/cm{sup 2} at 1054 nm) are consistent with Spol and Ppol intensity behaviors.

  13. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from ?1?V/nm up to ?2?V/nm (?1 to ?2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  14. Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

    Because of its versatility, electricity consumption continues to grow all over the world more rapidly than any other energy form. The portion of the United States' primary energy supply used as electricity has expanded from near zero at the turn...

  15. Oil Field Electrical Energy Savings Through Energy-Efficient Motor Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W.

    The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency...

  16. Oil Field Electrical Energy Savings Through Energy-Efficient Motor Retrofits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Bershinsky, V.; Cain, W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wyoming Electric Motor Training and Testing Center (WEMTTC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy-Denver Support Office and the Naval Petroleum Reserve #3 (NPR-3), has conducted an extensive study of electric motor efficiency...

  17. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  18. A model of phase transitions in the system of electro-optical dipolar chromophores subject to an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A model of phase transitions in the system of electro-optical dipolar chromophores subject to an electric field Yuriy V. Pereverzev, Oleg V. Prezhdo,a) and Larry R. Dalton Department of Chemistry An analytical model for the nonlinear behavior of the electro-optic EO coefficient in chro- mophore

  19. Nonlinear Response of Strongly Correlated Materials to Large Electric Fields J.K. Freericks and V. Turkowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freericks, Jim

    of different types of materials. In total, about 600,000 CPU hours were used on the project over about a sixNonlinear Response of Strongly Correlated Materials to Large Electric Fields J.K. Freericks and V Strongly correlated electron materials are materials where the electron-electron interaction is so strong

  20. Electric field induced switching of poly,,ethylene glycol... terminated self-assembled monolayers: A parallel molecular dynamics simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    : A parallel molecular dynamics simulation Satyavani Vemparala, Rajiv K. Kalia, Aiichiro Nakano, and Priya on the atomistic structure of PEG terminated SAMs using molecular dynamics simulations on parallel computersElectric field induced switching of poly,,ethylene glycol... terminated self-assembled monolayers

  1. Response to ``Comment on `Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora: Numerical solutions'''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of H is largely conserved. Our article identifies several areas where a dynamic simulation is needed , decidedly the opposite argument used in his abstract fully dynamic simulations are needed for the lowestResponse to ``Comment on `Parallel electric fields in the upward current region of the aurora

  2. Statistical characteristics of small-scale spatial and temporal electric field variability in the high-latitude ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    to the total energy deposited in the atmosphere through Joule heating and mechanical energy transfer's ionosphere are investigated using 48 months of data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (Super. The amount of energy contributed by small-scale electric field variability has been estimated in previous

  3. Observed electric fields associated with lightning initiation T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, C. R. Maggio, and L. M. Coleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Ronald J.

    Research, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA Received 20 October 2004 [1925] suggested that an energetic electron in a strong thunderstorm electric field would gain more, an energetic electron gains as much energy from E as it loses in collisions. Marshall et al. estimated Ebe

  4. ASA conference on radiation and health: Health effects of electric and magnetic fields: Statistical support for research strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a collection of papers documenting presentations made at the VIII ASA (American Statistical Association) Conference on Radiation and Health entitled Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Statistical Support for Research Strategies. Individual papers are abstracted and indexed for the database.

  5. Collection of Aerosol Particles by a Conducting Sphere in an External Electric Field-Continuum Regime Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Pao K.

    caseswhere some effects are absent. INTRODUCTION The collision and coagulation process of aerosol particles to a consid- erable extent the size distribution and thus the reaction rate of the reactants. In this paper weCollection of Aerosol Particles by a Conducting Sphere in an External Electric Field

  6. Dynamics of Electric Currents, Magnetic Field Topology and Helioseismic Response of a Solar Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharykin, I N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar flare on July 30, 2011 was of a modest X-ray class (M9.3), but it made a strong photospheric impact and produced a "sunquake," observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). In addition to the helioseismic waves (also observed with the SDO/AIA instrument), the flare caused a large expanding area of white-light emission and was accompanied by substantial restructuring of magnetic fields, leading to the rapid formation of a sunspot structure in the flare region. The flare produced no significant hard X-ray emission and no coronal mass ejection. This indicates that the flare energy release was mostly confined to the lower atmosphere. The absence of significant coronal mass ejection rules out magnetic rope eruption as a mechanism of helioseismic waves. We discuss the connectivity of the flare energy release with the electric currents dynamics and show the potential importance of high-speed plasma flows in the lower solar atmosphere during the flare e...

  7. SnTe field effect transistors and the anomalous electrical response of structural phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haitao, E-mail: haitao.li@nist.gov; Zhu, Hao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Qiliang, E-mail: qli6@gmu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Richter, Curt A. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Zhao, Erhai [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SnTe is a conventional thermoelectric material and has been newly found to be a topological crystalline insulator. In this work, back-gate SnTe field-effect transistors have been fabricated and fully characterized. The devices exhibit n-type transistor behaviors with excellent current-voltage characteristics and large on/off ratio (>10{sup 6}). The device threshold voltage, conductance, mobility, and subthreshold swing have been studied and compared at different temperatures. It is found that the subthreshold swings as a function of temperature have an apparent response to the SnTe phase transition between cubic and rhombohedral structures at 110?K. The abnormal and rapid increase in subthreshold swing around the phase transition temperature may be due to the soft phonon/structure change which causes the large increase in SnTe dielectric constant. Such an interesting and remarkable electrical response to phase transition at different temperatures makes the small SnTe transistor attractive for various electronic devices.

  8. Ionization distances of Rydberg atoms approaching solid surfaces in the presence of weak electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nedeljkovic, N.N.; Nedeljkovic, Lj.D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionization distances R{sub c}{sup I} of slow hydrogenlike Rydberg atoms approaching solid surfaces in the presence of a weak external electric field are calculated. The ionization is treated as resonant electron tunneling in the very vicinity of the top of the potential barrier, created between the ionic core and polarized solid. We obtain both the complex energies and the ionization distances by solving the energy eigenvalue problem under the outgoing wave boundary condition towards the solid. The eigenvalue problem is studied in parabolic coordinates within the framework of an etalon equation method adapted to include the confluence of turning points. It is demonstrated that in a critical region R{approx_equal}R{sub c}{sup I}>>1 a.u. of ion-surface distances R, parabolic quantum numbers n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, and m can serve as approximate, but 'sufficiently good' quantum numbers, at least for lower n{sub 1} values. The method offers asymptotically exact analytical expressions for the ionization rates and energies, which follow the theoretical predictions of the complex scaling method (CSM). It is also found that the resulting ionization distances R{sub c}{sup I} are in very good agreement with the results of CSM. The implications of using obtained results in analyzing the recent xenon experimental data for R{sub c}{sup I} are briefly discussed.

  9. Towards an electro-magnetic field separation of deposited material implemented in an ion beam sputter process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malobabic, Sina; Jupe, Marco; Ristau, Detlev [Laser Component Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30149 Hannover (Germany) [Laser Component Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30149 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, Ion Beam Sputter (IBS) processes are very well optimized on an empirical basis. To achieve further progresses, a modification of the IBS process by guiding the coating material using an axial magnetic field and an additional electrical field has been studied. The electro-magnetic (EM) field leads to a significant change in plasma properties and deposition rate distributions, whereas an increase in deposition rate along the centerline of the axial EM field around 150% was observed. These fundamental studies on the prototype are the basis for the development of an applicable and workable design of a separation device.

  10. FW5B.4.pdf FiO/LS 2014 OSA 2014 Electric Field Detection Using an Electro-optic Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    -crystal waveguide modulator driven by a bowtie-antenna. The minimum detectable electric field is measured to be 2.5V photonic EMF sensor based on bowtie antenna coupled silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) slot photonic crystal], together with broadband electric field enhancement provided by the bowtie antenna, are utilized to enable

  11. Neutrino Physics and Nuclear Axial Two-Body Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; H. Yuksel

    2004-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the counter-term describing isoscalar axial two-body currents in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, L1A, in the effective field theory approach. We determine this quantity using the solar neutrino data. We investigate the variation of L1A when different sets of data are used.

  12. Distribution of electric field and energy flux around the cracks on the surfaces of Nd-doped phosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lei; Huang Li; Fan Sijun; Bai Gongxun; Li Kefeng; Chen Wei; Hu Lili

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate and calculate numerically the electromagnetic field and energy flux around a surface crack of an Nd-doped phosphate laser glass by using the finite-difference time-domain method. Because of a strong interference between the incident wave and the total internal reflections from the crack and the glass surface, the electric field is redistributed and enhanced. The results show that the electric-field distribution and corresponding energy flux component depend sensitively on the light polarization and crack geometry, such as orientation and depth. The polarization of the incident laser beam relative to the crack surfaces will determine the profile of the electric field around the crack. Under TE wave incidence, the energy flux peak is always inside the glass. But under TM wave incidence, the energy flux peak will be located inside the glass or inside the air gap. For both incident modes, the light intensification factor increases with the crack depth, especially for energy flux along the surface. Because cracks on the polished surfaces are the same as the roots extending down, the probability for much larger intensification occurring is high. The results suggest that the surface laser-damage threshold of Nd-doped phosphate may decrease dramatically with subsurface damage.

  13. New Solutions of the $2+1$ Dimensional Einstein Gravity Coupled to Maxwell Power type Non Linear Electric field with Dilaton field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masashi Kuniyasu

    2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    New solutions are derived in the $2+1$ gravity which is coupled to $|{\\cal F}|^k$ type non-linear electric field in Maxwell Power theory with dilaton field. We obtain consistent solutions in general $k$ case. We also investigate the behavior of the metric function with the space-time singularity. Then, we found some black hole solutions when the space-time has a singular point at $r=0$. Addition, we derive the Brown-York mass when the space-time represents black hole.

  14. Screening of an Applied Electric Field Inside a Metallic Layer Described by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monneau, Régis

    of a constant electric #12;eld on the electronic structure of a crystal. We model it by a density-functional theory, and derive from this microscopic model macroscopic features of the system by letting the ratio electric #12;eld perpendicular to the surface of the crystal. Modeling the electrons by a quantum (hence

  15. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuxin Wu; Roelof Versteeg; Lee Slater; Doug Labrecque

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium carbonate is a major secondary mineral precipitate that influences PRB reactivity and hydraulic performance. In this study, we conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO3 and iron oxides precipitation in two simulated PRB media. Solid phase analysis identified CaCO3 (calcite and aragonite) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite being another major phase present close to the influent. Electrical measurements revealed a consistent decrease in conductivity and polarization magnitude of both columns, suggesting that the electrically insulating CaCO3 dominates the electrical response despite the presence of both electrically conductive iron oxides and CaCO3 precipitates. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical properties result from the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. The CaCO3 forms an insulating film on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, which we assume restricts redox-driven transfer of electric charge between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss.

  16. Enhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic field processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    of thermal conductance in a composite material assuming a linear law of mixing, and nanotube­polymerEnhancement of thermal and electrical properties of carbon nanotube polymer composites by magnetic and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube CNT -polymer composites are significantly enhanced

  17. PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  18. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brousseau, D; Parent, J; Ruel, H J; Borra, Ermanno F.; Brousseau, Denis; Parent, Jocelyn; Ruel, Hubert-Jean

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  19. A magnetic liquid deformable mirror for high stroke and low order axially symmetrical aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Brousseau; Ermanno F. Borra; Hubert-Jean Ruel; Jocelyn Parent

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 microns, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment

  20. Spontaneous transition of core radial electric field driven by magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S. T. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Blackwell, B. D. [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Howard, J. [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Harris, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports an experimental observation of spontaneous transition of the core radial electric field to a large positive value (E(r) similar to 5 kV m(-1)), with a strong electric-field shear (similar to 700 kV m(-2)) in a low temperature (T(e) similar to 10 eV) radio frequency generated argon plasma in the H-1NF heliac stellarator. The transition, which seems to be driven by a spontaneous excitation of m = 2 magnetic islands near the core, is associated with a localized increase in the plasma density and excitation of coherent low frequency (similar to 3 kHz) oscillations possibly due to unstable E(r) shear driven modes. Evidence suggests development of the core electron-root scenario, which previously has been observed only at high temperature electron cyclotron heated plasmas.

  1. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)] [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, S3-33 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000?nm and 860?nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  2. Schwinger Mechanism for Quark-Antiquark Production in the Presence of Arbitrary Time Dependent Chromo-Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouranga C. Nayak

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Schwinger mechanism in QCD in the presence of an arbitrary time-dependent chromo-electric background field $E^a(t)$ with arbitrary color index $a$=1,2,...8 in SU(3). We obtain an exact result for the non-perturbative quark (antiquark) production from an arbitrary $E^a(t)$ by directly evaluating the path integral. We find that the exact result is independent of all the time derivatives $\\frac{d^nE^a(t)}{dt^n}$ where $n=1,2,...\\infty$. This result has the same functional dependence on two Casimir invariants $[E^a(t)E^a(t)]$ and $[d_{abc}E^a(t)E^b(t)E^c(t)]^2$ as the constant chromo-electric field $E^a$ result with the replacement: $E^a \\rightarrow E^a(t)$. This result relies crucially on the validity of the shift conjecture, which has not yet been established.

  3. Hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields: Phase space topology and torus quantization via periodic orbits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephan Gekle; Jörg Main; Thomas Bartsch; T. Uzer

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hierarchical ordering is demonstrated for the periodic orbits in a strongly coupled multidimensional Hamiltonian system, namely the hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields. It mirrors the hierarchy of broken resonant tori and thereby allows one to characterize the periodic orbits by a set of winding numbers. With this knowledge, we construct the action variables as functions of the frequency ratios and carry out a semiclassical torus quantization. The semiclassical energy levels thus obtained agree well with exact quantum calculations.

  4. Possibilities for Measurement and Compensation of Stray DC Electric Fields Acting on Drag-Free Test Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. J. Weber; L. Carbone; A. Cavalleri; R. Dolesi; C. D. Hoyle; M. Hueller; S. Vitale

    2003-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    DC electric fields can combine with test mass charging and thermal dielectric voltage noise to create significant force noise acting on the drag-free test masses in the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) gravitational wave mission. This paper proposes a simple technique to measure and compensate average stray DC potentials at the mV level, yielding substantial reduction in this source of force noise. We discuss the attainable resolution for both flight and ground based experiments.

  5. Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yin; Liao, Jinfeng; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient ??e, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current JA that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field eE: JA=??e(eE). Starting with a rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure ??e???5 emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density ?5 ? 0. Using the Hard-Thermal-Loop framework, the CESEmore »conductivity for the QGP is found to be ??e = (#)TTrfQeQA/g?ln(1/g) ??5/T² to the leading-log accuracy with the numerical constant (#) depending on favor content, e.g., (#)=14.5163 for u, d light flavors.« less

  6. Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yin [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Liao, Jinfeng [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xu-Guang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient ??e, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current JA that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field eE: JA=??e(eE). Starting with a rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure ??e???5 emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density ?5 ? 0. Using the Hard-Thermal-Loop framework, the CESE conductivity for the QGP is found to be ??e = (#)TTrfQeQA/g?ln(1/g) ??5/T² to the leading-log accuracy with the numerical constant (#) depending on favor content, e.g., (#)=14.5163 for u, d light flavors.

  7. Chiral electric separation effect in the quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Jiang; Xu-Guang Huang; Jinfeng Liao

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce and compute a new transport coefficient for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at very high temperature. This new coefficient $\\sigma_{\\chi e}$, the CESE (Chiral Electric Separation Effect) conductivity, quantifies the amount of axial current $\\vec J_A$ that is generated in response to an externally applied electric field $e\\vec E$: $\\vec J_A = \\sigma_{\\chi e} (e\\vec E)$. Starting with rather general argument in the kinetic theory framework, we show how a characteristic structure $\\sigma_{\\chi e}\\propto \\mu \\mu_5$ emerges, which also indicates the CESE as an anomalous transport effect occurring only in a parity-odd environment with nonzero axial charge density $\\mu_5\

  8. Phase-controlled pulse propagation in media with cross coupling of electric and magnetic probe field component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischhaker, Robert; Evers, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Light propagation is discussed in media with a cross coupling of the electric and magnetic component of an applied probe field. We derive the wave equations for a probe pulse propagating through such a medium and solve them analytically in Fourier space using the slowly varying envelope approximation. Our analysis reveals the influence of the different medium response coefficients on the propagation dynamics. We apply these results to a specific example system in which cross couplings are induced in an atomic medium by additional control fields. We show that the cross couplings render the propagation dynamics sensitive to the relative phase of the additional fields, and this phase dependence enables one to control the pulse during its propagation through the medium. Our results demonstrate that the magnetic field component of a probe beam can crucially influence the system dynamics already at experimentally accessible parameter ranges in dilute vapors.

  9. A two-dimensional (azimuthal-axial) particle-in-cell model of a Hall thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coche, P.; Garrigues, L., E-mail: laurent.garrigues@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell model in the azimuthal and axial directions of the Hall thruster. A scaling method that consists to work at a lower plasma density to overcome constraints on time-step and grid-spacing is used. Calculations are able to reproduce the breathing mode due to a periodic depletion of neutral atoms without the introduction of a supplementary anomalous mechanism, as in fluid and hybrid models. Results show that during the increase of the discharge current, an electron-cyclotron drift instability (frequency in the range of MHz and wave number on the order of 3000 rad s{sup ?1}) is formed in the region of the negative gradient of magnetic field. During the current decrease, an axial electric wave propagates from the channel toward the exhaust (whose frequency is on the order of 400?kHz) leading to a broadening of the ion energy distribution function. A discussion about the influence of the scaling method on the calculation results is also proposed.

  10. A MEMS-based, high-resolution Electric-Field meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafran, John Sawa

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In MEMS-based inertial sensors, such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, known electrical waveforms are applied to a modulating capacitive element to determine an unknown deflection. However, the inverse of this scheme can ...

  11. Intermittency analyses on the SIERRA measurements of the electric field fluctuations in the auroral zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Paul M. Kintner and Eric Klatt School of Electrical and Burch, 1984]. Based on this theory, Retterer et al. [1987] demonstrated the formation of oxygen

  12. A Compact Disk Type Plasma Propulsion System with Modulated Magnetic Field for Nanoscale Space Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Ueda, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yukihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, 565-0871 Osaka (Japan)

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact 5 mm disk type plasma thruster simply composed of only a set of antenna windings and bias field coil which produces significant thrust of 0.74 mN with rotating magnetic field has been proposed and successfully developed for future applications to low altitude nanosatellites. The key technology issue is that the rotating speed is set above the ion plasma frequency but far below the electron plasma frequency, in order to produce the electron drag current and axial electric field as a consequence of the interaction with the bias field. The formation of axial electric field was confirmed and the produced plasma density was >6x10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, whereas the power consumption is 500 W in the inductively coupled mode of operation. The anticipated thrust density and specific thrust could potentially be extended to 7.64 Nm{sup -2} and 850 s, respectively, which is comparable to conventional Hall effect thrusters.

  13. Response of intergrown microstructure to an electric field and its consequences in the lead-free piezoelectric bismuth sodium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yun, E-mail: yliu@rsc.anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Noren, Lasse [Research School of Chemistry, the Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Studer, Andrew J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Withers, Ray L.; Guo Yiping [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Li Yongxiang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yang Hui [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); College of Life Science and Technology, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian 710021 (China); Wang Jian [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the R3c average structure and micro-structure of the ceramic Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BNT) in situ under applied electric fields using diffraction techniques. Electron diffraction implies the presence of significant octahedral tilt twin disorder, corresponding to the existence of a fine scale intergrown microstructural (IGMS) 'phase' within the R3c rhombohedral average structure matrix. A careful neutron refinement suggests not only that the off-centre displacements of the cations relative to the oxygens in the R3c regions increases systematically on application of an electric field but also that the phase fraction of the IGMS regions increases systematically. The latter change in phase fraction on application of the electric field enhances the polar displacement of the cations relative to the oxygen anions and affects the overall strain response. These IGMS regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another, resulting in polarisation relaxation and strain behaviour observed in BNT-containing materials. - Graphical abstract: The intergrown microstructure at very fine scales within the R3c rhombohedral phase matrix of BNT, originating from octahedral tilt twinning disorder, will increase with respect to an external field. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of an intergrown microstructural 'phase' within the average structure matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This phase fraction of the intergrown microstructural regions changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such regions form local polar nano regions that are not correlated with one another.

  14. Studies of penetration of the magnetic field into electrically imploded loads in the Angara-5-1 facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Thermonuclear Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Sasorov, P. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from measurements of the distributions of the azimuthal magnetic field in aluminum, copper, molybdenum, tungsten and other wire arrays electrically imploded at currents of up to 3 MA in the Angara-5-1 facility. It is shown that the time during which the magnetic field of the current pulse reaches the array axis depends on the material of the wires or wire coating. The current of the precursor formed on the array axis before the implosion of the main load mass is measured. It is shown that the penetration of the load material with the frozen-in magnetic field into a polymer (agar-agar) foam liner is drastically different from that in the case of a wire array. It is found that the rate of current transfer to the array axis is maximum for tungsten wire arrays. The rates of plasma production during implosion of loads made of different materials are compared.

  15. Electron cyclotron resonant multicusp magnetic field microwave plasma source for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahimene, M.; Mahoney, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of electrodeless microwave ion and plasma sources has been a recent, very active research project at Michigan State University. The results are efficient, compact microwave discharge configurations that operate at low pressures (0.5 mtorr to 100 mtorr) and efficiently produce low energy ions and free radicals and broad ion beams for oxidation, deposition, and etching experiments. The microwave discharge technology developed for these applications may be useful for application in electric propulsion. This paper reviews this microwave applicator technology and indicates how it may be extended to higher power levels and applied to electric propulsion systems. 12 references.

  16. Energy Conservation and Efficiency Improvement for the Electric Motors Operating in U.S. Oil Fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ula, S.; Cain, W.; Nichols, T.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the inventory of completed wells are shown in Tables 1,2 and 3, respectively. Tables 4 and 5 show the 1991 electrical energy use and the potential energy savings, respectively. A 10% electric energy savings translates into $120,000 per year for NPR-3... wells. Table 1 NAVAL PETROLEUM RESERVE PRODUCT ION HISTORY (in million barrels) NPR-I NPR-3 Year of First Product ion Cumu lat ive Product ion Production Since 1976 Remaining Reserves (Us ing pr imar~ and secondar~ product ion) Added Reserves...

  17. Electron Diamagnetic Effect on Axial Force in an Expanding Plasma: Experiments and Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding current-free plasma is directly measured for three different experimental configurations and compared with a two-dimensional fluid theory. The force component solely resulting from the expanding field is directly measured and identified as an axial force produced by the azimuthal current due to an electron diamagnetic drift and the radial component of the magnetic field. The experimentally measured forces are well described by the theory.

  18. Electric-field assisted assembly and alignment of metallic nanowires Peter A. Smith, Christopher D. Nordquist, Thomas N. Jackson, and Theresa S. Mayera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric-field assisted assembly and alignment of metallic nanowires Peter A. Smith, Christopher D par- ticles that are suspended in liquid media. While considerable effort has been devoted

  19. Electronic processes in molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale metal tips under electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    at high vacuums, such as particle accel- erators and fusion reactors, causing the undesirable effect and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 43, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland b CERN of electric arcs. In many cases these arcs can damage sensitive parts, such as particle accelerator structures

  20. At the School of Electrical Engineering, science and engineering meet society. Our portfolio covers fields from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Signal of quality #12;At the School of Electrical Engineering, science and engineering meet society efficiency of basic power systems bring new solutions to energy production and transformation, while systems based on smart grids offer tools for energy transport as well as tracking and control of energy

  1. Microparticles in a Collisional Rf Plasma Sheath under Hypergravity Conditions as Probes for the Electric Field Strength and the Particle Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W. W.; Dijk, J. van; Kroesen, G. M. W. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, 24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We used microparticles under hypergravity conditions, induced by a centrifuge, in order to measure nonintrusively and spatially resolved the electric field strength as well as the particle charge in the collisional rf plasma sheath. The measured electric field strengths demonstrate good agreement with the literature, while the particle charge shows decreasing values towards the electrode. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to measure these important quantities without changing or disturbing the plasma.

  2. Spectral-phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction applied to seeded extreme-ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahieu, Benoît; De Ninno, Giovanni; Dacasa, Hugo; Lozano, Magali; Rousseau, Jean-Philippe; Zeitoun, Philippe; Garzella, David; Merdji, Hamed

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a setup for complete characterization of femtosecond pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers (FEL's) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region. Two delayed and spectrally shifted replicas are produced and used for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER). We show that it can be achieved by a simple arrangement of the seed laser. Temporal shape and phase obtained in FEL simulations are well retrieved by the SPIDER reconstruction, allowing to foresee the implementation of this diagnostic on existing and future sources. This will be a significant step towards an experimental investigation and control of FEL spectral phase.

  3. Non-Perturbative Gluon pair production from a Constant Chromo-Electric Field via the Schwinger Mechanism in Arbitrary Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred Cooper; Gouranga C. Nayak

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the non-perturbative production of gluon pairs from a constant SU(3) chromo-electric background field via the Schwinger mechanism. We fix the covariant background gauge with an arbitrary gauge parameter \\alpha. We determine the transverse momentum distribution of the gluons, as well as the total probability of creating pairs per unit space time volume. We find that the result is independent of the covariant gauge parameter \\alpha used to define arbitrary covariant background gauges. We find that our non-perturbative result is both gauge invariant and gauge parameter \\alpha independent.

  4. Schwinger Mechanism for Gluon Pair Production in the Presence of Arbitrary Time Dependent Chromo-Electric Field in Arbitrary Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gouranga C Nayak

    2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study non-perturbative gluon pair production from arbitrary time dependent chromo-electric field E^a(t) with arbitrary color index a =1,2,...8 via Schwinger mechanism in arbitrary covariant background gauge \\alpha. We show that the probability of non-perturbative gluon pair production per unit time per unit volume per unit transverse momentum \\frac{dW}{d^4xd^2p_T} is independent of gauge fixing parameter \\alpha. Hence the result obtained in the Fynman-'t Hooft gauge, \\alpha=1, is the correct gauge invariant and gauge parameter \\alpha independent result.

  5. The influence of dislocations on the electrical properties of MOS field effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael, Fouad Antoine

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions and tech- niques. Sufficient numbers of devices were built to form a good statistical study applicable to commercial fabrication. Device Pre aration Although this entire study revolves around the dislocations' influence on the electrical... areas ), and to allow for repetitive probing without great damage to the active areas. The test cell used in this study, is 100mils by 100mils and consits of four devices: a circular P-N junction diode, 15mils in -3 2 diameter, a circular capacitor...

  6. Electric Field-Modulated Non-Ohmic Behavior of Carbon Nanotube Fibers in Polar Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Elliott, James A.; Vilatela, Juan J.; Windle, Alan H.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    as high-performance multifunctional composites,6–11 sensors and actuators,8,12–15 or energy transmission and storage.16–19 In previous work,5 we reported the effects of several penetrant liquids on the structure and electrical properties of direct... .5 Figure 1. The hierarchical structure of direct-spun carbon nanotube fibers: (a) optical microscopy image showing the macroscopic appearance fibers used in this work; (b) scanning 5 electron microscopy (SEM) image of the same fiber showing...

  7. Electric field effects on spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} using tunable spin injection contacts at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamerbeek, A. M.; Vries, E. K. de; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T., E-mail: T.Banerjee@rug.nl [Physics of Nanodevices, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Dankert, A.; Dash, S. P. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on features in charge transport and spin injection in an oxide semiconductor, Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}. This is demonstrated using electrically tunable spin injection contacts which exploit the large electric field at the interface and its interplay with the relative permittivity of the semiconductor. We realize spin accumulation in Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} which displays a unique dependence of the spin lifetime with bias polarity. These findings suggest a strong influence of the interface electric field on the charge transport as well as on spin accumulation unlike in conventional semiconductors and opens up promising avenues in oxide spintronics.

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 092407 (2011) Orbital magnetoelectric coupling at finite electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderbilt, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , a nonmagnetic ferroelectric crystal loses time-reversal symmetry when subject to a magnetic field. In both cases correction terms vanishes, so that the total coupling is still given by the same formula as at zero field.85.+t, 03.65.Vf, 71.20.Ps Magnetoelectrics are magnetic insulators whose dielectric polarization P

  9. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .1364/AO.47.002470 #12;2 Introduction In the field of high power microwave (HPM) measurements, ultra wideHz-GHz frequency range) and allowing getting simultaneously one specific component of the HPM E field and the probe determining the energy of a single shot HPM signal by measuring the temperature increase of an EO probe

  10. Strain and electric field induced electronic properties of two-dimensional hybrid bilayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Munish, E-mail: munishsharmahpu@live.com, E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K., E-mail: munishsharmahpu@live.com, E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunability of the electronic properties of two-dimensional bilayer hetero structures of transition-metal dichalcogenides (i.e., MX{sub 2}-M?X?{sub 2} with (M, M??=?Mo, W; X, X??=?S, Se) is investigated. Application of both strain and electric field is found to modify the band gap and carrier effective mass in the hybrid bilayers considered. The calculated results based on density functional theory suggest that the tensile strain considerably changes the band gap of semiconducting bilayers; it makes the band gap to be indirect, and later initiates the semiconductor-to-metal transition. Application of the external electric fields, on the other hand, shows asymmetric variation in the band gap leading to the closure of the gap at about 0.5–1.0?V/Å. Tuning of the band gap and carrier effective mass in such a controlled manner makes the hybrid bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides to be promising candidates for application in electronic devices at nanoscale.

  11. From static to rotating to conformal static solutions: Rotating imperfect fluid wormholes with(out) electric or magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustapha Azreg-Aïnou

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties that are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart which turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole and determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field.

  12. Hydrogenation-induced edge magnetization in armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbon and electric field effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Fangping [Powder Metallurgy Research Institute and State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yang, Zhixiong; Wu, Nannan; Chen, Yu [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ni, Xiang [Physics program at the Graduate Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016-4309 (United States); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx228@sina.com [Powder Metallurgy Research Institute and State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed density functional theory study on the electronic and magnetic properties of armchair MoS{sub 2} nanoribbons (AMoS{sub 2}NR) with different edge hydrogenation. Although bare and fully passivated AMoS{sub 2}NRs are nonmagnetic semiconductors, it was found that hydrogenation in certain patterns can induce localized ferromagnetic edge state in AMoS{sub 2}NRs and make AMoS{sub 2}NRs become antiferromagnetic semiconductors or ferromagnetic semiconductors. Electric field effects on the bandgap and magnetic moment of AMoS{sub 2}NRs were investigated. Partial edge hydrogenation can change a small-sized AMoS{sub 2}NR from semiconductor to metal or semimetal under a moderate transverse electric field. Since the rate of edge hydrogenation can be controlled experimentally via the temperature, pressure and concentration of H{sub 2}, our results suggest edge hydrogenation is a useful method to engineer the band structure of AMoS{sub 2}NRs.

  13. Electric field control of domain wall propagation in Pt/Co/GdOx films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Uwe

    The influence of a gate voltage on domain wall (DW) propagation is investigated in ultrathin Pt/Co/gadolinium oxide (GdOx) films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The DW propagation field can be enhanced or retarded ...

  14. Calculation methods and detection techniques for electric and magnetic fields from power lines with measurement verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamishev, Alexander V

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the direct proximity of the conductors of power lines, situated well above the ground level. Conventional approximation of a sagged wire as a straight horizontal conductor of infinite length has been substituted...

  15. Charge state control in single InAs/GaAs quantum dots by external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jing [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Shuo; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai, E-mail: xlxu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Geng, Weidong, E-mail: gengwd@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Photo-electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Williams, David A. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of charge state control in single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots by applying electric and/or magnetic fields at 4.2?K. Neutral and charged exciton complexes were observed under applied bias voltages from ?0.5?V to 0.5?V by controlling the carrier tunneling. The highly negatively charged exciton emission becomes stronger with increasing pumping power, arising from the fact that electrons have a smaller effective mass than holes and are more easily captured by the quantum dots. The integrated PL intensity of negatively charged excitons is affected significantly by a magnetic field applied along the sample growth axis. This observation is explained by a reduction in the electron drift velocity caused by an applied magnetic field, which increases the probability of non-resonantly excited electrons being trapped by localized potentials at the wetting layer interface, and results in fewer electrons distributed in the quantum dots. The hole drift velocity is also affected by the magnetic field, but it is much weaker.

  16. Evaluation of salt particle collection device for preventing SCC on canister - Effect on particle collection rate by electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, H.; Saegusa, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry 1646 Abiko, Abiko-shi, Chiba-ken 270-1194 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Now, in Japan, while metal casks are used for spent nuclear fuel storage, a practical use of concrete casks is under review because of its cost effectiveness and procurement easiness. In reviewing the practical use, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a canister container in the concrete cask becomes an issue and is needed to be resolved soon. A natural ventilation system is generally adopted for the storage facilities, especially in Japan where facilities are built near coasts so that the cooling air includes sea salt particles. Therefore, the occurrence of SCC is concerned when the sea salt particles adhere to welded parts of the canisters. In this study, we proposed a salt particle collection device with low pressure loss which does not interfere with the air flow into the building or the concrete casks. The device is composed of a stack of 10 parallel stainless steel plates, the air is free to circulate in the space between them. Pressure loss tests in a laboratory and salt particle collection tests in the field have been performed. It has been clarified that the pressure loss of the device is one-thirtieth to one-twentieth of that of a commercial filter and 40% of the particles in the air could be collected and the device would not influence the heat removal performance. Moreover, we evaluated the effect of electric field on the particle collection under supposing the particle charge. In the case of electric field over 10{sup 3} kV/m the particle collection rate could be improved dramatically.

  17. Review of Poher experiment on fields produced by electric discharges in a superconductor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Lewis

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High current through cold YBaCuO produced effects on the mounting and on remote piezoelectric detectors. The effects were not observed with warm YBaCuO or other cold or warm materials. Two hypotheses are evaluated for the direct mechanical forces: a hypothetical vacuum field, and a model in which boil off of liquid nitrogen acts as a thruster. Data from the remote detector are compared with data from Podkletnov. Properties of a field required to explain data with the remote detectors are described.

  18. Radiation of an electric charge in the field of a magnetic monopole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Lublinsky; Claudia Ratti; Edward Shuryak

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the radiation of photons from quarks scattering on color-magnetic monopoles in the Quark-Gluon Plasma. We consider a temperature regime $T\\gsim2T_c$, where monopoles can be considered as static, rare objects embedded into matter consisting mostly of the usual "electric" quasiparticles, quarks and gluons. The calculation is performed in the classical, non-relativistic approximation and results are compared to photon emission from Coulomb scattering of quarks, known to provide a significant contribution to the photon emission rates from QGP. The present study is a first step towards understanding whether this scattering process can give a sizeable contribution to dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions. Our results are encouraging: by comparing the magnitudes of the photon emission rate for the two processes, we find a dominance in the case of quark-monopole scattering. Our results display strong sensitivity to finite densities of quarks and monopoles.

  19. Coherent nonlinear propagation of ultrafast electric field transients through intersubband resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purdue University

    of intersubband excitations is demonstrated by applying two phase-locked pulses with variable relative phase 2001 Amplitude and phase-controlled midinfrared field transients at a wavelength of 12.5 m induce resonant intersubband excitations in n-type modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The transmitted

  20. Experimental Investigation of Non-Thermal Electric Fields and Plasma Waves in Pulsed-Power Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -field-plasma interaction, particle accelera- tion, growth of instabilities and plasma waves. As yet, to the hest of our and the properties of plasmas under high-power pulses at the nanosecond time scale. The method is based on resonant in a coaxial-pulsed-plasma configura- tion. The plasma is doped with a laser-produced lithium heam, fol- lowed

  1. Lightning-driven electric fields measured in the lower ionosphere: Implications for transient luminous events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Jeremy N.

    conductivity enhancement, or it might be evidence of flaws in the electromagnetic pulse mechanism for elves-electrostatic field (QSF) model for sprites and halos and the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) model for elves. In the QSF been successfully accomplished, since it is typically too low in altitude for rockets and satellites

  2. Quasilinear dynamics of a cloud of hot electrons propagating through a plasma in the presence of an externally applied uniform electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foroutan, G.; Robinson, P. A.; Zahed, H.; Li, B.; Cairns, I. H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sahand University of Technology, 51335-1996, Tabriz, Iran and School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sahand University of Technology, 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The propagation of a cloud of hot electrons through a plasma and the generation of Langmuir waves are investigated in the presence of an externally applied uniform electric field. Using numerical simulations of the quasilinear equations the evolution of the electron distribution function and the spectral density of Langmuir waves are monitored in coordinate and velocity space. It is found that the Langmuir waves are enhanced in the presence of the electric field and the distribution functions of the beam and Langmuir waves diffuse toward large velocities. The overall self-similar characteristic of the system is preserved in the presence of the electric field. The average beam velocity is no longer constant and increases with time along its trajectory, but the acceleration is much less than that of free streaming particles. The beam number density plateaus in coordinate space and large scale, small amplitude fluctuations develop on the top of this plateau. The level of the fluctuations depends on the strength of the electric field. We also investigated the influence of the external electric field on the evolution of gas-dynamical parameters such as the height of the plateau in the beam distribution function in velocity space, its upper velocity boundary, and the local velocity spread of the beam. Due to the finite quasilinear relaxation time and spatial inhomogeneity of the electron beam, different parts of the beam are in different states of relaxation. In the region of partial relaxation the plateau is specified by both upper and lower velocity boundaries. The upper boundary of plateau increases linearly with the strength of the electric field but the lower boundary is independent of it. Contrary to the free streaming of a beam in an electric field or quasilinear relaxation in the absence of the electric field, the local velocity spread of the beam increases during its propagation. Some of the electrons at the back of the beam are also transferred by the electric field to its front, so that the height of plateau increases at large distan0009c.

  3. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  4. Two-dimensional double layer in plasma in a diverging magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, S. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Janaki, M. S.; Hui, A. K. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma created by an inductive RF discharge is allowed to expand along a diverging magnetic field. Measurement of the axial plasma potential profile reveals the formation of an electric double layer near the throat of the expansion chamber. An accelerated ion beam has been detected in the downstream region, confirming the presence of the double layer. The 2-D nature of the ion energy distribution function of the downstream plasma has been studied by a movable ion energy analyser, which shows that the beam radius increases along the axial distance. The 2-D structure of the plasma potential has been studied by a movable emissive probe. The existence of a secondary lobe in the contour plot of plasma equipotential is a new observation. It is also an interesting observation that the most diverging magnetic field line not intercepting the junction of the discharge tube and the expansion chamber has an electric field aligned with it.

  5. Built-in electric field in ZnO based semipolar quantum wells grown on (1012) ZnO substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauveau, J.-M.; Xia, Y.; Roland, B.; Vinter, B. [Centre de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France) [Centre de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06102 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Ben Taazaet-Belgacem, I.; Teisseire, M.; Nemoz, M.; Brault, J.; Damilano, B.; Leroux, M. [Centre de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur l'Hétéro-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the properties of semipolar (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO quantum wells homoepitaxially grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (1012) R-plane ZnO substrates. We demonstrate that atomically flat interfaces can be achieved with fully relaxed quantum wells because the mismatch between (Zn,Mg)O and ZnO is minimal for this growth orientation. The photoluminescence properties evidence a quantum confined Stark effect with an internal electric field estimated to 430 kV/cm for a 17% Mg content in the barriers. The quantum well emission is strongly polarized along the 1210 direction and a comparison with the semipolar bulk ZnO luminescence polarization points to the effect of the confinement.

  6. Low-spatial coherence electrically-pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redding, B; Huang, X; Lee, M L; Stone, A D; Choma, M A; Cao, H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial coherence of laser sources has limited their application to parallel imaging and projection due to coherent artifacts, such as speckle. In contrast, traditional incoherent light sources, such as thermal sources or light emitting diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip-scale, electrically-pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much lower spatial coherence than conventional laser sources. The laser resonator was fabricated with a chaotic, D-shaped cavity optimized to achieve highly multimode lasing. Lasing occurs simultaneously and independently in ~1000 modes, and hence the total emission exhibits very low spatial coherence. Speckle-free full-field imaging is demonstrated using the chaotic cavity laser as the illumination source. The power per mode of the sample illumination is several orders of magnitude higher than that of a LED or thermal light source. Such a compact, low-cost source, wh...

  7. Mean-field analysis of ground state and low-lying electric dipole strength in $^{22}$C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunenori Inakura; W. Horiuchi; Y. Suzuki; T. Nakatsukasa

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of neutron-rich $^{22}$C are studied using the mean-field approach with Skyrme energy density functionals. Its weak binding and large total reaction cross section, which are suggested by recent experiments, are simulated by modifying the central part of Skyrme potential. Calculating $E1$ strength distribution by using the random-phase approximation, we investigate developments of low-lying electric dipole ($E1$) strength and a contribution of core excitations of $^{20}$C. As the neutron Fermi level approaches the zero energy threshold ($\\varepsilon_F >\\sim -1$ MeV), we find that the low-lying $E1$ strength exceeds the energy-weighted cluster sum rule, which indicates an importance of the core excitations with the $1d_{5/2}$ orbit.

  8. Electric field sensor based on electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide coupled with bowtie antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xingyu; Xu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen; Zou, Yi; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the design of a compact and highly sensitive electric field sensor based on a bowtie antenna-coupled slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). An electro-optic (EO) polymer with a large EO coefficient, r33=100pm/V, is used to refill the PCW slot and air holes. Bowtie-shaped electrodes are used as both poling electrodes and as receiving antenna. The slow-light effect in the PCW is used to increase the effective in-device r33>1000pm/V. The slot PCW is designed for low-dispersion slow light propagation, maximum poling efficiency as well as optical mode confinement inside the EO polymer. The antenna is designed for operation at 10GHz.

  9. Comparison of the Radially Produced Electric-Field Shear Effects Analyzed from End-Loss Current and Central-Cell Soft X-Ray Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant effects of sheared transverse electric fields in plasmas on both turbulent fluctuations and drift waves are experimentally demonstrated with improvement in plasma confinement for the first time in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. Here, electron-cyclotron heatings (ECH) for ion-confining potential formation are applied in association with a significant rise in the absolute value of the central-cell potential and the resulting formation of a strong shear of electric fields of the order of 10 kV/m2 in the radial direction of the plasma column (dEr/dr). The central-cell line density increases during ECH in association with decreasing fluctuations. Various fluctuation diagnostics, in particular, the frequency analyses of end-loss ion currents and central soft x-ray brightness, show the consistent features. This encourages the usefulness of potentials and radial electric-field shear for confinement improvements.

  10. Experimental verification of effects of barrier dopings on the internal electric fields and the band structure in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Soo; Park, Ki-Nam; Lee, Jin-Gyu [Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Ku, E-mail: soonku@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Royng; Lee, Seogwoo; Whan Cho, Meoung [Wasvesquare Co., Inc., Yongin, Gyeonggi 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally clarify the effects of barrier dopings on the polarization induced electric fields and the band structure in InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes. Both effects were independently verified by using electric field modulated reflectance and capacitance-voltage measurement. It is shown that the Si barrier doping does reduce the polarization induced electric field in the quantum wells. But the benefit of Si-doping is nullified by modification of the band structure and depletion process. With increased number of doped barriers, smaller number of quantum wells remains in the depletion region at the onset of the diffusion process, which can reduce the effective active volume and enhance the electron overflow.

  11. Reconstruction of the electric field of the Helmholtz equation in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen Huy Tuan; Vo Anh Khoa; Dao Manh Khang; Tran Thanh

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the paper is devoted to study the Cauchy problem for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation that arises naturally in many physical applications related to the radiation field, vibration phenomena. Under specific assumptions, we prove the ill-posedness of the problem in a particular situation. Applying the truncation regularization method, we establish the regularized solution and show that it converges to the exact solution as the perturbation in given data tends to zero. Besides, the error estimate and regularization parameter are formulated. Our theoretical result is guaranteed by a numerical example.

  12. All-electric and all-semiconductor spin field effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Pojen; Ho, Sheng-Chin; Smith, L. W.; Sfigakis, F.; Pepper, M.; Chen, Chin-Hung; Fan, Ju-Chun; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Chen, T.-M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which suffers from low signal levels as a result of the limited spin-injection efficiency, the short spin lifetime, and the spread of spin precession angles. The voltage oscillation disappears when the lateral inversion asymmetry is removed from the QPCs... to showing the realization of spin FETs, provide the first direct evidence of spin polarization of QPCs at zero external magnetic field. Figure 3a shows the oscillating voltages when the injector and detector QPCs are set at various conductance values. In a...

  13. Reconstruction of the electric field of the Helmholtz equation in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen Huy Tuan; Vo Anh Khoa; Thanh Tran

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the paper is devoted to study the Cauchy problem for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation that arises naturally in many physical applications related to the radiation field, vibration phenomena. Under specific assumptions, we prove the ill-posedness of the problem in a particular situation. Applying the truncation regularization method, we establish the regularized solution and show that it converges to the exact solution as the perturbation in given data tends to zero. Besides, the error estimate and regularization parameter are formulated. Our theoretical result is guaranteed by a numerical example.

  14. Performance limits of axial turbomachine stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, David Kenneth

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis assesses the limits of stage efficiency for axial compressor and turbine stages. A stage model is developed, consisting of a specified geometry and a surface velocity distribution with turbulent boundary layers. ...

  15. First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Gen Nakamura

    2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    First-order quantum correction to the Larmor radiation is investigated on the basis of the scalar QED on a homogeneous background of time-dependent electric field, which is a generalization of a recent work by Higuchi and Walker so as to be extended for an accelerated charged particle in a relativistic motion. We obtain a simple approximate formula for the quantum correction in the limit of the relativistic motion when the direction of the particle motion is parallel to that of the electric field.

  16. Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of ultrashort THz waveforms using temporal electric-field cross correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new single-shot technique based on linear spectral interferometry between a temporally short reader pulse and a temporally long probe pulse is demonstrated for measuring the spatiotemporal phase and amplitude of an optical probe for use as an ultrafast diagnostic. The probe spatiotemporal field information is recovered, with a resolution set by the duration of the reader pulse, by applying a single Fourier transform operation to the interferogram image, without need of any reference data. The technique was used in conjunction with electro-optic sampling to measure waveforms of coherent, ultrashort THz pulses emitted by electron bunches from a laser-plasma accelerator with sub-50fs resolution. The presence of strong spatiotemporal coupling in the THz waveforms and of complex temporal electron-bunch structure was determined.

  17. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY)

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  18. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D., E-mail: kovaleskis@missouri.edu; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model for a wider range of electrical load impedances under test.

  19. Polyelectrolytes in electric fields: Measuring the dynamical effective charge and effective friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Grass; Christian Holm

    2008-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model to study the electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains. We first characterize the static properties of the model with respect to the chain length, the polyelectrolyte concentration, additional salt and the influence of an applied external field. Next we investigate the dynamic behaviour in the oligomer range and compare to data obtained by two different experimental methods, namely capillary electrophoresis and PFG-NMR. We find excellent agreement of experiments and simulations when hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for in the simulations. We then present novel estimators for the dynamical effective charge during free solution electrophoresis and compare them to static estimators. We find complete agreement between the static and the dynamic estimators. We further evaluate the scaling behaviour of the effective friction of the polyelectrolyte-counterion complex with the surrounding fluid. We identify a hydrodynamic screening length beyond which the friction during electrophoresis is linear depending on the chain length resulting in a constant mobility for long polyelectrolyte chains. Our results show a convincing agreement with experimental data and demonstrate that it is possible to model dynamic behaviour of polyelectrolytes using coarse grained models, provided they include the effects of hydrodynamical interactions.

  20. Integrated electrical connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  1. AN EDDY CURRENT PROBLEM IN TERMS OF A TIME-PRIMITIVE OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD WITH NON-LOCAL SOURCE CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Rodolfo

    AN EDDY CURRENT PROBLEM IN TERMS OF A TIME-PRIMITIVE OF THE ELECTRIC FIELD WITH NON-LOCAL SOURCE Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyze a formulation of the eddy current problem in terms of a time and phrases: Eddy current problems, time-dependent electromagnetic problems, input current intensities

  2. Control of electric field domain formation in multiquantum well structures A. Shakouri, I. Grave, Y. Xu, A. Ghaffari, and A. Yariv

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Xu, A. Ghaffari, and A. Yariv California Institute of Technology,128-95Pasadena,California 91I25Control of electric field domain formation in multiquantum well structures A. Shakouri, I. Grave, Y wells.3a Recently, we demonstrated the operation of a tunable quantum well infrared detector which

  3. CARS is a four wave mixing process, combining three incident electric fields, pump, Stokes and probe, to produce a fourth, the anti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    CARS is a four wave mixing process, combining three incident electric fields, pump, Stokes diagram for the production of a CARS signal. The three incident waves pump, probe (both of frequency p) and Stokes (S) combine to produce an anti-Stokes signal, frequency as. Figure 2. Schematic of the CARS system

  4. General Physics II Exam 1 -Chs. 16,17,18 -Electric Fields, Potential, Current Feb. 11, 2013 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    the best answer. Questions about charges. 1. (2) T F Good conductors are materials that have a lot of free energy a. decreases. b. increases. c. does not change. Questions about electric fields. 9. (2) T F- leased from rest at point A and accelerates to point B by moving through the equipotentials shown

  5. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Thermal Control Systems (TCS) operate by applying an electric field to a dielectric fluid that, in turn, generates a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Thermal Control Systems (TCS) operate by applying an electric field to a dielectric fluid that, in turn, generates a force that can be used to pump fluids and separate liquid Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) Based Thermal Control Subsytems at NASAGSFC Jeffrey R. Didion Mathew Showalter NASA Goddard

  6. Inboard and outboard radial electric field wells in the H- and I-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod and poloidal variations of impurity temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landreman, M.

    We present inboard (HFS) and outboard (LFS) radial electric field (E[subscript r]) and impurity temperature (T[subscript z]) measurements in the I-mode and H-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod. These measurements reveal strong ...

  7. Physics II Exam 2 -Chs. 18A,19,20 -Electric Current, Magnetic Field Feb. 23, 2009 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    Physics II Exam 2 - Chs. 18A,19,20 - Electric Current, Magnetic Field Feb. 23, 2009 Name Rec. Instr-hours, the quantity 850 amp-hours must be a. power. b. energy. c. current. d. charge. b) (4) Give 850 amp-hours in SI

  8. Orientation of crystals of blue phases by electric fields P. Pieranski (*), P. E. Cladis, T. Garel (*) and R. Barbet-Massin (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    139 Orientation of crystals of blue phases by electric fields P. Pieranski (*), P. E. Cladis, T s'orientant avec leurs axes quaternaires ou ternaires parallèlement au champ. Abstract 2014 Blue, which we describe in terms ofthe relevant fourth rank tensor, we show that cubic blue phase crystals

  9. Electrical vs. Hydraulic Rock Types in Clastic Reservoirs: Pore-Scale Understanding Verified with Field Observations in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with Field Observations in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S. Chicheng Xu*, Carlos Torres-Verdín, and Shuang Gao of turbidite oil reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico shows that inclusion of resistivity logs in the classification oil reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, US. Electrical and Hydraulic Conductivity Models In a porous rock

  10. Influence of a Weak Field of Pulsed DC Electricity on the Behavior and Incidence of Injury in Adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesa, Matthew

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys. The effects of electricity on fish have been widely studied and include injury or death (e.g., Sharber and Carothers 1988; Dwyer et al. 2001; Snyder 2003), physiological dysfunction (e.g., Schreck et al. 1976; Mesa and Schreck 1989), and altered behavior (Mesa and Schreck 1989). Much of this work was done to investigate the effects of electrofishing on fish in the wild. Because electrofishing operations would always use more severe electrical settings than those proposed for the pinniped barrier, results from these studies are probably not relevant to the work proposed by SRI. Field electrofishing operations typically use high voltage and amperage settings and a variety of waveforms, pulse widths (PW), and pulse frequencies (PF), depending on conditions and target species. For example, when backpack electrofishing for trout in a small stream, one might use settings such as 500 V pulsed DC, a PW of 1 ms, and a PF of 60 Hz. In contrast, the electrical barrier proposed by SRI will produce electrical conditions significantly lower than those used in electrofishing, particularly for PW and PF (e.g., PW ranging from 300-1,000 {micro}s and PF from 2-3 Hz). Further, voltage gradients (in V/cm) are predicted to be lower in the electric barrier than those produced during typical electrofishing. Although the relatively weak, pulsed DC electric fields to be produced by the barrier may be effective at deterring pinnipeds, little, if anything, is known about the effects of such low intensity electrical fields on fish behavior. For this research, we evaluated the effects of weak, pulsed DC electric currents on the behavior of adult steelhead and Pacific lamprey and the incidence of injury in steelhead only. In a series of laboratory experiments, we: (1) documented the rate of passage of fish over miniature, prototype electric barriers when they were on and off; (2) determined some electric thresholds beyond which fish would not pass over the barrier; and (3) assessed the incidence and severity of injury in steelhead exposed to relatively severe electrical conditions. The results of this study should be useful for making decisions about whether to install electrical barriers in the lower Columbia River, or elsewhere, to reduce predation on upstream migrating salmonids and other fishes by marine pinnipeds.

  11. Electric-field-dependent electroreflectance spectra of visible-band-gap (InAlGa)P quantum-well structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, I.J.; Blum, O.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Howard, A.J.; Follstaedt, D.M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States))

    1994-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the first studies of electric-field effects on optical transitions in visible-band-gap InGaP/InAlGaP multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structures. These structures, grown at 775 [degree]C by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on (100) GaAs substrates misoriented 6[degree] towards P(111)[r angle][l angle]111[r angle]A, consist of nominally undoped MQWs surrounded by doped In[sub 0.49]Al[sub 0.51]P cladding layers to form [ital p]-[ital i]-[ital n] diodes. The Stark shifts of various allowed and forbidden quantum-well transitions were observed in bias-dependent electroreflectance spectra of In[sub 0.49]Ga[sub 0.51]P/In[sub 0.49](Al[sub 0.5]Ga[sub 0.5])[sub 0.51]P MQW samples with 10-nm-thick layers. We find the magnitude of these shifts to depend on the details of the Mg doping profile, confirming the importance of Mg diffusion and unintentional background doping in these materials. Our results show that (InAlGa)P materials are promising for visible-wavelength electro-optic modulator applications.

  12. Nucleon Axial Form Factor from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, K F; Draper, T; Wu, J M; Wilcox, W

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results for the isovector axial form factors of the proton from a lattice QCD calculation are presented for both point-split and local currents. They are obtained on a quenched $16^{3} \\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta= 6.0$ with Wilson fermions for a range of quark masses from strange to charm. We determine the finite lattice renormalization for both the local and point-split currents of heavy quarks. Results extrapolated to the chiral limit show that the $q^2$ dependence of the axial form factor agrees reasonably well with experiment. The axial coupling constant $g_A$ calculated for the local and the point-split currents is about 6\\% and 12\\% smaller than the experimental value respectively.

  13. On the interplay between screening and confinement from interacting electromagnetic and torsion fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricio Gaete; José A. Helaÿel-Neto

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Features of screening and confinement are studied for the coupling of axial torsion fields with photons in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. To this end we compute the static quantum potential. Our discussion is carried out using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism which is alternative to the Wilson loop approach. Our results show that, in the case of a constant electric field strength expectation value, the static potential remains Coulombic, while in the case of a constant magnetic field strength expectation value the potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static probe charges.

  14. Double layer electric fields aiding the production of energetic flat-top distributions and superthermal electrons within the exhausts from magnetic reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Borg, Anette L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection it was recently shown that magnetic-field-aligned electric fields (E||) can be present over large spatial scales in reconnection exhausts. The largest values of E|| are observed within double layers. The existence of double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere is well documented. In our simulation their formation is triggered by large parallel streaming of electrons into the reconnection region. These parallel electron fluxes are required for maintaining quasi-neutrality of the reconnection region and increase with decreasing values of the normalized electron pressure upstream of the reconnection region. A threshold normalized pressure is derived for strong double layers to develop. We also document how the electron confinement, provided in part by the structure in E||, allows sustained energization by perpendicular electric fields. The energization is a consequence of the confined electrons' chaotic orbital motion that includes drifts aligned with the reconn...

  15. Study on reduction in electric field, charged voltage, ion current and ion density under HVDC transmission lines by parallel shield wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Sunaga, Y.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important problem in the design and operation of HVDC transmission lines is to reduce electrical field effects such as ion flow electrification of objects, electric field, ion current and ion density at ground level in the vicinity of HVDC lines. Several models of shield wire were tested with the Shiobara HVDC test line. The models contain typical stranded wires that are generally used to reduce field effects at ground level, neutral conductors placed at lower parts of the DC line, and an ''earth corona model'' to cancel positive or negative ions intentionally by generating ions having opposite polarity to ions flowing into the wire. This report describes the experimental results of the effects of these shield wires and a method to predict shielding effects.

  16. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  17. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  18. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  19. Electrical Engineer (Field Engineering)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region Maintenance Engineering N5500 114 Parkshore Drive Folsom, CA...

  20. Towards quantitative off-axis electron holographic mapping of the electric field around the tip of a sharp biased metallic needle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beleggia, M. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Larson, D. J.; Kelly, T. F. [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53711 (United States); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungzentrum Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply off-axis electron holography and Lorentz microscopy in the transmission electron microscope to map the electric field generated by a sharp biased metallic tip. A combination of experimental data and modelling provides quantitative information about the potential and the field around the tip. Close to the tip apex, we measure a maximum field intensity of 82 MV/m, corresponding to a field k factor of 2.5, in excellent agreement with theory. In order to verify the validity of the measurements, we use the inferred charge density distribution in the tip region to generate simulated phase maps and Fresnel (out-of-focus) images for comparison with experimental measurements. While the overall agreement is excellent, the simulations also highlight the presence of an unexpected astigmatic contribution to the intensity in a highly defocused Fresnel image, which is thought to result from the geometry of the applied field.

  1. Investigation of the spatiotemporal characteristics of the electric field in the Ne-H{sub 2} plasma of a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.; Borisov, A. V.; Bardin, S. S. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)] [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Ave., 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the electric field E(x, t) of plasma produced by a beam-type high-voltage pulsed discharge is investigated. The electric field strength E(x, t) in an accelerating gap and in a plasma flare was determined from the measured Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} hydrogen line. The obtained dependence E(x, t) was used to calculate the electron distribution function and the spectral line intensities in the accelerating gap and in the plasma flare by the method of statistical modeling. The calculated population of He atomic states excited by electron impact and their comparison with the measured spectral line intensities I(?, x, t) demonstrate that a reverse electric field retarding the electron motion and leading to electron beam degradation must be present in the plasma flare near the grid. Measurement of the field strength from the Stark splitting of the H{sub ?} line demonstrates that it can reach considerable values.

  2. Semiclassical pair production rate for time-dependent electrical fields with more than one component: -WKB-approach and world-line instantons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckhard Strobel; She-Sheng Xue

    2014-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytic calculation of the semiclassical electron-positron pair creation rate by time-dependent electrical fields. We use two methods, first the imaginary time method in the WKB-approximation and second the world-line instanton approach. The analytic tools for both methods are generalized to time-dependent electric fields with more than one component. For the WKB method an expansion of the momentum spectrum of produced pairs around the canonical momentum $\\vec{P}=0$ is presented which simplifies the computation of the pair creation rate. We argue that the world-line instanton method of [Dunne et al., Phys. Rev. D73, 065028 (2006)] implicitly performs this expansion of the momentum spectrum around $\\vec{P}=0$. Accordingly the generalization to more than one component is shown to agree with the WKB result obtained via this expansion. However the expansion is only a good approximation for the cases where the momentum spectrum is peaked around $\\vec{P}=0$. Thus the expanded WKB result and the world-line instanton method of [Dunne et al., Phys. Rev. D73, 065028 (2006)] as well as the generalized method presented here are only applicable in these cases. We study the two component case of a rotating electric field and find a new analytic closed form for the momentum spectrum using the generalized WKB method. The momentum spectrum for this field is not peaked around $\\vec{P}=0$.

  3. Performance of An Axial Gas Ionization Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Adhikari; C. Basu; C. Samanta; S. S. Brahmachari; B. P. Das; P. Basu

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An axial gas ionization chamber has been fabricated for use as a $\\Delta E$ detector in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Different operating parameters such as gas type, pressure, anode voltage and anode structures have been optimized. The transparency of the anode structure is observed to play an important role in improving the energy resolution of the detector.

  4. Co-axial, high energy gamma generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reijonen, Jani Petteri (Princeton, NJ); Gicquel, Frederic (Pennington, NJ)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma ray generator includes an ion source in a first chamber. A second chamber is configured co-axially around the first chamber at a lower second pressure. Co-axially arranged plasma apertures separate the two chambers and provide for restricted passage of ions and gas from the first to the second chamber. The second chamber is formed by a puller electrode having at least one long channel aperture to draw ions from the first chamber when the puller electrode is subject to an appropriate applied potential. A plurality of electrodes rings in the third chamber in third pressure co-axially surround the puller electrode and have at least one channel corresponding to the at least one puller electrode aperture and plasma aperture. The electrode rings increase the energy of the ions to a selected energy in stages in passing between successive pairs of the electrodes by application of an accelerating voltage to the successive pairs of accelerator electrodes. A target disposed co-axially around the plurality of electrodes receives the beam of accelerated ions, producing gamma rays.

  5. Fourier-based schemes with modified Green operator for computing the electrical response of heterogeneous media with accurate local fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Fourier-based schemes with modified Green operator for computing the electrical response of Fourier-based numerical schemes commonly used for computing the electrical or thermal response the discretization of Green's function, which is consistent with the pixel grid while retaining the local nature

  6. Bound states for a Coulomb-type potential induced by the interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the arising of bound states solutions of the Schrödinger equation due to the presence of a Coulomb-type potential induced by the interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field. Furthermore, we study the influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator by showing a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of the angular frequency on the quantum numbers of the system, whose meaning is that not all values of the angular frequency are allowed. -- Highlights: • Interaction between a moving electric quadrupole moment and a magnetic field. • Arising of bound states solutions due to the presence of a Coulomb-type potential. • Influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator. • Dependence of the angular frequency on the quantum numbers of the system.

  7. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  8. Strain induced variations in band offsets and built-in electric fields in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Strain induced variations in band offsets and built-in electric fields in InGaN/GaN multiple InxGa1-xN(InGaN)/GaN multilayers on the In composition and misfit strain. The results indicate that for non-polar m-plane configurations with ½1210InGaN//½1210GaN and ½0001InGaN//½0001GaN epitaxial

  9. Description of Axial Detail for ROK Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trellue, Holly R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galloway, Jack D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of NDA simulations of the ROK fuel assemblies, we have developed an axial burnup distribution to represent the pins themselves based on gamma scans of rods in the G23 assembly. For the purpose of modeling the G23 assembly (both at ORNL and LANL), the pin-by-pin burnup map as simulated by ROK is being assumed to represent the radial burnup distribution. However, both DA and NDA results indicate that this simulated estimate is not 100% correct. In particular, the burnup obtained from the axial gamma scan of 7 pins does not represent exactly the same 'average' pin burnup as the ROK simulation. Correction for this discrepancy is a goal of the well-characterized assembly task but will take time. For now, I have come up with a correlation for 26 axial points of the burnup as obtained by gamma scans of 7 different rods (C13, G01, G02, J11, K10, L02, and M04, neglecting K02 at this time) to the average burnup given by the simulation for each of the rods individually. The resulting fraction in each axial zone is then averaged for the 7 different rods so that it can represent every fuel pin in the assembly. The burnup in each of the 26 axial zones of rods in all ROK assemblies will then be directly adjusted using this fraction, which is given in Table 1. Note that the gamma scan data given by ROK for assembly G23 included a length of {approx}3686 mm, so the first 12 mm and the last 14 mm were ignored to give an actual rod length of {approx}366 cm. To represent assembly F02 in which no pin-by-pin burnup distribution is given by ROK, we must model it using infinitely-reflected geometry but can look at the effects of measuring in different axial zones by using intermediate burnup files (i.e. smaller burnups than 28 GWd/MTU) and determining which axial zone(s) each burnup represents. Details for assembly F02 are then given in Tables 2 and 3, which is given in Table 1 and has 44 total axial zones to represent the top meter in explicit detail in addition to the other 26 zones. Note that the MCNP files for F02 were created using the Monte Carlo burnup linkage code Monteburns, which saves MCNP input files with detailed compositions as a function of burnup. The 'intermediate burnup files' produced for F02 include a cooling time of 27 years. The axial location of 5 spacers was also included in the ROK F02 assembly in which each spacer contained a length of 3.81 cm. Note that due to the nature of Monteburns, which was run in a special fashion for this problem, the step number increments after the 27 year decay, so the second column of Table 2 refers to the step number that should be used in the Monteburns files.

  10. Review of Axial Burnup Distribution Considerations for Burnup Credit Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; DeHart, M.D.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report attempts to summarize and consolidate the existing knowledge on axial burnup distribution issues that are important to burnup credit criticality safety calculations. Recently released Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff guidance permits limited burnup credit, and thus, has prompted resolution of the axial burnup distribution issue. The reactivity difference between the neutron multiplication factor (keff) calculated with explicit representation of the axial burnup distribution and keff calculated assuming a uniform axial burnup is referred to as the ``end effect.'' This end effect is shown to be dependent on many factors, including the axial-burnup profile, total accumulated burnup, cooling time, initial enrichment, assembly design, and the isotopics considered (i.e., actinide-only or actinides plus fission products). Axial modeling studies, efforts related to the development of axial-profile databases, and the determination of bounding axial profiles are also discussed. Finally, areas that could benefit from further efforts are identified.

  11. Jet-quenching of the rotating heavy meson in a ${\\mathcal{N}}$=4 SYM plasma in presence of a constant electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; B. Pourhassan

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we consider a rotating heavy quark-antiquark ($q\\bar{q}$) pair in a ${\\mathcal{N}}$=4 SYM thermal plasma. We assume that $q\\bar{q}$ center of mass moves at the speed $v$ and furthermore they rotate around the center of mass. We use the AdS/CFT correspondence and consider the effect of external electromagnetic field on the motion of the rotating meson. Then we calculate the jet-quenching parameter corresponding to the rotating meson in the constant electric field.

  12. Evaluation of electric and magnetic fields distribution and SAR induced in 3D models of water containers by radiofrequency radiation using FDTD and FEM simulation techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelsamie, Maher A A; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, two software packages using different numerical techniques FEKO 6.3 with Finite-Element Method (FEM) and XFDTD 7 with Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) were used to assess exposure of 3D models of square, rectangular, and pyramidal shaped water containers to electromagnetic waves at 300, 900, and 2400 MHz frequencies. Using the FEM simulation technique, the peak electric field of 25, 4.5, and 2 V/m at 300 MHz and 15.75, 1.5, and 1.75 V/m at 900 MHz were observed in pyramidal, rectangular, and square shaped 3D container models, respectively. The FDTD simulation method confirmed a peak electric field of 12.782, 10.907, and 10.625 V/m at 2400 MHz in the pyramidal, square, and rectangular shaped 3D models, respectively. The study demonstrated an exceptionally high level of electric field in the water in the two identical pyramid shaped 3D models analyzed using the two different simulation techniques. Both FEM and FDTD simulation techniques indicated variations in the distribution of elect...

  13. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyerl, A; Müller, G; Golub, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitra...

  14. Fermions in spherical field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Lee

    1999-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the spherical field formalism for fermions. We find that the spherical field method is free from certain difficulties which complicate lattice calculations, such as fermion doubling, missing axial anomalies, and computational problems regarding internal fermion loops.

  15. External magnetic field influence on H{sub {alpha}} line in abnormal glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obradovic, B.M.; Dojcinovic, I.P.; Kuraica, M.M.; Puric, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 368, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro) and Center for Science and Development of Technology, Obilicev Venac 26, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Influence of the external axial magnetic field on the hydrogen H{sub {alpha}} line profiles in an abnormal glow discharge has been studied. It has been found that the applied magnetic field predominantly increases the intensity of central component of the characteristic excessively broadened H{sub {alpha}} profile. Magnetic filed causes helical motion of electrons along the electric field lines and prolongs their trajectories increasing the number of collisions with matrix gas. This explains the increase of the central component of H{sub {alpha}} profile and can be regarded as an experimental proof for the main contribution of electron excitation to that part of the profile.

  16. Competition between modes with different axial structures in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khutoryan, Eduard M. [O. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, 12, Proskura str., Kharkiv 61085 (Ukraine); Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was motivated by some experiments in which it was found that during the voltage rise, instead of expected excitation of a high-frequency parasitic mode, the excitation of a lower-frequency parasitic mode takes place in a certain range of voltages. For explaining this fact, the dependence of start currents of possible competing modes on the beam voltage was carried out in the cold-cavity approximation and by using the self-consistent approach. It was found that in the case of cavities, which consist of the combination of a section of constant radius waveguide and a slightly uptapered waveguide, these two approaches yield completely different results. Thus, experimentally observed excitation of the low-frequency parasitic mode can be explained by the self-consistent modification of the axial profile of the excited field, which has strong influence on the diffractive quality factor of competing modes. This modification is especially pronounced in the case of excitation of modes with many axial variations which can be excited in the region of beam interaction with the backward-wave component of such modes.

  17. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  18. On geometry influence on the behavior of a quantum mechanical scalar particle with intrinsic structure in external magnetic and electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. V. Veko; K. V. Kazmerchuk; E. M. Ovsiyuk; V. V. Kisel; V. M. Red'kov

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic theory of the Cox's scalar not point-like particle with intrinsic structure is developed on the background of arbitrary curved space-time. It is shown that in the most general form, the extended Proca-like tensor first order system of equations contains non minimal interaction terms through electromagnetic tensor F_{\\alpha \\beta} and Ricci tensor R_{\\alpha \\beta}. In relativistic Cox's theory, the limiting procedure to non-relativistic approximation is performed in a special class of curved space-time models. This theory is specified in simple geometrical backgrounds: Euclid's, Lobachevsky's, and Rie\\-mann's. Wave equation for the Cox's particle is solved exactly in presence of external uniform magnetic and electric fields in the case of Minkowski space. Non-trivial additional structure of the particle modifies the frequency of a quantum oscillator arising effectively in presence if external magnetic field. Extension of these problems to the case of the hyperbolic Lobachevsky space is examined. In presence of the magnetic field, the quantum problem in radial variable has been solved exactly; the quantum motion in z-direction is described by 1-dimensional Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation in an effective potential which turns out to be too difficult for analytical treatment. In the presence of electric field, the situation is similar. The same analysis has been performed for spherical Riemann space model.

  19. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20–100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  20. Axion-induced effects in atoms, molecules and nuclei: Parity nonconservation, anapole moments, electric dipole moments, and spin-gravity and spin-axion momentum couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. V. Stadnik; V. V. Flambaum

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the interaction of an axion field, or in general a pseudoscalar field, with the axial-vector current generated by an electron through a derivative-type coupling can give rise to a time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in atomic and molecular systems. Likewise, the analogous interaction of an axion field with the axial-vector current generated by a nucleon can give rise to time-dependent mixing of opposite-parity states in nuclear systems. This mixing can induce oscillating electric dipole moments, oscillating parity non-conservation effects and oscillating anapole moments in such systems. By adjusting the energy separation between the opposite-parity states of interest to match the axion mass energy, axion-induced experimental observables can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. Oscillating atomic electric dipole moments can also be generated by axions through hadronic mechanisms, namely the P,T-violating nucleon-nucleon interaction and through the axion-induced electric dipole moments of valence nucleons, which comprise the nuclei. The axion field is modified by the Earth's gravitational field. The interaction of the spin of either an electron or nucleon with this modified axion field leads to axion-induced observable effects. These effects, which are of the form $\\mathbf{g} \\cdot \\mathbf{\\sigma}$, differ from the axion-wind effect, which has the form $\\mathbf{p}_{\\textrm{a}} \\cdot \\mathbf{\\sigma}$.

  1. Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Electric-Magnetic Duality in Massless QED?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Ford

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility that QED and recently developed non-Hermitian, or magnetic, versions of QED are equivalent is considered. Under this duality the Hamiltonians and anomalous axial currents of the two theories are identified. A consequence of such a duality is that particles described by QED carry magnetic as well as electric charges. The proposal requires a vanishing zero bare fermion mass in both theories; Dirac mass terms are incompatible with the conservation of magnetic charge much as Majorana masses spoil the conservation of electric charge. The physical spectrum comprises photons and massless spin-1/2 particles carrying equal or opposite electric and magnetic charges. The four particle states described by the Dirac fermion correspond to the four possible charge assignments of elementary dyons. This scale invariant spectrum indicates that the quantum field theory is finite. The Johnson Baker Willey eigenvalue equation for the fine structure constant in finite spinor QED is interpreted as a Dirac-like charge quantisation condition for dyons.

  3. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stahura, D. [GM-AC Delco Systems, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  4. Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric-field-induced contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    time due to a growing number of applications such as imaging,1­3 illicit-drug detection,4Terahertz radiation and second-harmonic generation from InAs: Bulk versus surface electric July 2005 Polarized second-harmonic generation and terahertz radiation in reflection from 100 , 110

  5. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies ($E_{LH}$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. It was found through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $E_{LH}$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.

  6. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Undergraduate Electrical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    an excellent place to study electrical and electronic engineering. Renewable energies and smart grids are twoUndergraduate Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty of Engineering #12;bristol already understood the impact electrical and electronic engineering has on our lives. In fields as diverse

  8. High field pulsed microwiggler comprising a conductive tube with periodically space slots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Roger W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwiggler assembly produces large magnetic fields for oscillating ched particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180.degree. relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected to eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  9. High field pulsed microwiggler comprising a conductive tube with periodically space slots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, R.W.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwiggler assembly produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180[degree] relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected to eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube. 10 figs.

  10. Geometric frequency shift for electric dipole searches with trapped spin-1/2 particles in general fields and measurement cells of arbitrary shape with smooth or rough walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Steyerl; C. Kaufman; G. Müller; R. Golub

    2015-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The important role of geometric phases in searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron, using Ramsey separated oscillatory field nuclear magnetic resonance, was first investigated by Pendlebury $\\textit{et al.}$ [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{70}$, 032102 (2004)]. Their analysis was based on the Bloch equations. In subsequent work using the spin density matrix Lamoreaux and Golub [Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{71}$, 032104 (2005)] showed the usual relation between the frequency shifts and the correlation functions of the fields seen by trapped particles in general fields (Redfield theory). More recently we presented a solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for spin-$1/2$ particles in circular cylindrical traps with smooth walls and exposed to arbitrary fields [Steyerl $\\textit{et al.}$, Phys.Rev. A $\\mathbf{89}$, 052129 (2014)]. Here we extend this work to show how the Redfield theory follows directly from the Schr\\"odinger equation solution and include wall roughness, cylindrical trap geometry with arbitrary cross section, and field perturbations that do not, in the frame of the moving particles, average to zero in time and which, therefore, do not satisfy the prerequisites of the statistical approach based on the spin-density matrix. We show by direct, detailed, calculation the agreement of the results from the Schr\\"odinger equation with the Redfield theory for the cases of a rectangular cell with specular walls and of a circular cell with diffuse reflecting walls.

  11. Chapter 20: Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    1 Chapter 20: Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy 2. A 4.5 µC charge moves in a uniform electric field ( )5 ^4.1 10 N/C= ×E x . The change in electric potential energy of a charge that moves against an electric field is given by equation 20-1, 0U q Ed = . If the charge moves in the same

  12. Magnetic field assisted self-assembly of ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanofibers and studies on magneto-electric interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Zhang, Ru; Sharma, K.; Janes, C.; Mukundan, A.; Srinivasan, G., E-mail: srinivas@oakland.edu [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Popov, Maksym [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Radiophysics Department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-shell nanofibers of nickel ferrite and lead zirconate titanate have been synthesized by electrospinning, assembled into superstructure in uniform or non-uniform magnetic fields, and have been characterized in terms of ferroic order parameters and strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. Studies on magnetic field induced polarization P in assembled samples showed a decrease or increase in P, depending on the nature of fibers and strengthening of ME coupling with change in remnant-P as high as 32%. Strong ME interactions were evident from H-induced variation in permittivity at 20–22?GHz.

  13. A new method of measuring the poloidal magnetic and radial electric fields in a tokamak using a laser-accelerated ion-beam trace probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X. Y.; Chen, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Wang, X. G.; Xiao, C. J., E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn [State Key Labaratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, M. [Center for Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) and radial electric field (E{sub r}) are significant in magnetic confinement devices. In this paper, a new method was proposed to diagnose both B{sub p} and E{sub r} at the same time, which was named Laser-accelerated Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP). This method based on the laser-accelerated ion beam, which has three properties: large energy spread, short pulse lengths, and multiple charge states. LITP can provide the 1D profiles, or 2D images of both B{sub p} and E{sub r}. In this paper, we present the basic principle and some preliminary theoretical results.

  14. Investigation of demagnetization in HTS stacked tapes implemented in electric machines as a result of crossed magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baghdadi, M.; Ruiz, H. S.; Fagnard, J. F.; Zhang, M.; Wang, W.; Coombs, T. A.

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    .e. 600 seconds, was then employed in order to allow the trapped magnetic field to relax due to thermally activated flux creep. Getting ready for applying the crossed field, the sample is turned 90 degrees, thus, the direction of the magnetic field would... testing flux-line cutting physics”, Supercond. Sci. Technol., vol. 24, no. 6, p. 062002, Mar. 2011. [14] G. P. Mikitik and E. H. Brandt, ”Vortex shaking in rectangular super- conducting platelets”, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 69, no. 13, p. 134521, Apr. 2004. [15...

  15. Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics Lin Zhang, Qiming, the dielectric will breakdown electrically. The breakdown limits the electrical energy density of the dielectric electric fields and thus increase their electrical energy densities. The mechanical constraints suppress

  16. Femtosecond laser diagnostics of the built-in electric field across the p{sup +}-Si/SiO{sub 2} interface and its ultrafast shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neethling, P. H.; Rohwer, E. G. [Laser Research Institute, Physics Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)] [Laser Research Institute, Physics Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Stafast, H. [Laser Research Institute, Physics Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa) [Laser Research Institute, Physics Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT), POB 100239, D-07702 Jena, Germany and Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena (Germany)

    2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast shielding of the built-in electric field E{sub 0} across the p{sup +}-Si/SiO{sub 2} interface of boron doped Si upon near infrared femtosecond (fs) laser pulse irradiation (73 {+-} 5 fs, 35 GW/cm{sup 2}{<=} I{sub peak}{sup ({omega})} {<=} 115 GW/cm{sup 2}) is shown to be dominated by electron-hole (e-h) pairs generated via two-photon absorption (TPA), whereas contributions from one-photon absorption (OPA) appear negligible. E{sub 0} shows up in the instantaneous signal I{sup (2{omega})}(t Almost-Equal-To 0) Almost-Equal-To I{sup (2{omega})}(E{sub 0}) of the Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic (EFISH). Its power law is derived from the linear log I{sup (2{omega})}(E{sub 0}) vs. log (I{sub peak}{sup ({omega})}){sup n} plots of six fs laser wavelengths 741.2 nm {<=} {lambda} {<=} 801.0 nm for the first time. These reveal 1.2 {<=} n({lambda}) {<=} 2.1 with the minimum at {lambda} = 752.4 nm (2h{nu} = 3.3 eV) related to resonantly enhanced TPA. Shielding of E{sub 0} by e-h pairs from OPA cannot be detected by EFISH in the same fs laser pulse as their generation requires relatively slow electron-phonon coupling.

  17. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around ?35.5?V and +30.0?V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  18. Edge radial electric field studies via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Rachael Marie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is commonly accepted that ExB velocity shear is responsible for the suppression of edge turbulence, which reduces the losses of both energy and particles across magnetic field lines and results in the formation of edge ...

  19. Gravitational waves from a test particle scattered by a neutron star: Axial mode case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuhiro Tominaga; Motoyuki Saijo; Kei-ichi Maeda

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a metric perturbation method, we study gravitational waves from a test particle scattered by a spherically symmetric relativistic star. We calculate the energy spectrum and the waveform of gravitational waves for axial modes. Since metric perturbations in axial modes do not couple to the matter fluid of the star, emitted waves for a normal neutron star show only one peak in the spectrum, which corresponds to the orbital frequency at the turning point, where the gravitational field is strongest. However, for an ultracompact star (the radius $R \\lesssim 3M$), another type of resonant periodic peak appears in the spectrum. This is just because of an excitation by a scattered particle of axial quasinormal modes, which were found by Chandrasekhar and Ferrari. This excitation comes from the existence of the potential minimum inside of a star. We also find for an ultracompact star many small periodic peaks at the frequency region beyond the maximum of the potential, which would be due to a resonance of two waves reflected by two potential barriers (Regge-Wheeler type and one at the center of the star). Such resonant peaks appear neither for a normal neutron star nor for a Schwarzschild black hole. Consequently, even if we analyze the energy spectrum of gravitational waves only for axial modes, it would be possible to distinguish between an ultracompact star and a normal neutron star (or a Schwarzschild black hole).

  20. Test report for photonic sensors used in electric-field measurement of simulated electromagnetic pulses. Final report, 28-30 Aug 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blocksom, R.; Bucholz, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of tests to record and analyze the characteristic response of three photonic Electric field, E-field sensors to simulated Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP), compared to that of a reference metallic sensor. Work was performed under Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) contract N00014-89-C-2033, sponsored by Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR). Tasks included: (1) selection of candidate sensors capable of measuring the E-field content (intensity and frequency spectrum) of simulated EMP phenomena generated by the Horizontally Polarized Dipole (HPD) EMP simulator at the Naval Air Test Center (NATC), Patuxent River, MD; (2) liaison with sensor designers, NATC personnel, and others as necessary to delineate test requirements and constraints; (3) development of a sensor test plan; (4) sensor tests in the HPD EMP simulation; (5) analysis of the test data; and (6) generation of the Test Report. The activities discussed herein were performed during the period of March 1990-January 1991. Since 1985, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and ARC Professional Services Group Defense Systems Division (ARC) have conducted an RD effort to produce a prototype fiber optic sensor system for application to EMP field measurement. The work was sponsored under Fleet Aircraft Assessment for Navy Testing and Analysis for EMP Limitation (FAANTAEL) project managed by NAVAIR Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Branch, AIR-5161.

  1. A Transonic Axial Compressor Facility for Fundamental Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Scott C.

    A Transonic Axial Compressor Facility for Fundamental Research and Flow Control Development Joshua, IN, 46556, USA A single-stage transonic axial compressor facility has been constructed in the the current generation of aero-gas turbine engines. The compressor stage and facility were designed

  2. The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial-Piston Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manring, Noah D.

    The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial- Piston Pump Noah D. Manring Viral S. Mehta Mechanical of this study is to identify the best indexed position of two rotating groups within a tandem axial-piston pump characteristics of the pump, other vibration aspects of the machine are also expected to be reduced. In particular

  3. LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM Lab VI - 1 In the previous problems you explored the magnetic field and its effect on moving charges. You also saw how electric currents could create magnetic can give rise to electric currents. This is the effect that allows the generation of electricity

  4. Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S1 Supporting Information Surface Electric Fields of Aqueous Solutions of NH4NO3, Mg(NO3)2, NaNO3 interfaces of (a) 1.0 M and 2.0 M LiNO3, (b) 1.0 M and 1.7 M NaNO3, (c) 1.0 M and 1.6 M NH4NO3, and (d) 1.0 M water 1.0 M NaNO3 1.7 M NaNO3 c water 1.0 M NH4 NO3 1.6 M NH4 NO3 | (2) | 2 (10 3 arb.units) Wavenumber

  5. Path-integral solution for a two-dimensional model with axial-vector-current--pseudoscalar derivative interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botelho, L.C.L.

    1985-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a two-dimensional quantum field model with axial-vector-current--pseudoscalar derivative interaction using path-integral methods. We construct an effective Lagrangian by performing a chiral change in the fermionic variables leading to an exact solution of the model.

  6. Microwave electron cyclotron electron resonance (ECR) ion source with a large, uniformly distributed, axially symmetric, ECR plasma volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alton, Gerald D. (Kingston, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.

  7. Axial force imparted by a conical radiofrequency magneto-plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles, C.; Takahashi, K.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct thrust measurements of a low pressure ({approx}0.133 Pa) conical radiofrequency (rf at 13.56 MHz) argon plasma source show a total axial force of about 5 mN for an effective rf power of 650 W and a maximum magnetic field of 0.018 T, of which a measured value of 2.5 mN is imparted by the magnetic nozzle. A simplified model of thrust including contributions from the electron pressure and from the magnetic field pressure is developed. The magnetic nozzle is modelled as a ''physical'' nozzle of increasing cross-sectional area.

  8. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  9. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  10. Design and testing of an electron cyclotron resonance heating ion source for use in high field compact superconducting cyclotrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artz, Mark E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of axial injection of a high brightness beam from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source into a high magnetic field cyclotron. Axial injection from an ion ...

  11. The self-consistent parallel electric field due to electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in downward auroral-current regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 01731 (United States); Lund, Eric J. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Grossbard, Neil [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical processes that determine the self-consistent electric field (E{sub ||}) parallel to the magnetic field have been an unresolved problem in magnetospheric physics for over 40 years. Recently, a new multimoment fluid theory was developed for inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation that includes the effect of electrostatic, turbulent, wave-particle interactions (see Jasperse et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006); ibid.13, 112902 (2006)]). In the present paper and its companion paper [Jasperse et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 062903 (2010)], which are intended as sequels to the earlier work, a fundamental model for downward, magnetic field-aligned (Birkeland) currents for quasisteady conditions is presented. The model includes the production of electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence in the long-range potential region by an electron, bump-on-tail-driven ion-cyclotron instability. Anomalous momentum transfer (anomalous resistivity) by itself is found to produce a very small contribution to E{sub ||}; however, the presence of electrostatic, ion-cyclotron turbulence has a very large effect on the altitude dependence of the entire quasisteady solution. Anomalous energy transfer (anomalous heating and cooling) modifies the density, drift, and temperature altitude profiles and hence the generalized parallel-pressure gradients and mirror forces in the electron and ion momentum-balance equations. As a result, |E{sub ||}| is enhanced by nearly a factor of 40 compared to its value when turbulence is absent. The space-averaged potential increase associated with the strong double layer at the bottom of the downward-current sheet is estimated using the FAST satellite data and the multimoment fluid theory.

  12. axial blanket experiments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ideas. We concentrate on the explanation and illustration of the key concept of bucket: its definition, formation and how it is used in generating the axial map. Keywords:...

  13. axial flux machine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ideas. We concentrate on the explanation and illustration of the key concept of bucket: its definition, formation and how it is used in generating the axial map. Keywords:...

  14. axial turbine cascade: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and ideas. We concentrate on the explanation and illustration of the key concept of bucket: its definition, formation and how it is used in generating the axial map. Keywords:...

  15. Secondary air interaction with main flow in axial turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zlatinov, Metodi B. (Metodi Blagoev)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary air, known as purge air, is injected through seals in the hub and shroud of axial turbines to prevent hot gas ingestion into the endwall cavities. An investigation into the interaction of purge ow with turbine ...

  16. The axial behaviour of piled foundations in liquefiable soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringer, Mark

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the mechanisms by which any engineering structure resists load is an essential requirement for its consistent and reliable design. The axial resistance which can be mobilised by piled foundations in liquefiable soils when subjected...

  17. Applications of axial and radial compressor dynamic system modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spakovszky, Zoltán S. (Zoltán Sándor), 1972-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presented work is a compilation of four different projects related to axial and centrifugal compression systems. The projects are related by the underlying dynamic system modeling approach that is common in all of them. ...

  18. axial flow pump: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: of a configuration that includes an axial pump and a bundle of tubes that mimics the cool source of a heat exchangerEXPERIMENTAL AND...

  19. Optimization of the axial power shape in pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melik, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical and numerical methods have been applied to find the optimum axial power profile in a PWR with respect to uranium utilization. The preferred shape was found to have a large central region of uniform power density, ...

  20. Excitation in low-current discharges and breakdown in He at low pressures and very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelenkovic, B.M.; Phelps, A.V. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 75, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate optical emission from low-current discharges in He at very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N between parallel plate electrodes. We also determine the electrical breakdown and the voltage-current behavior at low currents. The E/N are 300 Td to 9 kTd (1 Td=10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}) at pressures times electrode separations p{sub 0}d from 3 to 0.9 Torr cm. Absolute optical emission probabilities versus distance are determined for the 501.6 nm line (3 {sup 1}P{yields}2 {sup 1}S) and for the 587.6 nm line (3 {sup 3}D{yields}2 {sup 3}P) by reference to Boltzmann calculations at our lowest E/N and to published pressure dependent electron beam experiments. At E/N below 1 kTd, the emission follows the exponential growth of the electron density, while at above 7 kTd heavy particle excitation is evident near the cathode. Collisional transfer of excitation from the singlet to the triplet system dominates the 587.6 nm excitation. Comparisons of models with experiments show the importance of excitation and of electron production at the cathode by fast He atoms produced by charge transfer collisions of He{sup +} with He. The breakdown voltage versus p{sub 0}d is multivalued for p{sub 0}d{approx}1.5 Torr cm. At currents below 100 {mu}A and our lower E/N, the discharge voltage decreases linearly with current as expected for an increasing electron yield with ion energy and E/N at the cathode.

  1. Axial clad strain behavior of sphere-pac fuel pins 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, James Kelly

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quantitative di f f er ences exist. 17 CHAPTER III STEADY STATE MODELING Introduction This section descr ibes the analytic model developed to predict the axial shear load bearing capacity of a packed particle bed. The goal of this model development... par ticle beds. 36 CHAPTER IV VIBRATIONAL EXPERIMENTS Introduction The model developed in the previous chapter provides a method to predict the axial shear load bearing capacity of a packed particle bed under negligible vibr ation conditions...

  2. A wave refraction analysis for an axially symmetrical island

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forst, Ronald John

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A WAVE REFRACTION ANALYSIS FOR AN AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL ISLAND A Thesis By LIEUTENANT RONALD J FORST UNITED STATES NAVY Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE l966 Major Subject Oceanography A WAVE REFRACTION ANALYSIS FOR AN AXIALLY SYMMETRICAL ISLAND A Thesis By LIEUTENANT RONALD J FORST UNITED STATES NAVY Approved as to style and content by; ( airma Committee) Head of Dep rtme t...

  3. Design of high temperature high speed electromagnetic axial thrust bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad Waqar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH SPEED ELECTROMAGNETIC AXIAL THRUST BEARING A Thesis by MOHAMMAD WAQAR MOHIUDDIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH SPEED ELECTROMAGNETIC AXIAL THRUST BEARING A Thesis by MOHAMMAD WAQAR MOHIUDDIN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  4. Superfluid Phase Stability of 3 He in Axially Anisotropic Aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Pollanen; J. P. Davis; B. Reddy; K. R. Shirer; H. Choi

    Abstract. Measurements of superfluid 3 He in 98 % aerogel demonstrate the existence of a metastable A-like phase and a stable B-like phase. It has been suggested that the relative stability of these two phases is controlled by anisotropic quasiparticle scattering in the aerogel. Anisotropic scattering produced by axial compression of the aerogel has been predicted to stabilize the axial state of superfluid 3 He. To explore this possiblity, we used transverse acoustic impedance to map out the phase diagram of superfluid 3 He in a ? 98 % porous silica aerogel subjected to 17 % axial compression. We have previously shown that axial anisotropy in aerogel leads to optical birefringence and that optical cross-polarization studies can be used to characterize such anisotropy. Consequently, we have performed optical cross-polarization experiments to verify the presence and uniformity of the axial anisotropy in our aerogel sample. We find that uniform axial anisotropy introduced by 17 % compression does not stabilize the A-like phase. We also find an increase in the supercooling of the A-like phase at lower pressure, indicating a modification to B-like phase nucleation in globally anisotropic aerogels. 1.

  5. Electrical Engineer- OPEN CONTINUOUS ANNOUNCEMENT

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This recruitment is an OPEN CONTINUOUS ANNOUNCEMENT (OCA) being utilized to fill current and future Electrical Engineer vacancies within BPA's Transmission Field Services organization. Positions...

  6. Torsional Alfven Waves in Solar Magnetic Flux Tubes of Axial Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawski, K; Musielak, Z E; Srivastava, A K; Kraskiewicz, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: Propagation and energy transfer of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in solar magnetic flux tubes of axial symmetry is studied. Methods: An analytical model of a solar magnetic flux tube of axial symmetry is developed by specifying a magnetic flux and deriving general analytical formulae for the equilibrium mass density and a gas pressure. The main advantage of this model is that it can be easily adopted to any axisymmetric magnetic structure. The model is used to simulate numerically the propagation of nonlinear Alfv\\'en waves in such 2D flux tubes of axial symmetry embedded in the solar atmosphere. The waves are excited by a localized pulse in the azimuthal component of velocity and launched at the top of the solar photosphere, and they propagate through the solar chromosphere, transition region, and into the solar corona. Results: The results of our numerical simulations reveal a complex scenario of twisted magnetic field lines and flows associated with torsional Alfv\\'en waves as well as energy transfer to t...

  7. AVTA: 2010 Electric Vehicles International Neighborhood Electric...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    10 Electric Vehicles International Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Testing Results AVTA: 2010 Electric Vehicles International Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Testing Results The...

  8. Thermionic electric converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E.D.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermionic electric converter is disclosed wherein an externally located heat source causes electrons to be boiled off an electron emissive surface interiorly positioned on one end wall of an evacuated cylindrical chamber. The electrons are electrically focused and accelerated through the interior of an air core induction coil located within a transverse magnetic field, and subsequently are collected on the other end wall of the chamber functioning as a collecting plate. The emf generated in the induction coil by action of the transiting electron stream interacting with the transverse magnetic field is applied to an external circuit to perform work, thereby implementing a direct heat energy to electrical energy conversion.

  9. Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs HYE-WON SHIN1 AND STEVEN C. GEORGE1, Hye-Won, and Steven C. George. Impact of axial diffusion on nitric oxide exchange in the lungs. J Appl of the lungs, but neglects axial diffusion. We incorporated axial diffusion into a one-dimensional trumpet

  10. Crystalline Electric Field as a Probe for Long-Range Antiferromagnetic Order and Superconducting State of CeFeAsO1-xFx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi, Songxue [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adroja, D. T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; GUIDI, T. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Bewley, Robert I. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory; Li, Shiliang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhao, Jun [ORNL; Lynn, J. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Brown, C. M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Qiu, Y. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Chen, G. F, [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics; Luo, J. L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Wang, N. L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Dai, Pengcheng [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations of Ce{sup 3+} in CeFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (x=0, 0.16). For nonsuperconducting CeFeAsO, the Ce CEF levels have three magnetic doublets in the paramagnetic state, but these doublets split into six singlets when the Fe ions order antiferromagnetically. For superconducting CeFeAsO{sub 0.84}F{sub 0.16} (T{sub c} = 41 K), where the static antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, the Ce CEF levels have three magnetic doublets at {h_bar}{sub {omega}} = 0, 18.7, 58.4 meV at all temperatures. Careful measurements of the intrinsic linewidth {Lambda} and the peak position of the 18.7 meV mode reveal a clear anomaly at T{sub c}, consistent with a strong enhancement of local magnetic susceptibility {chi}{double_prime}({h_bar}{sub {omega}}) below T{sub c}. These results suggest that CEF excitations in the rare-earth oxypnictides can be used as a probe of spin dynamics in the nearby FeAs planes.

  11. Safety of high speed guided ground transportation systems: Comparison of magnetic and electric fields of conventional and advanced electrified transportation systems. Final report, September 1992-March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, F.M.; Feero, W.E.; Jacobs, W.L.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns exist regarding the potential safety, environmental and health effects on the public and on transportation workers due to electrification along new or existing rail corridors, and to proposed maglev and high speed rail operations. Therefore, the characterization of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by both steady (dc) and alternating currents (ac) at power frequency (50 Hz in Europe and 60 Hz in the U.S.) and above, in the Extreme Low Frequency (ELF) range (3-3000 Hz) is of interest. The report summarizes and compares the results of a survey of EMF characteristics (spatial, temporal and frequency bands) for representative conventional railroad and transit and advanced high-speed systems including: the German TR-07 maglev system; the Amtrak Northeast Corridor (NEC) and North Jersey Transit (NJT) trains; the Washington, DC Metrorail (WMATA) and the Boston, MA (MBTA) transit systems; and the French TGV-A high speed rail system. This comprehensive comparative EMF survey produced both detailed data and statistical summaries of EMF profiles, and their variability in time and space. EMF ELF levels for WMATA are also compared to those produced by common environmental sources at home, work, and under power lines, but have specific frequency signatures.

  12. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Lin, Zhaojun, E-mail: linzj@sdu.edu.cn; Luan, Chongbiao; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ming [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong [National Key Laboratory of Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes using the measured capacitance-voltage, current-voltage characteristics, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that the uneven distribution of the strain caused by the Schottky metals was a major factor that generates the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs, and after appropriate rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processes, the polarization Coulomb field scattering was greatly weakened and the two-dimensional electron gas electron mobility was improved. We also found that the Schottky barrier height and the DC characteristics of the devices became better after appropriate RTA. Of course, the electrical performances mentioned above became deteriorated after excessive annealing.

  13. LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM Lab VI - 1 In the previous problems you explored by electric currents. This lab will carry that investigation one step further, determining how changing magnetic fields can give rise to electric currents. This is the effect that allows the generation

  14. Electrically Modulated Thin Film Dynamics Controlling Bubble Manipulation in Microfluidic Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debapriya Chakraborty; Suman Chakraborty

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film dynamics and associated instability mechanisms have triggered a wide range of scientific innovations, as attributed to their abilities of creating fascinating patterns over small scales. Here, we demonstrate a new thin film instability phenomenon governed by electro-mechanics and hydrodynamics over interfacial scales in a narrow fluidic confinement. We first bring out the essential physics of this instability mechanism, in consideration with the fact that under the action of axial electrical field in a confined microfluidic environment, perturbations may be induced on the interfaces of thin corner films formed adjacent to the walls of a microchannel, leading to the inception of ordered lateral structures. A critical electric field exists beyond which these structures from the walls of the confinement intermingle to evolve into localized gas pockets in the form of bubbles. These bubbles do not remain static with further changes in electric field, but undergo a sequence of elongation-deformation-breakup episode in a dynamically evolving manner. By elucidating the complex interplay of electro-hydrodynmic forces and surface tension, we offer further insights into a new paradigm of interfacial instability mediated controlled microbubble manipulation for on-chip applications, bearing far-ranging scientific and technological consequences in executing designed fluidic operations in confined miniaturized environment.

  15. Electric and Magnetic Fields Facts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This discussion outlines the EMF issue, summarizes the research conducted to date, and describes what Western Area Power Administration is doing to address concerns about EMF.

  16. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitri, F.G., E-mail: mitri@chevron.com

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

  17. Estimation of the internal electric field inside (11-22) semipolar GaN/Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N nanostructures and the radiative efficiency at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahouli, Abdelkarim, E-mail: abdelkarim.kahouli@yahoo.fr; Kriouche, Nasser [Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on time-integrated and resolved photoluminescence data on self-assembled semipolar (11-22) GaN nanostructures embedded in Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N. It is confirmed that the internal electric field is reduced for semipolar (11-22) orientation. It is shown in particular that the value of the electric field is 450–500?kV/cm for this orientation. The photoluminescence decay time of excitons is used as a probe of the reduction of the internal electric field in the case of semipolar GaN nanostructures. The measured decays are not only controlled by radiative lifetimes, which depend on the fields inside GaN nanostructures, but also on the nonradiative escape of carriers through barriers. The correspondent decay time is found equal to 330 ps. By the study of the decay time as a function of the emission energy, we can determine the evolution of the internal quantum efficiency as a function of the nanostructures height (energy) and to have access to the nonradiative lifetime at low temperature.

  18. Fracture analysis of axially cracked pressure tube of pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, S.; Bhasin, V.; Mahajan, S.C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional (313) finite element elastic plastic fracture analysis was done for through wall axially cracked thin pressure tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. The analysis was done for Zr-2 and Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes operating at 300{degrees}C and subjected to 9.5 Mpa internal pressure. Critical crack length was determined based on tearing instability concept. The analysis included the effect of crack face pressure due to the leaking fluid from tube. This effect was found to be significant for pressure tubes. The available formulae for calculating J (for axially cracked tubes) do not take into account the effect of crack face pressure. 3D finite element analysis also gives insight into variation of J across the thickness of pressure tube. It was observed that J is highest at the mid-surface of tube. The results have been presented in the form of across the thickness average J value and a peak factor on J. Peak factor on J is ratio of J at mid surface to average J value. Crack opening area for different cracked lengths was calculated from finite element results. The fracture assessment of pressure tubes was also done using Central Electricity Generating Board R-6 method. Ductile tearing was considered.

  19. Electricity Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems of modernizing the electric grid to meet the nations's need for reliable, electric power, enhancing security continues to increase within the electricity infrastructure. DOE is conducting research, development

  20. Electrically charged compact stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

  1. An investigation of axial-flow compressor blade treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangerhausen, Charles Roger

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of axial-flow compressor [5] . According to Schlicting [1], the basic methods of controlling the boundary layer on a body are (1) relative motion of the body surface w1th the flow, (2) acceleration of the boundary layer by blowing, (3) suction, (0) in...c methods. The literature survey revealed that three d1fferent techn1ques of boundary layer oontrol have been investigated for applicat1on to axial- flow compressor bladingi these are (1) the slotted blade, (2) the blade shape designed for a...

  2. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  3. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  4. Proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents proceedings of the Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA) Science Workshop, held February 10-11 in Palo Alto, California. Twenty-two papers were presented on various aspects of AOA by utilities, EPRI Robust Fuel Program contractors, staff from EPRI and universities, international researchers, and equipment vendors.

  5. Collective quantization of axially symmetric gravitating B=2 skyrmion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hisayuki Sato; Nobuyuki Sawado; Noriko Shiiki

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we perform collective quantization of an axially symmetric skyrmion with baryon number two.The rotational and isorotational modes are quantized to obtain the static properties of a deuteron and other dibaryonic objects such as masses, charge densities, magnetic moments. We discuss how the gravity affects to those observables.

  6. Small core axial compressors for high efficiency jet aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiOrio, Austin Graf

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis quantifies mechanisms that limit efficiency in small core axial compressors, defined here as compressor exit corrected flow between 1.5 and 3.0 lbm/s. The first part of the thesis describes why a small engine ...

  7. The deep structure of Axial Volcano Michael West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Michael

    the competing roles or ocean ridge and hot spot at Axial Volcano Provide a template on which long-term studies;Airgun survey April '99 20 gun array 8670 in3 volume 8 days #12;Airgun survey, April '99 5000+ shots 1225

  8. Operational benefits of relaxed axial power distribution control limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitlan, M.S. Jr.; Miller, R.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constant axial offset control (CAOC) was developed in the early 1970s in response to lower loss-of-coolant accident-based peaking factor limits. Th CAOC requires control of the axial power distribution within a specified band, typically +/- 5% or +3, -12% axial flux difference (AFD), about a measured target value of AFD. Operational outside of the CAOC limits results in the accumulation of penalty time. One hour of penalty time in any 24-h period is permitted. Although CAOC is sufficient to ensure peaking factor limits are satisfied, operation outside of CAOC limits is beneficial under certain conditions. Allowing a relaxation in CAOC restrictions can be used both to enhance the load follow capability of the plant by allowing control strategies that minimize the boron system duty or increase the return to power capability and to greatly increase the ability to return to power after a plant trip or shutdown. To achieve these benefits, relaxed axial offset control (RAOC) was developed. Other benefits of RAOC include a simplified technical specification and the ability to perform in-core/ex-core calibrations at higher powers. Duke Power Company has benefited in many of these ways by changing from CAOC power distribution limits to RAOC power distribution limits at the McGuire Nuclear Station. One of the chief benefits has been the ability to achieve full power much more quickly following shutdowns of short duration and reactor trips during the last half of the cycle lifetime.

  9. ELECTROMECHANICAL RELIABILITY TESTING OF THREE-AXIAL SILICON FORCE SENSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , available automatic test equipment for integrated circuits (ICs) can be leveraged [2]. The reliabilityELECTROMECHANICAL RELIABILITY TESTING OF THREE-AXIAL SILICON FORCE SENSORS S. Spinner1,2, J the measurement results. 1. INTRODUCTION The reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) receives growing

  10. axial fuel optimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    axial fuel optimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Trajectory optimization for...

  11. Ion electric propulsion unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Light, Max E; Colestock, Patrick L

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.

  12. Using electrical resistance probes for moisture determination in switchgrass windrows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesser Jr., G. D.; Davis, J. D.; Purswell, J. L.; Lemus, R.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining moisture levels in windrowed biomass is important for both forage producers and researchers. Energy crops such as switchgrass have been troublesome when using the standard methods set for electrical resistance meters. The objectives of this study were to i) develop the methodologies needed to measure MC in switchgrass using electrical resistance meters, ii) to determine the effects of pressure and probe orientation on MC measurement and iii) to generate MC calibration equations for electrical resistance meters using switchgrass in the senescence growth stage. Two meters (Meter 1, Farmex HT-PRO; Meter 2, Delmhorst F-2000) were selected based on commercial availability. A forage compression apparatus was designed and constructed with on-farm materials and methods to provide a simple system of applying pressure achievable by any forage producer or researcher in the field. Two trials were performed to test four levels of moisture contents (10, 20, 30, and 40%), five pressures (0, 1.68, 3.11, 4.55, 6.22 kN/m 2; 0, 35, 65, 95, 130 lb/ft 2), and two probe orientations (axial and transverse) in a 4x5x2 factorial design. Results indicated that meter accuracy increased as pressure increased. Regression models accounted for 91% and 81% of the variation for Meter 1 and Meter 2 at a pressure of 4.55 kN/m 2 (95 lb/ft 2) and a transverse probe orientation. Calibration equations were developed for both meters to improve moisture measurement accuracy for farmers and researchers in the field.

  13. Molecular-Level Study of the Effect of Prior Axial Compression/Torsion on the Axial-Tensile Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    that prior axial torsion can induce major changes in the material microstructure, causing significant, such as bullets, detonated-mine-induced soil ejecta, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), shell or turbine frag of high-fidelity material-constitutive models capa- ble of describing the behavior of fibers

  14. Axial force imparted by a current-free magnetically expanding plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding, current-free, radiofrequency plasma is directly measured. For an argon gas flow rate of 25 sccm and an effective rf input power of {approx}800W, a maximum force of {approx}6mN is obtained; {approx}3mN of which is transmitted via the expanding magnetic field. The measured forces are reasonably compared with a simple fluid model associated with the measured electron pressure. The model suggests that the total force is the sum of an electron pressure inside the source and a Lorentz force due to the electron diamagnetic drift current and the applied radial magnetic field. It is shown that the Lorentz force is greatest near the magnetic nozzle surface where the radial pressure gradient is largest.

  15. A MICROFLUIDIC-ELECTRIC PACKAGE FOR POWER MEMS GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    induction turbine-generator, and demonstrated a maximum output power of 192µW under driven excitation [1]. Holmes et al. have integrated a 7.5mm diameter permanent-magnet generator, an axial-flow polymer turbineA MICROFLUIDIC-ELECTRIC PACKAGE FOR POWER MEMS GENERATORS Florian Herrault, Chang-Hyeon Ji, Seong

  16. Determing Degradation Of Fiberboard In The 9975 Shipping Package By Measuring Axial Gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackney, E. R.; Dougherty, W. L.; Dunn, K. A.; Stefek, T. M

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, thousands of model 9975 transportation packages are in use by the US Department of Energy (DOE); the design of which has been certified by DOE for shipment of Type B radioactive and fissile materials in accordance with Part 71, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), or 10 CFR 71, Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material. These transportation packages are also approved for the storage of DOE-STD-3013 containers at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As such, the 9975 has been continuously exposed to the service environment for a period of time greater than the approved transportation service life. In order to ensure the material integrity as specified in the safety basis, an extensive surveillance program is in place in K-Area Complex (KAC) to monitor the structural and thermal properties of the fiberboard of the 9975 shipping packages. The surveillance approach uses a combination of Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) field surveillance and Destructive Examination (DE) lab testing to validate the 9975 performance assumptions. The fiberboard in the 9975 is credited with thermal insulation, criticality control and resistance to crushing. During surveillance monitoring in KAC, an increased axial gap of the fiberboard was discovered on selected items packaged at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Many of these packages were later found to contain excess moisture. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the fiberboard under storage conditions and during transport. In laboratory testing, the higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction of fiberboard material and compaction rate. The fiberboard height is reduced by compression of the layers. This change is observed directly in the axial gap between the flange and the air shield. The axial gap measurement is made during the pre-use inspection or during the annual recertification process and is a screening measurement for changes in the fiberboard.

  17. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  18. Insulation assembly for electric machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoads, Frederick W.; Titmuss, David F.; Parish, Harold; Campbell, John D.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An insulation assembly is provided that includes a generally annularly-shaped main body and at least two spaced-apart fingers extending radially inwards from the main body. The spaced-apart fingers define a gap between the fingers. A slot liner may be inserted within the gap. The main body may include a plurality of circumferentially distributed segments. Each one of the plurality of segments may be operatively connected to another of the plurality of segments to form the continuous main body. The slot liner may be formed as a single extruded piece defining a plurality of cavities. A plurality of conductors (extendable from the stator assembly) may be axially inserted within a respective one of the plurality of cavities. The insulation assembly electrically isolates the conductors in the electric motor from the stator stack and from other conductors.

  19. Modeling of FRP-jacketed RC columns subject to combined axial and lateral loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung-Sheng

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LOCATIONS #6 u-bars @ 4" 3" PVC for axial load and verticalsteel Steel jacket encasing load stub 2" PVC for clevisattatch 3" PVC for axial load A B Vertical tiedown Column

  20. European Fusion Theory Conference Non-local features of transport in the axial tokamak region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9th European Fusion Theory Conference Non-local features of transport in the axial tokamak region J effects in the axial region of an axi- symmetric tokamak equilibrium. The starting point is the guiding