National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for avg trip distance

  1. Fact #612: March 1, 2010 The Distance of Trips to Work | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2: March 1, 2010 The Distance of Trips to Work Fact #612: March 1, 2010 The Distance of Trips to Work The recently released Nationwide Household Travel Survey shows that nearly 60% of work trips are 10 miles or less in distance. Only 9% of work trips are over 30 miles. The average work trip distance is 13.9 miles. Vehicle Trips to Work by Trip Distance, 2009 Graph showing the vehicle trips to work by trip distance. Nearly 60% of work trips are 10 miles or less in distance. For more

  2. Data Processing Procedures and Methodology for Estimating Trip Distances for the 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.-L.; Rollow, J.

    2000-05-01

    The 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS) collected information from approximately 80,000 U.S. households about their long distance travel (one-way trips of 100 miles or more) during the year of 1995. It is the most comprehensive survey of where, why, and how U.S. residents travel since 1977. ATS is a joint effort by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) and the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Census (Census); BTS provided the funding and supervision of the project, and Census selected the samples, conducted interviews, and processed the data. This report documents the technical support for the ATS provided by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which included the estimation of trip distances as well as data quality editing and checking of variables required for the distance calculations.

  3. AVG Koeln GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AVG Koeln GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: AVG Koeln GmbH Place: Kln, Germany Zip: 50735 Product: Operating a Waste-to-Energy facility in Kln, Germany. References:...

  4. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  6. Gobble Up Fuel Savings on Your Next Road Trip with My Trip Calculator |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Gobble Up Fuel Savings on Your Next Road Trip with My Trip Calculator Gobble Up Fuel Savings on Your Next Road Trip with My Trip Calculator November 19, 2012 - 9:51am Addthis Save time and money on your next road trip with fueleconomy.gov's newest tool, <a href="http://www.fueleconomy.gov/trip/">My Trip Calculator</a>. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/gioadventures. Save time and money on your next road trip with fueleconomy.gov's newest tool, My

  7. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  8. PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) (377.19 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - INL PeopleSoft - Human Resource System ...

  9. Field Trip Check List | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To ensure a successful field trip, we have developed a teacher checklist to help you plan appropriately for your trip. Argonne National Laboratories is a gated facility and requires additional steps compared to more traditional field trip locations. Pre-Trip Preparation Plan to arrive at the lab by 9:45 am and depart after lunch around 1:00 pm. Adjustments can be made to these times in advance. Tell all adults and students that are age 16 and older to bring a photo ID. Students can use their

  10. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In most cases, upgrading to premium efficiency motors has no noticeable impact on the electrical system. However, in rare cases nuisance trips can occur during start-up. Addressing this topic requires an understanding of starting current.This tip sheet discusses how to avoid nuisance tripping with premium efficiency motors and provides suggested actions.

  11. MCMII and the TriP chip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan Estrada et al.

    2003-12-19

    We describe the development of the electronics that will be used to read out the Fiber Tracker and Preshower detectors in Run IIb. This electronics is needed for operation at 132ns bunch crossing, and may provide a measurement of the z coordinate of the Fiber Tracker hits when operating at 396ns bunch crossing. Specifically, we describe the design and preliminary tests of the Trip chip, MCM IIa, MCM IIb and MCM IIc. This document also serves as a user manual for the Trip chip and the MCM.

  12. Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After more than a year since the announcement of available funding, the project teams for our Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) each hosted our geothermal experts at their candidate sites this fall. Were calling it our road trip through the geothermal frontier.

  13. Long Valley Caldera Field Trip Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Conference Paper: Long Valley Caldera Field Trip Log Abstract NA Authors Gene A. Suemnicht and Bastien Poux Conference NGA Long Valley Field Trip, July 5-7, 2012;...

  14. Probabilistic methods in a study of trip setpoints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaulitz, D. E.

    2012-07-01

    Most early vintage Boiling Water Reactors have a high head and high capacity High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) pump to keep the core covered following a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). However, the protection afforded by the HPCI pump for mitigating a LOCA introduces the potential that a spurious start of the HPCI pump could oversupply the reactor vessel and lead to an automatic trip of the main turbine due to high water level. A turbine trip and associated increase in moderator density could challenge the bases of fuel integrity operating limits. To prevent turbine trip during spurious operation of the HPCI pump, the reactor protection system includes instrumentation and logic to sense high water level and automatically trip the HPCI pump prior to reaching the turbine trip setpoint. This paper describes an analysis that was performed to determine if existing reactor vessel water level trip instrumentation, logic and setpoints result in a high probability that the HPCI pump will trip prior to actuation of the turbine trip. Using nominal values for the initial water level and for the HPCI pump and turbine trip setpoints, and using the probability distribution functions for measurement uncertainty in these setpoints, a Monte Carlo simulation was employed to determine probabilities of successfully tripping the HPCI pump prior to tripping of the turbine. The results of the analysis established that the existing setpoints, instrumentation and logic would be expected to reliably prevent a trip of the main turbine. (authors)

  15. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.S.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  16. Readout of Secretary Chu's Middle East trip: Thursday, February...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Strengthen Cooperation on Clean Energy Readout of Secretary Chu's Middle East trip: Wednesday, February 24 Readout of Energy Secretary Chu's Meetings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

  17. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  18. Focus on International Cooperation Continues, Secretary Chu Ends Trip with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Visit to Russian 'Los Alamos' | Department of Energy Focus on International Cooperation Continues, Secretary Chu Ends Trip with Visit to Russian 'Los Alamos' Focus on International Cooperation Continues, Secretary Chu Ends Trip with Visit to Russian 'Los Alamos' June 10, 2011 - 2:05pm Addthis Lindsey Geisler Lindsey Geisler Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Secretary Chu wrapped up his week-long visit in Russia today with a special visit to the All Russian Scientific

  19. Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier Road Tripping through the Geothermal Frontier November 18, 2015 - 9:58am Addthis Geothermal Well Head, Utah 1 of 5 Geothermal Well Head, Utah This geothermal well head is located near the University of Utah's FORGE candidate site. The area is already renewables-friendly, with a wind farm nearby. Image: Elisabet Metcalfe, EERE Snake River Plain, Idaho 2 of 5 Snake River Plain, Idaho The mountainous view captures INL's Snake River Plain candidate site

  20. DOE GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems DOE GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems DOE GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems DOE GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems (325.24 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory

  1. Logging while tripping cuts time to run gamma ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-10

    A new logging tool, sent down the drillstring before a pipe trip out of the hole, logs the well as the pipe is pulled from the hole, cutting the total time required for open hole logging on some wells. This logging while tripping (LWT) technology allows an operator to run a gamma ray and neutron log more quickly than with standard wire line equipment. The drill pipe conveys the logging tools up the well as the pipe is tripped out, and the logging data are stored in the tool`s memory. A transparent logging collar, which meets API 7 and RP7G requirements, holds the tools in the drillstring without interfering with the logging measurements.

  2. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  3. National Science Bowl Competitors Win Trip to Colorado

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Competitors Win Trip to Colorado For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 5, 1997 -- A Wooton High School team from Rockville, Md. won an all expenses paid opportunity to explore Colorado's energy resources this summer by answering difficult questions in what has become known as high school's "World Series of Science." The team today won second place in the 1997 National Science Bowl in Chevy Chase, Md. The trip will include visiting a geothermal site in

  4. Energy Secretary Chu Trip to Kokomo, Indiana Cancelled | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Trip to Kokomo, Indiana Cancelled Energy Secretary Chu Trip to Kokomo, Indiana Cancelled July 16, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. - The event today on Friday, July 16 with Energy Secretary Steven Chu has been cancelled so that Secretary Chu can continue his work with the federal science team on the oil spill response. Media contact(s): (202) 586-4940 Addthis Related Articles Energy Secretary Chu to Visit Delphi Power Electronics Plant in Kokomo Indiana Secretary Chu in Houston

  5. Secretary Chu Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil Spill Response Efforts Secretary Chu Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil Spill Response Efforts May 21, 2010 - 12:00am ...

  6. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Detailed analysis of the ANO-2 turbine trip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.A.; Tessier, J.H.; Senda, Y.; Waterman, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    A RELAP5/MOD1 (Cycle 18) computer code simulation of the ANO-2 turbine trip test from 98% power level was performed for use in vendor code qualification studies. Results focused on potential improvements to simulation capabilities and plant data acquisition systems to provide meaningful comparisons between the calculations and the test data. The turbine trip test was selected because it resulted in an unplanned sequence of events that broadly affected the plant process systems and their controls. The pressurizer spray valve stuck open at an undetermined flow area, and an atmospheric dump valve remained stuck fully open while several atmospheric dump and secondary side safety valves were unavailable throughout. Thus, although the plant remained always in a safe condition, this transient potentially provided an unusual set of data against which the fidelity of a NSSS simulation by RELAP5/MOD1 along with certain vendor analysis codes might be judged.

  8. Readout of Secretary Chu's Middle East trip: Tuesday, February 23 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tuesday, February 23 Readout of Secretary Chu's Middle East trip: Tuesday, February 23 February 23, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Today, Secretary Chu visited King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea coast near Jeddah. His host was Saudi Minister of Petroleum and Minerals Ali Al Naimi, who is Chair of the KAUST Board of Trustees. KAUST is an international, graduate-level research university dedicated to science and

  9. MonthlyReport

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stop & Go Trips ( >5 stopsmile) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Whmi) 486 Number of ... City Trips ( < 5 stopsmile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Whmi) 402 ...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Trip Prediction and Route-Based Vehicle Energy Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about trip prediction...

  11. DOE GovTrip PIA, Office of Corporate Information Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Systems More Documents & Publications PIA - GovTrip (DOE data) Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Occupational Medicine - Assistant...

  12. Analysis of the ANO-2 turbine trip test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.A.; Tessier, J.H.; Senda, Y.; Waterman, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The start-up tests performed with the Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit Two (ANO-2) plant provided an opportunity for studying the validity of certain integral systems codes. In particular, the turbine trip from 98.2 percent full power test was investigated with the RELAP5/MOD1 (cycle 18) ode. A detailed plant model was developed and used to understand the test reports. The early depressurization portion of the transient was reproduced; however, the resultant repressurization was not well represented due to uncertainty in the data and plant response. As a result of these computations and detailed analyses of the test data considerable insight was drawn as to the best way to perform and gather data from such integral systems tests for use in code verification studies.

  13. Secretary Chu Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil Spill

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Response Efforts | Department of Energy Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil Spill Response Efforts Secretary Chu Postpones China Trip to Continue Work on BP Oil Spill Response Efforts May 21, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington DC -- Energy Secretary Steven Chu will postpone a trip to China, scheduled for next week, at the request of President Obama and stay in the country to continue his work on response efforts to the BP oil spill. "Finding a solution to this crisis is a

  14. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  15. Field trip guide to selected outcrops, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-11-17

    The Arbuckle Mountains, named for Brigadier General Matthew Arbuckle, are located in south-central Oklahoma. The formations that comprise the Arbuckle Mountains have been extensively studied for hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir rock characteristics that can be applied to the subsurface in the adjacent Anadarko and Ardmore basins. Numerous reports and guidebooks have been written concerning the Arbuckle Mountains. A few important general publications are provided in the list of selected references. The purpose of this handout is to provide general information on the geology of the Arbuckle Mountains and specific information on the four field trip stops, adapted from the literature. The four stops were at: (1) Sooner Rock and Sand Quarry; (2) Woodford Shale; (3) Hunton Anticline and Hunton Quarry; and (4) Tar Sands of Sulfur Area. As part of this report, two papers are included for more detail: Paleomagnetic dating of basinal fluid migration, base-metal mineralization, and hydrocarbon maturation in the Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma and Laminated black shale-bedded chert cyclicity in the Woodford Formation, southern Oklahoma.

  16. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  17. U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman Completes Middle East Trip | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    U.S. Energy Secretary Bodman Completes Middle East Trip November 20, 2005 - 2:51pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman concluded his four-nation ...

  18. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  19. Vermont Single Trip Permit to Operate a Motor Vehicle in Excess...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Single Trip Permit to Operate a Motor Vehicle in Excess of Statutory Weight or Dimension Limits (Form OSD-002) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. U.S. Secretary of Energy Concludes Successful Trip to Trinidad and Tobago |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Successful Trip to Trinidad and Tobago U.S. Secretary of Energy Concludes Successful Trip to Trinidad and Tobago May 13, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis Visit continues bilateral efforts to advance energy security WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today concluded a visit to the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago focused on strengthening and expanding the two nations' strategic energy and economic relationship. The United States is Trinidad and Tobago's

  1. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  2. Method and apparatus for optimizing a train trip using signal information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Daum, Wolfgang; Otsubo, Tom; Hershey, John Erik; Hess, Gerald James

    2014-06-10

    A system is provided for operating a railway network including a first railway vehicle during a trip along track segments. The system includes a first element for determining travel parameters of the first railway vehicle, a second element for determining travel parameters of a second railway vehicle relative to the track segments to be traversed by the first vehicle during the trip, a processor for receiving information from the first and the second elements and for determining a relationship between occupation of a track segment by the second vehicle and later occupation of the same track segment by the first vehicle and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that determines a speed trajectory for the first vehicle. The speed trajectory is responsive to the relationship and further in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the first vehicle.

  3. Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose Fact #616: March 29, 2010 Household Vehicle-Miles of Travel by Trip Purpose In 2009, getting to and from work accounted for about 27% of household vehicle-miles of travel (VMT). Work-related business was 8.4% of VMT in 2001, but declined to 6.7% in 2009, possibly due to advancements in computing technology making it possible for more business to be handled electronically. VMT for shopping was almost

  4. Optimal Energy Management of a PHEV Using Trip Information | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy vss068_karbowski_2012_o.pdf (953.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Trip Prediction and Route-Based Vehicle Energy Management Electric Drive Vehicle Level Control Development Under Various Thermal Conditions Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth)

  5. Google+ Virtual Field Trip on Vehicle Electrification at Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Don't miss this exclusive peek into the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory. Attendees will meet three researchers who will explain a different phase of vehicle electrification research. This field trip is very similar to the tou

  6. Effect of recirculation pump trip following anticipated transients without scram at Big Rock Point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, R.E.

    1981-08-01

    As requested by the US Atomic Energy Commission (now US Nuclear Regulatory Commission) in their Technical Report on Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) for Water-Cooled Reactors (WASH-1270), Consumers Power Company has submitted analyses which describe the response of their Big Rock Point (BRP) Plant to ATWS. The original analyses were submitted on Febuary 21, 1975, and results indicated that a recirculation pump trip (RPT) was effective in limiting the consequences of an ATWS. The response of BRP to an ATWS was reanalyzed as a part of the Big Rock Point Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Results of the analysis were submitted on February 26, 1981, with the conclusion that automatic RPT provides little safety improvement at BRP. Purpose of this report is to evaluate the submitted analyses to determine the effectiveness of Recirculation Pump Trip in ATWS recovery.

  7. Commute trip reduction in Washington: Base year worksite characteristics and programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, D.

    1995-02-01

    Employers in Washington`s eight most populous counties are engaged in an effort to reduce their employees` use of single occupant automobiles for commuting. This report documents the status of those employers at the beginning of the Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) program as a basis for evaluating the impacts of the program. The first section provides a brief exploration of the Washington CTR Law and a history of the first steps in its implementation. The second section presents a summary of the characteristics of the worksites affected by the law. The CTR Law calls for reductions in single occupant vehicle (SOV) commuting and in vehicle miles traveled (VMT). The third section of this report presents baseline measurements of SOV and VMT and goals for reducing them. The fourth section provides summary information on the first year of programs employers planned to implement. The final section very briefly outlines actions the Commute Trip Reduction law calls for between 1995 and 1999.

  8. Colorado School Earns Return Trip to National Science Bowl - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Colorado School Earns Return Trip to National Science Bowl March 8, 2016 The five student team members from the winning team hold a trophy and banner honoring their victory. Their coaches stand on on each side of the group. Ridgeview Classical Charter Team 1 (from left): Coach Paula Petterson, Blake Salvador, Alyssa Jhones, Colin Tweedy, Logan Howerter, Tyler Dunaisky, and Coach Dave Morse. Ridgeview Classical won the 2016 Colorado High School Science Bowl and will return to nationals

  9. Method and apparatus for optimizing a train trip using signal information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Daum, Wolfgang; Otsubo, Tom; Hershey, John Erik; Hess, Gerald James

    2013-02-05

    One embodiment of the invention includes a system for operating a railway network comprising a first railway vehicle (400) during a trip along track segments (401/412/420). The system comprises a first element (65) for determining travel parameters of the first railway vehicle (400), a second element (65) for determining travel parameters of a second railway vehicle (418) relative to the track segments to be traversed by the first vehicle during the trip, a processor (62) for receiving information from the first (65) and the second (65) elements and for determining a relationship between occupation of a track segment (401/412/420) by the second vehicle (418) and later occupation of the same track segment by the first vehicle (400) and an algorithm embodied within the processor (62) having access to the information to create a trip plan that determines a speed trajectory for the first vehicle (400), wherein the speed trajectory is responsive to the relationship and further in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the first vehicle (400).

  10. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  11. Characterization of the Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 Sheet Steels Using Microstructure-Based Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, several studies conducted by automotive industry revealed the tremendous advantages of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS). TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is one of the typical representative of AHSS. This kind of materials exhibits high strength as well as high formability. Analyzing the crack behaviour in TRIP steels is a challenging task due to the microstructure level inhomogeneities between the different phases (Ferrite, Bainite, Austenite, Martensite) that constitute these materials. This paper aims at investigating the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. For this purpose, a micromechanical finite element model is developed based on the actual microstructure of a TRIP 800 steel. Uniaxial tensile tests on TRIP 800 sheet notched specimens were also conducted and tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were determined. The comparison between simulation and experimental results leads us to the conclusion that the method using microstructure-based representative volume element (RVE) captures well enough the complex behavior of TRIP steels. The effect of phase transformation, which occurs during the deformation process, on the toughness is observed and discussed.

  12. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  13. Trip Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Department of Energy 2013 Annual Inspection - Piqua, OH, Decommissioned Reactor Site June 2013 Page 1 2013 Annual Inspection and Radiological Survey Results for the Piqua, Ohio, Decommissioned Reactor Site Summary The former Piqua Nuclear Power Facility (PNPF), a decommissioned nuclear power demonstration facility, was inspected on April 18, 2013. The site, located on the east bank of the Great Miami River in Piqua, Ohio, is in good physical condition. There is no requirement for a follow-up

  14. Trip Report

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site A/Plot M, Cook County, Illinois May 2013 Page 1 2013 Inspection and Annual Site Status Report for the Site A/Plot M, Cook County, Illinois Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Site Summary Site A/Plot M was inspected on April 10, 2013. The site, located within a county forest preserve with significant tree and grass cover, was in good condition. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. Erosion on top of the grass covered mound at Plot M continues to be a concern. Bike

  15. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; et al

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  16. High School Students Begin Battle for Trip to the National Science Bowl -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL High School Students Begin Battle for Trip to the National Science Bowl January 29, 2009 Proving that they know more about science than some adults will be a cinch for approximately 160 Colorado high school students who will showcase their science and math knowledge at the Colorado Science Bowl on Saturday, January 31, at Dakota Ridge High School. The U.S. Department of Energy began the science bowl tradition nearly 20 years ago as a way to encourage high school students

  17. Computation of a BWR Turbine Trip with CATHARE-CRONOS2-FLICA4 Coupled Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignot, G.; Royer, E.; Rameau, B.; Todorova, N.

    2004-10-15

    The CEA/DEN modeling and computation results with the CATHARE, CRONOS2, and FLICA4 codes of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development boiling water reactor turbine trip benchmark are presented. The first exercise of the benchmark to model the whole reactor thermal hydraulics with specified power has been performed with the CATHARE system code. Exercise 2, devoted to core thermal-hydraulic neutronic analysis with provided boundary conditions and neutronic cross sections, has been carried out with the CRONOS2 and FLICA4 codes. Finally, exercise 3, combining system thermal hydraulics and core three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics-neutronics, was computed with the three coupled codes: CATHARE, CRONOS2, and FLICA4.Our one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic reactor computation agrees well with the benchmark reference data and demonstrates the capacities of CATHARE to model a turbine trip transient. Coupled three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis displays a high sensitivity of the power peak to the core thermal-hydraulic model. The use of at least 100 channels is recommended to achieve reasonable results for integral and local parameters. Deviations between experimental data and exercise 3 results are discussed: timing of events, core pressure drop, and neutronic model. Finally, analysis of extreme scenarios as sensitivity studies on the transient to assess the effect of the scram, the bypass relief valve, and the steam relief valves is presented.

  18. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989.

  19. Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e JUly 20 09 Wired for the Future Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea 1 663 lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e J U ly 2 0 0 9 During the Manhattan Project, Enrico Fermi, Nobel Laureate and leader of F-Division, meets with San Ildefonso Pueblo's Maria Martinez, famous worldwide for her extraordinary black pottery. features from terry wallace PrINcIPaL aSSocIatE

  20. Parametric Analysis of a Turbine Trip Event in a BWR Using a 3D Nodal Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorzel, A.

    2006-07-01

    Two essential thermal hydraulics safety criteria concerning the reactor core are that even during operational transients there is no fuel melting and not-permissible cladding temperatures are avoided. A common concept for boiling water reactors is to establish a minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) for steady state operation. For this MCPR it is shown that only a very small number of fuel rods suffers a short-term dryout during the transient. It is known from experience that the limiting transient for the determination of the MCPR is the turbine trip with blocked bypass system. This fast transient was simulated for a German BWR by use of the three-dimensional reactor analysis transient code SIMULATE-3K. The transient behaviour of the hot channels was used as input for the dryout calculation with the transient thermal hydraulics code FRANCESCA. By this way the maximum reduction of the CPR during the transient could be calculated. The fast increase in reactor power due to the pressure increase and to an increased core inlet flow is limited mainly by the Doppler effect, but automatically triggered operational measures also can contribute to the mitigation of the turbine trip. One very important method is the short-term fast reduction of the recirculation pump speed which is initiated e. g. by a pressure increase in front of the turbine. The large impacts of the starting time and of the rate of the pump speed reduction on the power progression and hence on the deterioration of CPR is presented. Another important procedure to limit the effects of the transient is the fast shutdown of the reactor that is caused when the reactor power reaches the limit value. It is shown that the SCRAM is not fast enough to reduce the first power maximum, but is able to prevent the appearance of a second - much smaller - maximum that would occur around one second after the first one in the absence of a SCRAM. (author)

  1. Characterizing Walk Trips in communities by Using Data from 2009 National Household Travel Survey, American Community Survey, and Other Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Murakami, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Non-motorized travel (i.e. walking and bicycling) are of increasing interest to the transportation profession, especially in context with energy consumption, reducing vehicular congestion, urban development patterns, and promotion of healthier life styles. This research project aimed to identify factors impacting the amount of travel for both walk and bike trips at the Census block group or tract level, using several public and private data sources. The key survey of travel behavior is the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) which had over 87,000 walk trips for persons 16 and over, and over 6000 bike trips for persons 16 and over. The NHTS, in conjunction with the Census Bureau s American Community Survey, street density measures using Census Bureau TIGER, WalkScore , Nielsen Claritas employment estimates, and several other sources were used for this study. Stepwise Logistic Regression modeling techniques as well as Discriminant Analysis were applied using the integrated data set. While the models performed reasonably well for walk trips, travel by bike was abandoned due to sparseness of data. This paper discusses data sources utilized and modeling processes conducted under this study. It also presents a summary of findings and addresses data challenges and lesson-learned from this research effort.

  2. Optical distance measurement device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2003-05-27

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target. A modulated optical beam may be used to determine the distance to the target. A first beam splitter may be used to split the optical beam and a second beam splitter may be used to recombine a reference beam with a return ranging beam. An optical mixing detector may be used in a receiver to efficiently detect distance measurement information.

  3. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James B. Beddow

    2013-03-29

    Executive Summary The energy development assumptions identified in the Department of Energy's position paper, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, projected an exploding demand for wind energy-related workforce development. These primary assumptions drove a secondary set of assumptions that early stage wind industry workforce development and training paradigms would need to undergo significant change if the workforce needs were to be met. The current training practice and culture within the wind industry is driven by a relatively small number of experts with deep field experience and knowledge. The current training methodology is dominated by face-to-face, classroom based, instructor present training. Given these assumptions and learning paradigms, the purpose of the National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative was to determine the feasibility of developing online learning strategies and products focused on training wind technicians. The initial project scope centered on (1) identifying resources that would be needed for development of subject matter and course design/delivery strategies for industry-based (non-academic) training, and (2) development of an appropriate Learning Management System (LMS). As the project unfolded, the initial scope was expanded to include development of learning products and the addition of an academic-based training partner. The core partners included two training entities, industry-based Airstreams Renewables and academic-based Lake Area Technical Institute. A third partner, Vision Video Interactive, Inc. provided technology-based learning platforms (hardware and software). The revised scope yielded an expanded set of results beyond the initial expectation. Eight learning modules were developed for the industry-based Electrical Safety course. These modules were subsequently redesigned and repurposed for test application in an academic setting. Software and hardware developments during the project's timeframe enabled redesign providing for

  4. FY94 CAG trip reports, CAG memos and other products: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-15

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the US DOE is tasked with designing, constructing, and operating an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the YMP is to provide detailed characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential mined geologic repository for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Detailed characterization of properties of the site are to be conducted through a wide variety of short-term and long-term in-situ tests. Testing methods require the installation of a large number of test instruments and sensors with a variety of functions. These instruments produce analog and digital data that must be collected, processed, stored, and evaluated in an attempt to predict performance of the repository. The Integrated Data and Control System (IDCS) is envisioned as a distributed data acquisition that electronically acquires and stores data from these test instruments. IDCS designers are responsible for designing and overseeing the procurement of the system, IDCS Operation and Maintenance operates and maintains the installed system, and the IDCS Data Manager is responsible for distribution of IDCS data to participants. This report is a compilation of trip reports, interoffice memos, and other memos relevant to Computer Applications Group, Inc., work on this project.

  5. Optical Distance Measurement Device And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowers, Mark W.

    2004-06-15

    A system and method of efficiently obtaining distance measurements of a target by scanning the target. An optical beam is provided by a light source and modulated by a frequency source. The modulated optical beam is transmitted to an acousto-optical deflector capable of changing the angle of the optical beam in a predetermined manner to produce an output for scanning the target. In operation, reflected or diffused light from the target may be received by a detector and transmitted to a controller configured to calculate the distance to the target as well as the measurement uncertainty in calculating the distance to the target.

  6. Permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferré, Grégoire; Maillet, Jean-Bernard; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-09-14

    We present a permutation-invariant distance between atomic configurations, defined through a functional representation of atomic positions. This distance enables us to directly compare different atomic environments with an arbitrary number of particles, without going through a space of reduced dimensionality (i.e., fingerprints) as an intermediate step. Moreover, this distance is naturally invariant through permutations of atoms, avoiding the time consuming associated minimization required by other common criteria (like the root mean square distance). Finally, the invariance through global rotations is accounted for by a minimization procedure in the space of rotations solved by Monte Carlo simulated annealing. A formal framework is also introduced, showing that the distance we propose verifies the property of a metric on the space of atomic configurations. Two examples of applications are proposed. The first one consists in evaluating faithfulness of some fingerprints (or descriptors), i.e., their capacity to represent the structural information of a configuration. The second application concerns structural analysis, where our distance proves to be efficient in discriminating different local structures and even classifying their degree of similarity.

  7. Property:AvgWellDepth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Geothermal Power Plant + 915 + O Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station + 1,750 + R Raft River Geothermal Facility + 1,829 + Reykjanes Geothermal Power Station + 2,700 +...

  8. Property:AvgGeoFluidTemp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    F 839.07 R + Bouillante Geothermal Area + 528.15 K255 C 491 F 950.67 R + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 460.15 K187 C 368.6 F 828.27 R + C Cerro Prieto...

  9. Property:CommercialAvgRate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company AEP Ohio AEP Texas Central Company AEP Texas North Company AES Eastern Energy LP ARCO Products Co-Watson Accent Energy Holdings, LLC Aguila Irrigation District...

  10. Property:IndustrialAvgRate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company AEP Ohio AEP Texas Central Company AEP Texas North Company AES Eastern Energy LP ARCO Products Co-Watson Accent Energy Holdings, LLC Aguila Irrigation District...

  11. Property:AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + F Fang Geothermal Power Station + 0.3 + Farinello Geothermal Power Station + 60 + Faulkner I Energy Generation Facility + 49.5 + H Hellisheidi Geothermal Power Station + 303 +...

  12. Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yd + Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 1,500 m1.5 km 0.932 mi 4,921.26 ft 1,640.415 yd + Bad Blumau...

  13. A NEW METHOD FOR MEASURING EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru; Minezaki, Takeo; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Koshida, Shintaro; Peterson, Bruce A.

    2014-03-20

    We have pioneered a new method for the measurement of extragalactic distances. This method uses the time lag between variations in the short wavelength and long wavelength light from an active galactic nucleus (AGN), based on a quantitative physical model of dust reverberation that relates the time lag to the absolute luminosity of the AGN. We use the large homogeneous data set from intensive monitoring observations in optical and near-infrared wavelength bands with the dedicated 2 m MAGNUM telescope to obtain the distances to 17 AGNs in the redshift range z = 0.0024 to z = 0.0353. These distance measurements are compared with distances measured using Cepheid variable stars, and are used to infer that H {sub 0} = 73 ± 3 (random) km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. The systematic error in H {sub 0} is examined, and the uncertainty in the size distribution of dust grains is the largest source of the systematic error, which is much reduced for a sample of AGNs for which their parameter values in the model of dust reverberation are individually measured. This AGN time lag method can be used beyond 30 Mpc, the farthest distance reached by extragalactic Cepheids, and can be extended to high-redshift quasi-stellar objects.

  14. Effects of Retained Austenite Volume Fraction, Morphology, and Carbon Content on Strength and Ductility of Nanostructured TRIP-assisted Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yongfeng; Qiu, LN; Sun, Xin; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.; Raabe, Dierk

    2015-06-01

    With a suite of multi-modal and multi-scale characterization techniques, the present study unambiguously proves that a substantially-improved combination of ultrahigh strength and good ductility can be achieved by tailoring the volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of the retained austenite (RA) in a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steel with the nominal chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (weight percent, wt.%). After intercritical annealing and bainitic holding, a combination ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1,100 MPa and true strain of 50% has been obtained, as a result of the ultrafine RA lamellae, which are alternately arranged in the bainitic ferrite around junction regions of ferrite grains. For reference, specimens with a blocky RA, prepared without the bainitic holding, yield a low ductility (35%) and a low UTS (800 MPa). The volume fraction, morphology, and carbon content of RA have been characterized using various techniques, including magnetic probing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-backscatter-diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interrupted tensile tests, mapped using EBSD in conjunction with the kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis, reveal that the lamellar RA is the governingmicrostructure component responsible for the higher mechanical stability, compared to the blocky one. By coupling these various techniques, we quantitatively demonstrate that in addition to the RA volume fraction, its morphology and carbon content are equally important in optimizing the strength and ductility of TRIP-assisted steels.

  15. Assessment of full power turbine trip start-up test for C. Trillo 1 with RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozano, M.F.; Moreno, P.; de la Cal, C.; Larrea, E.; Lopez, A.; Santamaria, J.G.; Lopez, E.; Novo, M.

    1993-07-01

    C. Trillo I has developed a model of the plant with RELAP5/MOD2/36.04. This model will be validated against a selected set of start-up tests. One of the transients selected to that aim is the turbine trip, which presents very specific characteristics that make it significantly different from the same transient in other PWRs of different design, the main difference being that the reactor is not tripped: a reduction in primary power is carried out instead. Pre-test calculations were done of the Turbine Trip Test and compared against the actual test. Minor problems in the first model, specially in the Control and Limitation Systems, were identified and post-test calculations had been carried out. The results show a good agreement with data for all the compared variables.

  16. Instability due to a two recirculation pump trip in a BWR using RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1993-06-01

    An investigation was made of the potential for thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in a BWR due to a two recirculation pump trip event using the RAMONA-4B computer code with 3D neutron kinetics. It is concluded that a high-power (100%) and low-flow (75%) initial condition would most likely lead to in-phase density wave oscillations after the tripping of both recirculation pumps, and that RAMONA-4B is capable of predicting such thermal-hydraulic instabilities coupled to neutronic feedback in BWR and in SBWR.

  17. OFA2013_Storage@Distance.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Storage Systems Group Storage at a Distance --- 1 --- Open F abrics A lliance U ser D ay What is storage at a distance? * Data i s n ot l ocal t o t he u ser/resource * Processing a nd w orkflow n eeds a re n ear r eal---7me - Don't w ant t o w ait u n9l d ata t ransfer i s c omplete - Need t o s ee r esults, m ake a djustments, a nd t ry a gain * Network w ill b ecome p art o f t he i nstruments - Telescopes a nd t heir d ata - Sequencers a nd t heir g enome d ata - Light s ources a nd t

  18. Long working distance incoherent interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; De Boer, Maarten P.

    2006-04-25

    A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

  19. Secure distance ranging by electronic means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritton, Dale G.

    1992-01-01

    A system for secure distance ranging between a reader 11 and a tag 12 wherein the distance between the two is determined by the time it takes to propagate a signal from the reader to the tag and for a responsive signal to return, and in which such time is random and unpredictable, except to the reader, even though the distance between the reader and tag remains the same. A random number (19) is sent from the reader and encrypted (26) by the tag into a number having 16 segments of 4 bits each (28). A first tag signal (31) is sent after such encryption. In response, a random width start pulse (13) is generated by the reader. When received in the tag, the width of the start pulse is measured (41) in the tag and a segment of the encrypted number is selected (42) in accordance with such width. A second tag pulse is generated at a time T after the start pulse arrives at the tag, the time T being dependent on the length of a variable time delay t.sub.v which is determined by the value of the bits in the selected segment of the encrypted number. At the reader, the total time from the beginning of the start pulse to the receipt of the second tag signal is measured (36, 37). The value of t.sub.v (21, 22, 23, 34) is known at the reader and the time T is subtracted (46) from the total time to find the actual propagation t.sub.p for signals to travel between the reader 11 and tag 12. The propagation time is then converted into distance (46).

  20. What is the distance to the CMB?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Chris; Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch

    2014-11-01

    The success of precision cosmology depends not only on accurate observations, but also on the theoretical model --- which must be understood to at least the same level of precision. Subtle relativistic effects can lead to biased measurements if they are neglected. One such effect gives a systematic shift in the distance-redshift relation away from its background value, due to the non-linear relativistic conservation of total photon flux. We also show directly how this shift follows from a fully relativistic analysis of the geodesic deviation equation. We derive the expectation value of the shift using second-order perturbations about a concordance background, and show that the distance to last scattering is increased by 1%. We argue that neglecting this shift could lead to a significant bias in the background cosmological parameters, because it alters the meaning of the background model. A naive adjustment of CMB parameter estimation if this shift is really a correction to the background would raise the H{sub 0} value inferred from the CMB by 5%, potentially removing the tension with local measurements of H{sub 0}. Other CMB parameters which depend on the distance would also be shifted by ? 1? when combined with local H{sub 0} data. While our estimations rely on a simplistic analysis, they nevertheless illustrate that accurately defining the background model in terms of the expectation values of observables is critical when we aim to determine the model parameters at the sub-percent level.

  1. Use a DCS-based simulator to proactively manage your fossil DCS retrofit and eliminate unit trips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krueger, S.; Greenlee, T.; Wilburs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Several fossil power plants are upgrading their current analog control with a modern distributed control system (DCS). A unit-specific DCS-based simulator for a fossil plant can offer several advantages if acquired early in the upgrade process. Three basic types of DCS-based simulators are discussed below. The experience of the Illinois Power`s (IP) Hennepin Unit 2 is summarized. The Hennepin simulator was developed in parallel with the new DCS-based control system and ready for use three months prior to the actual unit startup. The advantages gained by IP include an opportunity to test/tune the control systems and time to properly train the operations staff. These activities minimized the number of unit trips following the controls retrofit.

  2. Analysis of the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Benchmark by the Coupled-Code System ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langenbuch, S.; Schmidt, K.-D.; Velkov, K.

    2004-10-15

    The OECD/NRC boiling water reactor (BWR) turbine trip benchmark has been calculated by the coupled thermal-hydraulic neutronics system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX developed by Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit. The results obtained for all three exercises and for the additional four hypothetical cases are presented. The physical phenomena determining the BWR pressure transient are studied and explained. The sensitivity of results to variations of the initial steady-state conditions and of parameters of the two-phase flow model is discussed. A comparison is also performed for exercise 2 between the reactor core model with 33 thermal-hydraulic channels (THCs) as specified and a reactor core model with 764 THCs using a 1:1 mapping scheme.

  3. The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems within 25 PC in the southern sky Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to...

  4. Analysis of the Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Experiment by Coupled RELAP5-PARCS Three-Dimensional Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousbia-Salah, Anis; Vedovi, Juswald; D'Auria, Francesco; Ivanov, Kostadin; Galassi, Giorgio

    2004-10-15

    Thanks to continuous progress in computer technology, it is now possible to perform best-estimate simulations of complex scenarios in nuclear power plants. This method is carried out through the coupling of three-dimensional (3-D) neutron modeling of a reactor core into system codes. It is particularly appropriate for transients that involve strong interactions between core neutronics and reactor loop thermal hydraulics. For this purpose, the Peach Bottom boiling water reactor turbine trip test was selected to challenge the capability of such coupled codes. The test is characterized by a power excursion induced by rapid core pressurization and a self-limiting course behavior. In order to perform the closest simulation, the coupled thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5 and 3-D neutron kinetic code PARCS were used. The obtained results are compared to those available from experimental data. Overall, the coupled code calculations globally predict the most significant observed aspects of the transient, such as the pressure wave amplitude across the core and the power course, with an acceptable agreement. However, sensitivity studies revealed that more-accurate code models should be considered in order to better match the void dynamic and the cross-section variations during transient conditions.

  5. 1993 International conference on nuclear waste management and environmental remediation, Prague, Czech Republic, September 5--11, 1993. Combined foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slate, S.C.; Allen, R.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the trip was to attend the 1993 International Conference on Nuclear Waste Management and Environmental Remediation. The principal objective of this conference was to facilitate a truly international exchange of information on the management of nuclear wastes as well as contaminated facilities and sites emanating from nuclear operations. The conference was sponsored by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Czech and Slovak Mechanical Engineering Societies, and the Czech and Slovak Nuclear Societies in cooperation with the Commission of the European Communities, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the OECD Nuclear Agency. The conference was cosponsored by the American Nuclear Society, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, the Canadian Nuclear Society, the (former USSR) Nuclear Society, and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. This was the fourth in a series of biennial conferences, which started in Hong Kong, in 1987. This report summarizes shared aspects of the trip; however, each traveler`s observations and recommendations are reported separately.

  6. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples.

  7. Simulation of the Winfrith SGHWR X-trip blowdown experiment using RELAP-UK Mk IV and RETRAN-UK. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, C.G.

    1981-11-01

    The paper describes calculations with the thermal hydraulics codes RELAP-UK Mk IV and RETRAN to model the behavior of the Winfrith Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (WSGHWR) during a controlled depressurization experiment. The results of the simulations are compared with each other and with the experimental data. In the X-trip experiment a reactor trip was initiated from a steady operating condition of 90% of full power and the reactor allowed to depressurize via steam dump lines from the steam drums. During the transient data from a variety of instruments measuring coolant parameters, such as pressures, flows and temperatures, and plant state such as valve positions, were recorded. The version of RETRAN employed in the calculations was a development version of RETRAN-UK with the addition of a number of features from RELAP-UK, including Bryce slip and the Holmes drift flux model. The first 100 seconds of the X-trip transient in one of the two reactor loops has been simulated, during which time the system pressure falls from 940 to 170 psia.

  8. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  9. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovering the Nature of Dark ...

  10. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report Filippenko, Alexei Vladimir Univ. California, Berkeley 79...

  11. Scalable parallel distance field construction for large-scale applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hongfeng; Xie, Jinrong; Ma, Kwan -Liu; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-10-01

    Computing distance fields is fundamental to many scientific and engineering applications. Distance fields can be used to direct analysis and reduce data. In this paper, we present a highly scalable method for computing 3D distance fields on massively parallel distributed-memory machines. Anew distributed spatial data structure, named parallel distance tree, is introduced to manage the level sets of data and facilitate surface tracking overtime, resulting in significantly reduced computation and communication costs for calculating the distance to the surface of interest from any spatial locations. Our method supports several data types and distance metrics from real-world applications. We demonstrate itsmore » efficiency and scalability on state-of-the-art supercomputers using both large-scale volume datasets and surface models. We also demonstrate in-situ distance field computation on dynamic turbulent flame surfaces for a petascale combustion simulation. In conclusion, our work greatly extends the usability of distance fields for demanding applications.« less

  12. Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through the formation and reversion of deformation-induced martensite: Mechanisms, microstructures, mechanical properties, and TRIP effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive study was carried out on the strain-induced martensitic transformation, its reversion to austenite, the resultant grain refinement, and the enhancement of strength and strain-hardening ability through the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect in a commercial austenitic 304L stainless steel with emphasis on the mechanisms and the microstructural evolution. A straightforward magnetic measurement device, which is based on the measurement of the saturation magnetization, for evaluating the amount of strain-induced martensite after cold rolling and reversion annealing in metastable austenitic stainless steels was used, which its results were in good consistency with those of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. A new parameter called the effective reduction in thickness was introduced, which corresponds to the reasonable upper bound on the obtainable martensite fraction based on the saturation in the martensitic transformation. By means of thermodynamics calculations, the reversion mechanisms were estimated and subsequently validated by experimental results. The signs of thermal martensitic transformation at cooling stage after reversion at 850 °C were found, which was attributed to the rise in the martensite start temperature due to the carbide precipitation. After the reversion treatment, the average grain sizes were around 500 nm and the nanometric grains of the size of ~ 65 nm were also detected. The intense grain refinement led to the enhanced mechanical properties and observation of the change in the work-hardening capacity and TRIP effect behavior. A practical map as a guidance for grain refining and characterizing the stability against grain growth was proposed, which shows the limitation of the reversion mechanism for refinement of grain size. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nano/ultrafine grained austenitic stainless steel through martensite treatment • A parameter descriptive of a reasonable upper bound on

  13. (OECD Expert Group meeting on reduction of capital costs of nuclear power plants, Paris, France, July 21--26, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1989-08-09

    The OECD initiated a study of means to reduce the capital costs of nuclear power plants in the latter part of 1988. To accomplish the study, an Expert Group consisting of representatives of OECD member countries was formed. The initial meeting of the Expert Group was held in November 1988. A second meeting, documented in an ORNL trip report by this author, was held in May 1989. This meeting represents the third follow-on meeting with the primary goal of reviewing the draft report written by members of the Expert Group.

  14. Station Footprint: Separation Distances, Storage Options, and Pre-Cooling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STATION FOOTPRINT SeparaDon Distances, Storage OpDons and Pre--- cooling Aaron Harris Sandia NaDonal Laboratory 20 March 2013 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. . SeparaDon Distances Why do we have separaDon distances? * Hydrogen Release Hazards: Jet Fire or

  15. RELAP5/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered to explain the significant observed behaviors of the pressure and the temperature of the EV steam outlet, and the temperature of water supply distributing piping till 600 seconds after the turbine trip. The analysis results of these behaviors showed good agreement with the test results based on results of parameter study as the blow efficiency (release coef.) and heat transferred from the helical coil region to the down-comer (temperature heating down-comer tubes). It was found that the RELAP5/MOD3 code with a two-fluids model can predict well the physical situation: the gas-phase of steam generated by the decompression boiling moves upward in the down-comer tubes accompanied by the enthalpy increase of the water supply chambers; and that the pressure change of a 'shoulder' like shape is induced by the mass balance between the steam mass generated in the down-comer tubes and the steam mass blown from the SG. The applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 to SG modeling was confirmed by simulating the actual FBR system. (authors)

  16. The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems within 25 PC in the southern sky Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Dieterich, Sergio B., E-mail:...

  17. Property:Distance from Shore(m) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shore(m) Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Distance from Shore(m) Property Type String Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:DistancefromShore(m...

  18. Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope Citation ... OSTI Identifier: 973677 Report Number(s): SAND2005-3369J Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6935; ...

  19. Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae withMulticolor Light...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We present an updated version of the Multicolor Light Curve Shape method to measure distances to type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), incorporating new procedures for K-correction and ...

  20. A new Cepheid distance measurement and method for NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, Jeffrey A.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark

    2014-10-20

    We present a revised distance to the nearby galaxy NGC 6822 using a new multi-band fit to both previously published and new optical, near-, and mid-infrared data for Cepheid variables. The new data presented in this study include multi-epoch observations obtained in 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope taken for the Carnegie Hubble Program. We also present new observations in J, H, and K{sub s} with FourStar on the Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We determine mean magnitudes and present new period-luminosity relations in V, I, J, H, K{sub s} , Infrared Array Camera 3.6 μm, and 4.5 μm. In addition to using the multi-band distance moduli to calculate extinction and a true distance, we present a new method for determining an extinction-corrected distance modulus from multi-band data with varying sample sizes. We combine the distance moduli and extinction for individual stars to determine E(B – V) = 0.35 ± 0.04 and a true distance modulus μ {sub o} = 23.38 ± 0.02{sub stat} ± 0.04{sub sys}.

  1. Analysis of the OECD/NRC BWR Turbine Trip Transient Benchmark with the Coupled Thermal-Hydraulics and Neutronics Code TRAC-M/PARCS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Deokjung; Downar, Thomas J.; Ulses, Anthony; Akdeniz, Bedirhan; Ivanov, Kostadin N.

    2004-10-15

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip 2 (TT2) experiment has been performed using the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission coupled thermal-hydraulics and neutronics code TRAC-M/PARCS. The objective of the analysis was to assess the performance of TRAC-M/PARCS on a BWR transient with significance in two-phase flow and spatial variations of the neutron flux. TRAC-M/PARCS results are found to be in good agreement with measured plant data for both steady-state and transient phases of the benchmark. Additional analyses of four fictitious extreme scenarios are performed to provide a basis for code-to-code comparisons and comprehensive testing of the thermal-hydraulics/neutronics coupling. The obtained results of sensitivity studies on the effect of direct moderator heating on transient simulation indicate the importance of this modeling aspect.

  2. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  3. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, holding them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our results

  4. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  5. THE MEMBERSHIP AND DISTANCE OF THE OPEN CLUSTER COLLINDER 419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed E-mail: dberger@sysplan.co E-mail: theo@chara-array.or

    2010-09-15

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 {+-} 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  6. Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime; Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien

    2010-02-15

    A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

  7. Distance-redshift relations in an anisotropic cosmological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menezes, R. S. Jr.; Pigozzo, C.; Carneiro, S. E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we study an anisotropic model generated from a particular Bianchi type-III metric, which is a generalization of Gdel's metric and an exact solution of Einstein's field equations. We analyse type Ia supernova data, namely the SDSS sample calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and we verify in which ranges of distances and redshifts the anisotropy could be observed. We also consider, in a joint analysis, the position of the first peak in the CMB anisotropy spectrum, as well as current observational constraints on the Hubble constant. We conclude that a small anisotropy is permitted by the data, and that more accurate measurements of supernova distances above z = 2 might indicate the existence of such anisotropy in the universe.

  8. distance_webinar_2013_03_05.wmv | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distance_webinar_2013_03_05.wmv distance_webinar_2013_03_05.wmv distance_webinar_2013_03_05.wmv distance_webinar_2013_03_05.wmv (15.93 MB) More Documents & Publications Asset Score API Webinar June 14, 2013 Commercial Building Energy Asset Score 2013 Pilot Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis (Video)

  9. THE DISTANCE MEASUREMENT OF NGC1313 WITH CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qing, Gao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Feng; Yoachim, Peter

    2015-01-20

    We present the detection of Cepheids in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313, using the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on the Hubble Space Telescope. Twenty B(F450W) and V(F555W) epochs of observations spanning over three weeks were obtained, on which the profile-fitting photometry of all stars in the monitored field was performed using the package HSTphot. A sample of 26 variable stars have been identified to be Cepheids, with periods between 3 and 14 days. Based on the derived period-luminosity relations in B- and V-bands, we obtain an extinction-corrected distance modulus of ?{sub NGC} {sub 1313} = 28.32 0.08 (random) 0.06 (systematic), employing the Large Magellanic Cloud as the distance zero point calibrator. The above moduli correspond to a distance of 4.61 0.17 (random) 0.13 (systematic) Mpc, consistent with previous measurements reported in the literature within uncertainties. In addition, the reddening to NGC 1313 is found to be small.

  10. A Graph Search Heuristic for Shortest Distance Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, E

    2005-03-24

    This paper presents a heuristic for guiding A* search for finding the shortest distance path between two vertices in a connected, undirected, and explicitly stored graph. The heuristic requires a small amount of data to be stored at each vertex. The heuristic has application to quickly detecting relationships between two vertices in a large information or knowledge network. We compare the performance of this heuristic with breadth-first search on graphs with various topological properties. The results show that one or more orders of magnitude improvement in the number of vertices expanded is possible for large graphs, including Poisson random graphs.

  11. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariotti, Razvan

    1991-01-01

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  12. A comparison of standard evasion scenarios at near regional distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bos, R.; App, F.; Jones, E.; Dey, T.; Kamm, J.

    1997-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of three nuclear testing evasion scenarios. These calculations were done in two parts. The first part was done near source (within 10 km) with a non-linear weapons effects code. Particle velocity histories from the non-linear code were linked to an elastic linear finite-difference code for the second part. Seismic waveforms from the evasion scenario calculations were compared with the waveforms for a non-evasive explosion calculation at near regional distances. The results of this comparison suggest that it may be important to include realistic stratigraphy in such simulations: the overall wave amplitude in the present simulations is reduced by only a factor of 3-5 in contradiction to factors of 20-100 in {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} decoupling analyses for ideal (i.e., unlayered) media. Two of the evasion scenarios simulated retain explosive waveform characteristics at near regional distances, while the third scenario indicates that certain source geometries might lead to more non-explosive (i.e., earthquake-like) seismic signals.

  13. Nonlinear, noniterative, single-distance phase retrieval and developmental biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moosmann, Julian; Altapova, Venera; Haenschke, Daniel; Hofmann, Ralf; Baumbach, Tilo

    2012-05-17

    For coherent X-ray imaging, based on phase contrast through free-space Fresnel propagation, we discuss two noniterative, nonlinear approaches to the phase-retrieval problem from a single-distance intensity map of a pure-phase object. On one hand, a perturbative set-up is proposed where nonlinear corrections to the linearized transport-of-intensity situation are expanded in powers of the object-detector distance z and are evaluated in terms of the linear estimate. On the other hand, a nonperturbative projection algorithm, which is based on the (linear and local) contrast-transfer function (CTF), works with an effective phase in Fourier space. This effective phase obeys a modified CTF relation between intensity contrast at z > 0 and phase contrast at z= 0: Unphysical singularities of the local CTF model are cut off to yield 'quasiparticles' in analogy to the theory of the Fermi liquid. By identifying the positions of the zeros of the Fourier transformed intensity contrast as order parameters for the dynamical breaking of scaling symmetry we investigate the phase structure of the forward-propagation problem when interpreted as a statistical system. Results justify the quasiparticle approach for a wide range of intermediary phase variations. The latter algorithm is applied to data from biological samples recorded at the beamlines TopoTomo and ID19 at ANKA and ESRF, respectively.

  14. Property:AvgTempGeoFluidIntoPlant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Brawley Geothermal Power Plant + 520 + O Ormesa IH Geothermal Facility + 296 + R Raft River Geothermal Facility + 270 + Reykjanes Geothermal Power Station + 590 + Retrieved...

  15. Red giant stars from the Sloan digital sky survey. II. Distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Kefeng; Chen, Yuqin; Carrell, Kenneth; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhao, Gang

    2014-10-10

    We present distance determinations for a large and clean sample of red giant branch stars selected from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The distances are calculated based on both observational cluster fiducials and theoretical isochrones. Distributions of distances from the two methods are very similar with peaks at about 10 kpc and tails extending to more than 70 kpc. We find that distances from the two methods agree well for the majority of the sample stars; though, on average, distances based on isochrones are 10% higher than those based on fiducials. We test the accuracy of our distance determinations using 332 stars from 10 Galactic globular and open clusters. The average relative deviation from the literature cluster distances is 4% for the fiducial-based distances and 8% for the isochrone-based distances, both of which are within the uncertainties. We find that the effective temperature and surface gravity derived from low-resolution spectra are not accurate enough to essentially improve the performance of distance determinations. However, for stars with significant extinction, effective temperature may help to better constrain their distances to some extent. We make our sample stars and their distances available from an online catalog. The catalog comprises 17,941 stars with reasonable distance estimations reaching to more than 70 kpc, which is suitable for the investigation of the formation and evolution of the Galaxy, especially the Galactic halo.

  16. Analysis of the Argonne distance tabletop exercise method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanzman, E. A.; Nieves, L. A.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-14

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and evaluate the Argonne Distance Tabletop Exercise (DISTEX) method. DISTEX is intended to facilitate multi-organization, multi-objective tabletop emergency response exercises that permit players to participate from their own facility's incident command center. This report is based on experience during its first use during the FluNami 2007 exercise, which took place from September 19-October 17, 2007. FluNami 2007 exercised the response of local public health officials and hospitals to a hypothetical pandemic flu outbreak. The underlying purpose of the DISTEX method is to make tabletop exercising more effective and more convenient for playing organizations. It combines elements of traditional tabletop exercising, such as scenario discussions and scenario injects, with distance learning technologies. This distance-learning approach also allows playing organizations to include a broader range of staff in the exercise. An average of 81.25 persons participated in each weekly webcast session from all playing organizations combined. The DISTEX method required development of several components. The exercise objectives were based on the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Target Capabilities List. The ten playing organizations included four public health departments and six hospitals in the Chicago area. An extent-of-play agreement identified the objectives applicable to each organization. A scenario was developed to drive the exercise over its five-week life. Weekly problem-solving task sets were designed to address objectives that could not be addressed fully during webcast sessions, as well as to involve additional playing organization staff. Injects were developed to drive play between webcast sessions, and, in some cases, featured mock media stories based in part on player actions as identified from the problem-solving tasks. The weekly 90-minute webcast sessions were discussions among the playing organizations that were

  17. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-23

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  18. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes some 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.

  19. DISTANCE AND KINEMATICS OF THE TW HYDRAE ASSOCIATION FROM PARALLAXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2013-01-10

    From common proper motion and signatures of youth, researchers have identified about 30 members of a putative TW Hydrae Association. Only four of these had parallactic distances from Hipparcos. We have measured parallaxes and proper motions for 14 primary members. We combine these with literature values of radial velocities to show that the Galactic space motions of the stars, with the exception of TWA 9 and 22, are parallel and do not indicate convergence at a common formation point sometime in the last few million years. The space motions of TWA 9 and 22 do not agree with the others and indicate that they are not TWA members. The median parallax is 18 mas or 56 pc. We further analyze the stars' absolute magnitudes on pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks and find a range of ages with a median of 10.1 Myr and no correlation between age and Galactic location. The TWA stars may have formed from an extended and filamentary molecular cloud but are not necessarily precisely coeval.

  20. A large catalog of accurate distances to molecular clouds from PS1 photometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Martin, N. F.; Green, G.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Bell, E. F.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Draper, P. W.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    Distance measurements to molecular clouds are important but are often made separately for each cloud of interest, employing very different data and techniques. We present a large, homogeneous catalog of distances to molecular clouds, most of which are of unprecedented accuracy. We determine distances using optical photometry of stars along lines of sight toward these clouds, obtained from PanSTARRS-1. We simultaneously infer the reddenings and distances to these stars, tracking the full probability distribution function using a technique presented in Green et al. We fit these star-by-star measurements using a simple dust screen model to find the distance to each cloud. We thus estimate the distances to almost all of the clouds in the Magnani et al. catalog, as well as many other well-studied clouds, including Orion, Perseus, Taurus, Cepheus, Polaris, California, and Monoceros R2, avoiding only the inner Galaxy. Typical statistical uncertainties in the distances are 5%, though the systematic uncertainty stemming from the quality of our stellar models is about 10%. The resulting catalog is the largest catalog of accurate, directly measured distances to molecular clouds. Our distance estimates are generally consistent with available distance estimates from the literature, though in some cases the literature estimates are off by a factor of more than two.

  1. Sensors closeness test based on an improved [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md Abdullah, Abu Hassan

    2015-12-11

    Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} values are commonly in the range of 0 to +∞ where higher values represent greater distance between class means or points. The increase in Mahalanobis distance is unbounded as the distance multiply. To certain extend, the unbounded distance values pose difficulties in the evaluation and decision for instance in the sensors closeness test. This paper proposes an approach to [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} that enable researcher to easily perform sensors closeness test. The experimental data of four different types of rice based on three different electronic nose sensors namely InSniff, PEN3, and Cyranose320 were analyzed and sensor closeness test seems successfully performed within the [0, 1] bound.

  2. Distance growth of quantum states due to initial system-environment correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dajka, J.; Luczka, J.

    2010-07-15

    Intriguing features of the distance between two arbitrary states of an open quantum system are identified that are induced by initial system-environment correlations. As an example, we analyze a qubit dephasingly coupled to a bosonic environment. Within tailored parameter regimes, initial correlations are shown to substantially increase the distance between two qubit states evolving to long-time-limit states according to exact non-Markovian dynamics. It exemplifies the breakdown of the distance contractivity of the reduced dynamics.

  3. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxy...

  4. Long distance symmetries for nuclear forces and the similarity renormalization group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpigel, S.; Timoteo, V. S.; Arriola, E. R.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we study the emergence of long distance symmetries for nuclear forces within the framework of the similarity renormalization group approach.

  5. Stopping distance for high energy jets in weakly coupled quark-gluon plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, Peter; Cantrell, Sean; Xiao Wei

    2010-02-15

    We derive a simple formula for the stopping distance for a high-energy quark traveling through a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The result is given to next-to-leading order in an expansion in inverse logarithms ln(E/T), where T is the temperature of the plasma. We also define a stopping distance for gluons and give a leading-log result. Discussion of stopping distance has a theoretical advantage over discussion of energy loss rates in that stopping distances can be generalized to the case of strong coupling, where one may not speak of individual partons.

  6. The Araucaria project. The distance to the small Magellanic Cloud from late-type eclipsing binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pilecki, Bogumił; Villanova, Sandro; Gallenne, Alexandre; Thompson, Ian B.; Konorski, Piotr; Udalski, Andrzej; Soszyński, Igor; Górski, Marek; Suchomska, Ksenia; Karczmarek, Paulina; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We present a distance determination to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on an analysis of four detached, long-period, late-type eclipsing binaries discovered by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) survey. The components of the binaries show negligible intrinsic variability. A consistent set of stellar parameters was derived with low statistical and systematic uncertainty. The absolute dimensions of the stars are calculated with a precision of better than 3%. The surface brightness-infrared color relation was used to derive the distance to each binary. The four systems clump around a distance modulus of (m – M) = 18.99 with a dispersion of only 0.05 mag. Combining these results with the distance published by Graczyk et al. for the eclipsing binary OGLE SMC113.3 4007, we obtain a mean distance modulus to the SMC of 18.965 ± 0.025 (stat.) ± 0.048 (syst.) mag. This corresponds to a distance of 62.1 ± 1.9 kpc, where the error includes both uncertainties. Taking into account other recent published determinations of the SMC distance we calculated the distance modulus difference between the SMC and the Large Magellanic Cloud equal to 0.458 ± 0.068 mag. Finally, we advocate μ{sub SMC} = 18.95 ± 0.07 as a new 'canonical' value of the distance modulus to this galaxy.

  7. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  8. Connes distance function on fuzzy sphere and the connection between geometry and statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, Yendrembam Chaoba Chakraborty, Biswajit; Prajapat, Shivraj; Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K.; Scholtz, Frederik G.

    2015-04-15

    An algorithm to compute Connes spectral distance, adaptable to the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation of non-commutative quantum mechanics, was developed earlier by introducing the appropriate spectral triple and used to compute infinitesimal distances in the Moyal plane, revealing a deep connection between geometry and statistics. In this paper, using the same algorithm, the Connes spectral distance has been calculated in the Hilbert-Schmidt operatorial formulation for the fuzzy sphere whose spatial coordinates satisfy the su(2) algebra. This has been computed for both the discrete and the Perelemov’s SU(2) coherent state. Here also, we get a connection between geometry and statistics which is shown by computing the infinitesimal distance between mixed states on the quantum Hilbert space of a particular fuzzy sphere, indexed by n ∈ ℤ/2.

  9. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; exploding white-dwarf stars) were the key to the Nobel-worthy 1998 discovery and subsequent verification that the

  10. Modification to the luminosity distance redshift relation in modified gravity theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, Eanna E.; Rosenthal, Eran; Wasserman, Ira M.

    2009-02-15

    We derive an expression for the luminosity distance as a function of redshift for a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime perturbed by arbitrary scalar perturbations possibly produced by a modified gravity theory with two different scalar perturbation potentials. Measurements of the luminosity distance as function of redshift provide a constraint on a combination of the scalar potentials and so they can complement weak lensing and other measurements in trying to distinguish among the various alternative theories of gravity.

  11. Luminosity distance for Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves propagating in a cosmological magnetic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R; Ferraro, Rafael E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2008-06-15

    Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves interacting with a static magnetic background in an expanding universe are studied. The non-linear character of Born-Infeld electrodynamics modifies the relation between the energy flux and the distance to the source, which gains a new dependence on the redshift that is governed by the background field. We compute the luminosity distance as a function of the redshift and compare with Maxwellian curves for supernovae type Ia.

  12. Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics | Department of Energy Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics March 2, 2016 - 10:07am Addthis The colors show the uneven distribution of chemical elements on this particle's surface, which is key to its improved performance in batteries. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Karen McNulty Walsh Brookhaven National

  13. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  14. Is the Short Distance Scale a Result of a Problem with the LMC Photometric Zero Point?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popowski, P

    2004-03-29

    I present a promising route to harmonize distance measurements based on clump giants and RR Lyrae stars. This is achieved by comparing the brightness of these distance indicators in three environments: the solar neighborhood, Galactic bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). As a result of harmonizing the distance scales in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window, I derive the new absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars, M{sub v}(RR) at [Fe/H] = -1.6 (0.59 {+-} 0.05, 0.70 {+-} 0.05). Being somewhat brighter than the statistical parallax solution, but fainter than typical results of the main sequence fitting to Hipparcos data, these values of M{sub V}(RR) favor intermediate or old ages of globular clusters. Harmonizing the distance scales in the LMC and Baade's Window, I show that the most likely distance modulus to the LMC, {mu}{sub LMC} is in the range 18.24 - 18.44. The Hubble constant of about 70 km/s/Mpc reported by the HST Key Project is based on the assumption that the distance modulus to the LMC equals 18.50. The results presented here indicate that the Hubble Constant may be up to 12% higher. This in turn would call for a younger Universe and could result in some tension between the age of the Universe and the ages of globular clusters. I argue that the remaining uncertainty in the distance to the LMC is now a question of one, single photometric reference point rather than discrepancies between different standard candles.

  15. Estimation and validation of mode distances for the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M. S.; Peterson, B.; Liu, Cheng; Chin, Shih-Miao

    1995-09-01

    The 1993 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) collected shipment data from a sample of approximately 200,000 domestic business establishments. Each selected establishment provided information on origin, destination, commodity, shipment weight and value, and modes of transport for a sample of its outbound shipments. One data item not reported by CFS participants was shipment distance. This important piece of information was estimated by simulating probable routes using computer models of the highway, rail, air, waterway, and pipeline networks and their interconnections. This paper describes the nature of the shipment distance estimation problem, the procedures used to estimate mode-specific distances between origin and destination ZIP codes, and the techniques used to validate the results.

  16. Combined distance-of-flight and time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Enke, Christie G; Ray, Steven J; Graham, Alexander W; Hieftje, Gary M; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W

    2014-02-11

    A combined distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) instrument includes an ion source configured to produce ions having varying mass-to-charge ratios, a first detector configured to determine when each of the ions travels a predetermined distance, a second detector configured to determine how far each of the ions travels in a predetermined time, and a detector extraction region operable to direct portions of the ions either to the first detector or to the second detector.

  17. A weak zero-one law for sequences of random distance graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhukovskii, Maksim E

    2012-07-31

    We study zero-one laws for properties of random distance graphs. Properties written in a first-order language are considered. For p(N) such that pN{sup {alpha}}{yields}{infinity} as N{yields}{infinity}, and (1-p)N{sup {alpha}} {yields} {infinity} as N {yields} {infinity} for any {alpha}>0, we succeed in refuting the law. In this connection, we consider a weak zero-one j-law. For this law, we obtain results for random distance graphs which are similar to the assertions concerning the classical zero-one law for random graphs. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. Stellar metallicity of the extended disk and distance of the spiral galaxy NGC 3621

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert E-mail: bresolin@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at

    2014-06-10

    Low resolution (?4.5 ) ESO VLT/FORS spectra of blue supergiant stars are analyzed to determine stellar metallicities (based on elements such as iron, titanium, and magnesium) in the extended disk of the spiral galaxy, NGC 3621. Mildly subsolar metallicity (0.30 dex) is found for the outer objects beyond 7 kpc, independent of galactocentric radius and compatible with the absence of a metallicity gradient, confirming the results of a recent investigation of interstellar medium H II region gas oxygen abundances. The stellar metallicities are slightly higher than those from the H II regions when based on measurements of the weak forbidden auroral oxygen line at 4363 but lower than the ones obtained with the R {sub 23} strong line method. It is shown that the present level of metallicity in the extended disk cannot be the result of chemical evolution over the age of the disk with the present rate of in situ star formation. Additional mechanisms must be involved. In addition to metallicity, stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and bolometric magnitudes are determined. After the application of individual reddening corrections for each target, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars is used to obtain a distance modulus of 29.07 0.09 mag (distance D = 6.52 0.28 Mpc). This new distance is discussed in relation to Cepheid and the tip of the red giant branch distances.

  19. On chemical distances and shape theorems in percolation models with long-range correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewitz, Alexander; Rth, Balzs; Sapozhnikov, Artm

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we provide general conditions on a one parameter family of random infinite subsets of Z{sup d} to contain a unique infinite connected component for which the chemical distances are comparable to the Euclidean distance. In addition, we show that these conditions also imply a shape theorem for the corresponding infinite connected component. By verifying these conditions for specific models, we obtain novel results about the structure of the infinite connected component of the vacant set of random interlacements and the level sets of the Gaussian free field. As a byproduct, we obtain alternative proofs to the corresponding results for random interlacements in the work of Cern and Popov [On the internal distance in the interlacement set, Electron. J. Probab. 17(29), 125 (2012)], and while our main interest is in percolation models with long-range correlations, we also recover results in the spirit of the work of Antal and Pisztora [On the chemical distance for supercritical Bernoulli percolation, Ann Probab. 24(2), 10361048 (1996)] for Bernoulli percolation. Finally, as a corollary, we derive new results about the (chemical) diameter of the largest connected component in the complement of the trace of the random walk on the torus.

  20. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  1. Standoff Spectroscopy Using a Conditioned Target Identifies Hazardous Materials at a Distance

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-09-26

    A safer method for the standoff (long distance) detection and identification ofmolecules on a surface has been invented by researchers at ORNL and the Universityof Tennessee. This invention avoids the necessity of close and potentially hazardouscontact. It combines tunable infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy techniquesto target identifying properties of surface residues....

  2. Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2013-12-10

    We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicatorscepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masersoperate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 10{sup 7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.

  3. Corridor One: An Integrated Distance Visualization Environment for SSI and ASCI Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Stevens; Jason Leigh

    2002-07-14

    Scenarios describe realistic uses of DVC/Distance technologies in several years. Four scenarios are described: Distributed Decision Making; Remote Interactive Computing; Remote Visualization: (a) Remote Immersive Visualization and (b) Remote Scientific Visualization; Remote Virtual Prototyping. Scenarios serve as drivers for the road maps and enable us to check that the functionality and technology in the road maps match application needs. There are four major DVC/Distance technology areas we cover: Networking and QoS; Remote Computing; Remote Visualization; Remote Data. Each ??road map? consists of two parts, a ??functionality? matrix (what can be done) and a ??technology? matrix (underlying technology). That is, functionality matrices show the desired operational characteristics, while technology matrices show the underlying technology needed. In practice, there isn??t always a clean break between ??functionality? and ??technology,? but it still seems useful to try and separate things this way.

  4. INL and NREL Demonstrate Power Grid Simulation at a Distance - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL INL and NREL Demonstrate Power Grid Simulation at a Distance Capability makes national laboratory assets accessible to grid researchers worldwide May 4, 2015 The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have successfully demonstrated the capability to connect grid simulations at their two labs for real time interaction via the Internet. This new inter-lab capability enables the modeling of power grids in greater

  5. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2013-10-29

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  6. THE DISTANCE TO THE MASSIVE GALACTIC CLUSTER WESTERLUND 2 FROM A SPECTROSCOPIC AND HST PHOTOMETRIC STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas Alvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P. E-mail: chipk@uwyo.edu E-mail: sheila@physics.unc.edu E-mail: rcool@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-05-15

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters R{sub V} and A{sub V} for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values (R{sub V} ) = 3.77 {+-} 0.09 and (A{sub V} ) = 6.51 {+-} 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance (d) = 4.16 {+-} 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2.

  7. Optical fiber configurations for transmission of laser energy over great distances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S

    2014-11-04

    There are provided optical fiber configurations that provide for the delivery of laser energy, and in particular, the transmission and delivery of high power laser energy over great distances. These configurations further are hardened to protect the optical fibers from the stresses and conditions of an intended application. The configurations provide means for determining the additional fiber length (AFL) need to obtain the benefits of such additional fiber, while avoiding bending losses.

  8. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  9. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ∼5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub −0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub −0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub −0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  10. Distance-dependent plasma composition and ion energy in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehiasarian, Arutiun P; Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andr

    2010-04-18

    The plasma composition of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) has been studied for titanium and chromium targets using a combined energy analyser and quadrupole mass spectrometer. Measurements were done at distances from 50 to 300 mm from the sputtering target. Ti and Cr are similar in atomic mass but have significantly different sputter yields, which gives interesting clues on the effect of the target on plasma generation and transport of atoms. The Ti and Cr HIPIMS plasmas operated at a peak target current density of ~;;0.5 A cm-2. The measurements of the argon and metal ion content as well as the ion energy distribution functions showed that (1) singly and doubly charged ions were found for argon as well as for the target metal, (2) the majority of ions were singly charged argon for both metals at all distances investigated, (3) the Cr ion density was maintained to distances further from the target than Ti. Gas rarefaction was identified as a main factor promoting transport of metal ions, with the stronger effect observed for Cr, the material with higher sputter yield. Cr ions were found to displace a significant portion of the gas ions, whereas this was less evident in the Ti case. The observations indicate that the presence of metal vapour promotes charge exchange and reduces the electron temperature and thereby practically prevents the production of Ar2+ ions near the target. The content of higher charge states of metal ions depends on the probability of charge exchange with argon.

  11. Using red clump stars to decompose the galactic magnetic field with distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, Michael D.

    2014-09-01

    A new method for measuring the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field is presented. The Galactic magnetic field has been probed through the Galactic disk with near-infrared starlight polarimetry; however, the distance to each background star is unknown. Using red clump stars as near-infrared standard candles, this work presents the first attempt to decompose the line-of-sight structure of the sky-projected Galactic magnetic field. Two example lines of sight are decomposed: toward a field with many red clump stars and toward a field with few red clump stars. A continuous estimate of magnetic field orientation over several kiloparsecs of distance is possible in the field with many red clump stars, while only discrete estimates are possible in the sparse example. Toward the outer Galaxy, there is a continuous field orientation with distance that shows evidence of perturbation by the Galactic warp. Toward the inner Galaxy, evidence for a large-scale change in the magnetic field geometry is consistent with models of magnetic field reversals, independently derived from Faraday rotation studies. A photo-polarimetric method for identifying candidate intrinsically polarized stars is also presented. The future application of this method to large regions of the sky will begin the process of mapping the Galactic magnetic field in a way never before possible.

  12. Long-distance entanglement and quantum teleportation in XX spin chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos Venuti, L.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Zanardi, P.

    2007-11-15

    Isotropic XX models of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains are investigated with the aim to elucidate the formal structure and the physical properties that allow these systems to act as channels for long-distance, high-fidelity quantum teleportation. We introduce two types of models: (i) open, dimerized XX chains, and (ii) open XX chains with small end bonds. For both models we obtain the exact expressions for the end-to-end correlations and the scaling of the energy gap with the length of the chain. We determine the end-to-end concurrence and show that model (i) supports true long-distance entanglement at zero temperature, while model (ii) supports 'quasi-long-distance' entanglement that slowly falls off with the size of the chain. Due to the different scalings of the gaps, respectively exponential for model (i) and algebraic in model (ii), we demonstrate that the latter allows for efficient qubit teleportation with high fidelity in sufficiently long chains even at moderately low temperatures.

  13. Moving Large Data Sets Over High-Performance Long Distance Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodson, Stephen W; Poole, Stephen W; Ruwart, Thomas; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2011-04-01

    In this project we look at the performance characteristics of three tools used to move large data sets over dedicated long distance networking infrastructure. Although performance studies of wide area networks have been a frequent topic of interest, performance analyses have tended to focus on network latency characteristics and peak throughput using network traffic generators. In this study we instead perform an end-to-end long distance networking analysis that includes reading large data sets from a source file system and committing large data sets to a destination file system. An evaluation of end-to-end data movement is also an evaluation of the system configurations employed and the tools used to move the data. For this paper, we have built several storage platforms and connected them with a high performance long distance network configuration. We use these systems to analyze the capabilities of three data movement tools: BBcp, GridFTP, and XDD. Our studies demonstrate that existing data movement tools do not provide efficient performance levels or exercise the storage devices in their highest performance modes. We describe the device information required to achieve high levels of I/O performance and discuss how this data is applicable in use cases beyond data movement performance.

  14. Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.

  15. SLOPE STABILITY EVALUATION AND EQUIPMENT SETBACK DISTANCES FOR BURIAL GROUND EXCAVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCSHANE DS

    2010-03-25

    After 1970 Transuranic (TRU) and suspect TRU waste was buried in the ground with the intention that at some later date the waste would be retrieved and processed into a configuration for long term storage. To retrieve this waste the soil must be removed (excavated). Sloping the bank of the excavation is the method used to keep the excavation from collapsing and to provide protection for workers retrieving the waste. The purpose of this paper is to document the minimum distance (setback) that equipment must stay from the edge of the excavation to maintain a stable slope. This evaluation examines the equipment setback distance by dividing the equipment into two categories, (1) equipment used for excavation and (2) equipment used for retrieval. The section on excavation equipment will also discuss techniques used for excavation including the process of benching. Calculations 122633-C-004, 'Slope Stability Analysis' (Attachment A), and 300013-C-001, 'Crane Stability Analysis' (Attachment B), have been prepared to support this evaluation. As shown in the calculations the soil has the following properties: Unit weight 110 pounds per cubic foot; and Friction Angle (natural angle of repose) 38{sup o} or 1.28 horizontal to 1 vertical. Setback distances are measured from the top edge of the slope to the wheels/tracks of the vehicles and heavy equipment being utilized. The computer program utilized in the calculation uses the center of the wheel or track load for the analysis and this difference is accounted for in this evaluation.

  16. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. V. AN ANGULAR-DIAMETER DISTANCE TO NGC 6264 AT 140 Mpc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Reid, M. J.; Henkel, C.

    2013-04-20

    We present the direct measurement of the Hubble constant, yielding the direct measurement of the angular-diameter distance to NGC 6264 using the H{sub 2}O megamaser technique. Our measurement is based on sensitive observations of the circumnuclear megamaser disk from four observations with the Very Long Baseline Array, the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg telescope. We also monitored the maser spectral profile for 2.3 years using the GBT to measure accelerations of maser lines by tracking their line-of-sight velocities as they change with time. The measured accelerations suggest that the systemic maser spots have a significantly wider radial distribution than in the archetypal megamaser in NGC 4258. We model the maser emission as arising from a circumnuclear disk with orbits dominated by the central black hole. The best fit of the data gives a Hubble constant of H{sub 0} = 68 {+-} 9 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, which corresponds to an angular-diameter distance of 144 {+-} 19 Mpc. In addition, the fit also gives a mass of the central black hole of (3.09 {+-} 0.42) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. The result demonstrates the feasibility of measuring distances to galaxies located well into the Hubble flow by using circumnuclear megamaser disks.

  17. A NEW COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASURE USING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS X-RAY VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franca, Fabio La; Bianchi, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Matt, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universit Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Ponti, Gabriele, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany)

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of a luminosity distance estimator using active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We combine the correlation between the X-ray variability amplitude and the black hole (BH) mass with the single-epoch spectra BH mass estimates which depend on the AGN luminosity and the line width emitted by the broad-line region. We demonstrate that significant correlations do exist that allow one to predict the AGN (optical or X-ray) luminosity as a function of the AGN X-ray variability and either the H? or the Pa? line widths. In the best case, when the Pa? is used, the relationship has an intrinsic dispersion of ?0.6dex. Although intrinsically more disperse than supernovae Ia, this relation constitutes an alternative distance indicator potentially able to probe, in an independent way, the expansion history of the universe. With respect to this, we show that the new mission concept Athena should be able to measure the X-ray variability of hundreds of AGNs and then constrain the distance modulus with uncertainties of 0.1mag up to z ? 0.6. We also discuss how our estimator has the prospect of becoming a cosmological probe even more sensitive than the current supernovae Ia samples by using a new dedicated wide-field X-ray telescope able to measure the variability of thousands of AGNs.

  18. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J.

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  19. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rotor value during acceleration until the motor approaches its operating speed. (Note: The ... LRC for specifc new motor models can be looked up in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) ...

  20. Single trip completion of spaced formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vann, R.R.; Brieger, E.F.

    1986-09-23

    A method is described of perforating two spaced-apart formations, which consists of: positioning a first perforating gun in a borehole adjacent to a first formation and a second perforating gun in the borehole adjacent to a second formation; detonating the charges of the first gun to create a pressure shock wave, the pressure shock wave being generated by application of the explosive force from firing the first gun to a movable wall closing one end of a column of fluid; directing the pressure shock wave to means for detonating the charges of the second gun; and detonating the charges of the second gun in response to the pressure shock wave. An apparatus is described for completing a well, comprising; first perforating means for perforating one portion of the well; second perforating means for perforating another portion of the well; means for transmitting a fluid pulse upon detonation of the first perforating means; and means for receiving the fluid pulse to actuate the detonation of the second perforating means.

  1. DOE_GovTrip-PIA.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  2. My Trip to Mongolia | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    peaceful use of nuclear energy for electric power generation. I also toured some of Mongolia's energy facilities, including a thermal power plant, to see first-hand how Mongolia ...

  3. Field Trip Check List | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    All adults must present their photo ID with their issued pass to the guard. Your vehicle ... Each subgroup will move to a different activity station and complete their assigned ...

  4. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-11-12

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley et al. of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li et al. from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li et al. were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping.

  5. SU-E-T-545: MLC Distance Travelled as a Predictor for Motor Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stathakis, S; Defoor, D; Linden, P; Kirby, N; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the frequency of Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) leaf failures, investigate methods to predict them and reduce linac downtime. Methods: A Varian HD120 MLC was used in our study. The hyperterminal MLC errors logged from 06/2012 to 12/2014 were collected. Along with the hyperterminal errors, the MLC motor changes and all other MLC interventions by the linear accelerator engineer were recorded. The MLC dynalog files were also recorded on a daily basis for each treatment and during linac QA. The dynalog files were analyzed to calculate root mean square errors (RMS) and cumulative MLC travel distance per motor. An in-house MatLab code was used to analyze all dynalog files, record RMS errors and calculate the distance each MLC traveled per day. Results: A total of 269 interventions were recorded over a period of 18 months. Of these, 146 included MLC motor leaf change, 39 T-nut replacements, and 84 MLC cleaning sessions. Leaves close to the middle of each side required the most maintenance. In the A bank, leaves A27 to A40 recorded 73% of all interventions, while the same leaves in the B bank counted for 52% of the interventions. On average, leaves in the middle of the bank had their motors changed approximately every 1500m of travel. Finally, it was found that the number of RMS errors increased prior to an MLC motor change. Conclusion: An MLC dynalog file analysis software was developed that can be used to log daily MLC usage. Our eighteen-month data analysis showed that there is a correlation between the distance an MLC travels, the RMS and the life of the MLC motor. We plan to use this tool to predict MLC motor failures and with proper and timely intervention, reduce the downtime of the linac during clinical hours.

  6. ELLIPSOIDAL VARIABLE V1197 ORIONIS: ABSOLUTE LIGHT-VELOCITY ANALYSIS FOR KNOWN DISTANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R. E.; Chochol, D.; KomzIk, R.; Van Hamme, W.; Pribulla, T.; Volkov, I.

    2009-09-01

    V1197 Orionis light curves from a long-term observing program for red giant binaries show ellipsoidal variation of small amplitude in the V and R{sub C} bands, although not clearly in U and B. Eclipses are not detected. All four bands show large irregular intrinsic variations, including fleeting quasi-periodicities identified by power spectra, that degrade analysis and may be caused by dynamical tides generated by orbital eccentricity. To deal with the absence of eclipses and consequent lack of astrophysical and geometrical information, direct use is made of the Hipparcos parallax distance while the V and R{sub C} light curves and (older) radial velocity curves are analyzed simultaneously in terms of absolute flux. The red giant's temperature is estimated from new spectra. This type of analysis, called Inverse Distance Estimation for brevity, is new and can also be applied to other ellipsoidal variables. Advantages gained by utilization of definite distance and temperature are discussed in regard to how radius, fractional lobe filling, and mass ratio information are expressed in the observations. The advantages were tested in solutions of noisy synthetic data. Also discussed and tested by simulations are ideas on the optimal number of light curves to be solved simultaneously under various conditions. The dim companion has not been observed or discussed in the literature but most solutions find its mass to be well below that of the red giant. Solutions show red giant masses that are too low for evolution to the red giant stage within the age of the Galaxy, although that result is probably an artifact of the intrinsic brightness fluctuations.

  7. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  8. Very large radiative transfer over small distances from a black body for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, J.L.; Choy, H.K.H.; Fonstad, C.G. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The maximum amount of radiated heat intensity which can be transferred from a black body of refractive index n{sub BB} to an object of refractive index n{sub OBJ} located a short distance away is shown to be n{sup 2}{sub smaller} times the free space Planck distribution, where n{sub smaller} is the smaller of n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ}, and where n{sub BB} and n{sub OBJ} are assumed greater than unity. The implication is that the radiative power spectral density within a thermophotovoltaic cell could be designed to be much greater than the free space Planck distribution. The maximum radiative intensity transferred occurs when the index of the black body matches that of the object at wavelengths where the Planck distribution is sizeable. A simple expression is found for the transferred radiative intensity as a function of the refractive indices of, and the distance separating, the black body and the object. The expression is interpreted in terms of the specific black body modes which are evanescent in the space between the black body and the object and which make the largest contribution to the transmission of radiation. The black body, the object, and the gap region are all modeled as lossless dielectrics.

  9. Generalized correlation integral vectors: A distance concept for chaotic dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haario, Heikki; Kalachev, Leonid; Hakkarainen, Janne

    2015-06-15

    Several concepts of fractal dimension have been developed to characterise properties of attractors of chaotic dynamical systems. Numerical approximations of them must be calculated by finite samples of simulated trajectories. In principle, the quantities should not depend on the choice of the trajectory, as long as it provides properly distributed samples of the underlying attractor. In practice, however, the trajectories are sensitive with respect to varying initial values, small changes of the model parameters, to the choice of a solver, numeric tolerances, etc. The purpose of this paper is to present a statistically sound approach to quantify this variability. We modify the concept of correlation integral to produce a vector that summarises the variability at all selected scales. The distribution of this stochastic vector can be estimated, and it provides a statistical distance concept between trajectories. Here, we demonstrate the use of the distance for the purpose of estimating model parameters of a chaotic dynamic model. The methodology is illustrated using computational examples for the Lorenz 63 and Lorenz 95 systems, together with a framework for Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling to produce posterior distributions of model parameters.

  10. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-02-15

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H{sub c}, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H{sub c} of {approximately}35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D{sup {minus}1}. As D increases there is a drop in H{sub c}, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion.

  11. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  12. Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen

    2010-05-28

    Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

  13. Investigation of the EAS Lateral Particle Density at 500 m Distance from Shower Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toma, G.

    2008-01-24

    For the experimental conditions of the KASCADE-Grande experiment, the density of EAS charged particles at the distance of about 500 m from the shower core S(500) has been shown by detailed simulation studies to be an approximate energy estimator, being nearly independent of the mass of the primary particle. This report presents some experimentally observed features of the S(500) observable registered with the KASCADE-Grande array installed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany The measured energy deposits of particles in the 37 scintillation detector stations have been used to reconstruct the lateral charged particle distributions that are described by a Linsley parameterization (LDF). Among other features, the S(500) dependence from the EAS angle of incidence has been studied.

  14. Short-distance matrix elements for $D$-meson mixing for 2+1 lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chia Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We study the short-distance hadronic matrix elements for D-meson mixing with partially quenched Nf = 2+1 lattice QCD. We use a large set of the MIMD Lattice Computation Collaboration's gauge configurations with a2 tadpole-improved staggered sea quarks and tadpole-improved Lüscher-Weisz gluons. We use the a2 tadpole-improved action for valence light quarks and the Sheikoleslami-Wohlert action with the Fermilab interpretation for the valence charm quark. Our calculation covers the complete set of five operators needed to constrain new physics models for D-meson mixing. We match our matrix elements to the MS-NDR scheme evaluated at 3 GeV. We report values for the Beneke-Buchalla-Greub-Lenz-Nierste choice of evanescent operators.

  15. Detecting Distance between Injected Microspheres and Target Tumor via 3D Reconstruction of Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Colby, Sean M.; Davis, Cassi A.; Basciano, Christopher; Greene, Kevin; Feo, John T.; Kennedy, Andrew

    2012-08-28

    One treatment increasing in use for solid tumors in the liver is radioembolization via the delivery of 90Y microspheres to the vascular bed within or near the location of the tumor. It is desirable as part of the treatment for the microspheres to embed preferentially in or near the tumor. This work details an approach for analyzing the deposition of microspheres with respect to the location of the tumor. The approach used is based upon thin-slice serial sectioning of the tissue sample, followed by high resolution imaging, microsphere detection, and 3-D reconstruction of the tumor surface. Distance from the microspheres to the tumor was calculated using a fast deterministic point inclusion method.

  16. Photospheric magnitude diagrams for type II supernovat: A promising tool to compute distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodríguez, Ósmar; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-12-01

    We develop an empirical color-based standardization for Type II supernovae (SNe II), equivalent to the classical surface brightness method given in Wesselink. We calibrate this standardization using SNe II with host galaxy distances measured using Cepheids, and a well-constrained shock breakout epoch and extinction due to the host galaxy. We estimate the reddening with an analysis of the B – V versus V – I color-color curves, similar to that of Natali et al. With four SNe II meeting the above requirements, we build a photospheric magnitude versus color diagram (similar to an H-R diagram) with a dispersion of 0.29 mag. We also show that when using time since shock breakout instead of color as the independent variable, the same standardization gives a dispersion of 0.09 mag. Moreover, we show that the above time-based standardization corresponds to the generalization of the standardized candle method of Hamuy and Pinto for various epochs throughout the photospheric phase. To test the new tool, we construct Hubble diagrams for different subsamples of 50 low-redshift (cz < 10{sup 4} km s{sup –1}) SNe II. For 13 SNe within the Hubble flow (cz {sub CMB} > 3000 km s{sup –1}) and with a well-constrained shock breakout epoch we obtain values of 68-69 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1} for the Hubble constant and a mean intrinsic scatter of 0.12 mag or 6% in relative distances.

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    *Avg. of NGI's reported avg. prices for: Malin, PG&E citygate, and Southern California Border Avg. Source: NGI's Daily Gas Price Index (http:intelligencepress.com). Storage:...

  18. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  19. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO LOCATING THE RED GIANT BRANCH TIP MAGNITUDE. II. DISTANCES TO THE SATELLITES OF M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conn, A. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Zucker, D. B.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Lewis, G. F.; McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Tanvir, N.; Fardal, M. A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Valls-Gabaud, D.

    2012-10-10

    In 'A Bayesian Approach to Locating the Red Giant Branch Tip Magnitude (Part I)', a new technique was introduced for obtaining distances using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) standard candle. Here we describe a useful complement to the technique with the potential to further reduce the uncertainty in our distance measurements by incorporating a matched-filter weighting scheme into the model likelihood calculations. In this scheme, stars are weighted according to their probability of being true object members. We then re-test our modified algorithm using random-realization artificial data to verify the validity of the generated posterior probability distributions (PPDs) and proceed to apply the algorithm to the satellite system of M31, culminating in a three-dimensional view of the system. Further to the distributions thus obtained, we apply a satellite-specific prior on the satellite distances to weight the resulting distance posterior distributions, based on the halo density profile. Thus in a single publication, using a single method, a comprehensive coverage of the distances to the companion galaxies of M31 is presented, encompassing the dwarf spheroidals Andromedas I-III, V, IX-XXVII, and XXX along with NGC 147, NGC 185, M33, and M31 itself. Of these, the distances to Andromedas XXIV-XXVII and Andromeda XXX have never before been derived using the TRGB. Object distances are determined from high-resolution tip magnitude posterior distributions generated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique and associated sampling of these distributions to take into account uncertainties in foreground extinction and the absolute magnitude of the TRGB as well as photometric errors. The distance PPDs obtained for each object both with and without the aforementioned prior are made available to the reader in tabular form. The large object coverage takes advantage of the unprecedented size and photometric depth of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey. Finally, a

  20. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  1. Determination of lung segments in computed tomography images using the Euclidean distance to the pulmonary artery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoecker, Christina; Moltz, Jan H.; Lassen, Bianca; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Welter, Stefan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) imaging is the modality of choice for lung cancer diagnostics. With the increasing number of lung interventions on sublobar level in recent years, determining and visualizing pulmonary segments in CT images and, in oncological cases, reliable segment-related information about the location of tumors has become increasingly desirable. Computer-assisted identification of lung segments in CT images is subject of this work.Methods: The authors present a new interactive approach for the segmentation of lung segments that uses the Euclidean distance of each point in the lung to the segmental branches of the pulmonary artery. The aim is to analyze the potential of the method. Detailed manual pulmonary artery segmentations are used to achieve the best possible segment approximation results. A detailed description of the method and its evaluation on 11 CT scans from clinical routine are given.Results: An accuracy of 2–3 mm is measured for the segment boundaries computed by the pulmonary artery-based method. On average, maximum deviations of 8 mm are observed. 135 intersegmental pulmonary veins detected in the 11 test CT scans serve as reference data. Furthermore, a comparison of the presented pulmonary artery-based approach to a similar approach that uses the Euclidean distance to the segmental branches of the bronchial tree is presented. It shows a significantly higher accuracy for the pulmonary artery-based approach in lung regions at least 30 mm distal to the lung hilum.Conclusions: A pulmonary artery-based determination of lung segments in CT images is promising. In the tests, the pulmonary artery-based determination has been shown to be superior to the bronchial tree-based determination. The suitability of the segment approximation method for application in the planning of segment resections in clinical practice has already been verified in experimental cases. However, automation of the method accompanied by an evaluation on a larger

  2. TOWARD A NEW GEOMETRIC DISTANCE TO THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 4258. III. FINAL RESULTS AND THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, E. M. L.; Reid, M. J.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Argon, A. L.

    2013-09-20

    We report a new geometric maser distance estimate to the active galaxy NGC 4258. The data for the new model are maser line-of-sight (LOS) velocities and sky positions from 18 epochs of very long baseline interferometry observations, and LOS accelerations measured from a 10 yr monitoring program of the 22 GHz maser emission of NGC 4258. The new model includes both disk warping and confocal elliptical maser orbits with differential precession. The distance to NGC 4258 is 7.60 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.15 Mpc, a 3% uncertainty including formal fitting and systematic terms. The resulting Hubble constant, based on the use of the Cepheid variables in NGC 4258 to recalibrate the Cepheid distance scale, is H{sub 0} = 72.0 {+-} 3.0 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}.

  3. COMPARISON OF SOLAR SURFACE FLOWS INFERRED FROM TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY AND COHERENT STRUCTURE TRACKING USING HMI/SDO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanda, Michal; Roudier, Thierry; Rieutord, Michel; Burston, Raymond; Gizon, Laurent

    2013-07-01

    We compare measurements of horizontal flows on the surface of the Sun using helioseismic time-distance inversions and coherent structure tracking of solar granules. Tracking provides two-dimensional horizontal flows on the solar surface, whereas the time-distance inversions estimate the full three-dimensional velocity flows in the shallow near-surface layers. Both techniques use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations as input. We find good correlations between the various measurements resulting from the two techniques. Further, we find a good agreement between these measurements and the time-averaged Doppler line-of-sight velocity, and also perform sanity checks on the vertical flow that resulted from the three-dimensional time-distance inversion.

  4. SU-E-T-98: Dependence of Radiotherapy Couch Transmission Factors On Field Size and Couch-Isocenter Distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhabib, S; Duan, J; Wu, X; Cardan, R; Shen, S; Huang, M; Popple, R; Brezovich, I

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The dosimetric effect of the treatment couch is non-negligible in today's radiotherapy treatment. To accurately include couch in dose calculation, we investigated the dependence of couch transmission factors on field size and couch-isocenter distance. Methods: Couch transmission factors for Varian Exact Couch were determined by taking the ratios of ionization of a posterior-anterior beam with and without the couch in the beam path. Measurements were performed at the isocenter using a PTW cylindrical ionization chamber (Model 31030) with an Aluminum buildup cap of 1.1 cm thick for the 6 MV photon beam. Ionization readings for beam sizes ranging from 2 2 cm2 to 40 40 cm2 were taken. Transmission factors for couch-isocenter distances ranging from 3 cm to 20 cm were also investigated. Results: The couch transmission factors increased with the field size approximately in an exponential manner. For the field sizes that we tested, the transmission factor ranged from 0.976 to 0.992 for couch-isocenter distance of 3 cm. The transmission factor was also monotonically dependent on couch-isocenter separation distance, but in a lighter magnitude. For the tested couch heights, the transmission factor ranged from 0.974 0.972 for 2 2 cm2 field size and 0.992 0.986 for 40 40 cm2 field size. The dependence on couch-isocenter distance is stronger for larger field size. Conclusions: The transmission factor of a radiotherapy treatment couch increases with field size of the radiation beam and its distance from the isocenter. Such characterization of the couch transmission factor helps improve the accuracy of couch modeling for radiotherapy treatment planning.

  5. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING CEPHEID NIR AND OPTICAL-NIR PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inno, L.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Genovali, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Caputo, F.; Laney, C. D.; Marconi, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-02-10

    We present the largest near-infrared (NIR) data sets, JHKs, ever collected for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We selected fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) pulsators, and found 4150 (2571 FU, 1579 FO) Cepheids for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 3042 (1840 FU, 1202 FO) for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Current sample is 2-3 times larger than any sample used in previous investigations with NIR photometry. We also discuss optical VI photometry from OGLE-III. NIR and optical-NIR Period-Wesenheit (PW) relations are linear over the entire period range (0.0 < log P {sub FU} {<=} 1.65) and their slopes are, within the intrinsic dispersions, common between the MCs. These are consistent with recent results from pulsation models and observations suggesting that the PW relations are minimally affected by the metal content. The new FU and FO PW relations were calibrated using a sample of Galactic Cepheids with distances based on trigonometric parallaxes and Cepheid pulsation models. By using FU Cepheids we found a true distance moduli of 18.45 {+-} 0.02(random) {+-} 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 18.93 {+-} 0.02(random) {+-} 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC). These estimates are the weighted mean over 10 PW relations and the systematic errors account for uncertainties in the zero point and in the reddening law. We found similar distances using FO Cepheids (18.60 {+-} 0.03(random) {+-} 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 19.12 {+-} 0.03(random) {+-} 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC)). These new MC distances lead to the relative distance, {Delta}{mu} = 0.48 {+-} 0.03 mag (FU, log P = 1) and {Delta}{mu} = 0.52 {+-} 0.03 mag (FO, log P = 0.5), which agrees quite well with previous estimates based on robust distance indicators.

  6. Atmospheric plume progression as a function of time and distance from the release point for radioactive isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.

    2015-10-01

    The International Monitoring System contains up to 80 stations around the world that have aerosol and xenon monitoring systems designed to detect releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere from nuclear tests. A rule of thumb description of plume concentration and duration versus time and distance from the release point is useful when designing and deploying new sample collection systems. This paper uses plume development from atmospheric transport modeling to provide a power-law rule describing atmospheric dilution factors as a function of distance from the release point.

  7. Validating time-distance helioseismology with realistic quiet-sun simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGrave, K.; Jackiewicz, J.; Rempel, M. E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu

    2014-06-20

    Linear time-distance helioseismic inversions are carried out for vector flow velocities using travel times measured from two ?100{sup 2} Mm{sup 2} 20 Mm realistic magnetohydrodynamic quiet-Sun simulations of about 20 hr. The goal is to test current seismic methods on these state-of-the-art simulations. Using recent three-dimensional inversion schemes, we find that inverted horizontal flow maps correlate well with the simulations in the upper ?3 Mm of the domains for several filtering schemes, including phase-speed, ridge, and combined phase-speed and ridge measurements. In several cases, however, the velocity amplitudes from the inversions severely underestimate those of the simulations, possibly indicating nonlinearity of the forward problem. We also find that, while near-surface inversions of the vertical velocities are best using phase-speed filters, in almost all other example cases these flows are irretrievable due to noise, suggesting a need for statistical averaging to obtain better inferences.

  8. Distance dependent quenching and gamma-ray spectroscopy in tin-loaded polystyrene scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Patrick L; Mengesha, Wondwosen; Anstey, Mitchell R.; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and inclusion of rationally designed organotin compounds in polystyrene matrices as a route towards plastic scintillators capable of gamma-ray spectroscopy. Tin loading ratios of up to 15% w/w have been incorporated, resulting in photopeak energy resolution values as low as 10.9% for 662 keV gamma-rays. Scintillator constituents were selected based upon a previously reported distance-dependent quenching mechanism. Data obtained using UV-Vis and photoluminescence measurements are consistent with this phenomenon and are correlated with the steric and electronic properties of the respective organotin complexes. We also report fast scintillation decay behavior that is comparablemore » to the quenched scintillators 0.5% trans-stilbene doped bibenzyl and the commercial plastic scintillator BC-422Q-1%. These observations are discussed in the context of practical considerations such as optical transparency, ease-of-preparation/scale-up, and total scintillator cost.« less

  9. Recoil Distance Method Lifetime Measurements in 107Cd and 103Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andgren, K.; Ashley, S. F.; Regan, P. H.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zamfir, N. V.; Casten, R. F.; Meyer, D. A.; Plettner, C.; Vinson, J.; Werner, V.; Williams, E.; Amon, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Erduran, M. N.; Clark, R. M.; Guerdal, G.; Keyes, K. L.; Papenberg, A.; Pietralla, N.; Rainovski, G.

    2006-04-26

    Preliminary lifetime values have been measured for a number of near-yrast states in the odd-A transitional nuclei 107Cd and 103Pd. The reaction used to populate the nuclei of interest was 98Mo(12C,3nx{alpha})107Cd, 103Pd, with the beam delivered by the tandem accelerator of the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at an incident beam energy of 60 MeV. Our experiment was aimed at the investigation of collective excitations built on the unnatural parity, {nu} h11/2 orbital, specifically by measuring the B(E2) values of decays from the excited levels built on this intrinsic structure, using the Doppler Recoil Distance Method. We report lifetimes and associated transition probabilities for decays from the 15/2- and the 19/2- states in 107Cd and the first measurement of the 15/2- state in 103Pd. These results suggest that neither a simple rotational or vibrational interpretation is sufficient to explain the observed structures.

  10. Luminosity distance in 'Swiss cheese' cosmology with randomized voids. I. Single void size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-10-15

    Recently, there have been suggestions that the Type Ia supernova data can be explained using only general relativity and cold dark matter with no dark energy. In 'Swiss cheese' models of the Universe, the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker picture is modified by the introduction of mass-compensating spherical inhomogeneities, typically described by the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. If these inhomogeneities correspond to underdense cores surrounded by mass-compensating overdense shells, then they can modify the luminosity distance-redshift relation in a way that can mimic accelerated expansion. It has been argued that this effect could be large enough to explain the supernova data without introducing dark energy or modified gravity. We show that the large apparent acceleration seen in some models can be explained in terms of standard weak field gravitational lensing together with insufficient randomization of void locations. The underdense regions focus the light less than the homogeneous background, thus dimming supernovae in a way that can mimic the effects of acceleration. With insufficient randomization of the spatial location of the voids and of the lines of sight, coherent defocusing can lead to anomalously large demagnification effects. We show that a proper randomization of the voids and lines of sight reduces the effect to the point that it can no longer explain the supernova data.

  11. Effects of inter-nanocrystal distance on luminescence quantum yield in ensembles of Si nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenta, J. Greben, M.; Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.

    2014-12-15

    The absolute photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of multilayers of Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) separated by SiO{sub 2} barriers were thoroughly studied as function of the barrier thickness, excitation wavelength, and temperature. By mastering the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition growth, we produce a series of samples with the same size-distribution of SiNCs but variable interlayer barrier distance. These samples enable us to clearly demonstrate that the increase of barrier thickness from ∼1 to larger than 2 nm induces doubling of the PL QY value, which corresponds to the change of number of close neighbors in the hcp structure. The temperature dependence of PL QY suggests that the PL QY changes are due to a thermally activated transport of excitation into non-radiative centers in dark NCs or in the matrix. We estimate that dark NCs represent about 68% of the ensemble of NCs. The PL QY excitation spectra show no significant changes upon changing the barrier thickness and no clear carrier multiplication effects. The dominant effect is the gradual decrease of the PL QY with increasing excitation photon energy.

  12. Laser-ablation sampling for inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W.; Dennis, Elise; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma distance-of-flight mass spectrometer (ICP-DOFMS) has been coupled with laser-ablation (LA) sample introduction for the elemental analysis of solids. ICP-DOFMS is well suited for the analysis of laser-generated aerosols because it offers both high-speed mass analysis and simultaneous multi-elemental detection. Here, we evaluate the analytical performance of the LA-ICP-DOFMS instrument, equipped with a microchannel plate-based imaging detector, for the measurement of steady-state LA signals, as well as transient signals produced from single LA events. Steady-state detection limits are 1 mg g1, and absolute single-pulse LA detection limits are 200 fg for uranium; the system is shown capable of performing time-resolved single-pulse LA analysis. By leveraging the benefits of simultaneous multi-elemental detection, we also attain a good shot-to-shot reproducibility of 6% relative standard deviation (RSD) and isotope-ratio precision of 0.3% RSD with a 10 s integration time.

  13. Dependance of TWRS FSAR X/Qs on distance and example doses at Highway 240 with stationary and moving receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, D.A.

    1996-09-23

    A discussion of the reasons for the dependance of X/Q on receptor distance and compass sector is presented. In addition, X/Qs are calculated for three receptor scenarios on Highway 240 including a moving receptor. Example radiological doses and toxicological exposures at Highway 240 are calculated for two accidents already analyzed in the TWRS FSAR.

  14. Going the Distance? NRC's Response to the National Academy of Science's Transportation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easton, E.P.; Bajwa, C.S.

    2008-07-01

    In February 2006, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the results of a 3 1/2-year study, titled Going the Distance, that examined the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) in the United States. NAS initiated this study to address what it perceived to be a national need for an independent, objective, and authoritative analysis of SNF and HLW transport in the United States. The study was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. This paper addresses some of the recommendations made in the NAS study related to the performance of SNF transportation casks in long duration fires, the use of full-scale package testing, and the need for an independent review of transportation security prior to the commencement of large scale shipping campaigns to an interim storage site or geologic repository. In conclusion: The NRC believes that the current regulations in 10 CFR Part 71 for the design of SNF and HLW transportation packages provide a very high level of protection to the public for very severe accidents and credible threat scenarios. As recommended by the NAS study, additional studies of accidents involving severe fires have been completed. These studies have confirmed that spent fuel casks would be expected to withstand very severe fires without the release of any fission products from the spent fuel. Additionally, changes in rail operating procedures such as the use of dedicated trains and prohibition on the co-location of SNF and flammable liquids in rail tunnels can further reduce the already low probability of severe rail accident fires involving SNF and HLW. (authors)

  15. A parallax distance to the microquasar GRS 1915+105 and a revised estimate of its black hole mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M. J.; McClintock, J. E.; Steiner, J. F.; Narayan, R.; Steeghs, D.; Remillard, R. A.; Dhawan, V.

    2014-11-20

    Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we have measured a trigonometric parallax for the microquasar GRS 1915+105, which contains a black hole and a K-giant companion. This yields a direct distance estimate of 8.6{sub ?1.6}{sup +2.0} kpc and a revised estimate for the mass of the black hole of 12.4{sub ?1.8}{sup +2.0} M {sub ?}. GRS 1915+105 is at about the same distance as some H II regions and water masers associated with high-mass star formation in the Sagittarius spiral arm of the Galaxy. The absolute proper motion of GRS 1915+105 is 3.19 0.03 mas yr{sup 1} and 6.24 0.05 mas yr{sup 1} toward the east and north, respectively, which corresponds to a modest peculiar speed of 22 24 km s{sup 1} at the parallax distance, suggesting that the binary did not receive a large velocity kick when the black hole formed. On one observational epoch, GRS 1915+105 displayed superluminal motion along the direction of its approaching jet. Considering previous observations of jet motions, the jet in GRS 1915+105 can be modeled with a jet inclination to the line of sight of 60 5 and a variable flow speed between 0.65c and 0.81c, which possibly indicates deceleration of the jet at distances from the black hole ? 2000 AU. Finally, using our measurements of distance and estimates of black hole mass and inclination, we provisionally confirm our earlier result that the black hole is spinning very rapidly.

  16. Trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350: a massive star-forming region on the solar circle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Ross A.; Handa, Toshihiro; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Krimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shizugami, Makoto, E-mail: RossBurns88@MilkyWay.sci.Kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshi-ga-oka, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    We report our measurement of the trigonometric distance and proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350, obtained from the annual parallax of H{sub 2}O masers. Our distance of D=4.69{sub ?0.51}{sup +0.65} kpc, which is 2.8 times larger than the near kinematic distance adopted in the literature, places IRAS 20056+3350 at the leading tip of the Local arm and proximal to the solar circle. Using our distance, we reevaluate past observations to reveal IRAS 20056+3350 as a site of massive star formation at a young stage of evolution. This result is consistent with the spectral energy distribution of the source evaluated with published photometric data from UKIDSS, WISE, AKARI, IRAS, and the submillimeter continuum. Both analytical approaches reveal the luminosity of the region to be 2.4 10{sup 4} L {sub ?}, and suggest that IRAS 20056+3350 is forming an embedded star of ?16 M {sub ?}. We estimated the proper motion of IRAS 20056+3350 to be (?{sub ?}cos ?, ?{sub ?}) = (2.62 0.33, 5.65 0.52) mas yr{sup 1} from the group motion of H{sub 2}O masers, and use our results to estimate the angular velocity of Galactic rotation at the Galactocentric distance of the Sun, ?{sub 0} = 29.75 2.29 km s{sup 1} kpc{sup 1}, which is consistent with the values obtained for other tangent point and solar circle objects.

  17. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-09-29

    In this study, batch adsorption and breakthrough column experiments were conducted to evaluate uranium transport through altered material that fills fractures in a granite rock system at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland at pH 6.9 and 7.9. The role of adsorption and desorption kinetics was evaluated with reactive transport modeling by comparing one-, two-, and three-site models. Emphasis was placed on describing long desorption tails that are important for upscaling in time and distance. The effect of increasing pH in injection solutions was also evaluated. For pH 6.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.07 and 0.8 ml g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.06 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.104, and 0.026 μmol g–1 for ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. For pH 7.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.05 and 0.8 mL g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.6 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.039, and 0.013 μmol g–1 for a ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. Column retardation coefficients (Rd) were 80 for pH 6.9 and 10.3 for pH 7.9. Model parameters determined from the batch and column experiments were used in 50 year large-scale simulations for continuous and pulse injections and indicated that a three-site model is necessary at pH 6.9, although a Kd-type equilibrium partition model with one-site was adequate for large scale predictions at pH 7.9. Batch experiments were useful for predicting early breakthrough times in the columns while column experiments helped differentiate the relative importance of sorption sites and desorption rate constants on transport.

  18. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Reimus, Paul W.

    2015-09-29

    In this study, batch adsorption and breakthrough column experiments were conducted to evaluate uranium transport through altered material that fills fractures in a granite rock system at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland at pH 6.9 and 7.9. The role of adsorption and desorption kinetics was evaluated with reactive transport modeling by comparing one-, two-, and three-site models. Emphasis was placed on describing long desorption tails that are important for upscaling in time and distance. The effect of increasing pH in injection solutions was also evaluated. For pH 6.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.07 and 0.8more » ml g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.06 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.104, and 0.026 μmol g–1 for ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. For pH 7.9, a three-site model with forward rate constants between 0.05 and 0.8 mL g–1 h–1, reverse rate constants between 0.001 and 0.6 h–1, and site densities of 1.3, 0.039, and 0.013 μmol g–1 for a ‘weak/fast’, ‘strong/slow’, and ‘very strong/very slow’ sites provided the best fits. Column retardation coefficients (Rd) were 80 for pH 6.9 and 10.3 for pH 7.9. Model parameters determined from the batch and column experiments were used in 50 year large-scale simulations for continuous and pulse injections and indicated that a three-site model is necessary at pH 6.9, although a Kd-type equilibrium partition model with one-site was adequate for large scale predictions at pH 7.9. Batch experiments were useful for predicting early breakthrough times in the columns while column experiments helped differentiate the relative importance of sorption sites and desorption rate constants on transport.« less

  19. Measuring distances and reddenings for a billion stars: Toward a 3D dust map from Pan-STARRS 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Gregory Maurice; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Juri?, Mario; Burgett, Will; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard; Waters, Christopher; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Martin, Nicolas

    2014-03-10

    We present a method to infer reddenings and distances to stars based only on their broad-band photometry, and show how this method can be used to produce a three-dimensional (3D) dust map of the Galaxy. Our method samples from the full probability density function of distance, reddening, and stellar type for individual stars, as well as the full uncertainty in reddening as a function of distance in the 3D dust map. We incorporate prior knowledge of the distribution of stars in the Galaxy and the detection limits of the survey. For stars in the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) 3? survey, we demonstrate that our reddening estimates are unbiased and accurate to ?0.13 mag in E(B V) for the typical star. Based on comparisons with mock catalogs, we expect distances for main-sequence stars to be constrained to within ?20%-60%, although this range can vary, depending on the reddening of the star, the precise stellar type, and its position on the sky. A later paper will present a 3D map of dust over the three quarters of the sky surveyed by PS1. Both the individual stellar inferences and the 3D dust map will enable a wealth of Galactic science in the plane. The method we present is not limited to the passbands of the PS1 survey but may be extended to incorporate photometry from other surveys, such as the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (where available), and in the future, LSST and Gaia.

  20. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction OperatorPRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tipsample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  1. Long-Working-Distance Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for Hard X-ray Beamlines at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.

    2011-09-09

    We designed and installed two types of long-working-distance Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors and mirror manipulators, which were customized into each experiment for hard x-ray undulator beamlines at SPring-8. For the BL32XU RIKEN Targeted Proteins beamline, 400-mm-long KB focusing mirrors for a beam size of 1 {mu}m with a 730-mm-long working distance were designed for carrying out the structural analysis of protein microcrystals. We realized a focusing beam size of 0.9x0.9 {mu}m{sup 2}(FWHM) and a focusing intensity of 6x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV. For the BL19LXU RIKEN SR Physics beamline, we developed KB mirrors for 100-nm focusing with a 100-mm-working distance for the purpose of nano-focus x-ray diffraction. A focusing beam size of 100x100 nm{sup 2}(FWHM) and a high focusing intensity of 3.7x10{sup 10} (photons/s) at an x-ray energy of 12.4 keV were realized.

  2. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used.

  3. A tight distance-dependent estimator for screening three-center Coulomb integrals over Gaussian basis functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollman, David S.; Schaefer, Henry F.; Valeev, Edward F.

    2015-04-21

    A new estimator for three-center two-particle Coulomb integrals is presented. Our estimator is exact for some classes of integrals and is much more efficient than the standard Schwartz counterpart due to the proper account of distance decay. Although it is not a rigorous upper bound, the maximum degree of underestimation can be controlled by two adjustable parameters. We also give numerical evidence of the excellent tightness of the estimator. The use of the estimator will lead to increased efficiency in reduced-scaling one- and many-body electronic structure theories.

  4. All-silicon Michelson instrument on chip: Distance and surface profile measurement and prospects for visible light spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malak, M.; Marty, F.; Bourouina, T.; Nouira, H.; Vailleau, G.

    2013-04-08

    A miniature Michelson interferometer is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The fabricated micro-interferometer is incorporated at the tip of a monolithic silicon probe to achieve contactless distance measurements and surface profilometry. For infrared operation, two approaches are studied, based on the use of monochromatic light and wavelength sweep, respectively. A theoretical model is devised to depict the system characteristics taking into account Gaussian beam divergence and light spot size. Furthermore, preliminary results using visible light demonstrate operation of the probe as a visible light spectrometer, despite silicon absorbance, thanks to the micrometer thickness involved in the beam splitter.

  5. Understanding the large-distance behavior of transverse-momentum-dependent parton densities and the Collins-Soper evolution kernel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collins, John; Rogers, Ted

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the size and importance of non-perturbative contributions to the evolution of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions. Standard fits to relatively high-energy Drell-Yan data give evolution that when taken to lower Q is too rapid to be consistent with recent data in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering. Some authors provide very different forms for TMD evolution, even arguing that non-perturbative contributions at large transverse distance bT are not needed or are irrelevant. Here, we systematically analyze the issues, both perturbative and non-perturbative. We make a motivated proposal for the parameterization of the non-perturbative part ofmore » the TMD evolution kernel that could give consistency: with the variety of apparently conflicting data, with theoretical perturbative calculations where they are applicable, and with general theoretical non-perturbative constraints on correlation functions at large distances. We propose and use a scheme- and scale-independent function A(bT) that gives a tool to compare and diagnose different proposals for TMD evolution. We also advocate for phenomenological studies of A(bT) as a probe of TMD evolution. The results are important generally for applications of TMD factorization. In particular, they are important to making predictions for proposed polarized Drell- Yan experiments to measure the Sivers function.« less

  6. Understanding the large-distance behavior of transverse-momentum-dependent parton densities and the Collins-Soper evolution kernel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, John; Rogers, Ted

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable controversy about the size and importance of non-perturbative contributions to the evolution of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions. Standard fits to relatively high-energy Drell-Yan data give evolution that when taken to lower Q is too rapid to be consistent with recent data in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering. Some authors provide very different forms for TMD evolution, even arguing that non-perturbative contributions at large transverse distance bT are not needed or are irrelevant. Here, we systematically analyze the issues, both perturbative and non-perturbative. We make a motivated proposal for the parameterization of the non-perturbative part of the TMD evolution kernel that could give consistency: with the variety of apparently conflicting data, with theoretical perturbative calculations where they are applicable, and with general theoretical non-perturbative constraints on correlation functions at large distances. We propose and use a scheme- and scale-independent function A(bT) that gives a tool to compare and diagnose different proposals for TMD evolution. We also advocate for phenomenological studies of A(bT) as a probe of TMD evolution. The results are important generally for applications of TMD factorization. In particular, they are important to making predictions for proposed polarized Drell- Yan experiments to measure the Sivers function.

  7. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Foro Energy: High Power Lasers - Long Distances (Performer Video)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None Available

    2012-03-21

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video from Foro Energy are Joel Moxley, Founder and CEO, Mark Zediker, Founder and CTO, and Paul Deutch, President and COO. Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy, also appears briefly in this video to praise the accomplishment of a high powered laser that can transmit that power long distances for faster and more powerful drilling of geothermal, oil, and gas wells.

  8. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model the environmental impact of recycling and incineration of household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling of paper, glass, steel and aluminium is better than incineration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling and incineration of cardboard and plastic can be equally good alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclables can be transported long distances and still have environmental benefits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paper has a higher environmental benefit than recyclables found in smaller amounts. - Abstract: Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  9. A NEW CEPHEID DISTANCE TO THE GIANT SPIRAL M101 BASED ON IMAGE SUBTRACTION OF HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stanek, K. Z. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2011-06-01

    We accurately determine a new Cepheid distance to M101 (NGC 5457) using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys V and I time series photometry of two fields within the galaxy. We make a slight modification to the ISIS image subtraction package to obtain optimal differential light curves from HST data. We discovered 827 Cepheids with periods between 3 and 80 days, the largest extragalactic sample of Cepheids observed with HST by a factor of two. With this large Cepheid sample, we find that the relative distance of M101 from the Large Magellanic Cloud is {Delta}{mu}{sub LMC} = 10.63 {+-} 0.04 (random) {+-} 0.06 (systematic) mag. If we use the geometrically determined maser distance to NGC 4258 as our distance anchor, the distance modulus of M101 is {mu}{sub 0} = 29.04 {+-} 0.05 (random) {+-} 0.18 (systematic) mag or D = 6.4 {+-} 0.2 (random) {+-} 0.5 (systematic) Mpc. The uncertainty is dominated by the maser distance estimate ({+-}0.15 mag), which should improve over the next few years. We determine a steep metallicity dependence, {gamma}, for our Cepheid sample through two methods, yielding {gamma} = -0.80 {+-} 0.21 (random) {+-} 0.06 (systematic) mag dex{sup -1} and {gamma} = -0.72{sup +0.22}{sub -0.25} (random) {+-} 0.06 (systematic) mag dex{sup -1}. We see marginal evidence for variations in the Wesenheit period-luminosity relation slope as a function of deprojected galactocentric radius. We also use the tip of the red giant branch method to independently determine the distance modulus to M101 of {mu}{sub 0} = 29.05 {+-} 0.06 (random) {+-} 0.12 (systematic) mag.

  10. New coordination features; A bridging pyridine and the forced shortest non-covalent distance between two CO32- species

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velasco, V.; Aguilà, D.; Barrios, L. A.; Borilovic, I.; Roubeau, O.; Ribas-Ariño, J.; Fumanal, M.; Teat, S. J.; Aromí, G.

    2014-09-29

    The aerobic reaction of the multidentate ligand 2,6-bis-(3-oxo-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-propionyl)-pyridine, H4L, with Co(II) salts in strong basic conditions produces the clusters [Co4(L)2(OH)(py)7]NO3 (1) and [Co8Na4(L)4(OH)2(CO3)2(py)10](BF4)2 (2). Analysis of their structure unveils unusual coordination features including a very rare bridging pyridine ligand or two trapped carbonate anions within one coordination cage, forced to stay at an extremely close distance (dO···O = 1.946 Å). This unprecedented non-bonding proximity represents a meeting point between long covalent interactions and “intermolecular” contacts. These original motifs have been analysed here through DFT calculations, which have yielded interaction energies and the reduced repulsion energy experimented by both CO32- anionsmore » when located in close proximity inside the coordination cage.« less

  11. Lipopolysaccharide density and structure govern the extent and distance of nanoparticle interaction with actual and model bacterial outer membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Geiger, Franz M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2015-07-24

    Design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.

  12. High resolution short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer for copper K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujala, N. G.; Barrea, R. A.; Karanfil, C.

    2011-06-15

    We have developed a compact short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer (BCLA) for Cu speciation studies of biological systems with specific applications to cancer biology. The system provides high energy resolution and high background rejection. The system is composed of an aluminum block serving as a log spiral bender for a 15 micron thick Silicon 111 crystal and a set of soller slits. The energy resolution of the BCLA--about 14 eV at the Cu K{alpha} line-- allows resolution of the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} and CuK{alpha}{sub 2} lines. The system is easily aligned by using a set of motorized XYZ linear stages. Two operation modes are available: incident energy scans (IES) and emission energy scans (EES). IES allows scanning of the incident energy while the BCLA system is maintained at a preselected fixed position - typically CuK{alpha}{sub 1} line. EES is used when the incident energy is fixed and the analyzer is scanned to provide the peak profile of the emission lines of Cu.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Density and Structure Govern the Extent and Distance of Nanoparticle Interaction with Actual and Model Bacterial Outer Membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jacobson, Kurt H.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Kuech, Thomas R.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Melby, Eric S.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Chrisler, William B.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Orr, Galya; et al

    2015-07-24

    We report that design of nanomedicines and nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and antifouling formulations, and assessment of the potential implications of nanoparticle release into the environment require understanding nanoparticle interaction with bacterial surfaces. Here we demonstrate electrostatically driven association of functionalized nanoparticles with lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes and find that lipopolysaccharide structure influences the extent and location of binding relative to the lipid-solution interface. By manipulating the lipopolysaccharide content in Shewanella oneidensis outer membranes, we observed electrostatically driven interaction of cationic gold nanoparticles with the lipopolysaccharide-containing leaflet. We probed this interaction by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) andmore » second harmonic generation (SHG) using solid-supported lipopolysaccharide-containing bilayers. Association of cationic nanoparticles increased with lipopolysaccharide content, while no association of anionic nanoparticles was observed. The harmonic-dependence of QCM-D measurements suggested that a population of the cationic nanoparticles was held at a distance from the outer leaflet-solution interface of bilayers containing smooth lipopolysaccharides (those bearing a long O-polysaccharide). Additionally, smooth lipopolysaccharides held the bulk of the associated cationic particles outside of the interfacial zone probed by SHG. Lastly, our results demonstrate that positively charged nanoparticles are more likely to interact with Gram-negative bacteria than are negatively charged particles, and this interaction occurs primarily through lipopolysaccharides.« less

  14. Colorado School Earns Return Trip to National Science Bowl |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    After a full day answering rapid-fire questions in physics, math, astronomy, chemistry, ... Bowl in 1991 as a way to encourage high school students to explore math and science. ...

  15. Title Trip Report: Hydrologic Field Reconnaissance Led by Robert...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Water Basin was designated to give greater administrative control to the state engineer. ... with the Office of the Nevada State Engineer, and NTS. water withdrawal records ...

  16. Secretary Chu to Visit Google Headquarters During Trip to San...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Secretary Chu will also participate in a series of briefings with company researchers and scientists to learn more about the company's innovative ventures in the energy sector....

  17. Trip Report: Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board Meeting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board Public Meeting August 24, 2006 Submitted by: Jennifer Salisbury Background: On behalf of the Environmental Management Advisory Board, Ms. Jennifer Salisbury attended the Northern New Mexico Citizens' Advisory Board (NNMCAB) meeting on Wednesday, July 26, 2006. The NNMCAB is an Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, responsible for providing information, advice, and recommendations on EM issues specific to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  18. Microsoft Word - SAFETY TRIP REPORT2009r13.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NB injector (input). (A.S.) Near the Li-Pellets diagnostics system in the restricted ... of safety and handling (Fig. 3). (T.S.) Fig. 1. Worker near the Li-Pellets diagnostics. ...

  19. Online Planning Tools Make Road Trips a Snap | Department of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Driving efficiently can help you save money on gas this summer.| Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.comHelpingHandPhotos On the Road with Fuel Saving Tools Simple tips like removing ...

  20. Make Your Next Road Trip Fuel Efficient | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Driving efficiently can help you save money on gas this summer.| Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.comHelpingHandPhotos On the Road with Fuel Saving Tools Cruising to Energy ...

  1. HERO Ski Trip to Mt. Hood Meadows February

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    If there is enough interest, we may be able to charter a bus to drive us up and back. Stay at the Best Western Plus Hood River Inn which is just 30 miles from Mt. Hood's largest...

  2. DEP Field Trip Check List | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cafeteria for lunch. For the sake of time and order, students are not allowed to purchase food or beverages. When you enter the cafeteria, washrooms will be available on your left...

  3. Readout of Secretary Chu's Middle East trip: Wednesday, February...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    He was hosted by Dr. Sultan Al Jaber, CEO of Masdar, and senior staff, who led a series of ... to approximately 700 Masdar graduate students, faculty and UAE government officials, ...

  4. Trip Report: Idaho National Laboratory Citizens Advisory Board...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Environmental Management Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) meeting on Tuesday, July 18, and Wednesday, July 19, 2006. The INL CAB is an...

  5. PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: CF GovTrip PIA Template Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The technical controls include restricted access via user-id and password. Rules of ... The technical controls include restricted access via user-id and password based on user ...

  6. Trip Report: DOE Seventh Annual Small Business Conference

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In addition, Federal entities, including the General Services Administration (GSA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Small Business ...

  7. On the Ramsey numbers for complete distance graphs with vertices in {l_brace}0,1{r_brace}{sup n}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailov, Kirill A; Raigorodskii, Andrei M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-31

    A new problem of Ramsey type is posed for complete distance graphs in R{sup n} with vertices in the Boolean cube. This problem is closely related to the classical Nelson-Erdos-Hadwiger problem on the chromatic number of a space. Several quite sharp estimates are obtained for certain numerical characteristics that appear in the framework of the problem. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  8. The Tip of the red giant branch distance to the perfect spiral galaxy M74 hosting three core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sung Jang, In; Gyoon Lee, Myung E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-09-01

    M74 (NGC 628) is a famous face-on spiral galaxy, hosting three core-collapse supernovae (SNe): SN Ic 2002ap, SN II-P 2003gd, and SN II-P 2013ej. However, its distance is not well known. We present a distance estimation for this galaxy based on the Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method. We obtain photometry of the resolved stars in the arm-free region of M74 from F555W and F814W images in the Hubble Space Telescope archive. The color-magnitude diagram of the resolved stars shows a dominant red giant branch (RGB) as well as blue main sequence stars, red helium burning stars, and asymptotic giant branch stars. The I-band luminosity function of the RGB stars shows the TRGB to be at I {sub TRGB} = 26.13 ± 0.03 mag, and T {sub RGB} = 25.97 ± 0.03. From this, we derive the distance modulus to M74 to be 30.04 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) (corresponding to a linear distance of 10.19 ± 0.14 ± 0.56 Mpc). With this distance estimate, we calibrate the standardized candle method for SNe II-P. From the absolute magnitudes of SN 2003gd, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H {sub 0} = 72 ± 6 (random) ± 7 (systematic) km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. It is similar to recent estimates based on the luminosity calibration of Type Ia supernovae.

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    *Avg. of NGI's reported avg. prices for: Malin, PG&E citygate, and Southern California Border Avg. Source: NGI's Daily Gas Price Index (http:intelligencepress.com). At the NYMEX,...

  10. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wtd. Avg. Int. 7.4% Bureau of Reclamation Appropriations 510 Wtd. Avg. Int. 7.1% Power Marketing Transmission Bonds Issued to Treasury 1,854 Wtd. Avg. Int. 7.3% Bureau of...

  11. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Supply 6,560 Wtd. Avg. Int. 6.2% Bonds Issued to Treasury 796 Wtd. Avg. Int. 6.8% Bureau of Reclamation Appropriations 565 Wtd. Avg. Int. 7.1% Power Marketing...

  12. Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Hashemi, Bijan; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 4 to 25 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.56 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.76.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.56 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 25 cm{sup 2}.

  13. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's Report. Annex 1. 12. Long-distance measurement of energy yield of an atomic explosion. Nuclear explosions 1951

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgins, A.J.

    1984-10-31

    The energy yield of an atomic explosion was determined at logn distance by measuring the time variation of the light from the explosion and applying an empirical formula that relates this to the energy yield. The light was detected by an RCA 5819 photomultiplier tube and was recorded on a magnetic-tape recorder. Measurements at Shot Easy were made from A C-54 airplane flying at 12,500 ft at a distance of 630 miles northwest of Eniwetok. The time to the minimum of light intensity was 23.5 + or - 0.8 msec, corresponding to a yield of 53 + or - 4 kt. The yield calculated from the radiochemical measurements was 46.8 + or - 1.0 kt. The peak intensity of the flash above the ambient was measured to be 1.7 millicandles/sq ft. This experiment indicated that energy yield can be measured at a distance greater than 630 miles at night. Possible propagation mechanisms are discussed. Studies of the maximum range in daylight and of improvements in technique are suggested.

  14. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4 (NGC 6121) USING RR LYRAE STARS. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY AND PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braga, V. F.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Dall'Ora, M.; Coppola, G.; Marconi, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Marengo, M.; Neeley, J.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, W.; Madore, B. F.; Monson, A.; Rich, J.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M.; Matsunaga, N.

    2015-02-01

    We present new distance determinations to the nearby globular M4 (NGC 6121) based on accurate optical and near-infrared (NIR) mean magnitudes for fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), and new empirical optical and NIR period-luminosity (PL) and period-Wesenheit (PW) relations. We have found that optical-NIR and NIR PL and PW relations are affected by smaller standard deviations than optical relations. The difference is the consequence of a steady decrease in the intrinsic spread of cluster RRL apparent magnitudes at fixed period as longer wavelengths are considered. The weighted mean visual apparent magnitude of 44 cluster RRLs is =13.329 ± 0.001 (standard error of the mean) ±0.177 (weighted standard deviation) mag. Distances were estimated using RR Lyr itself to fix the zero-point of the empirical PL and PW relations. Using the entire sample (FU+FO) we found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.35 ± 0.03 ± 0.05 mag and 11.32 ± 0.02 ± 0.07 mag. Distances were also evaluated using predicted metallicity dependent PLZ and PWZ relations. We found weighted mean true distance moduli of 11.283 ± 0.010 ± 0.018 mag (NIR PLZ) and 11.272 ± 0.005 ± 0.019 mag (optical-NIR and NIR PWZ). The above weighted mean true distance moduli agree within 1σ. The same result is found from distances based on PWZ relations in which the color index is independent of the adopted magnitude (11.272 ± 0.004 ± 0.013 mag). These distances agree quite well with the geometric distance provided by Kaluzny et al. based on three eclipsing binaries. The available evidence indicates that this approach can provide distances to globulars hosting RRLs with a precision better than 2%-3%.

  15. Maibarara Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Avg. Annual Gross Operating Capacity(MW) Summer Peak Net Capacity (MW) Winter Peak Net Capacity (MW) Avg. Annual GenerationConsumption Gross Generation (MWh) 60 1...

  16. ON THE EXPANSION RATE, AGE, AND DISTANCE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G266.2–1.2 (Vela Jr.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, G. E.; Chow, K.; DeLaney, T.; Filipović, M. D.; Houck, J. C.; Pannuti, T. G.; Stage, M. D. E-mail: kc71135@gmail.com E-mail: m.filipovic@uws.edu.au E-mail: t.pannuti@moreheadstate.edu

    2015-01-10

    An analysis of Chandra ACIS data for two relatively bright and narrow portions of the northwestern rim of G266.2–1.2 (a.k.a. RX J0852.0-4622 or Vela Jr.) reveal evidence of a radial displacement of 2.40 ± 0.56 arcsec between 2003 and 2008. The corresponding expansion rate (0.42 ± 0.10 arcsec yr{sup –1} or 13.6% ± 4.2% kyr{sup –1}) is about half the rate reported for an analysis of XMM-Newton data from a similar, but not identical, portion of the rim over a similar, but not identical, time interval (0.84 ± 0.23 arcsec yr{sup –1}). If the Chandra rate is representative of the remnant as a whole, then the results of a hydrodynamic analysis suggest that G266.2–1.2 is between 2.4 and 5.1 kyr old if it is expanding into a uniform ambient medium (whether or not it was produced by a Type Ia or Type II event). If the remnant is expanding into the material shed by a steady stellar wind, then the age could be as much as 50% higher. The Chandra expansion rate and a requirement that the shock speed be greater than or equal to 1000 km s{sup –1} yields a lower limit on the distance of 0.5 kpc. An analysis of previously published distance estimates and constraints suggests G266.2–1.2 is no further than 1.0 kpc. This range of distances is consistent with the distance to the nearer of two groups of material in the Vela Molecular Ridge (0.7 ± 0.2 kpc) and to the Vel OB1 association (0.8 kpc)

  17. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  18. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-15

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  19. Distance-dependent radiation chemistry: Oxidation versus hydrogenation of CO in electron-irradiated H2O/CO/H2O ices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Monckton, Rhiannon J.; Koehler, Sven; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2014-11-26

    Electron-stimulated oxidation of CO in layered H2O/CO/H2O ices was investigated with infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) as function of the distance of the CO layer from the water/vacuum interface. The results show that while both oxidation and reduction reactions occur within the irradiated water films, there are distinct regions where either oxidation or reduction reactions are dominant. At depths less than ~ 15 ML, CO oxidation dominates over the sequential hydrogenation of CO to methanol (CH3OH), and CO2 is the major product of CO oxidation, consistent with previous observations. At its highest yield, CO2 accounts for ~45% of all the reacted CO. Another oxidation product is identified as the formate anion (HCO2-). In contrast, for CO buried more than ~ 35 ML below the water/vacuum interface, the CO-to-methanol conversion efficiency is close to 100%. Production of CO2 and formate are not observed for the more deeply buried CO layers, where hydrogenation dominates. Experiments with CO dosed on pre-irradiated ASW samples suggest that OH radicals are primarily responsible for the oxidation reactions. Possible mechanisms of CO oxidation, involving primary and secondary processes of water radiolysis at low temperature, are discussed. The observed distance-dependent radiation chemistry results from the higher mobility of hydrogen atoms that are created by the interaction of the 100 eV electrons with the water films. These hydrogen atoms, which are primarily created at or near the water/vacuum interface, can desorb from or diffuse into the water films, while the less-mobile OH radicals remain in the near-surface zone resulting in preferential oxidation reactions there. The diffusing hydrogen atoms are responsible for the hydrogenation reactions that are dominant for the more deeply buried CO layers.

  20. SU-E-T-623: Delivery of 3D Conformal Proton-Therapy Fields at Extended Source- To-Axis Distances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kryck, E; Slopsema, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric properties of proton dose distributions delivered at extended source-to-skin distances (SSD). Methods: Radiation was delivered with a gantry-mounted proton double scattering system (Proteus 230, IBA). This system has a maximum field diameter of 24 cm at isocenter and a nominal source-to-axis distance of 230 cm. Dose was measured at nominal SSD as well as at -10, +10, +25, +50, +75, and +100 cm for several range and modulation width combinations. Depth dose distributions were measured with a multi-layer ionization chamber (MLIC), and lateral dose distributions with a 2D ionization chamber array as well as with a diode in a water phantom. Results: The maximum field diameter was found to increase from 24.0 cm at nominal SSD to 29.1 cm and 33.3 cm at +50 cm and +100 cm respectively. Field flatness remained below 3% for all SSD. Tilt in the spread-out Bragg peak depth dose distribution increased with SSD up to 0.4 %-per-g/cm2 at +100 cm. The measured range decreased with 1.1x10-3 g/cm2 per centimeter shift in SSD due to proton energy loss in air, very close to the theoretically calculated value of 1.06x10-3 g/cm3. The output and dose rate decrease with the inverse of the SSD squared as expected. Conclusion: Extending the SSD up to 100 cm increases the maximum field diameter from 24.0 cm to 33.3 cm while the dose uniformity remains acceptable.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2012 Liabilities.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Northwest 2 1,169 Wtd. Avg. Int 4.9% BPA Appropriations 257 Wtd. Avg. Int 7.2% Capital Leases 120 Wtd. Avg. Int 4.7% Bonds Issued to Treasury 1,951 Wtd. Avg. Int 3.8%...

  2. New coordination features; A bridging pyridine and the forced shortest non-covalent distance between two CO32- species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, V.; Aguilà, D.; Barrios, L. A.; Borilovic, I.; Roubeau, O.; Ribas-Ariño, J.; Fumanal, M.; Teat, S. J.; Aromí, G.

    2014-09-29

    The aerobic reaction of the multidentate ligand 2,6-bis-(3-oxo-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-propionyl)-pyridine, H4L, with Co(II) salts in strong basic conditions produces the clusters [Co4(L)2(OH)(py)7]NO3 (1) and [Co8Na4(L)4(OH)2(CO3)2(py)10](BF4)2 (2). Analysis of their structure unveils unusual coordination features including a very rare bridging pyridine ligand or two trapped carbonate anions within one coordination cage, forced to stay at an extremely close distance (dO···O = 1.946 Å). This unprecedented non-bonding proximity represents a meeting point between long covalent interactions and “intermolecular” contacts. These original motifs have been analysed here through DFT calculations, which have yielded interaction energies and the reduced repulsion energy experimented by both CO32- anions when located in close proximity inside the coordination cage.

  3. ASTROMETRY AND RADIAL VELOCITIES OF THE PLANET HOST M DWARF GJ 317: NEW TRIGONOMETRIC DISTANCE, METALLICITY, AND UPPER LIMIT TO THE MASS OF GJ 317b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Butler, R. Paul; Thompson, Ian B.; Vogt, Steven S.; Rivera, Eugenio J.

    2012-02-10

    We have obtained precision astrometry of the planet host M dwarf GJ 317 in the framework of the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search project. The new astrometric measurements give a distance determination of 15.3 pc, 65% further than previous estimates. The resulting absolute magnitudes suggest that it is metal-rich and more massive than previously assumed. This result strengthens the correlation between high metallicity and the presence of gas giants around low-mass stars. At 15.3 pc, the minimal astrometric amplitude for planet candidate GJ 317b is 0.3 mas (edge-on orbit), just below our astrometric sensitivity. However, given the relatively large number of observations and good astrometric precision, a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis indicates that the mass of planet b has to be smaller than twice the minimum mass with a 99% confidence level, with a most likely value of 2.5 M{sub Jup}. Additional radial velocity (RV) measurements obtained with Keck by the Lick-Carnegie Planet search program confirm the presence of an additional very long period planet candidate, with a period of 20 years or more. Even though such an object will imprint a large astrometric wobble on the star, its curvature is yet not evident in the astrometry. Given high metallicity, and the trend indicating that multiple systems are rich in low-mass companions, this system is likely to host additional low-mass planets in its habitable zone that can be readily detected with state-of-the-art optical and near-infrared RV measurements.

  4. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, School of Physical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-Ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Imai, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Oyama, T., E-mail: kusuno@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp, E-mail: hiroimai@sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  5. TP14AppABC.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C Day 3 Range and Charge Schedule Page 2 of 2 24 Segment Number % of TP4 Range Distance Required (miles) Segment Speed (mph) Initial SOC Time Start Time End Miles Driven Final SOC kWh Used Charge Number Initial Battery Temp Charge Time Start Charge Time End Energy Returned (Ah/kWh) Final Battery Temp 1 80% 60 2 60% 45 3 60% 60 4 80% 45 5 40% 60 6 30% 45 7 50% 60 8 30% 45 9 40% 60 10 60% 45 11 40% 60 12 50% 45 13 30% 60 14 30% 45 TOTALS AVG's Completed By: (Printed Name) (Signature ) (Date)

  6. TP14AppB.PDF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B Day 2 Range and Charge Data Sheet Page 2 of 2 22 Charge Data Segment Number % of TP4 Range Distance Required (miles) Segment Speed (mph) Initial SOC Time Start Time End Miles Driven Final SOC kWh Used Charge Number Initial Battery Temp Charge Time Start Charge Time End Energy Returned (Ah/kWh) Final Battery Temp 1 50% 45 2 30% 60 3 60% 60 4 40% 45 5 50% 60 6 30% 45 7 60% 45 8 40% 60 9 50% 45 10 30% 60 11 60% 60 12 40% 45 13 50% 60 14 30% 60 TOTALS AVG's Completed By: (Printed Name) (Signature

  7. Trip Report: DOE ¬タモ DOD Case Study Forum, National Defense...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOD has a requirement that all DOD Executives or Civilian and Military leadership receive top-level training in the fundamentals of Federal Acquisition Rules and principles of ...

  8. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 1/2 main feedwater pump trip transient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G; Hiltbrand, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    A RETRAN-02 MOD5 model of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station was developed by TU Electric for the purpose of performing core reload safety analyses. In order to qualify this model, comparisons against plant transient data from a partial loss of main feedwater flow were performed. These comparisons demonstrated that good representations of the plant response could be obtained with RETRAN-02 and the user-developed models of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and plant control systems.

  9. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  10. Field Trip to EM’s Idaho Treatment Facility is Students’ High Point of Class

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – For graduate students in Dr. Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar’s Idaho State University (ISU) radioactive waste management class, waste treatment takes on a new meaning when watching the Supercompactor transform a 725-pound, 35-inch-tall, 55-gallon drum into what looks like a 7-inch-tall, 2-foot-diameter hockey puck.