National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aviation gasoline distillate

  1. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  2. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises: hydrocracking a substantially dealkylated feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F. and a second distillate fraction boiling above the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first distillate fraction to the hydrocracking step to effect saturation and partial cracking of aromatics in the recycled fraction to increase the paraffin content of the second distillate fraction; recovering the second distillate fraction.

  3. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises catalytically cracking a hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a substantially dealkylated cracked product, hydrocracking the substantially dealkylated product with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F and a second, higher boiling distillate fraction which is more paraffinic than the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first, lower boiling distillate fraction to the catalytic cracking step, recovering the second, higher boiling distillate fraction.

  4. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  6. iquid fuel--such as gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, and ethanol--will continue to be important for pow-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    L iquid fuel--such as gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, and ethanol--will continue to be important for pow- ering our transportation systems in the foreseeable future. Transportation fuels derived from-derived transportation fuels are to substitute (on a large scale) for petroleum-based fuels. For example, how do we

  7. Aviation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-25

    To establish framework for an effective aviation program. Cancels DOE 5480.13A. Canceled by DOE O 440.2A.

  8. Aviation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-08

    To establish the framework for an effective aviation program, and reduce or eliminate accidental losses and injuries in Departmental and contractor aviation operations. It includes Change 1, Change 2, and Change3. (Cancels DOE 5480.13A) Canceled DOE O 440.2A.

  9. Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

    1939-01-01

    in4ebte4 to the Humble Oil an4 Hefiaing Company for supplying hia with the samples of stabiline4 natural gasolines whish were analgas4 Isbre410t iea ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 I. Deeeriytiaa ot Apyazebue . II. Proeedere . 1T... pxeotionation of a 84. 2 Roid Vapor Pxoeeuro Watuxal Gasoline, Coiuan Uheoaled ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . 50 VII. Data Obtained in tho prost%enation of a 84. 1 Eei4 Vapor Pressure Natural Gasoline, Caiman Cooled . . . . . . . . . 51 VXII Data Obtained...

  10. Method for producing gasoline-alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.

    1983-05-10

    A process for producing gasoline-ethanol blends comprises purifying dilute ethanol by extractive distillation and concentrating the ethanol by distillation followed by one or both of the following steps: (A) liquid extraction of ethanol into heated gasoline or (B) azeotropic distillation of ethanol with an entrainer followed by blending with gasoline.

  11. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Gasoline accounted for less than 10 percent of the volume of products recovered from the distillation

  12. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline RefinerResidual

  13. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated GasolineSales Volumes of

  14. Aviation fuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodger, E.; Vere, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the current specifications for aviation gasolines and turbine fuels, with descriptions of the method of test for each property, and of the main production processes to achieve the specified standards. The possibilities of supplemental fuels derived from alternative sources are discussed. The availability, properties and performance of a range of substitute fuels, together with the energy economy of the production and use of these alternatives are also examined. Topics covered include: current aero engine types; current aviation fuel types; production; specification test methods; operational handling; fuel characteristics within air-craft fuel systems; fuel combustion performance; development of specifications; relaxation of specifications; aviation fuels from alternative sources; aviation fuels substitutes; and fuels for high performance aircraft.

  15. Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

  16. Alternative fuels for general aviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The price and availability of fuel continues to be a major barrier to the free expansion of general aviation. Although this increase in fuel prices had a more severe impact on airlines, it has also slowed the demand for general aviation aircraft. With the sales of general aviation aircraft in a depressed state, the development of alternative fuels such as liquid methane, ethanol, methanol, and automobile gasoline can help spur the industry back to health. Recent flight tests of these alternative fuels are examined.

  17. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  18. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    . Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wineCHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds

  19. Future fuels for general aviation; Proceedings of the Symposium on Future Fuels for General Aviation Intermittent Combustion, Baltimore, MD, June 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, K.H.; Gonzalez, C.

    1989-01-01

    The conference presents papers on motor gasoline use in aircraft, alternative fuel use in aircraft, and future fuel requirements. Aircraft field experience with automotive gasoline in the U.S. is considered as well as field experience with type certified civil aircraft operated on motor gasolines and a worldwide survey of motor gasoline characteristics. Attention is also given to the performance of alternative fuels in general aviation aircraft, ethanol and methanol in intermittent combustion engines, and investigations into gasoline/alcohol blends for use in general aviation.

  20. Gasoline volatility: Environmental interactions with blending and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Gasoline volatility has long been an economic consideration for petroleum refiners. Although front-end volatility and Rvp (Reid vapor pressure) are primary factors, volatility can impact any part of the distillation range. Specifications, whether in-house, exchange or pipeline, require flexibility to optimize the bottom line with respect to marketed composition. Utilizing lower-value butanes, within Rvp and ASTM distillation limits, to maximize gasoline volume has been traditional. Also, optimizing the T{sub 90} (ASTM distillation temperature at 90% distilled), raises the end point and has been used to extend the gasoline barrel. In most refining situations, controlling back-end gasoline volatility is a function of gasoline vs. distillate volume, the latter generally the lower-value product. Recently, the concept of gasoline reformulation collide with the less complex approach of simply reducing vapor pressure to improve air quality. Reducing Rvp of gasoline shifts front-end composition, while reformulation, especially under future Complex Model rules, shifts volatility and composition over the entire boiling range. While low Rvp vs. RFG is a recent issue, gasoline volatility has always been an economic factor in petroleum refining and a performance factor for the auto maker.

  1. Aviation safety analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction: Just as the aviation system is complex and interrelated, so is aviation safety. Aviation safety involves design of aircraft and airports, training of ground personnel and flight crew members' maintenance of ...

  2. GOES Aviation Products Aviation Weather Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    GOES Aviation Products · The GOES aviation forecast products are based on energy measured in different characteristics #12;GOES Aviation Products Quiz · What is a geostationary satellite? · What generates energy received by the satellite in the visible band? · What generates energy received by the satellite

  3. Gasoline reformulation: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This first of a two-part article looks at the effects that gas reformulation and vehicle equipment have on emissions. Phase 1 of the AQIRP (Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program) investigated the effect of gasoline properties and composition on emissions from pre-1990 vehicles. In the first half of phase 2, studies focused on better understanding two of the larger effects observed in Phase 1; namely, the effects of fuel sulfur and distillation properties on exhaust emissions. This testing used a fleet of 1989 vehicles. Data generated from both phases played significant roles in development of the US EPA Complex Model, and the CARB Predictive Model. These models predict vehicle emissions as a function of gasoline fuel properties, and represent major portions of reformulated gasoline regulations instituted in the US and California. Fleet-Average exhaust and hot soak evaporative mass emissions and calculated ozone-forming reactivity using the most recent Carter reactivity factors are reported for the various vehicle fleet and fuel combinations. Emissions data are also reported for subsets of the fleets including only the 4-cylinder passenger cars operating on common Fuel, C2, to assess the impact of vehicle technology effects on emissions.

  4. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion Almost 2 dozen gasoline...

  5. ENVIRONMENT AVIATION, ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION PRESIDENT AND CEO, CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY, 200712 Aviation, environment, and energy

  6. A case for biofuels in aviation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  7. Effects of gasoline composition on exhaust emissions and driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoshi, H.; Nakada, M.; Kato, M.; Okada, M.; Kayanuma, N.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of changes in gasoline composition is one area to explore in our effort to reduce tailpipe emissions from vehicles. However, affects on vehicle performances should also be considered from the perspective of practical useage. In this paper, the influence of gasoline composition (aromatics), volatility, and MTBE blending on engine outlet and tailpipe emissions are discussed in particular, focusing on distillation properties which have a close relationship to driveability. Under stable driving conditions and without a catalitic converter, the effects of gasoline volatility is small, while aromatics in gasoline affect exhaust HC and NO{sub x} emissions. MTBE has a leaning effect on the engine intake air/fuel mixture. During a transient driving cycle, a high gasoline 50% distillation temperature causes poor driveability, as a result, HC emissions increase.

  8. Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-11-27

    To establish the framework for an efficient, effective, secure, and safe aviation program in the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor aviation operations. Cancels DOE O 440.2A. Canceled by DOE O 440.2C.

  9. Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-03-02

    To establish the framework for an efficient, effective, secure, and safe aviation program in the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor aviation operations. Cancels DOE O 440.2. Canceled by DOE O 440.2B.

  10. Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-11-27

    This directive establishes the framework for an efficient, effective, secure, and safe aviation program in the DOE and its contractor operations. Cancels DOE O 440.2A, Aviation, dated 3-8-02.

  11. Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-06-15

    To establish a policy framework that will ensure safety, efficiency and effectiveness of government or contractor aviation operations. Supersedes DOE O 440.2B.

  12. Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-06-15

    To establish a policy framework that will ensure safety, efficiency and effectiveness of government or contractor aviation operations. Cancels DOE O 440.2B.

  13. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-02-10

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  14. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-09-08

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  15. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  16. Portuguese refiner starts up new gasoline complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-13

    Petroleos de Portugal S.A. (Petrogal) has started up a new $85 million gasoline complex at its Sines, Portugal, refinery. The complex includes HF alkylation and Hydrisom units. The refinery also has completed an overall $650 million upgrade that includes a new visbreaker and vacuum column. Petrogal says the project has increased gasoline production to about 30,000 b/d. Major units constructed for the overall refinery expansion included: a 35,000 b/sd FCCU; a 26,000 b/sd visbreaker; a 45,000 b/sd vacuum distillation unit; two extractive mercaptan columns; an amylene treater; a sulfur-recovery system; and an 8,000 b/sd alkylation complex. The paper describes the gasoline complex, laboratory, safety, control room operation, and start-up.

  17. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  18. With Mathematica Gasoline Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    Preprint 1 With Mathematica and J: Gasoline Inventory Simulation Cliff Reiter Computational for the number of gallons of gasoline sold by a station for a thousand weeks. The pattern involves demands with the delivery and storage of the gasoline and we desire not to run out of gasoline or exceed the station

  19. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  20. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    the underlying gasoline than does blending with MTBE. Hence,gasoline like CARB, it effectively differentiated the market. Blending

  1. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  2. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of £11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  3. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  4. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    87.1 81.2 38.0 37.3 51.5 42.0 February ... 85.1 79.2 36.5 35.2 49.9 37.8 March ... 90.1 86.3 39.6 39.5 53.6 43.7 April...

  5. Prices of Refiner Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan2.442 3.028

  6. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar AprCubic(Million24565.199.6 92.9

  7. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar AprCubic(Million24565.199.6

  8. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar AprCubic(Million24565.199.613.7

  9. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar

  10. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Feb Mar87.1 81.2 38.0 37.3 51.5 42.0

  11. U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight.... 111.1Marcellus RegionProduct:

  12. Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6 Macroeconomic88.04W W W W

  13. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  14. Implementation of alternative bio-based fuels in aviation: The Clean Airports Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, was designated, in March 1996, by the US Department of Energy (US DOE) as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. There are two major fuels used in aviation today, the current piston engine aviation gasoline, and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation Gasoline (100LL), currently used in the General Aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the USA today. In the case of the turbine engine fuel (Jet fuel), there are two major environmental impacts to be considered: the local, in the vicinity of the airports, and the global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to promote the use of clean burning fuels in order to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinities of airports through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles.

  15. Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2007-01-01

    and Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices, working paper,and J. M . Perloff, 2002. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes,Gardner, K.W. , 2004. U.S. Gasoline Requirements, ExxonMobil

  16. Hydrocracking distillate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurganov, V.M.; Gorshtein, A.B.; Shkol'nik, B.L.; Shtein, V.I.

    1987-05-01

    The main shortcoming of single-stage hydrocracking is the very high level of feedstock cracking. The authors discuss the development of multistage technology in which each stage can operate under optimal conditions at a moderate conversion level, better flexibility in process control, and better process indexes. The main feature of the multistage technology is the preliminary hydrogenation of the original feed. The composition of the original feed and the middle distillate cuts obtaining in two-stage hydrocracking of a vacuum distillate from West Siberian crude, using cobalt-molybdenum oxide catalyst in the first stage and a zeolitic catalyst in the second stage is presented. Data is provided on the influence of pressure on the hydrocracking indexes.

  17. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  18. Aviation Safety Council Taipei, Taiwan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Aviation Safety Council Taipei, Taiwan GE 536 Occurrence Investigation Report Runway Overrun During ............................................................. 12 1.6.1 Maintenance Records......................................................... 12 1

  19. Data acquisition, distillation,Data acquisition, distillation, and storageand storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ' to executeDetermines `best time' to execute a program based on weather,a program based on weather, arrayData acquisition, distillation,Data acquisition, distillation, and storageand storage · FASR will produce ~10 Tbyte/day at maturity · "Raw" data products include visibility data, M&C data, calibration

  20. A Dozen Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachs, Martin

    2003-01-01

    States have the right gasoline tax? University of Californiajuly). A primer on gasoline prices. http://www.eia.gov/pub/Reasons for Raising Gasoline Taxes Martin Wachs RESEARCH

  1. Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    State Specific * Share of Gasoline State Specific * (Share of Gasoline) 2 StateSpecific * (Share of Gasoline) 3 State Specific * (Share of

  2. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Price Study Kayser, Hilke A. , 2000. Gasoline Demand andCar Choice: Estimating Gasoline Demand Using HouseholdIN GASOLINE MARKETS.

  3. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vs Gasoline Production Diesel vs Gasoline Production A look at refinery decisions that decide "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf More Documents &...

  4. Stock Analysis with Correlation for Gasoline Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi Xin

    2015-01-01

    with Correlation for Gasoline Companies A thesis submittedwith Correlation for Gasoline Companies by Yi Xin Sun Masterstudied to major gasoline companies based in United States.

  5. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated...

  6. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  7. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  8. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection...

  10. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  11. Is the gasoline tax regressive?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poterba, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Claims of the regressivity of gasoline taxes typically rely on annual surveys of consumer income and expenditures which show that gasoline expenditures are a larger fraction of income for very low income households than ...

  12. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  13. State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, Edmund Philip

    1925-03-15

    of one cent per gallon on gasoline and naptha would yield at the present estimated production, $10,000,000.,>1 At that time the United States Government was having heavy expenses to meet. The European war had begun and there was a great deal... Report 767, 65th Congress, 2nd Session. 4. Laws of Oregon, 1919, Chapter 159. 5. Engineering News-Record, 91:967. (December 13, 1923.) 287] Learned: State Gasoline Taxes 9 registered 7,580,105 automobiles and motor trucks. At pres ent, there are over...

  14. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  15. Essays on Automotive Lending, Gasoline Prices, & Automotive Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulz-Mahlendorf, Wilko Ziggy

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline PriceResponse to Chang- ing Gasoline Prices,” unpublishedShort-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand. ,” The Energy

  16. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  17. An Operations Research approach to aviation security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martonosi, Susan Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, aviation security policy has remained a focus of national attention. We develop mathematical models to address some prominent problems in aviation security. We explore ...

  18. Office of Marine and Aviation Operations NOAA's Office of Marine and Aviation Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Office of Marine and Aviation Operations NOAA's Office of Marine and Aviation Operations (OMAO) 101 2015 #12;Office of Marine and Aviation Operations For future questions and information on OMAO://www.legislative.noaa.gov/. #12;Office of Marine and Aviation Operations Director, OMAO and the NOAA Corps Rear Admiral David A

  19. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Alternative Fuels and their Potential Impact on Aviationalternative fuels, liquid hydrogen represents a possibility and may reduce some of aviation’s impacts on climate if the fuelalternative fuels ‘Alternative fuels’ here, refers to fuels that are alternative energy sources to aviation

  20. Aviation Sustainable Biofuels: An Asian Airline Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviation Sustainable Biofuels: An Asian Airline Perspective Dr Mark Watson Head of Environmental Affairs, Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd, Hong Kong Aviation Biofuels Session World Biofuels Markets, Rotterdam 24 March 2011 #12;Aviation Biofuels in Asia: Current Status · Focus on "2nd generation" sustainable

  1. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  2. Low Carbon Aviation Committee Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first committee meeting of the Propulsion and Energy Systems to Reduce Commercial Aviation Carbon Emissions Project will be held on June 2–3, 2015 at the National Academy of Sciences. BETO Director Jonathan Male will be speaking on a Department of Energy panel at the meeting, and Lead Analyst Zia Haq will be in attendance.

  3. Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and...

  4. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  5. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  6. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    1999-01-01

    Recent Changes in State Gasoline Taxation: An Analysis ofMarch The excise tax on gasoline in New York is 8.0 centsis also a sales tax on gasoline which recently stood at 7.8

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    2007) Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative:the Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (the potential of alternative fuels for aviation.

  8. Market Power in California's Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, James; Lewis, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Shares of Companies Producing Reformulated Gasoline inpossibility for a company that is in the gasoline storagegasoline producing refineries is divided among 8 companies.

  9. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to the availability of gasoline. In...

  10. Gasoline Stock Charts

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969CentralWells (MillionProved ReservesYearperDataGasoline Price

  11. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  12. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  13. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  14. Relationship between MTBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzawa, Takumi; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kashiwabara, Kimito [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujisawa, Norihiro; Matsubara, Michiro

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between MBE-blended gasoline properties and warm-up driveability is investigated by focusing on the transient combustion air-fuel ratio that strongly relates to the combustion state of the engine. As a result, although warm-up driveability of MTBE-free gasoline has a high correlation with 50% distillation temperature (T50) and a high correlation with 100 C distillation volume (E100), the correlation is found to be low when blended with MTBE. Various formulas that improve correlation with peak excess air ratio ({lambda}) by correcting T50 and E100 for the amount of MTBE blended are examined. The formula for which the highest determination coefficient is obtained is proposed as a new driveability index (DI) that can also be applied to MTBE-blended gasoline. In addition, the effect on driveability by gasoline base materials using this new DI also is investigated. The results indicate that the new DI worsen when heavy reformate containing large amounts of aromatics or MTBE, an oxygen-containing compound, is used for the octane improver, leaving the balance of the volatility out of consideration.

  15. Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    - 1 - Gasoline price volatility and the elasticity of demand for gasoline1 C.-Y. Cynthia Lina, California Abstract We examine how gasoline price volatility impacts consumers' price elasticity of demand for gasoline. Results show that volatility in prices decreases consumer demand for gasoline in the intermediate

  16. Development of an autoland system for general aviation aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Accidents due to engine failure, pilot disorientation or pilot incapacitation occur far more frequently in general aviation than in commercial aviation, yet general aviation aircraft are equipped with less safety-enhancing ...

  17. Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidential PermitDAYS - WE NEED A CHANGEof TheNREL seniorPatAVIATION

  18. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel...

  19. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be ...

  20. Hydrocracking process with improved distillate selectivity with high silica large pore zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge, R.D.; LaPierre, R.B.

    1989-04-11

    A process is described for increasing the selectivity of the production of higher boiling distillate range product in hydrocracking reactions which can produce gasoline boiling range product and higher boiling distillate range product, which process comprises: contacting a feedstock to be hydrocracked in a hydrocracking, in the presence of hydrogen and under hydrocracking conditions, with a catalyst comprising a hydrogenation component and a zeolite which has a porous lattice structure having pores with a dimension greater than 6 Angstroms and a hydrocarbon sorption capacity for hexane of at least 6 percent and has a framework silica:alumina ratio of at least about 50:1, whereby the selectivity of the process for production of the higher boiling distillate range product is preferentially increased, wherein the distillate selectivity is defined by reference to the amounts of the 165/sup 0/C-343/sup 0/C (330 F-650/sup 0/F) fraction and the total 343/sup 0/C-fraction in the hydrocracker effluent.

  1. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.68,502.854.8 419.0 45,096.6

  2. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.68,502.854.8 419.0

  3. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.68,502.854.8 419.014.2 406.0

  4. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.68,502.854.8 419.014.2

  5. Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7CubicthroughtheSeptember 24, 20145,1374.68,502.854.8 419.014.25.6

  6. Gasoline price spikes and regional gasoline context regulations : a structural approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1999, gasoline prices in California, Illinois and Wisconsin have spiked occasionally well above gasoline prices in nearby states. In May and June 2000, for example, gasoline prices in Chicago rose twenty eight cents ...

  7. Airlines & Aviation Alternative Fuels: Our Drive to Be Early...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Airlines & Aviation Alternative Fuels: Our Drive to Be Early Market Adopters Airlines & Aviation Alternative Fuels: Our Drive to Be Early Market Adopters Plenary III: Early Market...

  8. TAUM-AVIATION: ITS TECHNICALFEATURES ANDSOMEEXPERIMENTALRESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAUM-AVIATION: ITS TECHNICALFEATURES ANDSOMEEXPERIMENTALRESULTS Pierre IsabeHe and Laurent Bourbeau undertook the construction of TAUM-AVIATION, an experimental system for English to French translation in the sublanguage of technical maintenance manuals. A detailed description of the resulting prototype is offered

  9. 2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    2014-2015 Projected Aviation Program Costs UND Aerospace offers two aviation degree programs with a total of seven academic majors. Each has its own flight course requirements, which affect the cost of a degree program. BACHELOR of BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ** Flight Costs Airport Management Survey of Flight

  10. Aviation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Since the development of "Alternate Liquid Fuels" (ALF) in FY '77 approximately 16.6 million gallons of ALF have been produced, and consumed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Conservatively this represents an initial saving of over $1,253,000 thru...

  11. aviation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 Federal RegisterStorm1 3446 YEAR 2014 MalesG1/%2A

  12. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01

    of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidof Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reidhigh demand for gasoline-hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)?

  13. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellto petroleum pathways with gasoline and diesel vehicles.simplicity, we use the term ‘‘gasoline pathway” to refer to

  14. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  15. Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine Path to High Efficiency Gasoline Engine deer10johansson.pdf More Documents & Publications Partially...

  16. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    fraction of light-duty gasoline vehicle particulate matterQuinone emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.32 organic compounds from gasoline- powered motor vehicles.

  17. Edgeworth Price Cycles: Evidence from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  18. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    University. Espey, M. , 1998. "Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” working paper.Elasticities of Demand for Gasoline in Canada and the United

  19. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    California Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated NumberCalifornia Gasoline Stations Major Company Operated Numberpercentage of gasoline sold from company-operated stations

  20. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  1. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , called an entrainer, has to be added to facilitate separation and enhance distillation. When a heavy entrainer is added continuously in the top section of the batch column the process is called extractive batch distillation. When an entrainer is added batchwise to the original mixture we simply call

  2. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  3. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  4. [Research and workshop on alternative fuels for aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-09-01

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University was granted U. S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funds for research and development to improve the efficiency in ethanol powered aircraft, measure performance and compare emissions of ethanol, Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) and 100 LL aviation gasoline. The premise of the initial proposal was to use a test stand owned by Engine Components Inc. (ECI) based in San Antonio, Texas. After the grant was awarded, ECI decided to close down its test stand facility. Since there were no other test stands available at that time, RAFDC was forced to find additional support to build its own test stand. Baylor University provided initial funds for the test stand building. Other obstacles had to be overcome in order to initiate the program. The price of the emission testing equipment had increased substantially beyond the initial quote. Rosemount Analytical Inc. gave RAFDC an estimate of $120,000.00 for a basic emission testing package. RAFDC had to find additional funding to purchase this equipment. The electronic ignition unit also presented a series of time consuming problems. Since at that time there were no off-the-shelf units of this type available, one had to be specially ordered and developed. FAA funds were used to purchase a Super Flow dynamometer. Due to the many unforeseen obstacles, much more time and effort than originally anticipated had to be dedicated to the project, with much of the work done on a volunteer basis. Many people contributed their time to the program. One person, mainly responsible for the initial design of the test stand, was a retired engineer from Allison with extensive aircraft engine test stand experience. Also, many Baylor students volunteered to assemble the. test stand and continue to be involved in the current test program. Although the program presented many challenges, which resulted in delays, the RAFDC's test stand is an asset which provides an ongoing research capability dedicated to the testing of alternative fuels for aircraft engines. The test stand is now entirely functional with the exception of the electronic ignition unit which still needs adjustments.

  5. Bioventing approach to remediate a gasoline contaminated subsurface. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Griffin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. Process operations began in October 1990. The field site is located at an air station. A spill in 1969 of about 100,000 kilograms aviation gasoline was caused by a broken underground transfer line. A major portion of the spilled product still persists as an oily-phase residue in a 80x360 meter plume. The subsurface is a uniform beach sand with the ground water level near five meters. Prior to startup of the venting systems, a grass cover was established and a nutrient solution was dispersed throughout the unsaturated subsurface. Subsurface air flow patterns are being determined with a tracer gas of sulfur hexafloride. Soil gas, core material, and underground water are being monitored to determine the extent of remediation. Objectives of the study are to demonstrate that surface emissions of gasoline are minimal, oily residue will be reduced to <100 mg fuel carbon/Kg core material, and the process will be applicable to full-scale remediation. Flow rate is based on a calculated residence time of 24 hours. Surface emission of fuel hydrocarbons have not exceeded 1 micrograms/liter soil gas.

  6. Household gasoline demand in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Continuing rapid growth in U.S. gasoline consumption threatens to exacerbate environmental and congestion problems. We use flexible semiparametric and nonparametric methods to guide analysis of household gasoline consumption, ...

  7. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  8. Improved Usability of Aviation Automation Through Direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    Improved Usability of Aviation Automation Through Direct Manipulation and Graphical User Interface Design David B. Kaber and Jennifer M. Riley Department of Industrial Engineering North Carolina State University Kheng-Wooi Tan Department of Industrial Engineering Mississippi State University Problems

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

  10. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  11. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

  12. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan H.

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

  13. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  14. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  15. Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. ...

  16. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

  17. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    ATA (2009). “ Alternative Aviation Fuels Q&A. ” Retrievedsectors, alternative aviation and marine fuels face numerousHRJ. The Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative (

  19. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulationand Wholesale Gasoline Prices,” Journal of Environmentaland Heterogeneity in U.S. Gasoline Prices,” Journal of

  20. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at

  1. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Net Receipts

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

  3. Current and historical trends in general aviation in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shetty, Kamala Irene

    2012-01-01

    General aviation (GA) is an important component of aviation in the United States. In 2011, general aviation and air taxi operations represented 63% of all towered operations in the United States, while commercial aviation ...

  4. Benefit-cost assessment of aviation environmental policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Christopher K. (Christopher Kenneth)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aids in the development of a framework in which to conduct global benefit-cost assessments of aviation policies. Current policy analysis tools, such as the aviation environmental portfolio management tool (APMT), ...

  5. Estimating the environmental benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorbian, Christopher S. (Christopher Salvatore)

    2010-01-01

    With commercial aviation continuing to grow and environmental policymaking activity intensifying, it is becoming increasingly necessary to assess the environmental impact of measures that result in changes in aviation fuel ...

  6. The air quality and health impacts of aviation in Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, In Hwan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Aviation in Asia is growing more rapidly than other regions around the world. Adverse health impacts of aviation are linked to an increase in the concentration of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 [mu]m in diameter ...

  7. Future trends in local air quality impacts of aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojo, Julien Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization is considering the use of cost-benefit analyses to estimate interdependencies between the industry costs and the major environmental impacts in policy-making for aviation. To ...

  8. An assessment of the health implications of aviation emissions regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sequeira, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    An exploration of the health implications of aviation emissions regulations is made by assessing the results of a study of aviation's effects on United States air quality mandated by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The ...

  9. The U.S. aviation system to the year 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.

    1982-01-01

    Introduction: 1.1 The Future of the Aviation System. It is nothing if not presumptuous to look ahead twenty years in any phase of human activity. This seems particularly true in civil aviation where the certificated airlines ...

  10. Alternative fuels : how can aviation cross the "Valley of Death"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, William E. (William Elton)

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has used petroleum-derived fuels for over 100 years. With the rapidly rising price of oil and concerns about supply, the military and the commercial airlines are fostering the development of an alternative aviation ...

  11. Entanglement distillation in optomechanics via unsharp measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Víctor Montenegro; Alessandro Ferraro; Sougato Bose

    2015-03-15

    Quantum technologies based on optical Gaussian states have proven very promising in terms of scalability. However, their use in quantum networking is hindered by the fact that Gaussian entanglement cannot be distilled via Gaussian operations. We take advantage of hybrid optomechanical systems to address this problem, proposing a scheme to distill optical two-mode squeezed vacua via unsharp measurements. Here, one of the optical modes is injected into a single sided Fabry-P\\'{e}rot cavity and non-linearly coupled to a mechanical oscillator. Afterwards, the position of the oscillator is measured using pulsed optomechanics and homodyne detection. Our results show that this measurement can conditionally increase the initial entanglement under an optimal radiation-pressure interaction strength, which corresponds to an effective unsharp non-Gaussian measurement of the photon number inside the cavity. We show how the resulting entanglement distillation can be verified by using a standard quantum teleportation procedure.

  12. Essays on gasoline price spikes, environmental regulation of gasoline content, and incentives for refinery operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muehlegger, Erich J

    2005-01-01

    Since 1999, regional retail and wholesale gasoline markets in the United States have experienced significant price volatility, both intertemporally and across geographic markets. In particular, gasoline prices in California, ...

  13. Texas A&M University -Central Texas Aviation History I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diestel, Geoff

    Texas A&M University - Central Texas Aviation History I ASCK 307 110 Fall 2013 Instructor: Dr;Username: Your Tarleton email address (the complete email address, e.g. john.doe@go.tarleton.edu) Initial.org/UNILERT I. Overview Aviation History Part I gives students a unique perspective on international aviation

  14. Reducing Aviation's Environmental Impact Through Large Aircraft For Short Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingg, David W.

    aviation's impact on climate change. Examples include alternative fuels,4,5 blendedReducing Aviation's Environmental Impact Through Large Aircraft For Short Ranges Gaetan K.W Kenway,500 nm. We show that the impact of civil aviation on climate change can be reduced by using large

  15. Report to the United States Congress AVIATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waitz, Ian A.

    Report to the United States Congress AVIATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT A National Vision Statement, Framework for Goals and Recommended Actions #12;Report to the United States Congress AVIATION and Recommended Actions FireflyProductions/CORBIS #12; Report to the United States Congress: Aviation

  16. Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study Gasoline Vehicle Exhuast Particle Sampling Study 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota 2003deerkittelson.pdf More...

  17. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  18. Retail Policies and Competition in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin; Bushnell, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Total Volume Table 4 - Gasoline Price Components Year RetailEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets." Journal of Law,and Competition in the Gasoline Industry I. II. III. IV. V.

  19. Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Zamarripa, Pablo A. Marchetti, Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie Mellon Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits

  20. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    homes in the United States use middle distillate as a primary energy source for heating. -homes in the United States use middle distillate as their primary energy source for heating. -

  1. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, P.

    1979-01-01

    Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture...

  2. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01

    (disturbance) and the response of the top tray temperature(controlled variable). This thesis will also outline a simulation software to characterize a benzene-toluene binary distillation column and an X-window based Graphical User Interface to run the simulation....

  3. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    of theoretical trays in any re boiled distillation column. Columns in which all of the required heat enters with the feed cannot achieve i I I ....e-.........c..._. I "

  4. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and Technology N--7034 Trondheim Norway Abstract The task of separating a multicomponent mixture into streams shell using dividing walls or vertical partitions. INTRODUCTION Industrial distillation processes is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet­ lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  5. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and Technology N­7034 Trondheim Norway Abstract The task of separating a multicomponent mixture intostreams shell using dividing walls or vertical partitions. INTRODUCTION Industrial distillation processes is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  6. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woinsky, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    to the foremost practitioner of the Advanced Distillation art, due to a 30 year continuity in Ule area as both a consultant and a university professor. His consulting assignments lu1ve been long-ternl companies such as M, W, Kellogg... when a plgasoline have lead...

  7. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    multicomponent.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities...

  8. An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines An Experimental Investigation of Low Octane Gasoline in Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and...

  9. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection Supercritical dieseline could be...

  10. In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate and Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Materials In Vitro Genotoxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Engine Vehicle Exhaust Particulate...

  11. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods...

  12. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of...

  13. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  14. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis,...

  15. Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating, and Hydrocracking Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from...

  16. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Mortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxesMortgage or Rent Gasoline and Motor Oil Income after taxes

  17. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Formulations Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 FigureI: Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for2001- 2006 Crude Oil CA Regular Reformulated Figure II:

  18. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies...

  19. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  20. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  1. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  2. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    90: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact 890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output...

  3. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  4. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Fact 869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

  5. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level EthanolGasoline Test Fluid The National Renewable Energy...

  6. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  7. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort version)

  8. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort

  9. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5, 2014

  10. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,

  11. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) GasolineShort5,long

  12. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline prices

  13. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version)Gasoline pricesshort

  14. Liquid hydrogen - An alternative aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R.O.

    1991-02-01

    This paper examines the past and current activities concerning the development of liquid hydrogen as an alternative turbine engine aviation fuel, and also provides a look at the technical and market requirements that determine the viability of substitutes for conventional jet fuel. Alternative aviation fuels must address the following issues: availability, distribution, energy density, compatibility, economics, safety, handling, and quality control. Preliminary hardware demonstrations and analyses have shown that liquid hydrogen seems to be technically feasible, and may be eventually superior to petroleum-based jet fuel. Disadvantages include low ignition energy and a high flame velocity. From the environmental standpoint, hydrogen combustion in aircraft turbine engines can be expected to eliminate smoke emissions, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide. As to the marketing perspective, liquid hydrogen has broad applicability as a fuel in other transportation sectors that could allow multiindustry involvement in its development and commercialization.

  15. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  16. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  17. EA-2000: Proposed Land Transfer to Develop a General Aviation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2000: Proposed Land Transfer to Develop a General Aviation Airport at the East Tennessee Technology Park Heritage Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee EA-2000: Proposed Land Transfer to...

  18. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1998 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  19. Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 Table 49. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Residual Fuel Oil by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  20. Edgeworth price cycles in retail gasoline markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael David, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    In this dissertation, I present three essays that are motivated by the interesting and dynamic price-setting behavior of firms in Canadian retail gasoline markets. In the first essay, I examine behavior at the market level ...

  1. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  2. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  3. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testoligopoly, market power, gasoline Abstract: This paperand distribution of gasoline and the wholesale price of

  4. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Robbery, An Analysis of the Gasoline Crisis”, Bloomington:Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofR. Gilbert. “Do Gasoline Markets Respond Asymmetrically to

  5. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel

    2011-01-01

    of Transportation and Gasoline Demand. ” Bell Journal ofA Semiparametric Analysis of Gasoline Demand in the Uniteda dynamic demand function for gasoline with di?erent schemes

  6. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.OH. , “Temporary Wholesale Gasoline Price Spikes have Long-from the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  7. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard; Hastings, Justine

    2001-01-01

    Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Testfor the reÞning and distribution of gasoline and the whole-sale price of unbranded gasoline sold to independent

  8. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    1 2. A Reduced-Form Gasoline PriceThe Case of Retail Gasoline Markets,” The Journal of Law andof Organizational Form in Gasoline Retailing and the Costs

  9. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  10. Premium Gasoline Overbuying in the U.S.: Consumer-Based Choice Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiawan, Winardi; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    1990), Economics gasoline pool octane of growth, U.S.sensitive to modest is gasoline price shifts. Theprimary1991b), Effect of gasoline octane quality on vehicle

  11. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Atkinson, B . (2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: EvidenceEvidence on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "of Adjustment of U K Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes"

  12. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Emissions. 2. Volatile Organic Compound Speciation and Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Singer, Brett; Harley, Robert

    1999-01-01

    California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle EmissionsCalifornia Reformulated Gasoline on Motor Vehicle EmmissionsBerkeley Environ. ScLTechnoL gasoline Impact California of

  13. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    May 2004. Espey, M. “Gasoline Demand Revisited: AnRun Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand,” Energy Journal,114. Poterba, J. “Is the Gasoline Tax Regressive? ,” in D.

  14. Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yang

    2013-01-01

    M. ,   et   al. ,   Gasoline  conversion:  reactivity  al. ,   Methanol   to   gasoline   over   zeolite   H-­?of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam

  15. Evidence of a Shift in the Short-Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Jonathan; Knittel, Christopher R; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An Empirical-Analysis of Gasoline Demand in Denmark UsingT. (1991). "Analyzing Gasoline Demand Elasticities: AConsumer Adjustment to a Gasoline Tax." The Review of

  16. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    California reformulated gasoline on motor vehicle emissions.Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline OIl Motor Vehicleprogress, increased vehicle Gasoline Motor on Vehicle travel

  17. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cellon Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Gasoline Vapor Recovery (Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel

  18. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 5 MwIN. J. GLOBALReformulated and Conventional Gasoline, 35 I.L.M. 274, 277 (regulations governing gasoline formulation to ensure that

  19. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmet-George. (2004) “Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and LocalAsymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  20. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical EvidenceAn Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matt Lewis*An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market Matthew Lewis ?

  1. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market,” July 2005.the Toronto Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of IndustrialPower? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline Market,” Journal of

  2. Clearing the Air: The Clean Air Act, GATT and the WTO's Reformulated Gasoline Decision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrory, Martin A.; Richards, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    method requires oil companies to produce gasoline that meetsgas requirements. Companies could certify their gasoline byoil company. PDVSA claimed that the reformulated gasoline

  3. Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chouinard, Hayley; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Gasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Vertical Relations Lease Operated Company OperatedGasoline Law (0 – 1) Vertical Relations Lease Operated (%) Company

  4. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Sangran

    2012-01-01

    that we should use alternative aviation fuels instead ofbe used as an aviation alternative fuel. Bio-ethanol does1.1.3 Aviation biofuels Biofuels are alternative fuels

  5. Unifying classical and quantum key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

    2007-02-28

    Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

  6. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its shortcomings, and its relevance to HCCI. Section 3 discusses the effects of fuel volatility on fuel and air mixing and the consequences it has on HCCI. The effects of alcohol fuels on HCCI performance, and specifically the effects that they have on the operable speed/load range, are reviewed in Section 4. Finally, conclusions are drawn in Section 5.

  7. American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5AllEnergyAmeriPower LLC Jump to:Distillation Inc Jump

  8. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, T

    2006-01-01

    emissions from vegetation pyrolysis Comprehensive laboratoryfrom the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P.J. Anal. and Appl. Pyrolysis, 60, 123–130, 2000. Fall, R. :

  9. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  10. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    limitations for shipping applications are fuel storagefuel, or possibly the inclusion of aviation and shipping andfuels used in international aviation and maritime shipping),

  12. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    aviation and marine travel are higher than energy efficiencyintensity of the energy sources used in aviation and marineand marine diesel oil) or to other renewable energy sources,

  13. The Impact of Advanced Biofuels on Aviation Emissions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In all cases, as renewable jet fuel represents around 1.4% of total fuel consumed by commercial aviation, the goal has a small impact on aviation operations and emissions relative to a case without the renewable for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR

  14. ISSUE NO. 8 The Aviation Safety Reporting System is a cooperative program established by the Federal Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nearly 30 papers on aviation safety and incident reporting, and was called upon to present testimony as an authoritative witness on aviation safety at several Congressional hearings. Bill already had an illustrious University College of Law in 1969, Bill served as Legal Counsel / Congressional Affairs to the National

  15. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system ranks the blogs in descending order of relevance to the query topic. Our approach is based on the idea

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  17. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retail Gasoline Price Dynamics and Local Market Power,”of Local Market Power? Evidence from the Retail Gasoline

  18. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  19. Revisiting the Income Effect: Gasoline Prices and Grocery Purchases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gicheva, Dora; Hastings, Justine; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices, 2000-2006 Figure I:Weekly Gasoline and Crude Oil Prices for 2001- 2006 Crudeargue that increases in oil prices may lead to recessions

  20. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  1. Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey of worldwide gasoline prices for February and March, 2009, shows that European countries had the highest prices for gasoline with the Netherlands topping the list at $6.25 per gallon. The...

  2. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline...

  3. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  4. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  5. Mild hydrocracking for middle distillate production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippett, T.W.; Ward, J.W.

    1985-03-01

    Twenty years ago the first Unicracking plant was installed at Union Oil Company's Los Angeles Refinery. Since that time, 58 Unicracking plants have been installed, converted from other technologies, or are in engineering. The Unicracking process installed at Los Angeles Refinery was pioneering in a number of ways. In particular, it was the first hydrocracking process to use molecular sieve based catalysts. It was also the first hydrocracking process to use integral process technology, namely, the total hydrofined product from the hydrotreater passed without separation into the cracking reactor. The original process was primarily designed to produce high yields of high octane gasoline. Since that time, there have been many changes in the requirements of refinery upgrading units due to changes in and availability of feedstocks, and due to changing product distribution slates. In response to these changing objectives, many modifications have occurred in the Unicracking process and catalysts. Some of the process and catalyst innovations recently implemented are discussed in this paper.

  6. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is possible on the overall totals, to the current FHWA estimates. Because NONROAD2005 model was designed for emission estimation purposes (i.e., not for measuring fuel consumption), it covers different equipment populations from those the FHWA models were based on. Thus, a direct comparison generally was not possible in most sectors. As a result, NONROAD2005 data were not used in the 2008 update of the FHWA off-highway models. The quality of fuel use estimates directly affect the data quality in many tables published in the Highway Statistics. Although updates have been made to the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use Gasoline Model, some challenges remain due to aging model equations and discontinuation of data sources.

  7. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  8. National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, P.

    2008-10-01

    Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

  9. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline

  10. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasolineGasoline4,

  11. Recovery of near-anhydrous ethanol as gasoline additive from fermentation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boukouvalas, C.; Markoulaki, E.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    1995-06-01

    The use of near-anhydrous ethanol, obtained from fermentation products through low pressure distillation, as a gasoline additive is examined. To this purpose, a reliable model for predicting the azeotropic composition of an ethanol-water mixture as a function of the pressure is presented. It is developed by considering the available thermodynamic consistent experimental data and using the Wilson and the virial equations for the liquid-and vapor-phase nonideality, respectively. It is concluded that, for an area with no extremely cold winters-minimum ambient temperature -20{degrees}C-alcohol with 96.5%(wt) purity can be used in a 90/10 (vol) gasohol mixture. Such an alcohol can be produced with a single distillation column operating at 140 mmHg pressure with an energy consumption of 5150 kJ/kg of product; or with a system of two columns with lower energy consumption but higher capital cost. These energy consumptions are very sensitive to the accuracy of the predicted azeotropic composition at the operating pressures.

  12. Alternative fuels for general aviation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials, U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, August 29, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Five witnesses representing general aviation and aviation fuel industries and the Federal Aviation Administration testified on the potential for using alternative fuels in general aviation to counteract the effects of high prices and supply vulnerability on the industry. The witnesses described test results of liquid methane and alcohol fuels, noting that those fuels which most closely emulate the properties of petroleum will best serve the industry's needs. Their testimony covered environmental and economic effects as well as fuel performance. The Synthetic Fuels Corporation, DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Defense, as well as the aviation industry have research programs on aviation fuels.

  13. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004... 2005 2006 gasoline diesel price +10% gasolinegasoline gasoline diesel... ... 2007 20081998 2009 ...2010 home work home work diesel diesel ... gasoline diesel price -7 of a dynamic discrete-continuous choice model (DDCCM) of car ownership, usage and fuel type. The approach

  14. What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Soren T. Anderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    What Do Consumers Believe About Future Gasoline Prices? Soren T. Anderson Michigan State University of consumers about their expectations of future gasoline prices. Overall, we find that consumer beliefs follow a random walk, which we deem a reasonable forecast of gasoline prices, but we find a deviation from

  15. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation Christopher R. Knittel and Aaron proponents of ethanol have argued that ethanol production greatly lowers gasoline prices, with one industry group claiming it reduced gasoline prices by 89 cents in 2010 and $1.09 in 2011. The estimates have been

  16. ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Gasoline Prices Jump Up on Mondays: an Outcome of Aggressive Competition? by Øystein Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Gasoline prices jump up on Mondays: An outcome, 2008 Abstract This paper examines Norwegian gasoline pump prices using daily station

  17. Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Automobile Prices, Gasoline Prices, and Consumer Demand for Fuel Economy Ashley Langer University 2008 Abstract The relationship between gasoline prices and the demand for vehicle fuel efficiency evidence that automobile manufacturers set vehicle prices as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We

  18. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-075 Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from in Retail Gasoline Markets Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Justine S, if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences

  19. 2003-01-2975 NASA's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maluf, David A.

    flight data recorders, ATC radar tracks, maintenance logs, weather records, aviation safety incident2003-01-2975 NASA's Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling Project Irving C. Statler and David A NASA's Aviation Safety Program, the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project addresses

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies Additional optimization of shipping logistics, routing and maintenance

  1. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  2. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  3. Impact of petroleum, synthetic and cryogenic fuels on civil aviation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, C.L.

    1982-06-01

    Partial contents of this report are: World and Long-Term Energy View; U.S. Aviation in the Fuel Market; U.S. Petroleum Forecasting; Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR); Petroleum Refining and Aviation Fuels; Natural Gas; Synthetic Fuels for Aviation; Cryogenic Fuels and Other; Aviation Propulsion; Alternative Ground Fuels and Energy Sources; Fuel Conservation in Aviation and Disruption of U.S. Crude Oil Imports.

  4. The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, J. P.

    1914-05-15

    . A large number of teste were mcde on samples of gas containing gasoline vapor prepared as described on a previous page. The solvents for these tests were first saturated with the oity natural gas by bubbling it thru the solvent for a considerable...

  5. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  6. Service network design optimization for Army Aviation lift planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mogensen, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

    2014-01-01

    The need for optimized aviation lift planning is becoming increasingly important as the United States and her allies participate in the Global War on Terror (GWOT). As part of a comprehensive effort, our nation's fighting ...

  7. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation for general aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwoschinsky, Peter V.

    1975-01-01

    A seventy hour flight test program was accomplished to determine the suitability and accuracy of a low cost Omega navigation receiver in a general aviation aircraft. An analysis was made of signal availability in two widely ...

  8. Comparative analysis of aviation safety information feedback systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funahashi, Yoshifuru

    2010-01-01

    In the aviation system, there are several feedback systems to prevent an accident. First of all, the accident and serious incident reporting and investigation system is established by the Chicago Convention. In general, ...

  9. A general equilibrium analysis of climate policy for aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Christopher Whittlesey

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of aviation's contribution to the global problem of climate change is increasingly likely in the near term, but the method agreed upon by most economists-a multi-sectoral market-based approach such as a cap and ...

  10. Automated safety and training avionics for general aviation aircraft 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trang, Jeffrey Alan

    1997-01-01

    and Training Avionics (ASTRA). ASTRA research is focused on integrating low-cost, yet sophisticated, computing technology into general aviation aircraft. The system architecture includes a Flight Mode Interpreter (FMI), which provides real-time identification...

  11. UNSW School of Aviation S2-2015 Colloquium Series Location: School of Aviation, Old Main Building, Level 2, Room 221

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    UNSW School of Aviation S2-2015 Colloquium Series Location: School of Aviation, Old Main Building September Jim Mitchell UWS Human Factors & Safety Automation in light aircraft: a cross national analysis

  12. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  13. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  14. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  15. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  16. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  17. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    of applications, embody characteristics that inherently make them economic candidates for absorption cycle heat upgrading. Practical applications to current U.S. distillations could save 30 trillion BTU per year, at payback periods ranging from 1 to 3 years. So...

  18. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    2002-01-01

    and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns Ketan Samant, Aspen Technology Ian Sinclair, Aspen Technology Ginger Keady, Aspen Technology This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment...

  19. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

  20. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can..., and then recompressing the low-pressure bottom vapors and injecting them directly into the column bottom. The choice of either scheme is a function of the physical properties of the vapors; i.e., the specific volume of the top or bottom vapors may dictate the most...

  1. New Vehicle Choice, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliott William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  2. New Vehicle Choices, Fuel Economy and Vehicle Incentives: An Analysis of Hybrid Tax Credits and Gasoline Tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elliot William

    2009-01-01

    Run Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand', The Energy Journal2007) The Link Between Gasoline Prices and Vehicle Sales:Tax Credits and the Gasoline Tax Elliot William Martin

  3. Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

  4. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    NJ. Koenig, R. , 1984. Gasoline alley: service stations area parametric analysis of US gasoline station networks. Inof innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and

  5. Turn of the century refueling: A review of innovations in early gasoline refueling methods and analogies for hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melaina, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    from the Atlantic Gasoline Company. Smithsonian Institute (names in gasoline dispensing history, Bowser and Company,companies had started the shift from kerosene to gasoline as

  6. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  7. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  8. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  9. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    crude distillation unit, is converted to gasoline, and thethe vacuum distillation unit is converted to gasoline. Newer

  11. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in refinery output resulted in tight supplies on the West Coast. In addition, few refineries outside of California are equipped to produce the gasoline formulation that can be...

  12. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerfujita.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's...

  13. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakober, Chris A.

    2008-01-01

    emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles. Environ.of four dilutions of diesel engine exhaust for a subchronicautomobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Environ. Sci.

  14. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  15. Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 48. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Motor Gasoline by Grade, Formulation, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) -...

  16. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  18. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  19. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063smith2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel...

  20. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros% CO2 reduction) at a significantly...

  1. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Program Update Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions...

  2. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reserve right here in New York Harbor." "Like sandbags and stockpiles of food and medicine, this gasoline reserve is what the Northeast needs to be ready for supercharged...

  3. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  4. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  5. Enabling and Expanding HCCI in PFI Gasoline Engines with High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High-Dilution Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct-Injection (SGDI) Combustion Control Development Enabling the Next Generation of...

  6. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding airfuel zones richer than...

  7. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per...

  8. Economic and emissions impacts of renewable fuel goals for aviation in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnachie, Dominic

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the economic and emissions impacts of this goal ...

  9. A response surface model of the air quality impacts of aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma?ek, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    Aviation demand is expected to double in the coming decades, and there are growing concerns about its impacts on the environment. Governments seek to mitigate the impacts of aviation on climate, air quality, and noise by ...

  10. Life Cycle Analysis of the Production of Aviation Fuels Using the CE-CERT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Sangran

    2012-01-01

    energy crop cultivation 16 . The second and third generation biofuels have much better potential as aviation fuelenergy, a CBTL process with CE-CERT process combined is expected to be of great potential in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic aviation fuel

  11. A system theoretic safety analysis of U.S. Coast Guard aviation mishap involving CG-6505

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickey, Jon (Jon Patrick)

    2012-01-01

    During a 22-month period, between 2008 and 2010, the U.S. Coast Guard experienced seven Class-A aviation mishaps resulting in the loss of 14 Coast Guard aviators and seven Coast Guard aircraft. This represents the highest ...

  12. Dynamics of Implementation of Mitigating Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul

    2010-07-13

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO2 emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  13. Aviation environmental policy effects on national- and regional-scale air quality, noise, and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Philip J. (Philip James)

    2012-01-01

    The continued growth of the aviation industry poses a challenge to policy-makers and industry stakeholders as each decision represents a trade-off on efficiency, equity, and environmental impact. The Aviation environmental ...

  14. The air quality impact of aviation in future-year emissions scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of aviation is critical to the world and US economy, and it faces several important challenges among which lie the environmental impacts of aviation on noise, climate and air quality. The first objective ...

  15. Dynamics of implementation of mitigating measures to reduce CO? emissions from commercial aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO? emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  16. The Impact of Advanced Biofuels on Aviation Emissions and Operations in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, N.

    We analyze the economic and emissions impacts on U.S. commercial aviation of the Federal Aviation Administration’s renewable jet fuel goal when met using advanced fermentation (AF) fuel from perennial grasses. These fuels ...

  17. Impacts of Oxygenated Gasoline Use on California Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Addition of oxTgenates gasoline will not reduce ozone to (3)I. Y. remote sensing 1994 gasoline samples ranged from 0.7weight reported for liquid gasoline with an RVP Assoc. 1990,

  18. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  19. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    AT A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.A T A SITE OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L.a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high V O C

  20. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Lifecycle Cost and Energy-Use Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Burke, Andy; Lipman, Timothy; Miller, Marshall

    2000-01-01

    147 Lifecycle cost (break-even gasoline price): base-casegrease. 37B part: Fuel Gasoline, for the conventional ICEVs.BTU-from-battery to mi/BTU-gasoline. C OST SUMMARY (F ORD T

  1. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Adjustment of U.K. Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes. ”C. and R. Gilbert (1997) “Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asym-Asymmetries in Local Gasoline Markets” Energy Economics

  2. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2004-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentRe?ning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  3. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  4. The Speed of Gasoline Price Response in Markets With and Without Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt; Noel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    true cost of gasoline because re?ning companies manipulatebranded gasoline sold by large re?ning companies to theirbranded” gasoline of a major re?ning company such as BP,

  5. Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Consumer Search: An Examination of the Retail Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Matt

    2003-01-01

    stations sell gasoline under a parent company’s brand name.to buy gasoline from their parent company. The parentReÞning companies heavily advertise that the gasoline sold

  6. Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisele, D.

    2014-01-01

    Reactors Advanced Process Control Freeport Texas Plant ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC 6/2/2014 INTERNAL... Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC – Control Matrix 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 3 ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...

  7. Airborne Volcanic Ash--A Global Threat to Aviation U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Airborne Volcanic Ash--A Global Threat to Aviation U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological on the aviation industry. Airborne volcanic ash can be a serious hazard to aviation even hundreds of miles from an eruption. Encounters with high-concentration ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control

  8. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    of the world econ- omy and demand for aviation and its emissions are expected to increase in the future from aviation (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), VOCsComparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

  9. Clearing the Air? The Effects of Gasoline Content Regulation on Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Kellogg, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    components—particularly butane—in the gasoline they sell (times more reactive than butane, the compound that refinersprimarily by removing the VOC butane from their gasoline, as

  10. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  11. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  12. A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control...

  13. Edgeworth Price Cycles, Cost-based Pricing and Sticky Pricing in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic Pricing in Retail gasoline Markets”, RAND Journal ofin the Canadian Retail Gasoline Market”, Energy Economics [Associates. “Canadian Retail Petroleum Markets Study”, Re-

  14. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil PricesRegular gasoline retail prices

  15. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

  16. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowers 2015ValuesEFueluplonglongGasoline

  17. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline prices

  18. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) TheGasoline

  19. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline prices

  20. Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong version) Gasoline

  1. Trends in Exhaust Emissions from In-Use California Light-Duty Vehicles, 1994-2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kean, Andrew J.; Sawyer, Robert F.; Harley, Robert A.; Kendall, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    and distillation properties. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION GASOLINEand gasoline reformulation (i.e. , modified distillation

  2. INTELLIGENT ILLICIT OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM FOR ENHANCED AVIATION SECURITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumenstein, Michael

    , Gold Coast Campus, QLD 9726, Australia. Email: {v.muthu, m.blumenstein, j.jo, s.green}@griffith.edu.au ABSTRACT Although aviation security is not a new phenomenon to the world, current threats are much more stopped by an object, the kinetic energy of those electrons is converted to heat and X

  3. Aero/Astro 50th Anniversary May 2008 Sustainable Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    : Develop technologies that will allow a tripling of capacity with a reduction in environmental impact. #12 follows AATR-42 · acoustic noise is dispersed over large area · 4800 foot separation for IFR approach FourAero/Astro 50th Anniversary May 2008 Sustainable Aviation: Future Air Transportation

  4. The Impact of Climate Policy on U.S. Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, Niven

    We evaluate the impact of an economy-wide cap-and-trade policy on U.S. aviation taking the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (H.R.2454) as a representative example. We use an economywide model to estimate the ...

  5. Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Availability Impact on GPS Aviation due to Strong Ionospheric Scintillation JIWON SEO TODD WALTER availability during a severe scintillation period observed using data from the previous solar maximum are considered. Availability results for both vertical and horizontal navigation during the severe scintillation

  6. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  7. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specific designs and material properties have to be developed for gasoline particulate filters based on the different engine and exhaust gas characteristic of gasoline engines compared to diesel engines, e.g., generally lower levels of engine-out particulate emissions or higher GDI exhaust gas temperatures

  8. Author's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    more than 16% from 1973 to 1974 when the oil crisis occurred. International oil prices historically-grade unleaded gasoline price data from the Energy Information Administration of the U.S. Department of EnergyAuthor's personal copy Gasoline prices and traffic safety in Mississippi Guangqing Chi a, , Arthur

  9. Empirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    characteristics correlate with the speed of cost to retail price pass-through. The driving and commuting behaviorEmpirical Regularities of Asymmetric Pricing in the Gasoline Industry Marc Remer August 2, 2010 pricing in the retail gasoline industry, and also documents empirical regularities in the market. I find

  10. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  11. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  12. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend components for turbine engine fuels as discussed in this paper.

  13. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  14. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    -butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

  15. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal energy (e.g. Koschikowski et al, 2003): #12;Solar thermal powered desalination: reviewSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal

  16. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    savings in energy consumption and reduction of investment cost. In this paper we give an overview of some and calculate energy requirements and provide a basis for detailed design. Reduced CO2 emission is an additional, and to carry out this separation with a minimum cost and energy consumption. Distillation is the most widely

  17. Hydrocracking process with integrated distillate product hydrogenation reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoehn, R.K.; Reno, M.E.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a hydrocracking process. It comprises passing a feed stream which comprises an admixture of hydrocarbons boiling above 240 degrees Centigrade and hydrogen through a hydrocracking reaction zone maintained at hydrocracking conditions and producing a mixed-phase hydrocracking reaction zone effluent stream; separating the mixed-phase hydrocracking reaction zone effluent stream into a first vapor stream, which comprises hydrogen, light hydrocarbons and distillate hydrocarbons, and a first liquid stream, which comprises distillate hydrocarbons; forming a second vapor stream and a second liquid, stream by partially condensing the first vapor stream, with the second liquid stream comprising distillate hydrocarbons and having a lower average boiling point than the first liquid stream; passing the second liquid stream and added hydrogen through a hydrogenation reaction zone maintained at hydrogenation conditions and producing a hydrogenation zone effluent stream; and, passing distillate hydrocarbons present in the hydrogenation zone effluent stream and the first liquid stream into a fractionation zone, and recovering a hydrocracking zone product stream.

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin and mineral premixes

  19. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The daily desalinated water output per square metre of solar collector area is estimated for a number suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal concentrating collectors on a medium to largeSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K

  20. Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of the energy consumption. When the column is oper­ ated optimally, the infinite staged Petlyuk column always Extended Abstract The Petlyuk (Petlyuk 1965) arrangement for separation of a ternary mixture into three pure product streams has the potential of 20­50% energy savings compared to conventional distillation

  1. Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of the energy consumption. When the column is oper- ated optimally, the infinite staged Petlyuk column always Extended Abstract The Petlyuk (Petlyuk 1965) arrangement for separation of a ternary mixture into three pure product streams has the potential of 20-50% energy savings compared to conventional distillation

  2. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    the synthetic sample and experimental study previously carried out. (e) To correlate steam-propane distillation yields for some crude oils and synthetic hydrocarbons to generate steam-propane distillation data that could be used to develop the input data... there is need to develop a model to predict distillate yield under any set of conditions for any heavy oil, requiring only the simulated distillation (SIMDIS) trace (i.e. percent off vs. normal boiling temperature) of the oil. The expected deliverables from...

  3. Assessment of Summer 1997 motor gasoline price increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    Gasoline markets in 1996 and 1997 provided several spectacular examples of petroleum market dynamics. The first occurred in spring 1996, when tight markets, following a long winter of high demand, resulted in rising crude oil prices just when gasoline prices exhibit their normal spring rise ahead of the summer driving season. Rising crude oil prices again pushed gasoline prices up at the end of 1996, but a warm winter and growing supplies weakened world crude oil markets, pushing down crude oil and gasoline prices during spring 1997. The 1996 and 1997 spring markets provided good examples of how crude oil prices can move gasoline prices both up and down, regardless of the state of the gasoline market in the United States. Both of these spring events were covered in prior Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports. As the summer of 1997 was coming to a close, consumers experienced yet another surge in gasoline prices. Unlike the previous increase in spring 1996, crude oil was not a factor. The late summer 1997 price increase was brought about by the supply/demand fundamentals in the gasoline markets, rather than the crude oil markets. The nature of the summer 1997 gasoline price increase raised questions regarding production and imports. Given very strong demand in July and August, the seemingly limited supply response required examination. In addition, the price increase that occurred on the West Coast during late summer exhibited behavior different than the increase east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, the Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) 5 region needed additional analysis (Appendix A). This report is a study of this late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  4. Implementation Guide - Aviation Program Performance Indicators (Metrics) for use with DOE O 440.2B, Aviation Management And Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-10

    The Guide provides information regarding Departmental expectations on provisions of DOE 440.2B, identifies acceptable methods of implementing Aviation Program Performance Indicators (Metrics) requirements in the Order, and identifies relevant principles and practices by referencing Government and non-Government standards. Canceled by DOE G 440.2B-1A.

  5. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  6. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  7. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Stevens, Don J.; Kinchin, Christopher; Czernik, Stefan

    2009-02-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization. The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio-oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The plant is designed to use 2000 dry metric tons/day of hybrid poplar wood chips to produce 76 million gallons/year of gasoline and diesel. The processing steps include: 1.Feed drying and size reduction 2.Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3.Hydrotreating of the fast pyrolysis oil to a stable hydrocarbon oil with less than 2% oxygen 4.Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The “as received” feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be “reactor ready.” This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed prep, fast pyrolysis, and upgrading. Stabilized, upgraded pyrolysis oil is transferred to the refinery for separation and finishing into motor fuels. The off-gas from the hydrotreaters is also transferred to the refinery, and in return the refinery provides lower-cost hydrogen for the hydrotreaters. This reduces the capital investment. Production costs near $2/gal (in 2007 dollars) and petroleum industry infrastructure-ready products make the production and upgrading of pyrolysis oil to hydrocarbon fuels an economically attractive source of renewable fuels. The study also identifies technical areas where additional research can potentially lead to further cost improvements.

  8. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department. It is well known which variables to control in normal distillation columns. But for heat integrated for heat integrated distillation columns. We will use the concept of self­optimizing control (Skogestad et

  9. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department. It is well known which variables to control in normal distillation columns. But for heat integrated for heat integrated distillation columns. We will use the concept of self-optimizing control (Skogestad et

  10. Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline Prices Affect Automobile Manufacturers and Dealerships-busse@kellogg.northwestern.edu, knittel@mit.edu, f-zettelmeyer@kellogg.northwestern.edu #12;Who is Exposed to Gas Prices? How Gasoline of gasoline prices, and consumer responses to gasoline prices have been well studied. In this paper

  11. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  12. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadsley, J; Quinn, T; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Quinn, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  13. Gasoline: An adaptable implementation of TreeSPH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Thomas Quinn

    2003-03-24

    The key algorithms and features of the Gasoline code for parallel hydrodynamics with self-gravity are described. Gasoline is an extension of the efficient Pkdgrav parallel N-body code using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Accuracy measurements, performance analysis and tests of the code are presented. Recent successful Gasoline applications are summarized. These cover a diverse set of areas in astrophysics including galaxy clusters, galaxy formation and gas-giant planets. Future directions for gasdynamical simulations in astrophysics and code development strategies for tackling cutting edge problems are discussed.

  14. How to implement a gasoline pool lead phase-down

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Mutaz, I.S. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-02-01

    Some operational changes can be made for immediate reduction of lead concentration of gasoline that require no capital investment. For a further lead reduction, installing new refinery units and/or modifications to existing ones are required. The production of unleaded gasoline in the Riyadh refinery required improvement of the clear research octane number (RON) of light naphtha, light isomerate and reformate. However, only a once-through isomerization unit is needed if MTBE blending is planned. The paper describes how the Riyadh refinery in Saudi Arabia phased lead from their gasoline production.

  15. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas – A Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-08-01

    This study reports the comparison of biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT) case, goal case, and conventional case, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case and goal case represent technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation (S2D process). The conventional case mirrors the two-step S2D process previously utilized and reported by Mobil using natural gas feedstock and consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. Analysis of the three cases revealed that the goal case could indeed reduce fuel production cost over the conventional case, but that the SOT was still more expensive than the conventional. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield, single pass conversion efficiency, and reactor space velocity are the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

  16. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas - A Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Biddy, M. J.; Dagle, R. A.; Palo, D. R.

    2012-08-01

    This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

  17. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  18. Entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of symmetric states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiji Matsumoto

    2007-08-23

    We compute entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of states supported on symmetric subspace. Not only giving general formula, we apply them to the output states of optimal cloning machines. Surprisingly, under some settings, the optimal n to m clone and true m copies are the same in entanglement measures. However, they differ in the error exponent of entanglement dilution. We also presented a general theory of entanglement dilution which is applicable to any non-i.i.d sequence of states.

  19. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  20. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  1. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  2. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  3. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  4. Fact #639: September 6, 2010 Gasoline Tax Rates by State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Excise Tax on motor gasoline is 18.4 cents per gallon for all states. Each state applies additional taxes which vary from state to state. As of July 2010, Alaska had the lowest overall...

  5. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  6. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    said Senator Edward J. Markey. "This gasoline reserve will ensure that just because a dangerous storm soaks our region, it doesn't mean that consumers have to get soaked at the...

  7. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    pathways Light duty ?eet Urban air pollution 1. Introductionof light duty gasoline ?eets to urban air pollution usingThe PM 10 pollution is the least accurate in the light duty

  8. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  9. Gasoline Prices, Fuel Economy, and the Energy Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wozny, Nathan

    It is often asserted that consumers purchasing automobiles or other goods and services underweight the costs of gasoline or other "add-ons." We test this hypothesis in the US automobile market by examining the effects of ...

  10. Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Aaron

    Ethanol made from corn comprises 10% of U.S. gasoline, up from 3% in 2003. This dramatic increase was spurred by recent policy initiatives such as the Renewable Fuel Standard and state-level blend mandates and supported ...

  11. Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

  12. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    million barrels, and nearly 9 million of that is gasoline. With fuel prices rising, consumers are lookingConverting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary

  14. Report of the DOE-DOE Workshop on Fuel Cells in Aviation: Workshop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of 43 Page i DOD-DOE Workshop Summary and Action Plan: Fuel Cells in Aviation Table of Contents Executive Summary ......

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    2001) The impact of CO 2 emissions trading on the EuropeanJ. D. et al. (2007) Emissions Trading for internationalinvestigating an open emission trading system for aviation

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

  17. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per...

  18. Petroleum marketing monthly with data for October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents statistical data on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. Data on petroleum include the domestic first purchase price, landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane.

  19. Clean gasoline via VRDS/RFCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, B.E. (Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (US)); Brown, E.C.; Silverman, M.A. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-01

    The need to convert the bottom of the barrel into clean transportation fuels continues to gain importance as crudes become heavier and demand shifts away from heavy, high-sulfur fuel oil products. Increasingly, the emphasis is on processes that can completely convert the residue to lighter products. This paper reports that thermal processes, such as coking-based technologies, suffer from the disadvantages of producing a large amount of low value byproduct (coke or low Btu gas) and require extensive further processing of product liquids. The combination of residuum hydrotreating or hydrodesulfurization (RDS) and residuum fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) has gained wide acceptance due to the direct production of gasoline with only small amounts of low value byproducts. Moreover, the increasingly severe government regulations on diesel fuel quality together with a growth in demands suggests a combination of vacuum gas oil hydrocracking (VGO HDC), vacuum residuum hydrotreating (VRDS) and RFCC. A joint study by Chevron Research and Technology Co. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. (S and W) has shown that vacuum residuum (VR) can be economically upgraded using Chevron's VRDS process into feedstock for the S and W FCC process, even if all of the VGO is processed separately by hydrocracking.

  20. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  1. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedrich, C.; Robertson, P. A.

    2014-12-30

    on the CFM56-7 turbofan engine with an electric boost on the low pressure fan, is then implemented in Simulink. The Simulink code itself is simplified during take-off and landing; due to the relationship of the altitude and the performance... to a volatile oil price. In the United States for example, within the overall transportation sector, which accounted for 28 % of the primary energy consumption in 2010, the aviation fleet accounted for 9.4 % of this sector, as shown in Figure 1...

  2. DOE Federal Aviation Professional Awards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional Awards More Documents &

  3. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    Margaret E. “Vancouver's Gasoline-Price Wars: An EmpiricalEvidence from Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law,The Case of Retail Gasoline Markets” Journal of Law and

  4. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2009-01-01

    matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles.D.H. , Chase, R.E. , 1999b. Gasoline vehicle particle sizeFactors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

  5. Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiafeng

    2014-08-05

    Diesel/gasoline dual-fuel combustion uses both gasoline and diesel fuel in diesel engines to exploit their different reactivities. This operation combines the advantages of diesel fuel and gasoline while avoiding their disadvantages, attains...

  6. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01

    the market of company-op gasoline stations. The legislationThrifty gasoline stations by Atlantic Richfield Company (price of gasoline is directly set (at company-op stations)

  7. Mild hydrocracking: a low cost route to more distillate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnes, T.N.; Lamb, P.R.; Pegg, D.R.; Tajbl, D.G.

    1984-03-01

    The UOP MHC Unibon process, a relatively new application of distillate hydrocracking technology, combines the features of desulfurization and hydrocracking to provide a useful tool to aid the refiner in meeting future product demand trends. Already commercialized in four locations, the process is particularly attractive to those refiners who do not have residual conversion capacity. Pay backs of less than one year are common. In addition, the process can provide the FCC refiner with added capability for adjusting the product slate to meet seasonal demands.

  8. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  9. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  10. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  11. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  12. Implementation Guide - Aviation Management, Operations, Maintenance, Security, and Safety for Use with DOE O 440.2B, Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-07-18

    This Guide provides detailed information to help all personnel, responsible for a part of the aviation program, understand and comply with the rules and regulations applicable to their assignments. Canceled by DOE G 440.2B-2A.

  13. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NO[subscript x]-related O[subscript 3] impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Jamin

    Aviation NO[subscript x] emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NO[subscript x] on ...

  14. Development of an income-based hedonic monetization model for the assessment of aviation-related noise impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qinxian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Aviation is an industry that has seen tremendous growth in the last several decades. With demand for aviation projected to rise at an annual rate of 5% over the next 20 to 25 years, it is important to consider technological, ...

  15. Roadmap: Aeronautics -Aviation Management -Bachelor of Science [AT-BS-AERN-AVMN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Scott

    Roadmap: Aeronautics - Aviation Management - Bachelor of Science [AT-BS-AERN-AVMN] College of 2 | Last Updated: 4-June-13/JS This roadmap is a recommended semester-by-semester plan of study (upper division) 3 #12;Roadmap: Aeronautics - Aviation Management - Bachelor of Science [AT

  16. A bottom-up analysis of including aviation within theEU's Emissions Trading Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    A bottom-up analysis of including aviation within theEU's Emissions Trading Scheme Alice Bows-up analysis of including aviation within the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme Alice Bows & Kevin Anderson Tyndall's emissions trading scheme. Results indicate that unless the scheme adopts both an early baseline year

  17. 2007 Instrument Procedures Handbook; Chapter 5 Approach Authors: US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    , Federal Aviation Administration (Flight Procedures Standards Branch) From: www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation with weather around airports because it #12;influences the approaches they can implement, the amount of fuel used, and alternate approach planning. AIRPLANE PERFORMANCE OPERTING LIMITATIONS (Page 5-6) All

  18. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine x Vol. 81, No. 8 x August 2010 735 RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine x Vol. 81, No. 8 x August 2010 735 RESEARCH ARTICLE performance during chronic sleep restriction. Aviat Space Environ Med 2010; 81:735­44. Introduction: Chronic, sleepi- ness, circadian rhythm, wake maintenance zone. AT LEAST TWO DISTINCT sleep/wake-related physi

  19. The Benefit of Alternative Position, Navigation, and Timing (APNT) to Aviation and Other User Communities for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    The Benefit of Alternative Position, Navigation, and Timing (APNT) to Aviation and Other User). It is, therefore, extremely important that an alternative means of providing PNT services be implemented outage. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated an Alternative Position, Navigation

  20. Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Convective heat transfer characteristics of China RP-3 aviation kerosene at supercritical pressure Keywords: Supercritical pressure Aviation kerosene Convective heat transfer Numerical study a b s t r a c convective in kerosene pipe flow is complicated. Here the convective heat transfer characteristics of China

  1. Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toste, Dean

    Highly Selective Condensation of Biomass-Derived Methyl Ketones as a Source of Aviation Fuel Eric R,[b] and Alexis T. Bell*[a] Introduction Aviation fuels must meet a number of stringent specifications, the most by branched and cyclic hydrocar- bons, and, consequently, these types of fuels are not likely to be displaced

  2. Impact of California Reformulated Gasoline On Motor Vehicle Emissions. 1. Mass Emission Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Singer, Brett C.; Harley, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    0.3 wt %. Distillation temperatures,Tsoand Tg0, and gasolinegasoline; addition of oxygenates; and reductions in distillationgasoline properties included RVP; density; aromatic, alkene, alkane, oxygenate, sulfur, and benzene contents; and distillation

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High Efficiency ICRE Modeling and Analysis of Natural Gas and Gasoline In A High Compression Ratio High...

  4. Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump Biofuel Facts for the Road: The Energy Department and Your Gasoline Pump December 18, 2014 - 2:08pm Addthis...

  5. Fact #675: May 16, 2011 Gasoline Prices by Region, May 2, 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The West Coast region paid the highest prices for gasoline averaging $4.14 for a gallon of regular gasoline while the Rocky Mountain region paid the least at $3.70 per gallon. The southern states,...

  6. Do Gasoline Prices Resond Asymmetrically to Cost Shocks? The Confounding Effect of Edgeworth Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    2006) "Retail Gasoline Price Cycles: Evidence from Guelph,Station-Specific Retail Price D a t a " , mimeo. Bachmeier,on Asymmetric Gasoline Price Re­ and Statistics "Rockets and

  7. Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 - Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews how gasoline markets relate to population, income, prices, and the growing role of ethanol. It also analyzes the structural shift in motor gasoline markets that took place in the late 1990s.

  8. Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Savings at the pump help push U.S. gasoline demand to 8-year high U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to top 9 million barrels per day for the first time since 2007. In...

  9. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  10. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This poster will describe preliminary emission results of gasoline/diesel RCCI in a medium-duty diesel engine.

  11. Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

  12. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  13. The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    oil price, the expected retail gasoline price and consumption quantities are shown using a short-run demand elasticity assumption

  14. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1, 2014gasoline

  15. U.S. gasoline prices unchanged (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Globaldieselgasoline prices28,gasoline1,gasoline

  16. Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed 19, 2012 (received for review July 22, 2012) Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles and diesel vehicles, and find diesel exhaust is seven times more efficient at forming aerosol than gasoline

  17. he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T he increasing frequency of detection of the widely used gasoline additive methyl tert- butyl, the September 15, 1999, Report of the Blue Ribbon Panel on Oxygenates in Gasoline (1) states that between 5 with large releases (e.g., LUFTs). Unprecedented growth in use Use of MTBE as a gasoline additive began

  18. Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourahmadi, Mohsen

    Extension of a Negative Binomial GARCH Model: Analyzing the Effects of Gasoline Price and VMT. In addition, the relationship between monthly vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and gasoline prices in Texas was also examined. Ultimately, it is concluded that gasoline prices had no significant effect on DUI fatal

  19. ATOC/CHEM 5151 Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC/CHEM 5151 ­ Problem 9 Combustion of Gasoline and Conservation of Mass Answers will be posted Thursday, September 18, 2014 Gasoline is composed of a variety of hydrocarbons with 4 to 12 carbon atoms (e for the complete combustion of gasoline: _C8H18 + _O2 _CO2 + _H2O 1. Balance the equation (i.e., find

  20. Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Introduction The use of ethanol as a gasoline additive is likely to increase in the near future investigators have developed mathematical models for predicting the effect of ethanol (added to gasoline at 10 these models provide valuable insight into the potential ground water impacts of ethanol in gasoline

  1. Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 14171423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Fangqun

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 1417­1423 Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7 Â 108 cmÀ3

  2. Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 19982007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Gasoline price effects on traffic safety in urban and rural areas: Evidence from Minnesota, 1998 February 2012 Received in revised form 3 May 2013 Accepted 24 May 2013 Keywords: Gasoline prices Traffic examines the role of gasoline prices in the occurrence of traffic crashes. However, no studies have

  3. Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    Automakers' Short-Run Responses to Changing Gasoline Prices and the Implications for Energy Policy as if consumers respond to gasoline prices. We estimate a selection-corrected regression equation and exploit operating costs between vehicles. Keywords: automobile prices, gasoline prices, environmental policy JEL

  4. Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Correlation" by Knittel and Smith Beardshear Hall, (515) 294-7612." #12;1 Response to "Ethanol Production and Gasoline Prices: A Spurious Relating Ethanol Production to Gasoline Prices" written by myself and Xiadong Du, and published in 2009

  5. CLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    gasoline markets and raise prices paid by consumers. We provide the first comprehensive empirical estimatesCLEARING THE AIR? THE EFFECTS OF GASOLINE CONTENT REGULATION ON AIR QUALITY Maximilian Auffhammer and Ryan Kellogg* January 2009 Abstract This paper examines the effects of U.S. gasoline content

  6. Vertical Integration in Gasoline Supply: An Empirical Test of Raising Rivals' Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    gasoline prices. The 1997 acquisition of Unocal's West Coast refining and marketing assets by Tosco, and potentially confounding city-specific covariates. We find that Tosco increased the wholesale price of gasoline During the week of January 4-8, 1999, the average wholesale price of unbranded regular gasoline was 46

  7. Stranded Vehicles: How Gasoline Taxes Change the Value of Households' Vehicle Assets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    of increases in gasoline prices varies across income, geography, and political affiliation. One standard that changes in gasoline prices can have sizable effects on the market value of vehicles. In this paper in gasoline prices affect the value of the vehicles that people own and how this varies across demographic

  8. Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 Gasoline accounts for about half the U.S. consumption of petroleum products, and its price is the most visible among these products. As such, changes in gasoline prices are always under public scrutiny. Many claim to observe an asymmetric relationship between gasoline and oil prices -- specifically

  9. The Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    and rationing and vehicle taxes over higher gasoline taxes or letting gasoline prices clear the market. GivenThe Origins of US Transportation Policy: Was There Ever Support for Gasoline Taxes? Christopher R. Knittel January 7, 2013 Abstract From 1864 to 1972, the real price of oil fell by, on average, over one

  10. The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic safety: a time geography explanation Guangqing Chi, United States a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Time geography Gasoline prices Traffic safety Traffic crashes Fatal crashes Space­time path a b s t r a c t The impact of gasoline price changes on traffic

  11. forthcoming in Economic Letters Incidence of Federal and State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    on gasoline, and President Bill Clinton, when calling for an energy tax, proposed providing income a gasoline tax to generate revenue arose again in 2000 when some policy makers considered suspending the 4, unleaded gasoline in the first quarter of 2000 was $2.43 in Italy, $2.56 in Germany, $2.57 in France, $2

  12. The Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the United States today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% of the total U.S. gasoline consumption).

  13. Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio Sebastiani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio in revised form 10 May 2013 Accepted 30 May 2013 Available online 14 June 2013 Keywords: Blog distillation Blog search Link analysis Sentiment analysis a b s t r a c t In this paper we test a new approach

  14. Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine Hung C. Duong during membrane distillation (MD) of brine from reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of coal seam gas (CSG. During CSG production, both gas and water are extracted to the surface. Gas is commonly separated from

  15. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H columnPROMS. AIChE 1999 Annual meeting / 11.03.99 2 NTNU #12; T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat

  16. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH columnE 1999 Annual meeting / 11.03.99 2 NTNU #12;T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat

  17. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department Also at SINTEF Electronics and Cybernetics, 7465 Trondheim, Norway Prepared for presentation at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001

  18. Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    that handle more than 90% of separations and purifications. The capital investment for these distillation.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. Distillation conditions to minimize the total investment and operating cost. Continuous decisions are related

  19. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  20. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  1. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01

    I LIJ D D CO D CIC D P1a L), OOLQLI [ [ LQS LQ WP8Q$ ?7) I/I I?I hl m ~ III O I?I I/I O & P) ?I- 0 O nj (Z) 4J Q O E III ID Cl ?I ?I Q ?/ ??: PJ Cl C C I?l ICl E ?J ??I I III 0 az I? I W K Q3 Ctl IQ C) PV... decreases near the end of the run. Th1s occurs when the volume of hydrocarbon 1n the 11quid phase of the distillation cell becomes small and cannot support 1ts vapor pressure. 07 C5 0 III QI 5- I/I QI 5- 0- 5- 0 CL IQ ) 0 CQ Ol O 0 4J Itl...

  2. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  3. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  4. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  5. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2.925 3.615 3.869 Aug 03, 2015 2.747 2.785 2.615 2.584 2.485 2.897 3.549 3.781 Source: Energy Information Administration, Weekly Retail Gasoline and Diesel Prices, accessed...

  6. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  7. Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 – Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file with dataset for Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008

  8. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  9. Estimation of the global impacts of aviation-related noise using an income-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qinxian

    Current practices for assessing the monetary impacts of aviation noise typically use hedonic pricing methods that estimate noise-induced property value depreciation. However, this approach requires detailed knowledge of ...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    and the Environment. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from AviationD17): 4560. EPA (2006). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from theEPA (2008a). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and

  11. The impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on US aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malina, Robert

    We estimate the economic impacts on US airlines that may arise from the inclusion of aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme from 2012 to 2020. We find that the Scheme would only have a small impact on US ...

  12. Evaluation of primary flight display enhancements for improving general aviation safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Daniel R

    2005-01-01

    The information architecture of general aviation cockpits is shifting from one of independent mechanical instruments to one of digital sensors, common databuses, and liquid crystal displays. This integrated architecture ...

  13. Symbiotic strategies in enterprise ecology : modeling commercial aviation as an Enterprise of Enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgouridis, Sgouris P

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of strategic alternatives that are designed to dampen the cyclicality manifest in the commercial aviation (CA)-related industries. In this research we introduce the conceptual framework of ...

  14. AIAA Aviation Technology Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 18-20 September 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovendran, Radha

    AIAA Aviation Technology Integration, and Operations (ATIO) Conference, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 18-20 September 2007 Impact of Public Key Enabled Applications on the Operation and Maintenance the efficiency of aircraft manufacturing, operation and maintenance processes. Yet these benefits cannot

  15. Climate impact of aviation NOx? emissions : radiative forcing, temperature, and temporal heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Lawrence Man Kit

    2014-01-01

    Aviation NOx emissions are byproducts of combustion in the presence of molecular nitrogen. In the upper troposphere, NOx emissions result in the formation of O? but also reduce the lifetime of CH4 , causing an indirect ...

  16. 12/13Aviation Services provided by: Air Methods Corporation and Aero Air. Willapa Harbor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    12/13Aviation Services provided by: Air Methods Corporation and Aero Air. Forks Aberdeen Willapa patients of all types. For short distance flights, or to smaller airports the Aero Commander 690 is our

  17. Assessing environmental benefits and economic costs of aviation environmental policy measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahashabde, Anuja (Anuja Anil)

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recent global economic downturn, longer term growth is anticipated for aviation with an increasing environmental impact, specifically in the areas of noise, air quality, and climate change. To ensure sustainable ...

  18. The impacts of aviation emissions on human health through changes in air quality and UV irradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunelle-Yeung, Elza

    2009-01-01

    World-wide demand for air transportation is rising steadily. The air transportation network may be limited by aviation's growing environmental impacts. These impacts take the form of climate impacts, noise impacts, and ...

  19. Feedback Model of Air Transportation System Change: Implementation Challenges for Aviation Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L.

    The U.S. air transportation system faces substantial challenges in implementing new aviation information systems to meet future demand. These challenges need to be understood and addressed in order to successfully meet ...

  20. Lead Emissions from the Use of Leaded Aviation Gasoline in the United States: Technical Support Document (EPA420-R-08-020)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) AugustA. -71- Particulate: ColumnsLake MeadLead

  1. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  2. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  3. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  4. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  5. Canadian refiner finds simple route to reformulated gasoline production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, B. [North Atlantic Refining Ltd., Come By Chance, Newfoundland (Canada); McDonald, G.W.G. [IONA Ltd., Sarasota, FL (United States); Perkins, J.D. [United Catalysts Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    North Atlantic Refining Ltd. (NARL) operates a 105,000 b/sd hydrocracking refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. NARL sells gasoline into markets in Newfoundland and the northeastern US. When the US Environmental Protection Agency instituted reformulated gasoline (RFG) requirements as part of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, NARL had to find a way to meet the specifications, even though the refinery is not within US territory. The refiner chose to add a small hydrogenation unit to treat the portion of the reformate stream containing benzene precursors. Since start-up of the unit in late 1995, it has achieved 100% benzene hydrogenation, thus allowing NARL to easily produce RFG containing less than 1.0 vol% benzene. The paper discusses procurement, hydrogen supply, catalyst, special features, start-up, operations, and process control.

  6. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  7. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. ...

  8. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  9. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    exchangers and distillation trays permits additional energy savings by lower reboiler temperature differences, and reduced reflux requirements for a fixed column height, due to closer tray spacings. This paper surveys the heat pump systems currently...

  10. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  11. Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coco, Vincent Joseph

    1965-01-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1965 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Approved as to style and content by...

  12. The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Reed Phillips

    1913-01-01

    are treated under the same conditions* Prom our knowledge of the de­ structive distillation of organic substances, the most common of which are coal, wood, bones, peat and lignite, it is reasonable to conclude also that the destructive distillation... the question as to what are the char­ acteristic properties of the two carbon residues 20 obtained from the decomposition of carbonaceous materials, termed coke and charcoal. Some author­ ities use the term coke for the carbon residue from coal and call all...

  13. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  14. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  15. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  16. Implementation Guide - Aviation Management, Operations, Maintenance, Security, and Safety for Use with DOE O 440.2B Chg 1, Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-10-17

    This Guide provides detailed information to help all personnel, responsible for a part of the aviation program, understand and comply with the rules and regulations applicable to their assignments. Cancels DOE G 440.2B-2. Canceled by DOE N 251.110.

  17. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Havranek, Tomas; Irsova, Zuzana; Janda, Karel

    2011-01-01

    demand and distillate fuel oil demand. ” Energy Economics 7(demand and consumer price expectations: An empirical investigation of the consequences from the recent oil

  18. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Polyakov, Oleg 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from...

  19. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.

    1997-02-25

    A method is described for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries. 3 figs.

  20. Method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Anthony, Brian W. (Clearfield, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for determining the octane rating of gasoline samples by observing corresponding acoustic resonances therein. A direct correlation between the octane rating of gasoline and the frequency of corresponding acoustic resonances therein has been experimentally observed. Therefore, the octane rating of a gasoline sample can be directly determined through speed of sound measurements instead of by the cumbersome process of quantifying the knocking quality of the gasoline. Various receptacle geometries and construction materials may be employed. Moreover, it is anticipated that the measurements can be performed on flowing samples in pipes, thereby rendering the present method useful in refineries and distilleries.