Sample records for avoided utility costs

  1. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  2. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining theDiscrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and UtilityBills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings PerformanceContracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected duringthe project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agenciesexpect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agencylevel. Such questions about the program are common when implementing anESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? Moreimportantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failureof ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after projectimplementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement andverification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour orBTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation toenergy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but acontracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the timethe contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by afixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms,which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgetsat a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMPhas prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility billreduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication onagency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the rightexpectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I amnot seeing the savings in my utility bill?

  3. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining the Discrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and Utility Bills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and Utility Bills Satishcommon when implementing an ESPC project. But is this a fairimplementation? In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement

  4. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  5. Avoided Costs and Competitive Negotiations for Power from Qualifying Facilities in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panjavan, S.; Al-Jabir, A.

    Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1992 Table 2: Utilities' Avoidable Generating Units Capacity On-line Utility (MW) Unit Type Fuel Date COA* Cps* BEPC LCRA CPL HLP TNP TU WTU none 70 208 88 89 219 152 645... on avoided cost because the avoidable units based on natural gas power plants will cost less than avoidable units based on solid-fueled power plants. 50 ESL-IE-92-04-08 Proceedings from the 14th National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston...

  6. Avoided Gigawatts Through Utility Capital Recovery Fees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frosenfeld, A. N.; Verdict, M. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structure is possible through the use of capital recovery fees for new electric meter hookups similar to those commonly used for new water and wastewater hookups where the developer/owner is required to capitalize the marginal cost of new demand. By giving...

  7. Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

  8. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Better Buildings Residential Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call...

  10. Extending Quality Management to Utility Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, W. A.

    By installing permanent instrumentation and linking it to the appropriate software, a Utility Cost Management Information System, can be created which will identify where, when and how energy is used in a facility on a dynamic and real-time basis...

  11. Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants April 2013 Information Administration | Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants ii Contents Introduction

  12. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  13. avoid costly consequences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for increased market penetration for energy efficient new buildings. An innovative, marginal (replacement cost) rate... Frosenfeld, A. N.; Verdict, M. E. 1985-01-01 153 IEEE...

  14. Rising Electricity Costs: A Challenge For Consumers, Regulators, And Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the rising electricity costs and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  15. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness: Implication for Bonneville and Utility Programs Council document 2007-23 August 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a "Utility Cost Test" (UCT). That is, only those costs paid by utility rate revenues and only those benefits

  17. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  18. Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Generating Station. 4 #12;6/19/2013 3 EVEN MORE SUNNY HEADLINES New solar panels glisten6/19/2013 1 Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons Northwest Power Cost Forecast 5. Levelized Costs 1 SOLAR POWER SYSTEM HAS BRIGHT FUTURE 1. Modest environmental impacts

  19. Utilization and cost effectiveness of retread tires. Research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, J.; Allen, D.L.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the possible utilization and cost effectiveness of using retreaded tires on state vehicles in Kentucky. Included is information obtained from a telephone survey of local companies and two state DOT agencies. Information was also obtained from a survey conducted on the AASHTO-VAN computer network. The report also contains a cost comparison of retread prices versus new tire prices.

  20. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  1. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  2. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y.; Adelman, S.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  3. Submission of Final Scientific/Technical Report [Solar Avoided Cost Solution: SunShot 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danziger, Eric

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. • The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. • The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.

  4. Cutting-Edge Savannah River Site Project Avoids Millions in Costs, Removes Chemical Solvents from Underground: Project avoided costs totaling more than $15 million, removed tons of chemical solvents from beneath the Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Workers recently completed a multiyear project that removed more than 33,000 gallons of non-radioactive chemical solvents from beneath a portion of the Savannah River Site (SRS), preventing those pollutants from entering the local water table and helping the site avoid costs of more than $15 million.

  5. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  6. SAVING MONEY & TIME (EFFICIENCY) UTILITY COST AVOIDANCE: From FY 2001 through FY2012, the UW Seattle campus has avoided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    : SmartGrid ­ Electrical meters are installed in all Seattle campus buildings and metering data is now with the College of Engineering, Battelle, Bonneville Power Administration, McKinstry and Seattle City Light. http

  7. The economic impact of state ordered avoided cost rates for photovoltaic generated electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bottaro, Drew

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978 requires that electric utilities purchase electricity generated by small power producers (QFs) such as photovoltaic systems at rates that will encourage the ...

  8. Optimizing procurement and handling costs in a utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genser, Bradley Philip

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel method to quantify the cost of activities involved in the picking portion of order fulfillment. We adapt the general method of picking cost quantification to the specific situation of TP&G, a publicly ...

  9. Using Pinch Technology to Explore Trade-Offs Between Energy Cost, Capital Cost, Process Modifications, and Utility Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.

    , energy cost, process modifications and utility selection. The application of Pinch' Technology to a Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping process is used to illustrate the approach and the results. INTRODUCTION The general approach to process design.... AN EXAMPLE - THE CTMP PROCESS The Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping (CTMP) process will be used as an example to illustrate how process modifications and utility selection impact total capital and operating costs. For each of the possible process...

  10. Utility based Data Mining for Time Series Analysis -Cost-sensitive Learning for Neural Network Predictors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gary

    Utility based Data Mining for Time Series Analysis - Cost-sensitive Learning for Neural Network@bis-lab.com ABSTRACT In corporate data mining applications, cost-sensitive learning is firmly established Mining General Terms Algorithms, Management, Economics Keywords Data Mining, cost-sensitive learning

  11. Maximizing Classifier Utility when Training Data is Costly Gary M. Weiss and Ye Tian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gary

    Maximizing Classifier Utility when Training Data is Costly Gary M. Weiss and Ye Tian Department of acquir- ing the training examples in the data mining process; we analyze the impact of the cost- formance of several progressive sampling schemes, which, given the cost of the training data, will generate

  12. Can Solar PV Rebates Be Funded with Utility Cost Savings?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was given by Jan Aceti of Concord Light at the February 19, 2013, CommRE webinar which focused on how municipal utilities fund solar energy projects.

  13. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus far, we have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. Synergistic control of these parameters offers the potential for further improvements in carbonation reactivity. A new sonication exfoliation system incorporating a novel sealing system was developed to carry out the sonication studies. Our initial studies that incorporate controlled sonication have not yet lead to a significant improvement in the extent of carbonation observed. Year 2 studies will emphasize those approaches that offer the greatest potential to cost effectively enhance carbonation, as well as combined approaches that may further enhance carbonation. Mechanistic investigations indicate incongruent dissolution results in the observed silica-rich passivating layer formation. Observations of magnesite nanocrystals within the passivating layers that form indicate the layers can exhibit significant permeability to the key reactants present (e.g., Mg{sup 2+}, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and HCO{sub 3} -). Atomistic modeling supports the observation of robust passivating layers that retain significant permeability to the key reaction species involved. Studies in Year 2 will emphasize the impact that controlled aqueous speciation and activity and slurry-flow dynamics have on the mechanisms that control carbonation reactivity and the potential they offer to substantially reduce olivine mineral sequestration process cost.

  14. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (i) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (ii) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (iii) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. We have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. Synergistic control of the slurry-flow and aqueous chemistry parameters offers further potential to improve carbonation reactivity, which is being investigated during the no-cost extension period. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation system with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated(Abstract truncated).

  15. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  17. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  18. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus far, we have succeeded in nearly doubling the extent of carbonation observed compared with the optimum procedure previously developed by the Albany Research Center. Aqueous carbonation reactivity was found to be a strong function of the ionic species present and their aqueous activities, as well as the slurry fluid flow conditions incorporated. High concentration sodium, potassium, and sodium/potassium bicarbonate aqueous solutions have been found to be the most effective solutions for enhancing aqueous olivine carbonation to date. Slurry-flow modeling using Fluent indicates that the slurry-flow dynamics are a strong function of particle size and mass, suggesting that controlling these parameters may offer substantial potential to enhance carbonation. During the first project year we developed a new sonication exfoliation apparatus with a novel sealing system to carry out the sonication studies. We also initiated investigations to explore the potential that sonication may offer to enhance carbonation reactivity. During the second project year, we extended our investigations of the effects of sonication on the extent of carbonation as a function of the following parameters: particle size distribution, the mass of solid reactant, volume fraction of aqueous solution present, sonication power, time, temperature, and CO{sub 2} pressure. To date, none of the conditions investigated have significantly enhanced carbonation. Mechanistic investigations of the stirred ({approx}1,500 rpm) aqueous olivine carbonation process indicate the carbonation process involves both incongruent magnesium dissolution and silica precipitation, which results in robust silica-rich passivating layer formation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry observation of H within the passivating layer that forms during static carbonation suggests 2H{sup +}/Mg{sup 2+} ion exchange is associated with incongruent dissolution. Apparently, H{sub 2}O forms at or near the olivine/passivating-layer interface during the process and diffuses out through the passivating layers during the carbonation reaction. This is

  19. Lower cost offshore field development utilizing autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisbie, F.R.; Vie, K.J.; Welch, D.W.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The offshore oil and gas industry has the requirement to inspect offshore oil and gas pipelines for scour, corrosion and damage as well as inspect and intervene on satellite production facilities. This task is currently performed with Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) operated from dynamically positioned (DP) offshore supply or diving support boats. Currently, these tasks are expensive due to the high day rates for DP ships and the slow, umbilical impeded, 1 knot inspection rates of the tethered ROVs, Emerging Autonomous Undersea Vehicle (AUV) technologies offer opportunities to perform these same inspection tasks for 50--75% lower cost, with comparable or improved quality. The new generation LAPV (Linked Autonomous Power Vehicles) will operate from fixed facilities such as TLPs or FPFs and cover an operating field 10 kms in diameter.

  20. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  1. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  2. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  3. Costs to Maryland utilities and ratepayers of an acid-rain control strategy: an update analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahal, M.I.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1985, the Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) published a study that developed estimates of cost and electric-rate impacts for a hypothetical control scenario for each major electric utility operating in the State. This report updates that earlier study by incorporating new information. Important differences include revised financial/accounting assumptions, a decline in the cost premium for low-sulfur coal, increases in scrubber construction costs and changes in control strategies. Also, the update incorporates control of NOx emissions. The original study was limited to evaluating the costs of controlling sulfur-emissions only.

  4. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  5. Public Utility Commission Regulation and Cost-Effectiveness of Title IV: Lessons for CAIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotkiewicz, Paul M.; Holt, Lynne

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing evidence that the cost savings potential of the Title IV SO{sub 2} cap-and-trade program is not being reached. PUC regulatory treatment of compliance options appears to provide one explanation for this finding. That suggests that PUCs and utility companies should work together to develop incentive plans that will encourage cost-minimizing behavior for compliance with the EPA's recently issued Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  6. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively new to the field, such as the over 2,000 towns, cities, states, and regions who are recipients of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds for clean energy programs. This report synthesizes lessons from first generation programs, highlights emerging best practices, and suggests methods and approaches to use in designing, implementing, and evaluating these programs. We examined 14 residential energy efficiency programs, conducted an extensive literature review, interviewed industry experts, and surveyed residential contractors to draw out these lessons.

  7. Case Study: Sustained Utility Cost Reduction in a Large Manufacturing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study presents results of a systematic utility cost reduction plan implemented at a 450,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in a hot and humid climate. Electricity, natural gas, and water usage were all reduced on an absolute basis in both...

  8. 1. Utilize recent historical cost data, estimating manuals, and actual vendor quotes as situation allows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    1. Utilize recent historical cost data, estimating manuals, and actual vendor quotes as situation Engineering Services to respond and complete customer facility projects. Return 90% of all Opinion of Probable Engineering Services to respond and complete customer facility projects. Develop accurate priority list

  9. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

  10. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  11. The US Department of Energy's least-cost utility planning program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.; Hirst, E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Least-Cost Utility Planning Program (LCUP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) was created at the direction of Congress in 1986. The purpose of the program is to provide utility planners and regulators with data, analysis and evaluation tools that can assist with the selection of supply and demand options that deliver high-quality, low-cost energy services to customers. In 1987 fourteen grantees were selected by DOE to develop least-cost planning data and tools. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting an ongoing assessment of the fourteen DOE/LCUP projects which includes technical oversight and reviews of draft and final reports. ORNL is preparing a report that synthesizes across the individual projects to draw conclusions about the accomplishments of LCUP as a whole. This paper summarizes the types of data, models and planning tools developed by each of the fourteen grantees and suggests who could best use them for what purpose. The grantees are addressing a wide range of issues including: (1) data base development for demand-side planning, (2) the review, critique, selection, application and development of models for a variety of least-cost planning problems, (3) consensus building processes to support the development of organizational structures that will institutionalize least-cost planning activities, (4) the development of tools for incorporating renewable resources and cogeneration into utility planning processes, and (5) the analysis of legal issues related to the incorporation of least-cost planning objectives into bulk power transactions. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize readers with the resources available from the DOE/LCUP program and to summarize the program's primary accomplishments to date. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new construction, commercial/industrial custom rebate programs). In this report, the focus is on gross energy savings and the costs borne by the program administrator—including administration, payments to implementation contractors, marketing, incentives to program participants (end users) and both midstream and upstream trade allies, and evaluation costs. We collected data on net savings and costs incurred by program participants. However, there were insufficient data on participant cost contributions, and uncertainty and variability in the ways in which net savings were reported and defined across states (and program administrators).

  13. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC Form 1, avoided cost data filed by utilities (in theby weighted-average capital cost data, provided elsewhere indata to compile capital cost data for a large number of U.S.

  14. Public Service Commission Authorization to Utilize an Alternative Method of Cost Recovery for Certain Base Load Generation (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Senate Bill 2793 authorizes the Public Service Commission (PSC) to utilize an alternative cost recovery for certain base load generation. The PSC is authorized to include in an electric...

  15. LSA Space Guidelines February 2011 The rising costs of utilities and building maintenance have placed increasing stress on the University's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resnick, Paul

    1 LSA Space Guidelines ­February 2011 Overview The rising costs of utilities and building costs, the Provost has launched a University-wide Space Initiative that will unfold over a period of several years. The Initiative will inventory all University space and study its management

  16. Using Pinch Technology to Explore Trade-Offs Between Energy Cost, Capital Cost, Process Modifications, and Utility Selection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMullan, A. S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the total cost of installing and operatlng a process. Understanding the impact of these decisions in the context of the overall process can lead to significant savings in both capital and operating costs. Full investigation of these interactions through...

  17. Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's Current Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of DOE's Current Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the Current Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the Current Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the Current Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.

  18. Life-Cycle Cost Reduction for High Speed Turbomachinery Utilizing Aerothermal - Mechanical Conditioning Monitoring Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Bowman, J. C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for high performance, centrifugal and axial flow turbomachinery such as gas turbines, compressors and pumps is very strongly influenced by fuel (energy) consumption and by maintenance costs. Additionally, the penalty costs...

  19. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  20. Methods for Analyzing the Benefits and Costs of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation to the U.S. Electric Utility System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Palmintier, B.; Barrows, C.; Ibanez, E.; Bird, L.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the methods, data, and tools that could be used at different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of DGPV. In so doing, we identify the gaps in current benefit-cost-analysis methods, which we hope will inform the ongoing research agenda in this area. The focus of this report is primarily on benefits and costs from the utility or electricity generation system perspective. It is intended to provide useful background information to utility and regulatory decision makers and their staff, who are often being asked to use or evaluate estimates of the benefits and cost of DGPV in regulatory proceedings. Understanding the technical rigor of the range of methods and how they might need to evolve as DGPV becomes a more significant contributor of energy to the electricity system will help them be better consumers of this type of information. This report is also intended to provide information to utilities, policy makers, PV technology developers, and other stakeholders, which might help them maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of integrating DGPV into a changing electricity system.

  1. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    participated, and the levelized cost of energy savings over5 months, and the levelized cost of energy savings over theFor example, the levelized cost of energy efficiency for the

  2. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Megan A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CSE DOE DSM EIA EERS HVAC LCOE MUSH WACC American Councillevelized cost of energy (LCOE), which represents the per-the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), often is applied to

  3. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for renewable energy, and its risk of permanent expiration,Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in WesternCost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western

  4. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning with Renewable Resources. ” The Electricity14 4.1 Renewable Resources20 5. Renewable Resource Cost and Performance

  5. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning with Renewable Resources. ” The Electricityindirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resourceamount of planned renewable resource additions. In the case

  6. Analysis of novel, above-ground thermal energy storage concept utilizing low-cost, solid medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barineau, Mark Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean energy power plants cannot effectively match peak demands without utilizing energy storage technologies. Currently, several solutions address short term demand cycles, but little work has been done to address seasonal ...

  7. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This analysis is an update to the Energy Efficiency Potential report completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kaua‘i (KEMA 2005).

  8. Strategic Plan for Utilizing Low Cost Engineering Resources at Generic Aerospace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veach, Michael

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, businesses have used several different options in an effort to alleviate engineering resource constraints. These included use of contract engineers, overtime of employees, or utilization of sister facilities ...

  9. Utilizing an encroachment probability benefit-cost model to estimate accident reduction factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Carolyn A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving safety on Texas roadways is a major public concern. Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation and other highway agencies have become interested in reducing society's accident cost while maximizing returns on accident...

  10. Energy Conservation Fund: Helping Corporations Develop Energy Conservation Strategies and Reduce Utility Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G. A.; Houston, W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy conservation projects can save companies significant money over time and often pay for themselves very quickly. This is especially true with the dramatic increase in energy costs over the past few years. Yet convincing corporate decision...

  11. Energy Conservation Fund: Helping Corporations Develop Energy Conservation Strategies and Reduce Utility Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, G. A.; Houston, W.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy conservation projects can save companies significant money over time and often pay for themselves very quickly. This is especially true with the dramatic increase in energy costs over the past few years. Yet convincing corporate decision...

  12. The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Anne E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

  13. Costs and benefits from utility-funded commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the costs and savings of commissioning of energy- efficiency measures in 16 buildings. A total of 46 EEMs were commissioned for all 16 buildings and 73 deficiencies were corrected. On average, commissioning was marginally cost effective on energy savings alone, although the results were mixed among all 16 buildings. When considered as a stand-alone measure, the median simple payback time of 6.5 years under the low energy prices in the Pacific Northwest. Under national average prices the median payback time is about three years. In estimating the present value of the energy savings from commissioning we considered low and high lifetimes for the persistence of savings from deficiency corrections. Under the low- lifetime case the average present value of the energy savings ($0. 21/ft{sup 2}) were about equal to the average commissioning costs ($0. 23/ft{sup 2}). Under the high-lifetime case the savings ($0.51/ft{sup 2}) were about twice the costs. Again, the savings would be about twice as large under national average prices. The results are subject to significant uncertainty because of the small sample size and lack of metered data in the evaluation. However, the findings suggest that investments in commissioning pay off. Building owners want buildings that work as intended, and are comfortable, healthy, and efficient. It is likely that the non-energy benefits, which are difficult to quantify, are larger than the energy-savings benefits.

  14. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    average reduction of electricity use. Estimated lifecycle costaverage annual electricity savings per home. Estimated lifecycle costaverage reduction of electricity use 22% PEAK electricity savings in residential sector. Estimated lifecycle cost

  15. Low-Cost High-Concentration Photovoltaic Systems for Utility Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Gordon, R.; Dutra, D.; Kinsey, G.; Geer, S.; Gomez, H.; Cameron, C.

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership (TPP) program, Amonix, Inc. developed a new generation of high-concentration photovoltaic systems using multijunction technology and established the manufacturing capacity needed to supply multi-megawatt power plants buing using the new Amonix 7700-series solar energy systems. For this effort, Amonix Collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete project tasks. Subcontractors included: Evonik/Cyro; Hitek; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Raytech; Spectrolab; UL; University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and TUV Rheinland PTL. The Amonix TPP tasks included: Task 1: Multijunction Cell Optimization for Field Operation, Task 2: Fresnel Lens R&D, Task 3: Cell Package Design & Production, Task 4: Standards Compliance and Reliability Testing, Task 5: Receiver Plate Production, Task 6: MegaModule Performance, Task 7: MegaModule Cost Reduction, Task 8: Factory Setup and MegaModule Production, Task 9: Tracker and Tracking Controller, Task 10: Installation and Balance of System (BOS), Task 11: Field Testing, and Task 12: Solar Advisor Modeling and Market Analysis. Amonix's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain from epitaxial layer design and wafer processing through system design, manufacturing, deployment and O&M. Amonix has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of its 28%+ efficient MegaModule, reduced manufacturing and installation cost through design for manufacturing and assembly, automated manufacturing processes, and reduced O&M costs. Program highlights include: (1) Optimized multijunction cell and cell package design to improve performance by > 10%; (2) Updated lens design provided 7% increased performance and higher concentration; (3) 28.7% DC STC MegaModule efficiency achieved in Phase II exceeded Phase III performance goal; (4) New 16' focal length MegaModule achieved target materials and manufacturing cost reduction; (5) Designed and placed into production 25 MW/yr manufacturing capacity for complete MegaModules, including cell packages, receiver plates, and structures with lenses; (6) Designed and deployed Amonix 7700 series systems rated at 63 kW PTC ac and higher. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, Amonix met DOE's LCOE targets: Amonix 2011 LCOE 12.8 cents/kWh (2010 DOE goal 10-15); 2015 LCOE 6.4 cents/kWh (2015 goal 5-7) Amonix and TPP participants would like to thank the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technology Program for funding received under this program through Agreement No. DE-FC36-07GO17042.

  16. A low cost igniter utilizing an SCB and titanium sub-hydride potassium perchlorate pyrotechnic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hartman, J.K.; McCampbell, C.B. [SCB Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Churchill, J.K. [Quantic-Holex, Hollister, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional NSI (NASA standard initiator) normally employs a hot-wire ignition element to ignite ZPP (zirconium potassium perchlorate). With minor modifications to the interior of a header similar to an NSI device to accommodate an SCB (semiconductor bridge), a low cost initiator was obtained. In addition, the ZPP was replaced with THKP (titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate) to obtain increased overall gas production and reduced static-charge sensitivity. This paper reports on the all-fire and no-fire levels obtained and on a dual mix device that uses THKP as the igniter mix and a thermite as the output mix.

  17. New, Cost-Competitive Solar Plants for Electric Utilities | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREof EnergyBulbsCost-Effective | Department

  18. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  19. Utility Cost Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W Computere 6 Computer HVAC Computers Liebert Unite CRT's Subtotal WAC System VAV AHU' s TABLE 3: OPERATING kW BY SEASON Computers 6 Computer WAC Comput err Liebert Unitr CRT'B Sub total HVAC System VAV AHU's AHU1# Pumps Chillerr Subtotal...

  20. Utility Goals for the Efficiency Resource: Impact of PUC Rulemaking Project No. 39674 on Future Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and (3) No major changes to actual costs used Updates language to calculate avoided costs for nodal market Energy Efficiency Goals (e)(1) (e)(1) See rule for details Overall, no major changes. Potential debate: When will a utility be able to switch... deemed savings Costs to be Recovered: General (f)(1) - (5) (f)(1)(A) and (B) EECRF shall be calculated to recover forecasted program expenditures, over/under recovery including municipal and util ity EECRF proceeding expenses, performance bonus and EM...

  1. Estimating the Energy, Demand and Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC Project at Fort Polk, LA Through Utility Bill Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are a method of financing energy conservation projects using the energy cost savings generated by the conservation measures themselves. Ideally, reduced energy costs are visible as reduced utility bills, but in fact this is not always the case. On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of individual buildings. Savings from an ESPC involving only a small number of these buildings will have little effect on the overall utility bill. In fact, changes in mission, occupancy, and energy prices could cause substantial increases in utility bills. For this reason, other, more practical, methods have been developed to measure and verify savings in ESPC projects. Nevertheless, increasing utility bills--when ESPCs are expected to be reducing them--are problematic and can lead some observers to question whether savings are actually being achieved. In this paper, the authors use utility bill analysis to determine energy, demand, and cost savings from an ESPC project that installed geothermal heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The savings estimates for the first year after the retrofits were found to be in substantial agreement with previous estimates that were based on submetered data. However, the utility bills also show that electrical use tended to increase as time went on. Since other data show that the energy use in family housing has remained about the same over the period, the authors conclude that the savings from the ESPC have persisted, and increases in electrical use must be due to loads unassociated with family housing. This shows that under certain circumstances, and with the proper analysis, utility bills can be used to estimate savings from ESPC projects. However, these circumstances are rare and over time the comparison may be invalidated by increases in energy use in areas unaffected by the ESPC.

  2. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in 2013 and is expected to continue for at least the next few years.

  3. Evaluating Utility Executives' Perceptions of Smart Grid Costs, Benefits and Adoption Plans To Assess Impacts on Building Design and Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Ameya Vinayak

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    to be implemented in various magnitudes across utilities in the near future. To accommodate these technologies significant changes will have to be incorporated in building design construction and planning. This research paper attempts to evaluate public utility... for implementing a comprehensive smart grid system are extensive. Smart grid hardware and software technologies are in the evolving stage and returns on smart grid investments are uncertain. 1.2 NEED FOR RESEARCH The transformation of the electric system...

  4. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equal one another. A wind generator QF that selects optionlevelized price. For wind generators with variable output,pricing option provides wind generators operating at a 30%

  5. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  6. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  7. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year plan, 1990-1999 : 1989 Utility OM&R Comparison : A Comparison of BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) and Selected Utility Transmission, Operations and Maintenance Costs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past several years, competing resource demands within BPA have forced the Agency to stretch Operations, Maintenance and Replacement (OM R) resources. There is a large accumulation of tasks that were not accomplished when scheduled. Maintenance and replacements and outages, due to material and equipment failure, appear to be increasing. BPA has made a strategic choice to increase its emphasis on OM R programs by implementing a multi-year, levelized OM R plan which is keyed to high system reliability. This strategy will require a long-term commitment of a moderate increase in staff and dollars allocated to these programs. In an attempt to assess the direction BPA has taken in its OM R programs, a utility comparison team was assembled in early January 1989. The team included representatives from BPA's Management Analysis, Internal Audit and Financial Management organizations, and operation and maintenance program areas. BPA selected four utilities from a field of more than 250 electric utilities in the US and Canada. The selection criteria generally pertained to size, with key factors including transformation capacity, load, gross revenue, and interstate transmission and/or marketing agreements, and their OM R programs. Information was gathered during meetings with managers and technical experts representing the four utilities. Subsequent exchanges of information also took place to verify findings. The comparison focused on: Transmission operations and maintenance program direction and emphasis; Organization, management and implementation techniques; Reliability; and Program costs. 2 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DR programs/tariffs: Questions for Pacific Northwest utilities o Conceptually, do you distinguish among different types of DR resources in your resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 06/14/2007 Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of DR programs/tariffs: Questions for Pacific of analytic process does your utility use to select DR programs/pricing tariffs (e.g., screening analysis vs-effectiveness screening analysis? o What are the various benefits and costs of DR programs/tariffs that you account

  9. Confidential data in a competitive utility environment: A regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the electric utility industry has been regarded as one of the most open industries in the United States in sharing information but their reputation is being challenged by competitive energy providers, the general public, regulators, and other stakeholders. As the prospect of competition among electricity power providers has increased in recent years, many utilities have been requesting that the data they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to have serious and significant policy implications with respect to: (1) consumer education, the pursuit of truth, mutual respect among parties, and social cooperation; (2) the creation of a fair market for competitive energy services; (3) the regulatory balance; (4) regional and national assessments of energy-savings opportunities; (5) research and development; and (6) evaluations of utility programs, plans, and policies. In a telephone survey of all public utility commissions (PUCs) that regulate electric and gas utilities in the U.S., we found that almost all PUCs have received requests from utility companies for data to be filed as confidential, and confidential data filings appear to have increased (both in scope and in frequency) in those states where utility restructuring is being actively discussed. The most common types of data submitted as confidential by utilities dealt with specific customer data, market data, avoided costs, and utility costs.

  10. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

  11. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    evaluation of dredged material from Newark harbor............................ 7 Soil stabilization utilizing environment in a cost effective way while producing necessary chemicals such as lime. Lime is one of the most purchasing fabric filter bag collectors are emission regulations, capital cost and operating cost [1

  13. Alternating, Pattern-Avoiding Permutations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Joel Brewster

    We study the problem of counting alternating permutations avoiding collections of permutation patterns including 132. We construct a bijection between the set S[subscript n](132) of 132-avoiding permutations and the set ...

  14. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whitman index for steam- generating construction costs [59]Whitman index of public utility construction costs. Whitman,

  15. Electricity prices in a competitive environment: Marginal cost pricing of generation services and financial status of electric utilities. A preliminary analysis through 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of competitive markets for electricity generation services is changing the way that electricity is and will be priced in the United States. This report presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated {open_quotes}cost-of-service{close_quotes} pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers? This study is not intended to be a cost-benefit analysis of wholesale or retail competition, nor does this report include an analysis of the macroeconomic impacts of competitive electricity prices.

  16. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel priceboth renewable technology costs and avoided fuel costs. Theof future renewable technology cost and performance would

  17. Utility Service Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any upgrade to utility service provides an opportunity to revisit a Federal building's electrical loads and costs, but it also may provide an economic way to bundle the upgrade with an onsite renewable electricity project during renovation. Upgrading utility service to the site may involve improving or adding a transformer, upgrading utility meters, or otherwise modifying the interconnection equipment or services with the utility. In some cases, the upgrade may change the tariff structure for the facility and may qualify the property for a different structure with lower overall costs. In all cases, the implementation of renewable energy technologies should be identified during the design phase.

  18. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about utilization of UV or...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the utilization of UV...

  1. Development of a Method Using BIM Technology to Determine the Utility Bill and Total Cost of Ownership of a Single-family Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, Ashley

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    they will or will not benefit from BIM. A ROI can be found by using a formula to establish the first year ROI that includes particular variables, such as the proposed systems cost, labor costs, the training time, expected percentage loss, and the percentage expected to gain... and labor. I used the wall areas to compute quantities, and made educated estimates. The RSMeans books were very good sources for all the building elements in both homes. Within the books they broke down the cost of materials and labor and explained...

  2. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  3. Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caramanis, Michael C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

  4. COMM-OPINION-ORDER, 75 FERC 61,208, Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open Access Non-discriminatory Transmission Services by Public Utilities; Recovery of Stranded Costs by Public Utilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    COMM-OPINION-ORDER, 75 FERC ¶61,208, Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open Access Non Wholesale Competition Through Open Access Non-discriminatory Transmission Services by Public Utilities-7-001 [61,687] [¶61,208] Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open Access Non-discriminatory Transmission

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    was produced by Wisconsin Electric's coal-fired power plants. The criteria for selecting these mixtures was to utilize minimal cost materials, such as coal combustion by-products (fly ash, bottom ash, etc coal combustion waste material (fly ash) to the maximum extent possible while minimizing costs (e

  6. How to avoid common mistakes in energy efficiency projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J. [E-Cube Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of nearly 20 years in the energy efficiency industry, the author has participated in a wide variety of projects. These projects included analyses of buildings and industrial processes to identify energy efficiency measures and estimate their cost-effectiveness, as well as analyses of energy efficiency measures that were implemented to estimate how much energy was actually saved. This work was carried out at the behest of utility energy conservation departments, property managers, and energy service companies. Based on this experience, the author has identified a list of 14 common mistakes that are frequently repeated during energy efficiency projects: (1) Inadequate definition of purpose, (2) Selection of inappropriate analysis tools, (3) Poor data collection practices, (4) Inadequate definition of baseline for savings, (5) Inadequate reporting, (6) Insufficient analyst involvement in the design process, (7) Limited or inappropriate solutions, (8) Unnecessarily constrained economic analysis, (9) Neglect of interactions between building systems, (10) Loss of consistency during the design and installation phases, (11) Failure to verify and report on results, (12) Failure to test unfamiliar technologies, (13) Poor planning for monitoring exercises, and (14) Inadequate operation and maintenance of efficiency measures. This paper is concerned with the first 6 items on this list. The sections of this paper describe these errors in detail, explain the consequences of making them, give examples, and provide suggestions on how to avoid them.

  7. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  8. Utility Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utility Partnerships 7/10/12. Provides an overview of LEAP's (Charlottesville, VA) partnership with local utilities.

  9. Avoiding character collisions in games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calderon, Manuel

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that solves this problem for situations with at least thirty characters. A program was written to test and demonstrate the method. This method might also contribute to the solution of collision avoidance problems in robotics....

  10. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galbraith, John (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  11. ENERGY COMMISSION PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Specifically, the Proposed Final Opinion: · Reaffirms a commitment to pursue all cost-effective energy, however, utility costs may be reduced compared with business as usual, after accounting for significantCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

  12. Automated Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Avoidance at Intersections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    Automated Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Avoidance at Intersections M. R. Hafner1 , D. Cunningham2 on modified Lexus IS250 test vehicles. The system utilizes vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) Dedicated Short the velocities of both vehicles with automatic brake and throttle commands. Automatic commands can never cause

  13. Determining Baseline and Avoided Costs for UESC Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E LGeothermal * August 2004

  14. Self-avoiding quantum walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Camilleri; Peter P. Rohde; Jason Twamley

    2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum walks exhibit many unique characteristics compared to classical random walks. In the classical setting, self-avoiding random walks have been studied as a variation on the usual classical random walk. Classical self-avoiding random walks have found numerous applications, most notably in the modeling of protein folding. We consider the analogous problem in the quantum setting. We complement a quantum walk with a memory register that records where the walker has previously resided. The walker is then able to avoid returning back to previously visited sites. We parameterise the strength of the memory recording and the strength of the memory back-action on the walker's motion, and investigate their effect on the dynamics of the walk. We find that by manipulating these parameters the walk can be made to reproduce ideal quantum or classical random walk statistics, or a plethora of more elaborate diffusive phenomena. In some parameter regimes we observe a close correspondence between classical self-avoiding random walks and the quantum self-avoiding walk.

  15. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) establishes partnerships and facilitates communications among Federal agencies, utilities, and energy service companies. The group develops strategies to implement cost-effective energy efficiency and water conservation projects through utility incentive programs at Federal sites.

  16. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  17. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  18. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELEcrRIC DEMAND COST Versus LABOR COST: A CASE STUDY Sanjay Agrawal Richard Jensen Assistant Director Director Industrial Assessment Center Department of Engineering Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 ABSTRAcr Electric Utility companies...

  19. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU F&A costs at NIU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs at NIU #12;F&A costs at NIU What are Facilities & Administrative (F&A) Costs? F&A Costs (aka "indirect costs" or "overhead") are real institutional costs project, instructional or public service activity. Such costs include utilities, buildings and facilities

  1. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of alternative incentive approaches on utility shareholders and customers if energy efficiency is implemented under various utility operating, cost, and supply conditions.We used and adapted a spreadsheet-based financial model (the Benefits Calculator) which was developed originally as a tool to support the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE). The major steps in our analysis are displayed graphically in Figure ES- 1. Two main inputs are required: (1) characterization of the utility which includes its initial financial and physical market position, a forecast of the utility?s future sales, peak demand, and resource strategy to meet projected growth; and (2) characterization of the Demand-Side Resource (DSR) portfolio ? projected electricity and demand savings, costs and economic lifetime of a portfolio of energy efficiency (and/or demand response) programs that the utility is planning or considering implementing during the analysis period. The Benefits Calculator also estimates total resource costs and benefits of the DSR portfolio using a forecast of avoided capacity and energy costs. The Benefits Calculator then uses inputs provided in the Utility Characterization to produce a ?business-as usual? base case as well as alternative scenarios that include energy efficiency resources, including the corresponding utility financial budgets required in each case. If a decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism are instituted, the Benefits Calculator model readjusts the utility?s revenue requirement and retail rates accordingly. Finally, for each scenario, the Benefits Calculator produces several metrics that provides insights on how energy efficiency resources, decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism impacts utility shareholders (e.g. overall earnings, return on equity), ratepayers (e.g., average customer bills and rates) and society (e.g. net resource benefits).

  2. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  3. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  4. Financing for Utility Energy Service Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Financing is a significant portion of utility energy service contract (UESC) costs. Experience shows several things the Federal Government can do to get the best value by reducing UESC financial transaction costs and interest.

  5. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann (Ann Arbor, MI); Koren, Yoram (Ann Arbor, MI); Levine, Simon P. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  6. Planning under uncertainty for dynamic collision avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temizer, Selim, 1977-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We approach dynamic collision avoidance problem from the perspective of designing collision avoidance systems for unmanned aerial vehicles. Before unmanned aircraft can fly safely in civil airspace, robust airborne collision ...

  7. Evaluating Utility Costs from Cogeneration Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polsky, M. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )] ( I) c hp c l p where LW is the additional amount of electrica~ a power required for the plant auxiliaries to generate an incremental 1 Ib/hr of fresh steam (electric driven auxiliary equipment). a a h Cl ' ClIp and LW can be determined from...

  8. Impact of Utility Costs on Pinch Designs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Jones, D. H.; Zapata-Suarez, A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in very different optimum designs for a heat exchanger network (HEN) problem. Then, a case study example is presented to demonstrate the impact of fuel and electricity prices on the economic feasibility of pinch-based heat integration and heat pumping...

  9. Impact of Utility Costs on Pinch Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Jones, D. H.; Zapata-Suarez, A.

    EEIIOCI.COI fSlIst'IRtCXI.COl ....tCTJltfC0CI.COf Baw.-srEI?ATIEI/ EaClCl'RI!CIXl!R CIoAB:fU EIlJ7~RB1!B: EDCllVIlICXI. 51 .. ? ? 71 ? ? 43 ? II ? 43 E:IllallCWXI.M EII1 EJlCXI.... 111 111 EllS CXI. ... 40 E4ClII'OUen. fU ZI E41MPO CXl.RB1 III...

  10. Correct Marginal Utility Costs Underwrite Plant Profitability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Robert, W. E.

    for an olefins plant. The base case for this system has excess 65 psig steam which is being condensed. This is quite common for olefins plants after furnace and turbine additions have occurred without a proportional increase in new 65 psig steam demand. Ge... of Step 1 and Step 2 for this analysis are shown iri Figure 1. Ba?? Loads Steam Rates Equipment EfficiencY MW 10001bs/h Boiler Process SteAm Generator 94.0 94.0 312 371 Turbine 1(600/200 9&19) 79.4 Turbine 2 (600/4"HII.abs.Cond)7J. 2 Turbine 3...

  11. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  12. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  13. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

  14. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  15. Economic Impact of Control and Optimization on Industrial Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, D.; Lang, R.

    . They typically represent only 3 to 11% of manufacturing cost and are perceived as an unavoidable cost. However, in an era of heighten global manufacturing competition and world wide reallocation of natural resources, utilities are recognized as a variable cost...

  16. The process of integrated resource planning for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, M.; Hirst, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Yourstone, E. (Yourstone (Evelin), Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper identifies six key issues in utility integrated resource planning that are expected to influence a plan's societal value and discusses the first four, which are related to the planning process. They are: (1) the relative emphasis placed on supply- and demand-side resources throughout the planning process; (2) the breadth of inputs considered during plan preparation from various in-house departments and non-utility interests; (3) the criteria used to select options for resource plans; and (4) the uncertainty analyses used and their application to the resource selection process. A number of opportunities exist for utilities and their regulators to improve the planning process in order to increase the value of the resource plans that are produced. Specifically, utilities and/or their state regulatory agencies can: (1) conduct comprehensive assessments of demand-side management (DSM) resources, avoid unduly restrictive screening methods, and expand data collection efforts concerning current energy-use patterns and existing DSM program performance; (2) increase the involvement of regulators and other interested non-utility parties in the resource planning process through mechanisms such as public meeting and the establishment of technical advisory boards; (3) when evaluating the cost-effectiveness of potential demand-side resources, use the Total Resource Cost Test or Societal Test instead of the more restrictive Ratepayer Impact Test, consider the environmental effects of the resources considered, and examine the effects of the entire mix of resource selection criteria used; and (4) focus uncertainty analysis on key uncertainties over the short-term time horizon and make sure that the results of this analysis are used in resource selection. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Avoidance behavior in a fixed-ratio three free-operant avoidance situation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Thomas Michael

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    discrimination. The results did not lend support to the Conditioned Aversive Temporal Stimuli theory of reinforcement in free-operant avoidance proposed by Anger (1963). The notion that a response-contingent stimulus, in a free-operant avoidance situation... 37 38 40 42 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In discriminative avoidance procedures, a warning signal increases the probability of a response which allows the sub]ect to avoid a noxious stimulus (Kimble, 1961). Reinforcement of this avoidance behavior...

  18. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009

  19. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009 June 2015

  20. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal2009Year JanYear Jan60,941,91656Appendix:April

  1. Study of Possible Applications of Currently Available Building Information Modeling Tools for the Analysis of Initial Costs and Energy Costs for Performing Life Cycle Cost Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherji, Payal Tapandev

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology BLCC Building Life Cycle Cost DOE Department of Energy BIPV Building Integrated Photovoltaic Systems BEES Building for Environmental And Economic Sustainability HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air..., Fee Costs Construction Costs Other Costs Financing Costs Operation Costs (Energy, water, utilities, energy price, energy price projections etc.) Maintenance Costs Initial Costs (Purchase and Acquisition) Owner?s Total Costs Residual...

  2. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  3. Cost of Fuel to General Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the topic of the cost of fuel to general electricity for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  4. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

  5. Congress, NRC mull utility access to FBI criminal files

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ultroska, D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiences at Alabama Power Company and other nuclear utilities have promped a request for institutionalizing security checks of personnel in order to eliminated convicted criminals and drug users. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which could provide FBI criminal history information by submitting fingerprints, does not do so, and would require new legislation to take on that duty. Believing that current malevolent employees can be managed with existing procedures, NRC allows criminal background checks only on prospective employees in order to avoid a negative social impact on personnel. Legislation to transfer criminal histories to nuclear facilities is now pending, and NRC is leaning toward a request for full disclosure, partly because of terrorist threats and partly to save manpower time and costs in reviewing case histories.

  6. BEFORE THE PUBLIC UTILITIES COMMISSION OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA EDISON COMPANY (U 338-E) AND THE UTILITY REFORM NETWORK RECOMMENDING A DEMAND RESPONSE COST Douglass & Liddell The Utility Reform Network On behalf of Ice Energy, Inc. 711 Van Ness Avenue, Suite 350 CALIFORNIA EDISON COMPANY (U 338-E) AND THE UTILITY REFORM NETWORK RECOMMENDING A DEMAND RESPONSE COST

  7. 2013 Cost Estimation of Establishing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    1 2013 Cost Estimation of Establishing a Cider Apple Orchard in Western Washington W A S H I N G factors: · Capital, labor, and natural resources · Crop yield · Cultural practices · Input prices Cost estimations in this enterprise budget also vary depending on the budget's intended use. To avoid

  8. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  9. Light Duty Utility Arm System hot test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.; Conrad, R.B.; Kiebel, G.R.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Task Plan describes the scope of work and cost for implementing a hot test of the Light Duty Utility Arm System in Tank T-106 in September 1996.

  10. Energy Efficiency in Process Plant Utilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, S.

    This article highlights some aspects of utility systems design and operations for energy efficiency. After years of relative stability, the energy costs have risen substantially. Electricity rates vary by the hour and in some cases are tied...

  11. Clark Public Utilities- Residential Weatherization Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loans of up to $15,000 at a 5.25% interest are available through Clark Public Utilities' Weatherization Loan Program. The loans can pay for the average local cost of eligible measures, based on...

  12. A Utility View of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, S. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . S., to move away from natural gas and oil as boiler fuels to coal and nuclear requires substantial time and money, with much of the cost borne by the utilities' customers....

  13. BPA and new public utilities.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the recent increases in electric utility costs and the promises of more increases to come, grassroots groups in the state of Washington have begun to investigate the possibility of...

  14. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities offers incentives to commercial customers which help cover the installation costs of energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling equipment, motors, variable...

  15. Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) Continuously variable...

  16. Anaheim Public Utilities- Low-Interest Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaheim Public Utilities offers low-cost financing for energy efficiency measures through State Assistance Fund for Enterprise, Business and Industrial Development Corporation (SAFE-BIDCO). Under...

  17. Anaheim Public Utilities- Commercial & Industrial New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaheim Public Utilities (APU) offers commercial, industrial, and institutional customers the New Construction Incentives Program to offset construction and installation costs of energy efficient...

  18. Report to the Legislature in Compliance with Public Utilities Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "................................................................................................................................8 DISTRIBUTED GENERATION COSTS AND SAVINGSReport to the Legislature in Compliance with Public Utilities Code Section 910 March 2013 #12...................................................................17 Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP

  19. Anaheim Public Utilities- Green Building and New Construction Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anaheim Public Utilities (APU) offers commercial, industrial, residential, and institutional customers the Green Building Incentives Program to offset construction, installation and upgrade costs...

  20. A Utility Regulator's Guide to Data Access for Commercial Building...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This guide offers policy options and considerations to state utility commissions in providing access to energy use data to help commercial customers manage energy costs through...

  1. What does a negawatt really cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use data from ten utility conservation programs to calculate the cost per kWh of electricity saved -- the cost of a "negawatthour" -- resulting from these programs. We first compute the life-cycle cost per kWh saved ...

  2. COMM-OPINION-ORDER, 76 FERC 61,347, Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open-Access Non-discriminatory Transmission Services by Public Utilities, Docket No. RM95-8-000, Recovery of Stranded Costs by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    COMM-OPINION-ORDER, 76 FERC ¶61,347, Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open-Access Non Incorporated Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open-Access Non-discriminatory Transmission Services Utilities, Docket No. RM94-7-001 [62,646] [¶61,347] Promoting Wholesale Competition Through Open-Access Non

  3. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon West Power Project construction of the power infrastructure at Grand Canyon West. Develop the maintenance and operations capacity necessary to support utility operations. Develop rates for customers on the Grand Canyon West “mini-grid” sufficient for the tribal utility to be self-sustaining. Establish an implementation strategy for tribal utility service at Grand Canyon West Objective 2 - Develop a strategy for tribal utility takeover of electric service on the Reservation. Perform a cost analysis of Reservation electrical service. Develop an implementation strategy for tribal takeover of Reservation electrical service. Examine options and costs associated with integration of the Tribe’s wind resources.

  4. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  5. Benefits to BPA will equal or exceed costs for the Extended Block...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to BPA associated with the DSI Service. Tangible benefits include avoided transmission costs to BPA's power marketing function that would otherwise be incurred absent the sales to...

  6. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Utility Partners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) utility partners are eager to work closely with Federal agencies to help achieve energy management goals.

  7. Home Health and Informal Care Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Home Health and Informal Care Utilization and Costs Over Time in Alzheimer's Disease Carolyn W. Zhu, NY 10468 (E-mail: Carolyn.zhu@mssm.edu). Home Health Care Services Quarterly, Vol. 27(1) 2008, and (3) estimate possible interdependence of home health and informal care utilization. Methods

  8. Utility programs for substation diagnostics development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is a brief overview of the opening remarks of the utility panel. These remarks developed a number of interesting substation diagnostic activities and concepts in which the electric utilities are engaged and outlined the considerations which must accompany development of diagnostic sensors and systems. These area include transformer diagnostics, circuit breaker diagnostics, and testing/cost of diagnostic systems.

  9. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This...

  10. Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the Nationwide Inventory Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on...

  11. Collision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    ; compute distances between the obstacles and the robot; optionally project the results in the CartesianCollision Avoidance in Depth Space I. INTRODUCTION When humans and robots share the same work space, safety is the primary issue of concern [8]. Secondary but not negligible is to prevent robot damages due

  12. Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency Programs Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency Programs gasutilityeewebinarnov2...

  13. NET PRED UTILITY

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002602IBMPC00 Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility  http://omics.pnl.gov/software/NETPredictionUtility.php 

  14. Avoided crossing resonances: structural and dynamical aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Lizuain; E. Hernandez-Concepcion; J. G. Muga

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine structural and dynamical properties of quantum resonances associated with an avoided crossing and identify the parameter shifts where these properties attain maximal or extreme values, first at a general level, and then for a two-level system coupled to a harmonic oscillator, of the type commonly found in quantum optics. Finally the results obtained are exemplified and applied to optimize the fidelity and speed of quantum gates in trapped ions.

  15. Purdue Solar Energy Utilization Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue] [Purdue

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to establish and set-up a laboratory that will facilitate research and development of new low-cost and high-efficiency solar energy utilization technologies at Purdue University. The outcome will help spur the creation of solar energy start-up companies and eventually a solar energy industry in Indiana that can help fulfill the growing national demand for solar energy.

  16. Ecient trading strategies with transaction costs Elys JOUINI,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , an important feature of our analysis is the setting of multidimensional model of the market as well as utility, utility maximization, transaction costs, utility price. Introduction We consider a general multivariate...nite probability space, where preferences of agents are repre- sented with the help of a multidimensional utility

  17. Utility Locating in the DOE Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Scott; Gail Heath

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some advances have been made in utility locating in recent years and standards have been recently published to try and categorize the level of information known about the utility in the subsurface. At the same time some characterization about the level of effort or technology in the geophysicist approach to utility locating may be generalized. The DOE environment poses some added difficulties and this presentation covers these issues, costs and the technical approach that has been developed at the INEEL to prevent utility hits and how it fits into the generalized classification of effort.

  18. Utility Conservation Programs: A Regulatory and Design Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norland, D. L.; Wolf, J. L.

    , it provides that a conservation program may be implemented as long as the utility's revenue requirements (the total costs to the utility of providing electric services) do not rise over what they would have been in the absence of a utility conservation... is to achieve the greatest reduction in revenue requirements (to provide electric services at least cost to society), a utility would never pay an incentive for an in dividual ECO greater than the marginal cost it saves. If it offered incentives greater...

  19. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  20. A New Approach for Assessing the Costs of Living with Wildlife in Developing Countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, William R.; Larson, Douglas M.; Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utilize the contingent valuation method (CVM) to obtain ato use contingent valuation methods to measure the costs to

  1. It's SO Easy Being Green: Low and No Cost Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Megan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table of Contents Mobile Carts PVC Pipe Glass Syringe Clear® Utility Trolley™ Cost $50 PVC Pipe Problem Solution LocalHardware Store 1”, 3ft PVC Pipe Cost $2 Glass Syringe

  2. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, L.; Porter, K.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes in summary fashion some present transmission cost allocation methods, especially as this relates to the development of utility-scale renewable power sources.

  3. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation WorldofAutotuneAvianAvoid Nuisance

  4. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  5. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  6. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 1 #12;OverviewOverview · Cost components · Estimation of costsEstimation of costs · Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Cost

  7. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  8. Pattern avoidance for alternating permutations and reading words of tableaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Joel Brewster

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a variety of questions related to pattern avoidance in alternating permutations and generalizations thereof. We give bijective enumerations of alternating permutations avoiding patterns of length 3 and 4, of ...

  9. Helping Users Avoid Bugs in GUI Applications Amir Michail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    by users. Anyone who has encountered a bug will likely try to avoid it in the future. But such a manual ap, the manual approach to bug avoidance requires the user to figure out the circumstances under which a bugHelping Users Avoid Bugs in GUI Applications Amir Michail University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW

  10. Helping Users Avoid Bugs in GUI Applications Amir Michail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    . The idea of avoiding bugs is not new: it is already done manually by users. Anyone who has encountered, the manual approach to bug avoidance does not make it easy for users to learn from other users. For exam- pleHelping Users Avoid Bugs in GUI Applications Amir Michail School of Computer Science

  11. The Sacramento power utility experience in solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smeloff, E. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), CA (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the development of three solar power technologies for use in Sacramento, California is provided. A central receiver power plant, Solar One, is being converted to a molten salt design with thermal energy storage by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and six other utilities. SMUD is also investigating a solar dish/sterling engine system and technologies to reduce photovoltaic conversion costs.

  12. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  13. Utilization of a fuel cell power plant for the capture and conversion of gob well gas. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybylic, A.R.; Haynes, C.D.; Haskew, T.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study has been made to determine if a 200 kW fuel cell power plant operating on variable quality coalbed methane can be placed and successfully operated at the Jim Walter Resources No. 4 mine located in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The purpose of the demonstration is to investigate the effects of variable quality (50 to 98% methane) gob gas on the output and efficiency of the power plant. To date, very little detail has been provided concerning the operation of fuel cells in this environment. The fuel cell power plant will be located adjacent to the No. 4 mine thermal drying facility rated at 152 M British thermal units per hour. The dryer burns fuel at a rate of 75,000 cubic feet per day of methane and 132 tons per day of powdered coal. The fuel cell power plant will provide 700,000 British thermal units per hour of waste heat that can be utilized directly in the dryer, offsetting coal utilization by approximately 0.66 tons per day and providing an avoided cost of approximately $20 per day. The 200 kilowatt electrical power output of the unit will provide a utility cost reduction of approximately $3,296 each month. The demonstration will be completely instrumented and monitored in terms of gas input and quality, electrical power output, and British thermal unit output. Additionally, real-time power pricing schedules will be applied to optimize cost savings. 28 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  15. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  16. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  17. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  18. An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell: a model of a central utility plant.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This central utilities plant model details the major elements of a central utilities plant for several classes of users. The model enables the analyst to select optional, cost effective, plant features that are appropriate to a fuel cell application. These features permit the future plant owner to exploit all of the energy produced by the fuel cell, thereby reducing the total cost of ownership. The model further affords the analyst an opportunity to identify avoided costs of the fuel cell-based power plant. This definition establishes the performance and capacity information, appropriate to the class of user, to support the capital cost model and the feasibility analysis. It is detailed only to the depth required to identify the major elements of a fuel cell-based system. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

  19. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas "super-utility"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    all-in, first-year 2012 cost for wind energy under a powerO&M) costs for utility-sponsored wind and biofuel projectsovernight capital cost of the wind facility and the biofuel

  20. Avoid stainless steel failures in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, J.P.; Schillmoller, C.M.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preventing pitting and localized corrosion is the key to success where low maintenance and high reliability are rime considerations in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) designs. Knowing when to use a stainless steel, and when not to, is crucial. Operating parameters and environmental factors greatly affect alloy performance, especially pH, temperature, and chloride and oxygen levels. Failures of stainless steels can be avoided by understanding their limits in light of these variables. This article will focus on the capabilities of Types 316L, 317L, 317LM, 317LMN, 904L, and 6% Mo stainless steels and their applications, as well as provide details on unique combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the 22% Cr duplex and 25% Cr super-duplex stainless steels in acid chloride systems. Guidelines will be presented on methods to prevent intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and pitting and crevice corrosion, and what process steps can be taken to assure reasonable performance of marginal alloy selections. Emphasis will be on the lime/limestone wet scrubbing process and the quencher/absorber.

  1. Self-avoiding worm-like chain model for dsDNA loop formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaroslav Pollak; Sarah Goldberg; Roee Amit

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute for the first time the effects of excluded volume on the probability for double-stranded DNA to form a loop. We utilize a Monte-Carlo algorithm for generation of large ensembles of self- avoiding worm-like chains, which are used to compute the J-factor for varying lengthscales. In the entropic regime, we confirm the scaling-theory prediction of a power-law drop off of -1.92, which is significantly stronger than the -1.5 power-law predicted by the non-self-avoiding worm-like chain model. In the elastic regime, we find that the angle-independent end-to-end chain distribution is highly anisotropic. This anisotropy, combined with the excluded volume constraints, lead to an increase in the J-factor of the self-avoiding worm-like chain by about half an order of magnitude relative to its non-self-avoiding counterpart. This increase could partially explain the anomalous results of recent cyclization experiments, in which short dsDNA molecules were found to have an increased propensity to form a loop.

  2. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report IX. Operating cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating costs are normally broken into three major categories: variable costs including raw materials, annual catalyst and chemicals, and utilities; semi-variable costs including labor and labor related cost; and fixed or capital related charges. The raw materials and utilities costs are proportional to production; however, a small component of utilities cost is independent of production. The catalyst and chemicals costs are also normally proportional to production. Semi-variable costs include direct labor, maintenance labor, labor supervision, contract maintenance, maintenance materials, payroll overheads, operation supplies, and general overhead and administration. Fixed costs include local taxes, insurance and the time value of the capital investment. The latter charge often includes the investor's anticipated return on investment. In determining operating costs for financial analysis, return on investment (ROI) and depreciation are not treated as cash operating costs. These costs are developed in the financial analysis; the annual operating cost determined here omits ROI and depreciation. Project Annual Operating Costs are summarized in Table 1. Detailed supporting information for the cost elements listed below is included in the following sections: Electrical, catalyst and chemicals, and salaries and wages.

  3. Utility Roles in Preserving the Industrial Base

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    While the price of energy may have stabilized for the moment, the impact of several years of rate increases in the cost of energy, materials, and labor has made American industry re-evaluate its operations. Utilities serving clusters of industrial...

  4. The Industry/Utility Interface - An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, D. E.

    For many years, starting in the Jate forties, a number of different factors combined to make self-generation of electrical energy cost-prohibitive except for a few very large users of electrical service. The nation's utilities were virtually a true...

  5. IGSHPA 2013 The Orca Geothermal Utility Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for 30+ years ­ Started designing and installing geothermal in early 90's ­ IGSHPA member since 1990'sIGSHPA 2013 The Orca Geothermal Utility Model Removing the Initial Cost Barrier October 10th, 2013 #12;The Orca Team · Stuart Yanow, P.Eng. CGD ­ Vice President ­ Mechanical engineer with 13+ years

  6. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  7. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

  8. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or body of most office and home electrical products (please see the picture to the left). Holiday lights may have the UL marking in red or green instead of the universal black. A red UL mark indicates the product is approved for outdoor as well as indoor service. The green UL mark indicates the product is only to be used indoors. A small number of home electrical products may bear an Interteck (ETL) approval. This label is also acceptable. An Interteck label includes black print on a white background bearing the circular ETL logo. Most manufacturers are proud of their products and strive to gain name recognition as well as foster repeat business. This is not true of counterfeiters. The very first thing most counterfeiters try to do is make their products untraceable. Their products may bear the nation of origin but that is all. This is a common practice with metal components such as pipe fittings and flanges. This is also true of hoisting and rigging equipment such as shackles, turnbuckles and chain. Sadly, this has also occurred with the purchase of some safety equipment such as arc-flash retardant coveralls. Learn the national standards associated with products you are purchasing. Clearly specify these requirements on the procurements you make.

  9. Avista Utilities- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho does not have a statewide net-metering policy. However, each of the state's three investor-owned utilities -- Avista Utilities, Idaho Power and Rocky Mountain Power -- has developed a net...

  10. Mississippi Public Utility Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mississippi Public Utility Act is relevant to any project that plans to generate energy. It requires that a utility must first obtain a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN)...

  11. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  12. GSA- Utility Interconnection Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  13. Sustained utility implementation of photovoltaics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, D.E.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SMUD is a leader in utility grid-connected applications of PVs with the world`s largest distributed PV power system. SMUD is continuing its ambitious sustained, orderly development (SOD) commercialization effort of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program is aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system, develop market and long-term business strategies and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost-reductions necessary for PV to be cost-competitive in these applications by about the year 2002. This report documents the progress made in the 1994/1995 SMUD PV Program under this contract and the PV projects partially supported by this contract. This contract has been considered a Pre-cursor to the TEAM-UP program implemented the following year.

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    International Conference onFly Ash Disposal and Utilization,onJanuary 20-22, 1998, New Delhi, India. COAL ASH and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;COAL ASH GENERATIONANDUTILIZATION: A REVIEW and utilization of coal ash in many parts of the world. The utilization potential for coal ash generated from

  15. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen.

  16. The Strong Case for Thermal Energy Storage and Utility Incentives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCannon, L. W.

    construction costs, more stringent regulations, and increasing environmental constraints regarding development of new generating facilities. As the thermal cooling storage technology has matured, more and more utilities are recognizing that widespread use...

  17. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  18. Clark Public Utilities- Residential Heat Pump Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clark Public Utilities offers loans of up to $20,000 for air-source heat pumps and $30,000 for geothermal heat pumps. Loans will help customers cover the up-front cost of installing a highly...

  19. avoidable hospitalizations evidence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    risk was estimated using Keogh, Scott 5 Title: Water Quality Violations and Avoidance Behavior: Evidence from Bottled Water Consumption Authors: CiteSeer Summary: Abstract (100...

  20. avoiding neptunium production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. 2 Specification Risk Analysis: Avoiding Product Performance Deviations through an FMEA-Based Method MIT - DSpace Summary: This thesis investigates the potential application...

  1. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Value Areas Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided Deforestation of Tropical Rainforests on Privately-owned Lands in...

  2. Calculating Costs for Quality of Security Service Evdoxia Spyropoulou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    utilization costs. The estimated costs can be fed into a resource management system to facilitate the process the design of the QoSS costing demonstration, which we believe is suitable for incorporation into a resource resource availability. As part of the process of estimating efficient task schedules, the RMS must balance

  3. Utility downsizings pose a dilemma for regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.S.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A utility's job-generating potential is critical to most local economies. At the same time, however, high utility employment levels maintain an upward pressure on rates, an effect that does not escape regulators' notice, especially during an economic slowdown. More than on regulator has been heard to say that hard-hit ratepayers should not be called on to support what some may seen as a bloated utility workforce scaled to better times. To complicate things even more, popular cost-cutting goals that include improving productivity and relying more on conservation could mean fewer jobs, at least at the utility. What's more, utility rates play a significant role in how local industries and businesses respond to an economic slowdown. This interplay of economic forces has complicated the ratemaking process. The size of a utility's workforce is an issue of growing significance in rate hearings. Forecasts for test-period salary and wage expenses are less reliable. Early retirement plans promise future savings for ratepayers, but at a cost today.

  4. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  5. Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    turbines, and other auxiliary equipment * Electrical and instrumentation and control: electrical transformers, switchgear, motor control centers, switchyards, distributed...

  6. Can Solar PV Rebates Be Funded with Utility Cost Savings?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    per kW AC, up to 5,000 Retail Net Metering Replaced Retail Net Metering with Wholesale Net Metering Credit at Avg. Monthly Spot Market Energy Price Rebate: 10...

  7. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation for the Sustainable Nanomaterials Workshop by Oak Ridge National Laboratory held on June 26, 2012

  8. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanyS Light DutyDecade Year-01)

  9. Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1997

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear21CompanyS Light DutyDecade Year-01)7

  10. New, Cost-Competitive Solar Plants for Electric Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForumEngines |NewState Energy ResearchFuelingAmonix to

  11. Rising Electricity Costs: A Challenge For Consumers, Regulators, And Utilities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06Retail

  12. Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year69,023USWNCFeet)

  13. Utility Cost Calculation Example? | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLCEnergy)PeteforsythUtah/WindQuestionnaire Thank

  14. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLos Angeles County,Energia10Inc.

  15. Utilizing Bacteria for Sustainable Manufacturing of Low-Cost Nanoparticles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59 FAXFactEnergyEnergyVOCs in

  16. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs. Energy Efficiency Incentives Analysis risks of under-Shareholder Risk/Reward Incentive Mechanism for Energyof the energy efficiency effort and the risk to the utility

  17. Carrots for Utilities: Providing Financial Returns for Utility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carrots for Utilities: Providing Financial Returns for Utility Investments in Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carrots for Utilities:...

  18. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    6 Revised "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2006 Revised Under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory...

  19. The Self-Avoiding Walk: A Brief Survey Gordon Slade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slade, Gordon

    . Keywords. Self-avoiding walks, critical exponents, renormalisation group, lace expan- sion. 1. Self using the renormalisation group and the lace expansion, respectively. An n-step self-avoiding walk from, Proceedings of the 33rd SPA Conference in Berlin, 2009, to be published in the EMS Series of Congress Reports

  20. AVOIDING ILLEGAL STATES IN PSEUDORANDOM TESTING OF DIGITAL CIRCUITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Center for Reliable Computing TECHNICAL REPORT AVOIDING ILLEGAL STATES IN PSEUDORANDOM TESTING can have. In this paper, we present two new techniques for detecting the illegal combinations of logic project), and by NSF under contract number CSL- FY00-28. Imprimatur: #12;Page ii AVOIDING ILLEGAL STATES

  1. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  2. Utility Rebates for ENERGY STAR Appliances: Are They Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cost. The World Energy Outlook 2009, published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), highlightsUtility Rebates for ENERGY STAR Appliances: Are They Effective? Souvik Datta Sumeet Gulati CEPE;UTILITY REBATES FOR ENERGY STAR APPLIANCES: ARE THEY EFFECTIVE? SOUVIK DATTA ETH Z¨urich SUMEET GULATI

  3. Utilizing Mobility to Minimize the Total Communication and Motion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostofi, Yasamin

    Utilizing Mobility to Minimize the Total Communication and Motion Energy Consumption of a Robotic costs. However, simplified path loss models are utilized to model the communication channels. In Yan Operation Yuan Yan and Yasamin Mostofi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University

  4. Utility Marketing Strategies and Pricing Trends (An Overview)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, S.

    utility's costs and provide a sound fiscal footing for the utility, and yet still be attractive to industry and encourage the economic development of the region. However, lower rates are simply not the only answer in a sound marketing strategy. Rather than...

  5. Cogeneration: The Need for Utility-Industry Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limaye, D. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in industrial cogeneration pro jects. Utilities viewed cogeneration as competition and were concerned about the loss of their base load. In a recent survey of utilities, conducted by EPRI as a part of case studies of industrial cogen eration (3), utilities.... EVALUATION OF COOPERATIVE EFFORTS In a current EPRI project to evaluate cogenera tion alternatives, Synergic Resources Corporation is developing a computerized evaluation tool to assess the costs and benefits of alternative insti tutional arrangements...

  6. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  7. Photovoltaics for demand-side management utility markets: A utility/customer partnership approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, J.; Letendre, S.; Govindarajalu, C.; Wang, Y.D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy; Nigro, R. [Delmarva Power and Light Co., Wilmington, DE (United States); Wallace, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems located at customer sites can be used to meet utility needs for demand-side management (DSM) applications. PV-DSM can also represent a high-value intermediate market for PV in the utility sector. Maximum value for PV in DSM applications can be achieved by incorporating a dispatching capability to PV systems (through the addition of storage). This enables utilities to evaluate PV systems as a peak-shaving technology. To date, peak-shaving has been the higher value DSM application for US utilities. This analysis of the value of dispatchable PV-DSM systems indicates that small-scale, customer-sited systems are approaching competitive cost levels in several regions of the US that have favorable load matching and peak demand pricing characteristics. This paper presents the results for PV-DSM systems located within the service territories of five case study utilities.

  8. How to avoid common mistakes in energy efficiency projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, J. [E-Cube, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of nearly 20 years in the energy efficiency industry, the author has participated in a wide variety of projects. These projects included analyses of buildings and industrial processes to identify energy efficiency measures and estimate their cost-effectiveness, as well as analyses of energy efficiency measures that were implemented to estimate how much energy was actually saved. This work was carried out at the behest of utility energy conservation departments, properly managers, and energy service companies. Based on this experience, the author has identified a list of 14 common mistakes that are frequently repeated during energy efficiency projects: (1) inadequate definition of purpose; (2) selection of inappropriate analysis tools; (3) poor data collection practices; (4) inadequate definition of baseline for savings; (5) inadequate reporting; (6) insufficient analyst involvement in the design process; (7) limited or inappropriate solutions; (8) unnecessarily constrained economic analysis; (9) neglect of interactions between building systems; (10) loss of consistency during the design and installation phases; (11) failure to verify and report on results; (12) failure to test unfamiliar technologies; (13) pool planning for monitoring exercises; and (14) inadequate operation and maintenance of efficiency measures. These are discussed within.

  9. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  10. Utility Data Collection Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the utility data collection service and is given at the FUPWG 2006 Spring meeting, held on May 3-4, 2006 in Atlanta, Georgia.

  11. Joint Electrical Utilities (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities may establish utilities to acquire existing electric generating facilities or distribution systems. Acquisition, in this statute, is defined as city involvement, and includes purchase, lease...

  12. Utility Regulation (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission enforces regulations in this legislation that apply to all individuals, corporations, companies, and partnerships that may own, operate, manage, or control...

  13. Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

  14. Quantifying the system balancing cost when wind energy is incorporated into electricity generation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Issaeva, Natalia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incorporation of wind energy into the electricity generation system requires a detailed analysis of wind speed in order to minimize system balancing cost and avoid a significant mismatch between supply and demand. Power ...

  15. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    combustion by-products #12;3 generated by using both conventional and clean-coal technologies. A clean-coal that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocksCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Fellow at the UWM-CBU. His research interests include the use of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used in management, disposal, and sale of coal-combustion by-Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF UNDER-UTILIZED COAL- COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal fly ash, coal bottom ash, and used foundry sand in concrete, bricks, blocks, and8 paving stones, Wisconsin. She is involved in management,11 disposal, and sale of coal-combustion by-products. She alsoCenter for By-Products Utilization UNDER-UTILIZED COAL-COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE ROADWAY

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS-fueled plants, particularly use of eastern coals, has lead to the use of clean coal and using advanced sulfur dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the concept

  3. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  4. avoid dangerous climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Avoiding dangerous climate change by inducing technological progress Geosciences Websites Summary: of...

  5. avoiding dangerous climate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Avoiding dangerous climate change by inducing technological progress Geosciences Websites Summary: of...

  6. Title Slide "Avoiding expensive IT project and product failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatton, Les

    Title Slide "Avoiding expensive IT project and product failures In 21st century healthcare and potential recall of 1 million of its best-selling Camry and Lexus ES300 sedans because of reports

  7. avoid vocal errors: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Error Avoiding Quantum Codes Quantum Physics (arXiv) Summary: The existence is proved of a class of open quantum...

  8. Hazard Avoidance in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivakumar, Raghupathy

    Hazard Avoidance in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks Ramanuja Vedantham Zhenyun Zhuang Prof [Akyildiz'04] Network Low bandwidth (Hazards Hazards undesirable changes in the environment Reason for hazards Different latencies For different sensors and actors

  9. Autonomous robotic wheelchair with collision-avoidance navigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, Pin-Chun

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate a robotic wheelchair moving in an unknown environment with collision-avoidance navigation. A real-time path-planning algorithm was implemented by detecting the range to obstacles and by tracking...

  10. Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

  11. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. INTRODUCTION Increasing cost of construction has-situ concrete strength can reduce construction time and cost by efficient movement of forms. Furthermore it also Milwaukee, WI 53201 Synopsis: The maturity method computes maturity of the concrete as an index to predict

  13. A utility`s perspective of the market for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.R. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I believe, in the short-term U. S. market that IGCC`s primary competition is, natural gas-fired combined cycle technology. I believe that in order for IGCC to compete on a commercial basis, that natural gas prices have to rise relative to coal prices, and that the capital cost of the technology must come down. While this statement may seem to be somewhat obvious, it raises two interesting points. The first is that while the relative pricing of natural gas and coal is not generally within the technology supplier`s control, the capital cost is. The reduction of capital cost represents a major challenge for the technology suppliers in order for this technology to become commercialized. The second point is that the improvements being achieved with IGCC efficiencies probably won`t help it outperform the effects of natural gas pricing. This is due to the fact that the combined cycle portion of the IGCC technology is experiencing the most significant improvements in efficiency. I do see, however, a significant advantage for IGCC technology compared to conventional pulverized coal-fired units. As IGCC efficiencies continue to improve, combined with their environmentally superior performance, I believe that IGCC will be the ``technology of choice`` for utilities that install new coal-fired generation. We have achieved economic justification of our project by virtue of the DOE`s funding of $120 million awarded in Round III of their Clean Coal Technology Program. This program provides the bridge between current technology economics and those of the future. And Tampa Electric is pleased to be taking a leadership position in furthering the IGCC knowledge base.

  14. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  15. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  16. On-Site Diesel Generation- How You Can Reduce Your Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, D.

    Interruptible power rates, Utility special rate negotiations, and the emergence of a spot electrical power market all can lead to lower industrial energy costs. The installation of low cost on-site diesel powered generation, or the proposed...

  17. Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a 1...

  18. A Utility-based Multi-copy Forwarding Algorithm in Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    cost. In this paper, we propose the first multi-copy utility-based opportunistic forwarding algorithm to improve the overall utility representing a user preferred trade-off between delay and forwarding cost so-space satellite networks, underwater acoustic buoy networks, and many dedicate networks for developing regions

  19. Trends in Gulf Coast Power Supply, Demand, and Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, L. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate' ? Granting industrial rate increases above cost-o" service level ' ? Delays in granting rate increases. For each utility company, we examine past history a assess the regulatory climate to predict the likely effect these issues. Power...

  20. Low Cost, High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Objectives · Develop Enabling Technology for Low Cost Production of Hydrogen for Vehicles - natural gas - photovoltaic or wind power utilized when available - up to 80 MPa (11,600 psi) - residential or filling station

  1. Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Incentive Cost Recovery Rule for Nuclear Power Generation establishes guidelines for any utility seeking to develop a nuclear power plant in Louisiana. The rule clarifies, as well as...

  2. Energy (Cost) Savings by Zero Discharge in Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J. V.; Gardiner, W. M.; Harris, T. G.; Puckorius, P. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -practiced, successful treatment procedures. The effects and history of corrosion and scale inhibitors, as well as other treatment chemicals, have been evaluated for numerous plants utilizing zero blowdown, and a summation of this knowledge is presented here. The cost...

  3. NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data - Datasets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data...

  4. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  5. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  6. Exploring the Dynamic Costs of Process-aware Information Systems through Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Exploring the Dynamic Costs of Process-aware Information Systems through Simulation Bela Mutschler systems, case handling systems) is associated with high costs. Though cost evaluation has received utilizes si- mulation models for investigating costs related to PAIS engineering projects. We motivate

  7. THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MILWAUKEE FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (INDIRECT) COSTS POLICY Facilities and Administrative (Indirect) costs are real costs that provide reimbursement for actual or contract. The costs result from shared services such as libraries, plant operation and maintenance, utility

  8. Human-Data Based Cost of Bipedal Robotic Walking Aaron D. Ames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, Aaron

    Human-Data Based Cost of Bipedal Robotic Walking Aaron D. Ames Mechanical Engineering Texas A@eecs.berkeley.edu ABSTRACT This paper proposes a cost function constructed from hu- man data, the human-based cost, which is used to gauge the "human-like"nature of robotic walking. This cost function is constructed by utilizing

  9. Integrated Ice Storage/Sprinkler HVAC System Sharply Cuts Energy Costs and Air-Distribution First Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated ice thermal storage/sprinkler HVAC systems developed and applied by the author in several commercial applications shift a major portion of electric utility demand to cheaper off-peak hours, while also reducing significantly the first cost...

  10. Impact of Utility Costs on the Economics of Energy Cost Reduction & Conservation Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    This paper summarizes some key results obtained from an EPRI funded study the main objective of which was to investigate the principal economic and technical factors that influence the energy related investment strategy of industrial site operators...

  11. Impact of Utility Costs on the Economics of Energy Cost Reduction & Conservation Technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Chao, Y. T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes some key results obtained from an EPRI funded study the main objective of which was to investigate the principal economic and technical factors that influence the energy related investment strategy ...

  12. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  13. Public Utilities Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act aims to make energy services in the state reliable and efficient, while preserving the quality if the environment. It states the duties of public utilities in terms of accounts and reports...

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DRAFT REPORT CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS-MILWAUKEE #12;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS Progress Report by Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

  15. Public Utilities (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapter 366 of the Florida Statutes governs the operation of public utilities, and includes a section pertaining to cogeneration and small power production (366.051). This section establishes the...

  16. Cogeneration - A Utility Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogeneration has become an extremely popular subject when discussing conservation and energy saving techniques. One of the key factors which effect conservation is the utility viewpoint on PURPA and cogeneration rule making. These topics...

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    subbituminous and lignite coals. It is anticipated that increased number of coal- fired plants will utilize subbituminous and lignite coals to reduce sulfur-related emissions. Some correlation exists between chemical

  18. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  19. Utility and Industrial Partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sashihara, T. F.

    In the past decade, many external forces have shocked both utilities and their large industrial customers into seeking more effective ways of coping and surviving. One such way is to develop mutually beneficial partnerships optimizing the use...

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Products Utilization E-mail: ymchun@uwm.edu and F. D. Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute 5776 Coal, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. 4 Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute

  1. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  2. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All...

  3. Utility Metering- AGL Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Spring 2013 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses AGL Resources metering, including interruptible rate customers, large users, and meeting federal metering goals.

  4. Actinide Partitioning-Transmutation Program Final Report. V. Preconceptual designs and costs of partitioning facilities and shipping casks (appendix 3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Appendix contains cost estimate documents for the Fuels Reprocessing Plant Waste Treatment Facility. Plant costs are summarized by Code of Accounts and by Process Function. Costs contribution to each account are detailed. Process equipment costs are detailed for each Waste Treatment Process. Service utility costs are also summarized and detailed.

  5. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  6. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  7. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  8. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  9. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2008 Under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978...

  10. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2009 Under Title I, Sec. 102(c) of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies...

  11. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  12. A Probability Theory Based Price Determination Framework for Utility Companies in an Oligopolistic Energy Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    non-cooperative utility companies that offer time-of-use dependent energy prices to energy consumers to determine the energy price for utility companies in an oligopolistic energy market. At the beginning of each to minimize the expected energy cost. The energy pricing competition among utility companies forms an n

  13. Coal contracting: Lessons utilities are learning from the pricing of their services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lively, M.B.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The lessons that electric and gas utilities are learning from the pricing of their services are discussed. The utilities will have accountants look at their operations, determine quantities and costs, and set prices so that the quantities sold will produce revenue equal to costs, or even greater than costs so the company can make a profit. The demand side of the business and the diversification going on in the industry are described.

  14. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

  15. EUV lithography cost of ownership analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1995-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of fabricating state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) has been increasing and it will likely be economic rather than technical factors that ultimately limit the progress of ICs toward smaller devices. It is estimated that lithography currently accounts for approximately one-third the total cost of fabricating modem ICs({sup 1}). It is expected that this factor will be fairly stable for the forseeable future, and as a result, any lithographic process must be cost-effective before it can be considered for production. Additionally, the capital equipment cost for a new fabrication facility is growing at an exponential rate (2); it will soon require a multibillion dollar investment in capital equipment alone to build a manufacturing facility. In this regard, it is vital that any advanced lithography candidate justify itself on the basis of cost effectiveness. EUV lithography is no exception and close attention to issues of wafer fabrication costs have been a hallmark of its early history. To date, two prior cost analyses have been conducted for EUV lithography (formerly called {open_quotes}Soft X-ray Projection Lithography{close_quotes}). The analysis by Ceglio, et. al., provided a preliminary system design, set performance specifications and identified critical technical issues for cost control. A follow-on analysis by Early, et.al., studied the impact of issues such as step time, stepper overhead, tool utilization, escalating photoresist costs and limited reticle usage on wafer exposure costs. This current study provides updated system designs and specifications and their impact on wafer exposure costs. In addition, it takes a first cut at a preliminary schematic of an EUVL fabrication facility along with an estimate of the capital equipment costs for such a facility.

  16. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas "super-utility"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    first-year 2012 cost for wind energy under a power purchasecosts, we assumed that the super-utility had a preference for wind energy.Cost Study of the 2015 Wind Challenge: An Assessment of Wind Energy

  17. Utility View of Risk Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bickham, J.

    This paper will address a utility perspective in regard to risk assessment, reliability, and impact on the utility system. Discussions will also include the critical issues for utilities when contracting for energy and capacity from cogenerators...

  18. Benchmarking Variable Cost Performance in an Industrial Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, J. F.; Bailey, W. F.

    " of utilities exported from the power plant to the actual cost of the fuel and electricity required to produce them, generating a single number or "index." Variable cost performance is benchmarked by comparing the index from one period of time to the index...

  19. Electric Power Costs in Texas in 1985 and 1990

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, J. B.; White, D. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    since utilities in Texas will be using a mix of fuels. This paper analyzes the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power, out-of-state coal, in-state lignite, fuel oil, natural gas, geothermal, and solar power. These costs are then used...

  20. Distribution of the spacing between two adjacent avoided crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manabu Machida; Keiji Saito

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the frequency at which avoided crossings appear in an energy level structure when an external field is applied to a quantum chaotic system. The distribution of the spacing in the parameter between two adjacent avoided crossings is investigated. Using a random matrix model, we find that the distribution of these spacings is well fitted by a power-law distribution for small spacings. The powers are 2 and 3 for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble and Gaussian unitary ensemble, respectively. We also find that the distributions decay exponentially for large spacings. The distributions in concrete quantum chaotic systems agree with those of the random matrix model.

  1. Serial stimuli in the acquisition of discriminated avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildbrand, Mary Kathleen

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SERIAL STINULI 1N THE ACQUISITION OF DISCRIMINATED AVOIDANCE A Thesis by NARY KATHLEEN HILDBRAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 6 N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1971 Ma)or Sub)ect: Psychology SERIAL STIMUKX IN THE AOgUISITION OF DISCRIMINATED AVOIDANCE A Thesis by Approved as to style and content by: (Chairmen of ommitte d of Department) ber) ber) (Member) AnSust 1971 ABSTRACT Serial Stimuli...

  2. Utility Power Plant Construction (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute requires a certificate of necessity from the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission for the construction, purchase, or lease of an electricity generation facility by a public utility.

  3. GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

  4. BBEE Public Utility Conference Call

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BBEE Public Utility Conference Call May 19, 2011 - Summary Summer Goodwin, BPA, welcomed public utility representative participants, asked them to introduce themselves, and...

  5. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far.

  6. Between-sex Variation in Running Speed and a Potential Cost of Leg Autotomy in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Christopher A.

    Between-sex Variation in Running Speed and a Potential Cost of Leg Autotomy in the Wolf Spider of losing a leg is a reduction in burst running speed, which may affect prey capture and predator avoidance differed in either sprint speed or the potential cost of leg loss. Autotomy was fairly common in the field

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Infrapopliteal Drug-Eluting Stents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: katsanos@med.upatras.gr; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Siablis, Dimitris [Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Greece)] [Patras University Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology, School of Medicine (Greece)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    IntroductionThere are no cost-utility data about below-the-knee placement of drug-eluting stents. The authors determined the cost-effectiveness of infrapopliteal drug-eluting stents for critical limb ischemia (CLI) treatment. The event-free individual survival outcomes defined by the absence of any major events, including death, major amputation, and target limb repeat procedures, were reconstructed on the basis of two published infrapopliteal series. The first included spot Bail-out use of Sirolimus-eluting stents versus bare metal stents after suboptimal balloon angioplasty (Bail-out SES).The second was full-lesion Primary Everolimus-eluting stenting versus plain balloon angioplasty and bail-out bare metal stenting as necessary (primary EES). The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) to avoid one major event and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for a 3-year postprocedural period for both strategies. Overall event-free survival was significantly improved in both strategies (hazard ratio (HR) [confidence interval (CI)]: 0.68 [0.41-1.12] in Bail-out SES and HR [CI]: 0.53 [0.29-0.99] in Primary EES). Event-free survival gain per patient was 0.89 (range, 0.11-3.0) years in Bail-out SES with an NNT of 4.6 (CI: 2.5-25.6) and a corresponding ICER of 6,518 Euro-Sign (range 1,685-10,112 Euro-Sign ). Survival gain was 0.91 (range 0.25-3.0) years in Primary EES with an NNT of 2.7 (CI: 1.7-5.8) and an ICER of 11,581 Euro-Sign (range, 4,945-21,428 Euro-Sign ) per event-free life-year gained. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that stented lesion length >10 cm and/or DES list price >1000 Euro-Sign were associated with the least economically favorable scenario in both strategies. Both strategies of bail-out SES and primary EES placement in the infrapopliteal arteries for CLI treatment exhibit single-digit NNT and relatively low corresponding ICERs.

  8. Utility Community Solar Handbook- Understanding and Supporting Utility Program Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Utility Community Solar Handbook: Understanding and Supporting Utility Program Development" provides the utility's perspective on community solar program development and is a resource for government officials, regulators, community organizers, solar energy advocates, non-profits, and interested citizens who want to support their local utilities in implementing projects.

  9. Technology and economics of gas utilization: Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seddon, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the current and emerging technology for the conversion of natural gas into methanol and assesses its impact on the production economics. Technologies of potential use for offshore developments of large gas reserves or associated gas are discussed. New technologies for the production of methanol synthesis-gas, such as autothermal reforming and GHR technology, are described and the economic advantages over conventional steam reforming are quantified. New methanol synthesis technology, such as slurry phase reactors, are outlined but appear to offer little advantage over conventional technology for offshore gas utilization. The purification of methanol for fuel and chemical grade product is outlined and the cost of transport presented. The data presented gives an overview of the production costs for production of methanol from large gas reserves (> 1Tcf, 25--35PJ/a) and smaller scale reserves (10--20MMscfd, 4--10PJ/a). The variation of the production cost of methanol with gas price indicates that the gas price is the principal economic consideration. However, adoption of new technology will improve production economics by an amount equivalent to an incremental gas cost of about $0.5/GJ. For gas reserves of low development cost, the adoption of new technology is not a prerequisite to economic viability.

  10. Unaccounted-for gas cost allocation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozenne, D.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As competitive pressures grow, gas utility managers have stepped up their search for ways to ensure that rates remain competitive. This challenge is particularly acute in the large commercial and industrial market segments, which are most typically [open quotes]at risk.[close quotes] A variety of cost-allocation studies have been undertaken to determine more accurately what costs are associated with serving market segments, and which costs should be recovered from each. Because there are clear winners and losers in this process (at least, it is clear who wins and loses in the short term), these reallocations have been hotly debated and fiercely litigated. Any proposed change in allocation must be supported by either compelling logic or empirical evidence. This article suggests a method of reallocating the costs associated with unaccounted-for (UAF) gas volumes, based on results from two studies of the elements contributing to UAF gas.

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Submitted to the Electric Power Research Institute August 2009 UWM Center for By-Products-Strength Materials) for help in reducing global warming. Concrete mixtures having slump in the range of three to fourCenter for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS By Tarun R

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project 02-1/3.1D-2 Department of Civil Engineering of technology and market development for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) slurry using Illinois coal ashCenter for By-Products Utilization IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOWABLE SLURRY TECHNOLOGY IN ILLINOIS

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    technologies. A clean-coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SOxand NOxcontrol technologies, and FBC that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocks conventional and clean-coal technologies. Fifteen high-sulfur coal ash samples were obtained from eight

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT By Tarun, R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Fethullah Canpolat This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the sequestration

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , compressive strength, concrete testing, fly ash, high-performance concrete, hot weather, permeability, silica Testing of Concrete", Committee 214, "Evaluation of Results of Strength Tests of Concrete", and CommitteeCenter for By-Products Utilization STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF HIGH- PERFORMANCE CONCRETE SUBJECTED

  16. INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTRODUCTION Ukiah Electric Utility Renewable Energy Resources Procurement Plan Per Senate Billlx 2 renewable energy resources, including renewable energy credits, as a specified percentage of Ukiah's total,2011 to December 31, 2013, Ukiah shall procure renewable energy resources equivalent to an average of at least

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ash to solve the concerns associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two different types ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determine general suitability of wood ashCenter for By-Products Utilization WOOD ASH: A NEW SOURCE OF POZZOLANIC MATERIAL By Tarun R. Naik

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    the concerns associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two different types of materials: fly ash for use as construction materials. Therefore, ASTM C 618, developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ashCenter for By-Products Utilization WOOD ASH: A NEW SOURCE OF POZZOLANIC MATERIAL By Tarun R. Naik

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    beneficial uses of wood ash to meet the challenges associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two C 618 [13] developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determineCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF WOOD ASH IN CEMENT-BASED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

  20. Advanced fossil energy utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.; Spivey, J.; Pennline, H.; Granite, E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This special issue of Fuel is a selection of papers presented at the symposium ‘Advanced Fossil Energy Utilization’ co-sponsored by the Fuels and Petrochemicals Division and Research and New Technology Committee in the 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Spring National Meeting Tampa, FL, on April 26–30, 2009.

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -air entrained concrete without fly ash. Detailed results are presented. Keywords: carbon dioxide sequestrationCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE ABSTRACT by Tarun, R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED-moon Chun The objectives of this project were to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) in concrete and study

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Timir C Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT of this project were to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) in concrete and study the effects of carbonation

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

  5. Physical Plant Utility Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of Massachusetts Amherst Electrical Distribution & Outdoor Lighting 3.0 Table of Contents Page 1 UMass Medium buses at the Eastside sub-station. The Eastside sub-station is comprised of two separate buses with a normally open bus tie. Each bus is automatically backed up by separate utility feeds. The Eastside Sub-station

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE CONTAINING SCRAP TIRE RUBBER in a variety of rubber and plastic products, thermal incineration of waste tires for production of electricity rubber in asphalt mixes, (ii) thermal incineration of worn-out tires for the production of electricity

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. PRODUCING CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIER (CRM) FROM USED TIRES . . . . . 3 2.1 PRODUCTION OF CRM THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MILWAUKEE #12;APPLICATION OF SCRAP TIRE RUBBER IN ASPHALTIC MATERIALS: STATE

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Presentationand Publicationat the CBIP International Conference onFly Ash Disposal & Utilization,New Delhi, India, January 1998 foundry sand and slag. Most of these by-products are landfilled, primarily due to non-availability of economically attractive use options. Landfilling is not a desirable option because it not only causes huge

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    tires generated during the year 1990 - 1991 were reused, recycled, or recovered [4]. A number of usesCenter for By-Products Utilization CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES By Tarun R - MILWAUKEE #12;CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INCORPORATING DISCARDED TIRES* By Tarun R. Naik Director, Center for By

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL #12;-1- CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLYASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL ASHFOR CEMENT -Milwaukee (UWM) Daniel D.Banerjee, Project Manager,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique of HVFA Concrete Containing Clean-Coal Ash and Class F Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik Director, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization and Francois Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Synopsis

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    flue gas. Detailed results are presented. Keywords: carbon dioxide sequestration, carbonation, carbonCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS by Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF COAL-COMBUSTION PRODUCTS IN PERMEABLE PAVEMNET BASE and Published at the Raymundo Rivera International Symposium on Durability of Concrete, Monterrey, N. L., Mexico THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;Use of Coal-Combustion Products in Permeable Pavement Base1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    combustion by-products (such as clean-coal ash) from power plants. Maximum recycling of such by- products regulations and increasing use of low-grade coal, the number of coal-fired power plants with flue gasCenter for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    and paper mills in concrete. INTRODUCTION Concrete is a porous solid that is created by combining four basicCenter for By-Products Utilization CURING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE CONCRETE By Tarun For presentation and publication at the symposium entitled "High-Performance Concrete and Concrete for Marine

  18. Utility spot pricing, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweppe, Fred C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    . Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori- Lynn C. Pennock, and Bruce Ramme Report No. CBU-2001 with numerous projects on the use of by-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash;2 INTRODUCTION Wood FA is generated due to combustion of wood for energy production at pulp and paper mills, saw

  20. Market Based Risk Mitigation: Risk Management vs. Risk Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market Based Risk Mitigation: Risk Management vs. Risk Avoidance Shmuel Oren University of the critical infrastructures in our society. Risk assessment and systematic consideration of risk in the design knowledge for engineers, like physics for instance, consideration of risk has penetrated all engineering

  1. Obstacle Avoidance Control of Humanoid Robot Arm through Tactile Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    Obstacle Avoidance Control of Humanoid Robot Arm through Tactile Interaction Dzmitry Tsetserukou through tactile interaction. The implementation of the approach was realized on humanoid robot arm control are summarized and illustrated in this work as well. The controllable compliance of robot arm

  2. tchen@engr.smu.edu How to Avoid Losing Your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    Tom Chen tchen@engr.smu.edu How to Avoid Losing Your Money and Identity to Phishing #12;TC/EE/2-16-05 SMU Engineering p. 2 · What is Phishing? · Examples · Risks and threats · Defenses Outline #12;TC/EE/2-16-05 SMU Engineering p. 3 What is Phishing? · A social engineering attack: - E-mail message (spam) appears

  3. Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electric heating units in pollination bags avoid damage to flowers by spring frost J. CH. FERRAND n'Orlgans Ardon, F 45160 Olivet Summary An effective, cheap and simple heating device was designed by INRA heating, Larix. Controlled crosses are essential for forest tree breeding, but spring frost can destroy

  4. The fixed irreducible bridge ensemble for self-avoiding walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael James Gilbert

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We define a new ensemble for self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane, the fixed irredicible bridge ensemble, by considering self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane up to their $n$-th bridge height, $Y_n$, and scaling the walk by $1/Y_n$ to obtain a curve in the unit strip, and then taking $n\\to\\infty$. We then conjecture a relationship between this ensemble to $\\SLE$ in the unit strip from $0$ to a fixed point along the upper boundary of the strip, integrated over the conjectured exit density of self-avoiding walk spanning a strip in the scaling limit. We conjecture that there exists a positive constant $\\sigma$ such that $n^{-\\sigma}Y_n$ converges in distribution to that of a stable random variable as $n\\to\\infty$. Then the conjectured relationship between the fixed irreducible bridge scaling limit and $\\SLE$ can be described as follows: If one takes a SAW considered up to $Y_n$ and scales by $1/Y_n$ and then weights the walk by $Y_n$ to an appropriate power, then in the limit $n\\to\\infty$, one should obtain a curve from the scaling limit of the self-avoiding walk spanning the unit strip. In addition to a heuristic derivation, we provide numerical evidence to support the conjecture and give estimates for the boundary scaling exponent.

  5. BAAP: Blackhole Attack Avoidance Protocol for Wireless Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmaraja, S.

    BAAP: Blackhole Attack Avoidance Protocol for Wireless Network Saurabh Gupta Indian Institute infrastructure in adhoc net- work makes it vulnerable to various attacks. MANET routing disrupts attack is a blackhole attack in which malicious node falsely claiming itself as having the fresh

  6. Salinity tolerance and avoidance in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vignali, Carl R

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tank was used to obtain data on salinity avoidance behavior. Bioassays of high-salinity tolerance indicated 24-h and 96-h lethal limits near 10 and 8 ppt, respectively, whether the fish had been acclimated to freshwater or water with 5-ppt salinity...

  7. Before your innovation has patent protection... Avoiding Public Disclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    1 Before your innovation has patent protection... Avoiding Public Disclosure n the publish chances of patenting any innovations that stem from your research. U.S. Patent law makes this point very clear: "A person shall be entitled to a patent unless: 1. the invention was known or used by others

  8. Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, Herbert G.

    Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles Herbert G. Tanner Mechanical Engineering Department University of New Mexico Abstract--The paper introduces a set of nonsmooth- tivity requirements on the interconnection network can be relaxed due to the common objective. I

  9. FINAL REPORT FOR PSerc PROJECT Avoiding and Suppressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    FINAL REPORT FOR PSerc PROJECT Avoiding and Suppressing Oscillations December 1999 POWER SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.4 Summary guide to this report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 Arbitrary topology networks with high order machine models . . . . . . . . . 43 5.5 The eigenvalue solution

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OPTICAL COLLISION AVOIDANCE SENSOR Kyle Watters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornsey, Richard

    CHARACTERIZATION OF AN OPTICAL COLLISION AVOIDANCE SENSOR Kyle Watters , Cyrus Minwalla , Michael, unmanned aerial vehicles, sensor ar- ray 1. INTRODUCTION A prototype optical instrument is described detection' should be at a distance on the order of 5 km [2]. An optical sensor may have advantages in mass

  11. Efficient algorithms for collision avoidance at intersections Alessandro Colombo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    ]: Robotics--Autonomous vehicles General Terms Algorithms, Theory Keywords Intelligent transportation system vehicles at an intersection. The largest set of states for which there exists a control that avoids literature we prove that, for a general model of vehicle dynamics at an intersection, the problem of checking

  12. A Depth Space Approach to Human-Robot Collision Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    A Depth Space Approach to Human-Robot Collision Avoidance Fabrizio Flacco Torsten Kr is presented for safe human-robot coexistence. The main contribution is a fast method to evaluate distances between the robot and possibly moving obstacles (including humans), based on the concept of depth space

  13. Brush Busters: How to Avoid Lumps When Treating Cut Stumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Ueckert, Darrell

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    the spray mix, fill the tank to the final vol- ume. L-5421 10/05 How to Avoid Lumps When Treating Cut Stumps Two safe, effective, three-step ways to control many woody plants Individual Plant Treatment Series Allan McGinty, Professor and Extenson Range...

  14. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  15. About Cost Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

  16. Contract Provisions and Ratchets: Utility Security or Customer Equity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penkala, B. A.

    CONTRACT PROVISIONS ANO RATCHETS: UTILITY SECURITY OR CUSTOMER EQUITY? BARBARA A. PENKALA Senior Research Analyst Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston. Texas ABSTRACT The contract provisions and ratchets con tained in an electric... of customers and the magnitude of the load served. A smaller part of the cost is dependent on kilowatt-hours. or energy supplied. The high investment required in the electric utility business relative to annual revenue has an important influence on price...

  17. How One Utility is Building Industrial Consumer Relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, D. E.

    HOW ONE UT1~ITY IS BUILDING INDUSTRIAL CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS DONALD E. HAMILTON Manager-Industrial Services and Cogeneration Gulf States Utilities Company Beaumont, Texas COMPETITION AND THE UTILITY INDUSTRY The refining and petrochemical... in the eighties: depletion of old low cost oil and gas fields within the United States, the formation of OPEC, a run-up in oil and gas prices, leveling of demand in the petrochemical industry, the transfer of substantial wealth from industrial to oil...

  18. Electric-utility DSM programs: Terminology and reporting formats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sabo, C. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The number, scope, effects, and costs of electric-utility demand-site management programs are growing rapidly in the United States. Utilities, their regulators, and energy policy makers need reliable information on the costs of, participation in, and energy and load effects of these programs to make informed decisions. In particular, information is needed on the ability of these programs to cost-effectively provide energy and capacity resources that are alternatives to power plants. This handbook addresses the need for additional and better information in two ways. First, it discusses the key concepts associated with DSM-program types, participation, energy and load effects, and costs. Second, the handbook offers definitions and a sample reporting form for utility DSM programs. The primary purpose in developing these definitions and this form is to encourage consistency in the collection and reporting of data on DSM programs. To ensure that the discussions, reporting formats, and definitions will be useful and used, development of this handbook was managed by a committee, with membership from electric utilities, state regulatory commissions, and the US Department of Energy. Also, this data-collection form was pretested by seven people from six utilities, who completed the form for nine DSM programs.

  19. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  20. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for comparing multiple technologies and policies to one another), focusing exclusively on customer-sited solar customers to others constitute undue price discrimination against solar PV. Perhaps most damaging for solar TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST REDUCTIONS The Current Terrain In recent years, electric utilities have experienced

  1. STEP Utility Bill Analysis Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Utility Bill Analysis Report, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  2. STEP Utility Data Release Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Utility Data Release Form, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    limestone quarry in Wisconsin generates over 125,000 tons of quarry fines and quarry bag-house dust each limestone quarry fines and quarry bag-house dust, to reduce costs, as well as to reduce the use of expensive be used in SCC. Use of quarry by-products in SCC will lead to economical and ecological benefits

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    on "Management & Use of Coal Combustion Products (CCPS)" held in San Antonio, TX, January 2001. Department concrete mixtures were produced for and at the production plant of an architectural precast concrete. Majority of the foundry sand generated in Wisconsin and elsewhere are landfilled at high disposal costs

  5. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents Overview...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents Overview Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents Overview Presentation covers the utility energy service...

  6. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  7. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    notes that comparisons of cost data remain difficult becausethese resources into cost data, and a description of themigrations), the cost of processing the data may rise

  8. Utility Maximization under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by several search and optimization problems over uncertain datasets, we study the stochastic versions of a broad class of combinatorial problems where either the existences or the weights of the elements in the input dataset are uncertain. The class of problems that we study includes shortest paths, minimum weight spanning trees, and minimum weight matchings over probabilistic graphs; top-k queries over probabilistic datasets; and other combinatorial problems like knapsack. By noticing that the expected value is inadequate in capturing different types of risk-averse or risk-prone behaviors, we consider a more general objective which is to maximize the expected utility of the solution for some given utility function. For weight uncertainty model, we show that we can obtain a polynomial time approximation algorithm with additive error eps for any eps>0, if there is a pseudopolynomial time algorithm for the exact version of the problem. Our result generalizes several prior works on stochastic shortest ...

  9. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

  10. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  11. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls Webinar.

  12. Marginal Cost of Steam and Power from Cogeneration Systems Using a Rational Value-Allocation Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.; Al-Gwaiz, M. M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that their approach gives more realistic values for marginal steam and power costs, and yields superior results compared to conventional methods. It is recommended as the first step before energy optimization analysis for the process is undertaken. REFERENCES... companies operate in either modes 1a or 2a, as electric utility companies are loathe to purchase surplus power from a cogenerator unless it is priced substantially below the utility?s own cheapest marginal cost of production. Usually, the cogenerator...

  13. Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate, Phase II: 26 September 2007 - 25 September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedeman, S.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global Solar's CIGS manufacturing cost has decreased by increased automation, higher materials utilization, and greater capacity with higher rates in all tools.

  14. Phase-space picture of resonance creation and avoided crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timberlake, T

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex coordinate scaling (CCS) is used to calculate resonance eigenvalues and eigenstates for a system consisting of an inverted Gaussian potential and a monochromatic driving field. Floquet eigenvalues and Husimi distributions of resonance eigenfunctions are calculated using two different versions of CCS. The number of resonance states in this system increases as the strength of the driving field is increased, indicating that this system might have increased stability against ionization when the field strength is very high. We find that the newly created resonance states are scarred on unstable periodic orbits of the classical motion. The behavior of these periodic orbits as the field strength is increased may explain why there are more resonance states at high field strengths than at low field strengths. Close examination of an avoided crossing between resonance states shows that this type of avoided crossing does not delocalize the resonance states, although it may lead to interesting effects at certain ...

  15. Phase-space picture of resonance creation and avoided crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Timberlake; L. E. Reichl

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex coordinate scaling (CCS) is used to calculate resonance eigenvalues and eigenstates for a system consisting of an inverted Gaussian potential and a monochromatic driving field. Floquet eigenvalues and Husimi distributions of resonance eigenfunctions are calculated using two different versions of CCS. The number of resonance states in this system increases as the strength of the driving field is increased, indicating that this system might have increased stability against ionization when the field strength is very high. We find that the newly created resonance states are scarred on unstable periodic orbits of the classical motion. The behavior of these periodic orbits as the field strength is increased may explain why there are more resonance states at high field strengths than at low field strengths. Close examination of an avoided crossing between resonance states shows that this type of avoided crossing does not delocalize the resonance states, although it may lead to interesting effects at certain field strengths.

  16. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen, E-mail: sannevl@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, 1. Sal, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)] [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, 1. Sal, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Driscoll, Patrick, E-mail: patrick@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)] [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  17. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  18. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  19. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  20. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  1. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group- Utility Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses solar/photovoltaic (PV) projects to connect with utility in California and their issues.

  2. Pension costs and liabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Harley Macon

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

  3. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  4. Building Trust in Storage Outsourcing: Secure Accounting of Utility Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Building Trust in Storage Outsourcing: Secure Accounting of Utility Storage Vishal Kher Yongdae Kim are witnessing a revival of Storage Service Providers (SSP) in the form of new vendors as well as traditional players. While storage outsourcing is cost-effective, many companies are hesitating to outsource

  5. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  6. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

  7. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt |Exelon GenerationExtraction Utility Design

  8. Utilize Available Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilize Available Resources Print As soon as you arrive

  9. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    experience - as needed - in project management, scheduling, cost estimatingcost engineering, risk management, as well as subject matter experts (SMEs) with knowledge of...

  10. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  11. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  12. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

  13. Dispute Resolution Process Utility Owner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    State One Call (GSOC) for "Design Call" Provide "as-builts", marked plans or field locates MnDOT Utility? Underground Utility? Contact Minnesota Office of Pipeline Safety Minnesota Office of Pipeline Safety Step 1 - Utility Identification for Construction Investigate and take appropriate action up to and including

  14. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  15. Cost and Trust Issues in On-Line Auctions Lyle H. Ungar1, David C. Parkes2, and Dean P. Foster3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    , and avoiding the communication costs of the multiple bids of a rst-price ascending English" auction to a buyer of strategic bidding in an auction, given a reservation price, but the cost of deciding whatCost and Trust Issues in On-Line Auctions Lyle H. Ungar1, David C. Parkes2, and Dean P. Foster3 1

  16. The Public Utility and Industry: A Customer- Supplier Relationship for Long-Term Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janson, J. R.

    The entire country is undergoing a significant change in customer attitide toward services and products. This change is geared toward a quality service/ product for the least cost. Industry and the utility sector need to apply the aspects of quality...

  17. Rule Based Energy Management and Reporting System (EMRS) Applied to a Large Utility Power Station Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bamber, D.; Childress, R.; Robinson, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deregulation of electricity and rising fuel costs are causing renewed interest in Energy Management Systems (EMS) to service both the utility and private sectors. This paper details a case study of the successful integration of a new class of rule...

  18. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel with the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)

  19. Assessment of the transmission grid of Maryland utilities and some potential consequences of retail competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullenbaum, M.S.; Moore, M.K.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the transmission systems used by the four Maryland utilities--Delmarva Power and Light Company (Delmarva), Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BGE), Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO), and Allegheny Power Company (AP)--to provide a cost-effective, reliable source of power to consumers in the State. Maryland utilities use the high-voltage transmission systems in their own service territories and in utility systems in neighboring states to integrate their sources of supply to meet the demand of their customers. Transmission facilities make this possible by allowing Maryland utilities to import their share of remote generation in other states, to gain access to energy markets that reduce day-to-day generating costs, and to reduce the amount of capacity they must hold in reserve. The high-voltage system also permits Maryland utilities to purchase cost-effective energy that may be available in other nearby regions.

  20. Consumer's Guide to the economics of electric-utility ratemaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide deals primarily with the economics of electric utilities, although certain legal and organizational aspects of utilities are discussed. Each of the seven chapters addresses a particular facet of public-utility ratemaking. Chapter One contains a discussion of the evolution of the public-utility concept, as well as the legal and economic justification for public utilities. The second chapter sets forth an analytical economic model which provides the basis for the next four chapters. These chapters contain a detailed examination of total operating costs, the rate base, the rate of return, and the rate structure. The final chapter discusses a number of current issues regarding electric utilities, mainly factors related to fuel-adjustment costs, advertising, taxes, construction work in progress, and lifeline rates. Some of the examples used in the Guide are from particular states, such as Illinois and California. These examples are used to illustrate specific points. Consumers in other states can generalize them to their states and not change the meaning or significance of the points. 27 references, 8 tables.

  1. Avoiding Intellectual Stagnation: The Starship as an Expander of Minds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Ian A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interstellar exploration will advance human knowledge and culture in multiple ways. Scientifically, it will advance our understanding of the interstellar medium, stellar astrophysics, planetary science and astrobiology. In addition, significant societal and cultural benefits will result from a programme of interstellar exploration and colonisation. Most important will be the cultural stimuli resulting from expanding the horizons of human experience, and increased opportunities for the spread and diversification of life and culture through the Galaxy. Ultimately, a programme of interstellar exploration may be the only way for human (and post-human) societies to avoid the intellectual stagnation predicted for the "end of history".

  2. Mistakes to Avoid When Using HPSS at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1 SECTION A. Revised:7,AMission MissionMistakes to Avoid

  3. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  4. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  5. Discovery of Highly Obscured Galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. R. Marleau; A. Noriega-Crespo; R. Paladini; D. Clancy; S. Carey; S. Shenoy; K. E. Kraemer; T. Kuchar; D. R. Mizuno; S. Price

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of twenty-five previously unknown galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance. Our systematic search for extended extra-galactic sources in the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL mid-infrared surveys of the Galactic plane has revealed two overdensities of these sources, located around l ~ 47 and 55 degrees and |b| less than 1 degree in the Sagitta-Aquila region. These overdensities are consistent with the local large-scale structure found at similar Galactic longitude and extending from |b| ~ 4 to 40 degrees. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of these sources is indeed consistent with those of normal galaxies. Photometric estimates of their redshift indicate that the majority of these galaxies are found in the redshift range z = 0.01 - 0.05, with one source located at z = 0.07. Comparison with known sources in the local Universe reveals that these galaxies are located at similar overdensities in redshift space. These new galaxies are the first evidence of a bridge linking the large-scale structure between both sides of the Galactic plane at very low Galactic latitude and clearly demonstrate the feasibility of detecting galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance using mid-to-far infrared surveys.

  6. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identify particularly useful cost data and cost models thatcontaining hydrogen cost data for production, storage,Volume Validates cost data with Industry Operating Costs

  7. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  8. PREPARED TESTIMONY OF ROBERT B. WEISENMILLER, PH.D. Qualifying Facilities: Resource Planning and Avoided Costs Methodology ................................ 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calculation and Pricing Options for Qualifying Facilities Submitted by Independent Power Corporation on behalf.............................................................................................. 8 Market Power Assessments) for the Independent Energy Producers Association and the Department of General Services and the Solid Waste Management

  9. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  10. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company)Library < TransmissionTransparent

  11. Energy Cost Reduction Measures Identified for Texas State Agencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigg, T. J.; Verdict, M. E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation opportunities and capital intensive energy cost reduction measures. Though more square feet was audited in 1984, more utility cost savings per square foot were identified in 1986. Changes in the screening process, the audit report format... square foot for the audited facilities by building type. Maintenance and operation savings are included in this table. A sufficient number of academic buildings, medical research facilities, libraries, hospitals, and office buildings were audited...

  12. DEMEC Member Utilities- Green Energy Program Incentives (8 utilities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: The municipal electric utilities serving New Castle, Clayton, Lewes, Middletown, Smyrna, and Seaford do not offer any rebates for individual renewable energy systems. Please see the...

  13. New strategies for avoiding robot joint limits: Application to visual servoing using a large projection operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    redundancy-based strategy for avoiding joint limits of a robot arm. This strategy is based on defining three avoidance strategy. The experimental results obtained on a 6 dof robot arm in eye-in hand visual servoing

  14. Tax Avoidance and Investment: Distinguishing the Effects of Capital Rationing and Overinvestment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayberry, Michael 1985-

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    I examine the relation between tax avoidance and firm investment by drawing on two capital market imperfections, adverse selection and moral hazard, to provide a link between tax avoidance and investment. Firms experiencing capital rationing because...

  15. Real-time probabilistic collision avoidance for autonomous vehicles, using order reductive conflict metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Thomas, 1975-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contemporary collision avoidance systems such as the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) have proven their effectiveness in the Commercial Aviation (CA) industry within the last decade. Yet, TCAS and many ...

  16. Guaranteed avoidance of unpredictable, dynamically constrained obstacles using velocity obstacle sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Albert (Albert Puming)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic obstacle avoidance is an important, ubiquitous, and often challenging problem for autonomous mobile robots. This thesis presents a new method to guarantee collision avoidance with respect to moving obstacles that ...

  17. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  18. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  19. Investments of uncertain cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

  20. Gas and Electric Utilities Regulation (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for gas and electric utilities. As part of these regulations, electric utilities are required to file with the Public Utilities Commission a document regarding...

  1. Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Disruptions Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions Business Owners: Prepare for Utility Disruptions Have a plan in place in case a natural disaster or other...

  2. Effective Strategies for Participating in Utility Planning |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strategies for Participating in Utility Planning Effective Strategies for Participating in Utility Planning Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Working with Utilities Peer...

  3. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's Corner Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Seminar: Chairman's Corner Presentation covers the Federal Utility...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Utility Operations and Programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market TransformationUtility Operations and Programs Utility Operations and Programs Utilities need to understand how solar generating technologies will behave on their systems...

  5. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  6. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  7. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the webinar, "Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls."

  8. Standard costs for labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

  9. The Future of Combustion Turbine Technology for Industrial and Utility Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, A. D.; Simbeck, D. R.

    Low capital cost and ample low-cost natural gas supplies will make natural gas-fired combustion turbine systems the power generation technology of choice over the next decade. Against the background of earlier use by electric utilities, this paper...

  10. What is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dioxide as a global public good. Considering the social cost of carbon, or the net present valueWhat is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop? The social cost of carbon is still not developed There is no global consensus on the price of reducing carbon

  11. Review of Historical and Modern Utilization of Wind Power Publications Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UTILIZATION TODAY WIND POWER TECHNOLOGY q Modern wind turbine technology q Concepts COST OF WIND ENERGY TYPES costs BEGINNERS GUIDE TO WIND ENERGY STUDIES q Selected text books on wind energy and wind turbines WECS - Wind Energy Conversion Systems. To co-ordinate the many terms derived from ancient Teutonic

  12. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  13. Rethinking Standby & Fixed Cost Charges: Regulatory & Rate Design Pathways to Deeper Solar PV Cost Reductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While solar PV's impact on utilities has been frequently discussed the past year, little attention has been paid to the potentially impact posed by solar PV-specific rate designs (often informally referred to as solar "fees" or "taxes") upon non-hardware "soft" cost reductions. In fact, applying some rate designs to solar PV customers could potentially have a large impact on the economics of PV systems.

  14. Three-dimensional terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Clisby; Andrew R. Conway; Anthony J. Guttmann

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study terminally attached self-avoiding walks and bridges on the simple-cubic lattice, both by series analysis and Monte Carlo methods. We provide strong numerical evidence supporting a scaling relation between self-avoiding walks, bridges, and terminally attached self-avoiding walks, and posit that a corresponding amplitude ratio is a universal quantity.

  15. Innovative Utility Pricing for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, J. A.

    tariffs can re a market for power during the time when it has sult in benefits to industry, to the electric abundant capacity available. From the other rate utility, and to other ratepayers on the electric payers' perspective, there will be a continued...INNOVATIVE UTILITY PRICING FOR INDUSTRY James A. Ross Drazen-Brubaker &Associates, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri ABSTRACT The electric utility industry represents only one source of power available to industry. Al though the monopolistic...

  16. Adsorption of self-avoiding walks at a defect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas R. Beaton

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the model of self-avoiding walks on the $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattice interacting with a $d^*$-dimensional defect, where $1\\leq d^*

  17. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  18. Mandatory Utility Green Power Option

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Montana, regulated electric utilities are required to offer customers the option of purchasing electricity generated by certified, environmentally-preferred resources that include, but are not...

  19. Austin Utilities- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Utilities provides incentives for their residential and commercial customers to install photovoltaic (PV) and solar water heating systems. Qualifying PV systems can earn $1 per watt;...

  20. Utility Partnerships Program Overview (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Program overview brochure for the Utility Partnerships Program within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP).

  1. Orlando Utilities Commission- Solar Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), through its Solar Program, offers to purchase the environmental attributes or renewable energy credits (RECs) from customers who install a photovoltaic (PV)...

  2. Utility lighting summit proves illuminating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-lighting-summit-proves-illuminating Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  3. Helping Utilities Make Smart Solar Decisions Utility Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    #12;About SEPA Developed by utilities to facilitate the integration of solar electric power. SEPA (insurance, disconnects, metering) · Balanced vs. best interconnection and net metering regimes #12;Managing Solar DecisionsSource: SEPA 2010 1,717 MW of utility scale solar or 63 % · Nevada & New Mexico 659 MW

  4. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  5. Tracking the Sun IV: An Historical Summary of the Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darghouth, Naim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost of electricity (LCOE) for PV. Third, the utility-sectorthe related impact on the LCOE. The wide distribution in thecost of electricity (LCOE) for PV. Third, the utility-sector

  6. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  7. Modeling On-Site Utility Systems Using "APLUS"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranade, S. M.; Jones, D. H.; Shrec, S. C.

    MODELING ON-SITE UTILITY SYSTEMS USING "APLUS" S. M. RANADE D. H. JONES S. C. SHREC Res. & Tech.Coord. Consultant Engineer ConsultantEngineer ICI-TENSA Services, Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Most energy saving schemes on industrial sites lead... to reductions in the steam and/or power demands on an on-site utility system. Accurate knowledge of the marginal and incremental costs of the available levels of steam and shaft power from such systems is, therefore, essential for the correct economic...

  8. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  9. The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Cost of CCS forThe Cost of CCS for Natural GasNatural Gas--Fired Power PlantsFired Power, Pennsylvania Presentation to the Natural Gas CCS Forum Washington, DC November 4, 2011 E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon MotivationMotivation · Electric utilities again looking to natural gas combined cycle (NGCC

  10. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

  11. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  12. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  13. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  14. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PriceCost Proposal: Provide complete, current, and accurate cost or pricing data in accordance with Federal and Department of Energy Acquisition...

  15. Utility Sector Leaders Make Firm Commitment to Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 80 energy, environmental and other organizations announced commitments and public statements in support of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE), released today, which provides energy consumers and providers information on policies and techniques to save money as well as protect the environment. By adopting the plan's recommendations on low-cost, under-used energy efficiency, Americans could save hundreds of billions of dollars on their gas and electric utility bills, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and lower the costs for energy and pollution controls.

  16. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pleva, E. F. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Mehrotra, V. [Waukesha Electric Systems, Waukesha, WI; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  17. Supply-side utility economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, H.D.

    1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This article makes two main points: that electricity is a necessary resource, and that utilities respond to incentives as do individuals. From them, the author deduces that the US will have a power shortage within the foreseeable future unless utility regulators begin to consider future power plant needs realistically.

  18. Xylose utilization in recombinant Zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kahsay, Robel Y; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Zymomonas expressing xylose isomerase from A. missouriensis was found to have improved xylose utilization, growth, and ethanol production when grown in media containing xylose. Xylose isomerases related to that of A. missouriensis were identified structurally through molecular phylogenetic and Profile Hidden Markov Model analyses, providing xylose isomerases that may be used to improve xylose utilization.

  19. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  20. The Children’s Hospital X Project: A Case Study in Benefit and Cost Analysis of a Lean-IPD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ai, Di

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean processes have been utilized in healthcare design and construction, bringing both benefits and costs to the owners of healthcare projects. It is important to understand and detect the benefits and costs associated with lean processes, because...

  1. NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the NASA Ames Research Center's effort to save energy and reduce project costs with non-invasive retrofit technologies.

  2. Deregulation Provides Incentive to Conserve - New Meters at LCRA Offer a Closer Look at Facility Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, M.; Knutsen, T.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to Texas' electric utility deregulation, the Lower Colorado River Authority's (LCRA's) facilities and plant station service energy use was considered a cost of business - power consumed and never sold. Preparation for competition under Senate...

  3. Avoiding the Haircut: Potential Ways to Enhance the Value of the USDA's Section 9006 Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at $1,600/kW capital cost) Wind Project Capital Cost ($/kW)depending on the wind project’s capital cost and capacitythat 90% of the total costs of a wind project qualify for 5-

  4. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed.

  5. Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Cost (billed)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    the elevators, deter mined an LED replace ment lamp for the ex is ng halogen lamps, cal culated a cost benefitMann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Utility Historical Energy Use (MMBtu) Est. FY 2012,000 2 Energy Conservation Initiative (ECI) Project Summary Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng, Facility 1027 Mann

  6. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers Rahul Urgaonkar, Bhuvan Urgaonkar of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This rep- resents a deviation from the usual average electric utility bill in a data center. Us- ing the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop

  7. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  8. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

  9. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  10. Transparent Cost Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company)Library < TransmissionTransparent Cost

  11. A Program for Optimizing SRF Linac Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Every well-designed machine goes through the process of cost optimization several times during its design, production and operation. The initial optimizations are done during the early proposal stage of the project when none of the systems have been engineered. When a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac is implemented as part of the design, it is often a difficult decision as to the frequency and gradient that will be used. Frequently, such choices are made based on existing designs, which invariably necessitate moderate to substantial modifications so that they can be used in the new accelerator. Thus the fallacy of using existing designs is that they will frequently provide a higher cost machine or a machine with sub-optimal beam physics parameters. This paper describes preliminary results of a new software tool that allows one to vary parameters and understand the effects on the optimized costs of construction plus 10 year operations of an SRF linac, the associated cryogenic facility, and controls, where operations includes the cost of the electrical utilities but not the labor or other costs. It derives from collaborative work done with staff from Accelerator Science and Technology Centre, Daresbury, UK [1] several years ago while they were in the process of developing a conceptual design for the New Light Source project. The initial goal was to convert a spread sheet format to a graphical interface to allow the ability to sweep different parameter sets. The tools also allow one to compare the cost of the different facets of the machine design and operations so as to better understand the tradeoffs.

  12. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  13. Estimating Marginal Cost of Quality Improvements: The Case of the UK Electricity Distribution Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

    of operational and capital expenditures (Totex) as the dependent variable. Improving quality of services involves operating cost (Opex) and capital cost (Capex) for the utilities. Due to the presence of possible trade-offs between Opex and Capex (Giannakis et... saving Opex than by an equal amount of Capex reduction (Ofgem, 2003a). Hence, in order to examine existence of different strategies in the UK utilities to improve quality, and to ascertain whether the current regulation has distorted the allocation...

  14. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the ?-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the ?-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the ?-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  15. A Model and Case Study of the Impacts of Stochastic Capacity on Freeway Traffic Flow Benefits and Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    and Costs Alexander Bigazzi1 and Dr. Miguel Figliozzi2 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering conditions with the accompanying heavy congestion costs. As the traffic volume at which flow breaks down is uncertain, this research utilizes a stochastic capacity model to estimate congestion costs in terms

  16. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  17. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  18. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  19. Phase II -- Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA). Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale (US) photovoltaic (PV) electric generation systems and recent developments in PV module technology. This report updates the project`s progress, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1994, summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions for the year, and outlines future work. The PVUSA project has five objectives. These are designed to narrow the gap between a large utility industry that is unfamiliar with PV and a small PV industry that is aware of a potentially large utility market but unfamiliar with how to meet its requirements. The objectives are: Evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of promising PV modules and balance-of-system (BOS) components side by side at a single location; Assess PV system operation and maintenance in a utility setting; Compare US utilities hands-on experience in designing, procuring, and operating PV systems; and, Document and disseminate knowledge gained from the project.

  20. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance