National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for averages fits limits

  1. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  2. Analytical gradients of the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method with density fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcey, Mickaël G.; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland

    2015-07-28

    An efficient implementation of the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) gradients employing density fitting (DF) is presented. The DF allows a reduction both in scaling and prefactors of the different steps involved. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on a set of molecules ranging up to an iron-Heme b complex which with its 79 atoms and 811 basis functions is to our knowledge the largest SA-CASSCF gradient computed. For smaller systems where the conventional code could still be used as a reference, both the linear response calculation and the gradient formation showed a clear timing reduction and the overall cost of a geometry optimization is typically reduced by more than one order of magnitude while the accuracy loss is negligible.

  3. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  4. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  5. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  7. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

  8. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  9. Fit for Purpose Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that needs to be addressed by current and future Fit-for-Purpose projects includes: Reservoir pressure management - In deep saline formations, pressure increases due to...

  10. Leak test fitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  11. Leak test fitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  12. The Perfect Fit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Perfect Fit 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit The Perfect Fit Like Cinderella's glass slipper, the interaction between most biomolecules relies on a perfect fit. Humans have taken advantage of this recognition-binding behavior in research and medicine for over a century May 24, 2015 The Perfect Fit This Los Alamos-designed protein acts as a biosensor to detect a toxic insecticide by binding perfectly to a molecule produced

  13. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  14. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  15. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  16. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  17. Where Do OLEDs Fit In?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Where Do OLEDs Fit In? DOE SSL Workshop Portland, OR Giana M. Phelan Where do OLEDs fit in? A solid-state lighting solution that complements LED With the SSL advantages...

  18. Empirical Fit to Inelastic Electron-Deuteron and Electron-Neutron Resonance Region Transverse Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Bosted; M. E. Christy

    2007-11-08

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-deuteron cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer $0 \\le Q^2<10$ GeV$^2$ and final state invariant mass $1.2<3$ GeV. The deuteron fit relies on a fit of the ratio $R_p$ of longitudinal to transverse cross sections for the proton, and the assumption $R_p=R_n$. The underlying fit parameters describe the average cross section for proton and neutron, with a plane-wave impulse approximation (PWIA) used to fit to the deuteron data. Pseudo-data from MAID 2007 were used to constrain the average nucleon cross sections for $W<1.2$ GeV. The mean deviation of data from the fit is 3\\%, with less than 5\\% of the data points deviating from the fit by more than 10\\%.

  19. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  20. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  1. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  2. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  3. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  4. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  5. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  6. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  7. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  8. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  9. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo may be responsible for large uncertainties in these calculations. Moreover, the tower-based measurements of surface albedo are limited to SGP and NSA sites, and the TCAP...

  10. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  11. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  12. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  13. Dose Limits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dose Limits ERAD (Question Posted to ERAD in May 2012) Who do you define as a member of the public for the onsite MEI? This question implies that there may be more than one maximally exposed individual (MEI), one on-site and one off-site, when demonstrating compliance with the Public Dose Limit of DOE Order 458.1. Although all potential MEIs should be considered and documented, as well as the calculated doses and pathways considered, the intent of DOE Order 458.1 is in fact to ultimately identify only one MEI, a theoretical individual who could be either on-site or off-site.

  14. GE Get Fit | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Get Fit Program Attracts Adventurers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Get Fit Program Attracts Adventurers Jim Bray 2012.10.02 In the past few weeks, we've shared #GetFit stories from our Global Research sites in Niskayuna, San Ramon and Shanghai. GE Healthcare's #getfit campaign is a social media

  15. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  16. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  17. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  18. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  19. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  20. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  1. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70≤Z≤92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (ω{sup ¯}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70≤Z≤92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  2. Fitness for service applications in LNG plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagnoli, D.L.; Polk, C.J.; Yin, H.; Gordon, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Fitness-for-service assessments can provide information regarding operational reliability of equipment. However, to be meaningful, such assessments require an analytical procedure to determine the ability of engineering structures to tolerate the presence of weld flaws. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in this technology by the refining and petrochemical industries for predicting and avoiding fracture in pressurized components. Most applications have covered pressure vessel and piping where carbon and low alloy steels are the traditional materials of construction. More recently, fitness for service questions have developed for equipment with highly ductile materials such as aluminum alloys. In order to handle these questions ductile tearing resistance must be considered and R curve methods are required. In this paper examples are cited where fitness for service assessments were required for an aluminum heat exchanger in LNG service. Suitable R curve data were developed in order to establish flaw tolerance following UT inspections of this equipment.

  3. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-06-18

    LOCO has been a powerful beam-based diagnostics and optics control method for storage rings and synchrotrons worldwide ever since it was established at NSLS by J. Safranek. This method measures the orbit response matrix and optionally the dispersion function of the machine. The data are then fitted to a lattice model by adjusting parameters such as quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths in the model, BPM gains and rolls, corrector gains and rolls of the measurement system. Any abnormality of the machine that affects the machine optics can then be identified. The resulting lattice model is equivalent to the real machine lattice as seen by the BPMs. Since there are usually two or more BPMs per betatron period in modern circular accelerators, the model is often a very accurate representation of the real machine. According to the fitting result, one can correct the machine lattice to the design lattice by changing the quadrupole and skew quadrupole strengths. LOCO is so important that it is routinely performed at many electron storage rings to guarantee machine performance, especially after the Matlab-based LOCO code became available. However, for some machines, LOCO is not easy to carry out. In some cases, LOCO fitting converges to an unrealistic solution with large changes to the quadrupole strengths {Delta}K. The quadrupole gradient changes can be so large that the resulting lattice model fails to find a closed orbit and subsequent iterations become impossible. In cases when LOCO converges, the solution can have {Delta}K that is larger than realistic and often along with a spurious zigzag pattern between adjacent quadrupoles. This degeneracy behavior of LOCO is due to the correlation between the fitting parameters - usually between neighboring quadrupoles. The fitting scheme is therefore less restrictive over certain patterns of changes to these quadrupoles with which the correlated quadrupoles fight each other and the net effect is very inefficient {chi}{sup 2

  4. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  5. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  6. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  7. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  8. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  9. Complex growing networks with intrinsic vertex fitness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedogne, C.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2006-10-15

    One of the major questions in complex network research is to identify the range of mechanisms by which a complex network can self organize into a scale-free state. In this paper we investigate the interplay between a fitness linking mechanism and both random and preferential attachment. In our models, each vertex is assigned a fitness x, drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). In Model A, at each time step a vertex is added and joined to an existing vertex, selected at random, with probability p and an edge is introduced between vertices with fitnesses x and y, with a rate f(x,y), with probability 1-p. Model B differs from Model A in that, with probability p, edges are added with preferential attachment rather than randomly. The analysis of Model A shows that, for every fixed fitness x, the network's degree distribution decays exponentially. In Model B we recover instead a power-law degree distribution whose exponent depends only on p, and we show how this result can be generalized. The properties of a number of particular networks are examined.

  10. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.

  11. PASSBY(with FitToDB)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-08-28

    The PASSBY program is used to operate the Sensor for Measurement and analysis of radiation transients (SMART). The unit records triggers an "Event" upon detecting an increase in count rate recorded with a sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer. Background radiation levels are monitored continuously and background spectra are updated at 60 second intervals if no radiation sources are present other than those in the natural background. the system accepts input from an optional neutron counter. Inmore » addition to spectral information, the location, determined with an internal GPS and the compass bearing are reported via either an RF modem or a serial cable. The gamma-ray spectra are analyzed to determine which isotopes are present and confidence levels are assigned. The analysis is performed using the FitToDB algorithm, is described as follows. The automatic identification algorithm FitToDB algorithm enables the automatic identification of gamma-ry emitting isotopes in shielded sources. FitToDB can identify combinations of up to ten isotopes, each of which may be viewed through different shielding materials. The algorithm runs rapidly (within about 3 seconds on a 100 MHz Pentium-class processor), and can be compiled to run both DOS and Windows operating systems. Computational speed and system interoperability issues are addressed by the approach of interpolating spectra from an existing database of computed templates rather than performing detector response functions calculations within the algorithm.« less

  12. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  13. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross ...

  14. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  15. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  16. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  17. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  18. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.305 1.167 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.524 1.376 1.601 1.781

  19. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  20. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolbert, R.R.; Jandrasits, W.G.

    1985-08-05

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitting is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  1. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  2. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw915web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact ...

  3. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  4. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  5. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  6. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  7. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  8. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  9. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  10. NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS Following significant population growth and economic prosperity in the last decade, Nevada was hit by the economic downturn with some of the highest rates of foreclosure and unemployment in the country from 2011 to 2014. The state's unemployment rate was particularly high for home improvement professionals. To combat these challenges, EnergyFit

  11. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings This tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #17 Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings (January 2012) (400.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Improving Steam System Performance: A

  12. In situ repair of a failed compression fitting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolbert, Ronald R.; Jandrasits, Walter G.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in situ repair of a failed compression fitg is provided. Initially, a portion of a guide tube is inserted coaxially in the bore of the compression fitting and locked therein. A close fit dethreading device is then coaxially mounted on the guide tube to cut the threads from the fitting. Thereafter, the dethreading device and guide tube are removed and a new fitting is inserted onto the dethreaded fitting with the body of the new fitting overlaying the dethreaded portion. Finally, the main body of the new fitting is welded to the main body of the old fitting whereby a new threaded portion of the replacement fitting is precisely coaxial with the old threaded portion. If needed, a bushing is located on the dethreaded portion which is sized to fit snugly between the dethreaded portion and the new fitting. Preferably, the dethreading device includes a cutting tool which is moved incrementally in a radial direction whereby the threads are cut from the threaded portion of the failed fitting in increments.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  14. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  15. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  16. The FIT 2.0 Model - Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Gregory M Teske

    2011-06-01

    All mass streams from fuel separation and fabrication are products that must meet some set of product criteria – fuel feedstock impurity limits, waste acceptance criteria (WAC), material storage (if any), or recycle material purity requirements such as zirconium for cladding or lanthanides for industrial use. These must be considered in a systematic and comprehensive way. The FIT model and the “system losses study” team that developed it [Shropshire2009, Piet2010b] are steps by the Fuel Cycle Technology program toward an analysis that accounts for the requirements and capabilities of each fuel cycle component, as well as major material flows within an integrated fuel cycle. This will help the program identify near-term R&D needs and set longer-term goals. This report describes FIT 2, an update of the original FIT model.[Piet2010c] FIT is a method to analyze different fuel cycles; in particular, to determine how changes in one part of a fuel cycle (say, fuel burnup, cooling, or separation efficiencies) chemically affect other parts of the fuel cycle. FIT provides the following: Rough estimate of physics and mass balance feasibility of combinations of technologies. If feasibility is an issue, it provides an estimate of how performance would have to change to achieve feasibility. Estimate of impurities in fuel and impurities in waste as function of separation performance, fuel fabrication, reactor, uranium source, etc.

  17. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluation of Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) Nozzle Interference Fit and Weld Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mathews, Royce; Hanson, Brady D.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-07-31

    Ultrasonic phased array data were collected on a removed-from-service CRDM nozzle specimen to assess a previously reported leak path. First a mock-up CRDM specimen was evaluated that contained two 0.076-mm (3.0-mil) interference fit regions formed from an actual Inconel CRDM tube and two 152.4-mm (6.0-in.) thick carbon steel blocks. One interference fit region has a series of precision crafted electric discharge machining (EDM) notches at various lengths, widths, depths, and spatial separations for establishing probe sensitivity, resolution and calibration. The other interference fit has zones of boric acid (crystal form) spaced periodically between the tube and block to represent an actively leaking CRDM nozzle assembly in the field. Ultrasonic phased-array evaluations were conducted using an immersion 8-element annular 5.0-MHz probe from the tube inner diameter (ID). A variety of focal laws were employed to evaluate the interference fit regions and J grove weld, where applicable. Responses from the mock-up specimen were evaluated to determine detection limits and characterization ability as well as contrast the ultrasonic response differences with the presence of boric acid in the fit region. Nozzle 63, from the North Anna Unit-2 nuclear power plant, was evaluated to assess leakage path(s) and was destructively dismantled to allow a visual verification of the leak path(s).

  18. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69

  19. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  20. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  1. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  2. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  3. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  4. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  5. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 6.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38

  6. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 0.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53

  7. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  8. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  9. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  10. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  11. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  12. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  13. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  14. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  15. Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... multiplying two metrics: * Average GHG emissions (per state) unity * Average biogas resource (per state) unity. 17 Effect of climate and building type on CHPCHHP ...

  16. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  17. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  18. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense

  19. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  20. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  1. A systematic fitting procedure for accurate force field models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A systematic fitting procedure for accurate force field models to reproduce ab initio phonon spectra of nanostructures This content will become publicly available on January 31, ...

  2. NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NEVADA SPARKS RESIDENTS TO IMPROVE ENERGY FITNESS Following significant population growth and economic prosperity in the last decade, Nevada was hit by the economic downturn with ...

  3. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid quantification of mutant...

  4. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014" "(dollars per peak watt)" "Year","Modules" 2004,2.99 2005,3.19 2006,3.5 2007,3.37 2008,3.49 2009,2.79 2010,1.96 2011,1.59 2012,1.15 2013,0.75 2014,0.87 "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  5. Geothermal FIT Design: International Experience and U.S. Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickerson, W.; Gifford, J.; Grace, R.; Cory, K.

    2012-08-01

    Developing power plants is a risky endeavor, whether conventional or renewable generation. Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies can be designed to address some of these risks, and their design can be tailored to geothermal electric plant development. Geothermal projects face risks similar to other generation project development, including finding buyers for power, ensuring adequate transmission capacity, competing to supply electricity and/or renewable energy certificates (RECs), securing reliable revenue streams, navigating the legal issues related to project development, and reacting to changes in existing regulations or incentives. Although FITs have not been created specifically for geothermal in the United States to date, a variety of FIT design options could reduce geothermal power plant development risks and are explored. This analysis focuses on the design of FIT incentive policies for geothermal electric projects and how FITs can be used to reduce risks (excluding drilling unproductive exploratory wells).

  6. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  7. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 71.92 104.33 107.02 71.92 107.02 -32.8 Canada 71.93 104.32 107.01 71.93 107.01 -32.8 Mexico 66.79 360.25 113.43 66.79 113.43 -41.1 South America Total 64.73 64.18 70.82 64.73 70.82 -8.6 Colombia 64.73 63.86 70.58 64.73 70.58 -8.3 Peru 63.31 86.76 86.19 63.31 86.19 -26.5 Venezuela -

  8. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Canada 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Europe Total 270.94 416.80 770.50 270.94 770.50 -64.8 Austria - 1,788.00 - - - - France - 1,110.35 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 206.27 - 206.27 - Italy 265.37 300.11 - 265.37 - -

  9. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 62.62 81.09 76.28 62.62 76.28 -17.9 Canada* 87.37 97.37 80.39 87.37 80.39 8.7 Dominican Republic 213.68 - 461.75 213.68 461.75 -53.7 Guatemala - 66.22 359.27 - 359.27 - Honduras 78.02 78.02 54.43 78.02 54.43 43.3 Jamaica 38.10 39.48 45.51 38.10 45.51 -16.3 Mexico 41.25 37.52

  10. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.345 1.209 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.117 0.998 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1994-2016 DTW 1.337 1.143 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1994-2016 Rack 1.109 0.995 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1994-2016 Bulk 1.137 0.991 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522

  11. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    790 1.553 1.736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.792 1.554 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.331 1.143 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1994-2016 DTW 1.796 1.471 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1994-2016 Rack 1.221 1.066 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1994-2016 Bulk 1.307 1.074 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619

  12. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  13. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  14. Limited Test Ban Treaty

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Detection System (USNDS), which monitors compliance with the international Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT). The LTBT, signed by 108 countries, prohibits nuclear testing in the...

  15. Code System for Data Plotting and Curve Fitting.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-07-23

    Version 00 PLOTnFIT is used for plotting and analyzing data by fitting nth degree polynomials of basis functions to the data interactively and printing graphs of the data and the polynomial functions. It can be used to generate linear, semilog, and log-log graphs and can automatically scale the coordinate axes to suit the data. Multiple data sets may be plotted on a single graph. An auxiliary program, READ1ST, is included which produces an on-line summarymore » of the information contained in the PLOTnFIT reference report.« less

  16. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs.

  17. LADWP- Feed-in Tariff (FiT) Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    LADWP is providing a Feed-in Tariff (FiT) program to support the development of renewable energy projects in its territory. All technologies eligible for compliance with the state's renewables po...

  18. Energy Efficiency and Fitness – A Complementary Pair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ever heard of Non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT? It’s the idea that being more intentional about expending energy on daily activities can contribute to overall fitness just as regular exercise does.

  19. AHA Recognizes Fit-Friendly Worksites at SRS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Two contractors supporting the EM program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were recognized recently as Fit-Friendly Worksites by the American Heart Association (AHA).

  20. Error localization in RHIC by fitting difference orbits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu C.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    The presence of realistic errors in an accelerator or in the model used to describe the accelerator are such that a measurement of the beam trajectory may deviate from prediction. Comparison of measurements to model can be used to detect such errors. To do so the initial conditions (phase space parameters at any point) must be determined which can be achieved by fitting the difference orbit compared to model prediction using only a few beam position measurements. Using these initial conditions, the fitted orbit can be propagated along the beam line based on the optics model. Measurement and model will agree up to the point of an error. The error source can be better localized by additionally fitting the difference orbit using downstream BPMs and back-propagating the solution. If one dominating error source exist in the machine, the fitted orbit will deviate from the difference orbit at the same point.

  1. SHOCK EMERGENCE IN SUPERNOVAE: LIMITING CASES AND ACCURATE APPROXIMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ro, Stephen; Matzner, Christopher D.

    2013-08-10

    We examine the dynamics of accelerating normal shocks in stratified planar atmospheres, providing accurate fitting formulae for the scaling index relating shock velocity to the initial density and for the post-shock acceleration factor as functions of the polytropic and adiabatic indices which parameterize the problem. In the limit of a uniform initial atmosphere, there are analytical formulae for these quantities. In the opposite limit of a very steep density gradient, the solutions match the outcome of shock acceleration in exponential atmospheres.

  2. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  3. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  5. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  6. CONTROL LIMITER DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeShong, J.A.

    1960-03-01

    A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.

  7. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  8. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  9. PEAK LIMITING AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.

    1959-03-31

    A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.

  10. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  11. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  12. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  13. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  14. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  15. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    A new real-space refinement method for low-resolution X-ray crystallography is presented. The method is based on the molecular dynamics flexible fitting protocol targeted at addressing large-scale deformations of the search model to achieve refinement with minimal manual intervention. An explanation of the method is provided, augmented by results from the refinement of both synthetic and experimental low-resolution data, including an independent electrophysiological verification of the xMDFF-refined crystal structure of a voltage-sensor protein. X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7 resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electrophysiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP.

  16. Semi-exact concentric atomic density fitting: Reduced cost and increased accuracy compared to standard density fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollman, David S.; Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 ; Schaefer, Henry F.; Valeev, Edward F.

    2014-02-14

    A local density fitting scheme is considered in which atomic orbital (AO) products are approximated using only auxiliary AOs located on one of the nuclei in that product. The possibility of variational collapse to an unphysical “attractive electron” state that can affect such density fitting [P. Merlot, T. Kjærgaard, T. Helgaker, R. Lindh, F. Aquilante, S. Reine, and T. B. Pedersen, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 1486 (2013)] is alleviated by including atom-wise semidiagonal integrals exactly. Our approach leads to a significant decrease in the computational cost of density fitting for Hartree–Fock theory while still producing results with errors 2–5 times smaller than standard, nonlocal density fitting. Our method allows for large Hartree–Fock and density functional theory computations with exact exchange to be carried out efficiently on large molecules, which we demonstrate by benchmarking our method on 200 of the most widely used prescription drug molecules. Our new fitting scheme leads to smooth and artifact-free potential energy surfaces and the possibility of relatively simple analytic gradients.

  17. New insight on global QCD fits using Regge theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soyez, G.

    2005-06-14

    In global QCD fits, one has to choose an initial parton distribution at Q{sup 2} = Q{sub 0}{sup 2}. I shall argue that the initial condition chosen in usual standard sets is inconsistent with analytic S-matrix theory. I shall show how one can combine these two approaches, leading to a Regge-compatible next-to-leading order global QCD fit. This allows one to extend the parametrisation in the low-Q2 region. Finally, I shall discuss how it it possible to use the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equation to obtain information on Regge models at high Q2.

  18. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  19. Overhead-Aware-Best-Fit (OABF) Resource Allocation Algorithm for Minimizing VM Launching Overhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hao; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Ren, Shangping; Timm, Steven; Noh, Seo Young

    2014-11-11

    FermiCloud is a private cloud developed in Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to provide elastic and on-demand resources for different scientific research experiments. The design goal of the FermiCloud is to automatically allocate resources for different scientific applications so that the QoS required by these applications is met and the operational cost of the FermiCloud is minimized. Our earlier research shows that VM launching overhead has large variations. If such variations are not taken into consideration when making resource allocation decisions, it may lead to poor performance and resource waste. In this paper, we show how we may use an VM launching overhead reference model to minimize VM launching overhead. In particular, we first present a training algorithm that automatically tunes a given refer- ence model to accurately reflect FermiCloud environment. Based on the tuned reference model for virtual machine launching overhead, we develop an overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm that decides where and when to allocate resources so that the average virtual machine launching overhead is minimized. The experimental results indicate that the developed overhead-aware-best-fit resource allocation algorithm can significantly improved the VM launching time when large number of VMs are simultaneously launched.

  20. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique.

  1. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  2. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  3. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  4. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  5. Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon

    2014-02-18

    A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, β, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.

  6. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  7. Self-adaptation of mutation rates and dynamic fitness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glickman, M.R.; Sycara, K.P.

    1996-12-31

    In any search via artificial evolution, the likelihood of stagnation at local optima is determined by the particular choices of representation and search operators. Because the performance impact of these design choices is difficult to predict, it is an attractive option to let the representation and/or operators themselves evolve. However, effective evolution at this meta-level can be difficult to achieve for a number of reasons, including: (1) The complexity of the search space is increased; and (2) selection acts at the level of the fitness function and only indirectly at the meta-level, favoring variations only to the extent to which they are stochastically associated with fitness improvements. The question then becomes: Under what conditions is evolution of the representation and/or operators likely to be most effective?

  8. Least Squ Fit of Lin Combination of Exponential Decay

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-07-06

    This program fits by least squares a function which is a linear combination of real exponential decay functions. The function is y(k) = summation over j of a(j) * exp(-lambda(j) * k). Values of the independent variable (k) and the dependent variable y(k) are specified as input data. Weights may be specified as input information or set by the program (w(k) = 1/y(k) ).

  9. Timminco Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Timminco Limited Place: Toronto, Ontario, Canada Zip: M5H 1J9 Product: Canadian manufacturer of magnesium and silicon; operates its...

  10. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  11. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  12. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  13. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests. The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.

  14. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests.more » The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.« less

  15. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  16. Confidence limits and their errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendran Raja

    2002-03-22

    Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.

  17. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 | Department of Energy 9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising average

  18. Exposing hidden alternative backbone conformations in X-ray crystallography using qFit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Fraser, James S.; van den Bedem, Henry; Shehu, Amarda

    2015-10-27

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechain conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the “flap” regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Furthermore, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems.

  19. Exposing hidden alternative backbone conformations in X-ray crystallography using qFit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Fraser, James S.; van den Bedem, Henry; Shehu, Amarda

    2015-10-27

    Proteins must move between different conformations of their native ensemble to perform their functions. Crystal structures obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction data reflect this heterogeneity as a spatial and temporal conformational average. Although movement between natively populated alternative conformations can be critical for characterizing molecular mechanisms, it is challenging to identify these conformations within electron density maps. Alternative side chain conformations are generally well separated into distinct rotameric conformations, but alternative backbone conformations can overlap at several atomic positions. Our model building program qFit uses mixed integer quadratic programming (MIQP) to evaluate an extremely large number of combinations of sidechainmore » conformers and backbone fragments to locally explain the electron density. Here, we describe two major modeling enhancements to qFit: peptide flips and alternative glycine conformations. We find that peptide flips fall into four stereotypical clusters and are enriched in glycine residues at the n+1 position. The potential for insights uncovered by new peptide flips and glycine conformations is exemplified by HIV protease, where different inhibitors are associated with peptide flips in the “flap” regions adjacent to the inhibitor binding site. Our results paint a picture of peptide flips as conformational switches, often enabled by glycine flexibility, that result in dramatic local rearrangements. Our results furthermore demonstrate the power of large-scale computational analysis to provide new insights into conformational heterogeneity. Furthermore, improved modeling of backbone heterogeneity with high-resolution X-ray data will connect dynamics to the structure-function relationship and help drive new design strategies for inhibitors of biomedically important systems.« less

  20. THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhongmu; Mao, Caiyan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Qian; Li, Maocai

    2013-10-10

    Most galaxies possibly contain some binaries, and more than half of Galactic hot subdwarf stars, which are thought to be a possible origin of the UV-upturn of old stellar populations, are found in binaries. However, the effect of binary evolution has not been taken into account in most works on the spectral fitting of galaxies. This paper studies the role of binary evolution in the spectral fitting of early-type galaxies, via a stellar population synthesis model including both single and binary star populations. Spectra from ultraviolet to optical bands are fitted to determine a few galaxy parameters. The results show that the inclusion of binaries in stellar population models may lead to obvious change in the determination of some parameters of early-type galaxies and therefore it is potentially important for spectral studies. In particular, the ages of young components of composite stellar populations become much older when using binary star population models instead of single star population models. This implies that binary star population models will measure significantly different star formation histories for early-type galaxies compared to single star population models. In addition, stellar population models with binary interactions on average measure larger dust extinctions than single star population models. This suggests that when binary star population models are used, negative extinctions are possibly no longer necessary in the spectral fitting of galaxies (see previous works, e.g., Cid Fernandes et al. for comparison). Furthermore, it is shown that optical spectra have strong constraints on stellar age while UV spectra have strong constraints on binary fraction. Finally, our results suggest that binary star population models can provide new insight into the stellar properties of globular clusters.

  1. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  2. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charger Installations - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations fotw#910_web.xlsx (16.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All

  3. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  4. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " ...

  5. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  6. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In July of 2015, the nationwide average price of diesel was lower than the average price of a regular gallon of gasoline for the first time since June 2009. Both gasoline and diesel prices fluctuate throughout the

  7. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw#915_web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas

  8. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw#835_web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset

  9. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict themore » reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally

  10. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict the reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally, limitations of

  11. Independent Review of Tank 241-AY-101 Fitness for Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Charles W.; Bush, Spencer H.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Elmore, Monte R.; Johnson, A. Burton; Pardini, Allan F.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Simonen, Fredric A.; Terry, Michael T.; Zapp, Philip E.

    2003-02-28

    Video inspections in the annulus of Hanford double-shell waste storage tank 241-AY-101 in 2001 and earlier showed rust over large areas of the primary and secondary tank walls. These observations led to extensive on-destructive inspections and analyses to determine the extent and severity of the corrosion and correction of several operational deficiencies that contributed to the problem. PNNL has performed an independent review of the accumulated evidence from these efforts to determine whether unacceptable conditions were corrected and the current condition of the tank meets or exceeds technical and operational requirements. The findings of this review are the subject of this report. The conclusion is that AY-101 is fit for service without restriction subject to several recommendations for further inspections and analyses.

  12. Global fitting of single spin asymmetry: an attempt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexey Prokudin,Zhong-Bo Kang

    2012-04-01

    We present an attempt of global analysis of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) $\\ell p^\\uparrow \\to \\ell' \\pi X$ data on single spin asymmetries and data on left-right asymmetry $A_N$ in $p^\\uparrow p \\to \\pi X$ in order to simultaneously extract information on Sivers function and twist-three quark-gluon Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman (ETQS) function. We explore different possibilities such as node of Sivers function in $x$ or $k_\\perp$ in order to explain ``sign mismatch'' between these functions. We show that $\\pi^\\pm$ SIDIS data and $\\pi^0$ STAR data can be well described in a combined TMD and twist-3 fit, however $\\pi^\\pm$ BRAHMS data are not described in a satisfactory way. This leaves open a question to the solution of the ``sign mismatch''. Possible explanations are then discussed.

  13. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, N.; Moore, C.; Grant, T.; Fleming, T.; Hunt, P.; Martin, R.; Murphy, S.; Hauth, J.; Wilson, R.; Bittner, A.; Bramwell, A.; Macaulay, J.; Olson, J.; Terrill, E.; Toquam, J. )

    1991-09-01

    This report presents an overview of the NRC licensees' implementation of the FFD program during the first full year of the program's operation and provides new information on a variety of FFD technical issues. The purpose of this document is to contribute to appropriate changes to the rule, to the inspection process, and to other NRC activities. It describes the characteristics of licensee programs, discusses the results of NRC inspections, updates technical information covered in previous reports, and identifies lessons learned during the first year. Overall, the experience of the first full year of licensees' FFD program operations indicates that licensees have functioning fitness for duty programs devoted to the NRC rule's performance objectives of achieving drug-free workplaces in which nuclear power plant personnel are not impaired as they perform their duties. 96 refs., 14 tabs.

  14. 01-12-2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012000 File (public): 01-12-2000...

  15. Updated User's Guide for Sammy: Multilevel R-Matrix Fits to Neutron Data Using Bayes' Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Nancy M

    2008-10-01

    In 1980 the multilevel multichannel R-matrix code SAMMY was released for use in analysis of neutron-induced cross section data at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator. Since that time, SAMMY has evolved to the point where it is now in use around the world for analysis of many different types of data. SAMMY is not limited to incident neutrons but can also be used for incident protons, alpha particles, or other charged particles; likewise, Coulomb exit hannels can be included. Corrections for a wide variety of experimental conditions are available in the code: Doppler and resolution broadening, multiple-scattering corrections for capture or reaction yields, normalizations and backgrounds, to name but a few. The fitting procedure is Bayes' method, and data and parameter covariance matrices are properly treated within the code. Pre- and post-processing capabilities are also available, including (but not limited to) connections with the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files. Though originally designed for use in the resolved resonance region, SAMMY also includes a treatment for data analysis in the unresolved resonance region.

  16. PURAC Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technology and project management company in the environment sector and specialising in water, wastewater and municpal waste treatment. References: PURAC Limited1 This article...

  17. Lysanda Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CM8 3GA Product: US-based vehicle engineering consultancy with a technology capable of playing a role in vehicle emissions management. References: Lysanda Limited1 This...

  18. Solfex Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solfex Limited Address: Energy Arena Bannister Hall Works Off Shop Lane, Higher Walton Preston, Lancashire PR5 4DZ Place: Preston, United...

  19. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  20. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  1. Diesel prices continue to increase … U.S. average over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  2. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3 months in 2008, up from 48.4 months six years earlier. New vehicle owners hold onto vehicles about 15 or 16 months longer than used vehicle owners. Average

  3. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Years 2012-2016 | Department of Energy 4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel economy target based on its footprint. A vehicle's footprint is defined as the wheelbase

  4. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Relation to Family Earnings | Department of Energy 8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while median family earnings went from $7,933 to $77,149.

  5. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years fotw#889_web.xlsx (19.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most

  6. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  7. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevisan, G. L. Terranova, D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D.

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  8. Global Fits of the Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Kong, Kyoungchul; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Trotta, Roberto; /Imperial Coll., London

    2012-06-22

    In theories with Universal Extra-Dimensions (UED), the {gamma}{sub 1} particle, first excited state of the hypercharge gauge boson, provides an excellent Dark Matter (DM) candidate. Here we use a modified version of the SuperBayeS code to perform a Bayesian analysis of the minimal UED scenario, in order to assess its detectability at accelerators and with DM experiments. We derive in particular the most probable range of mass and scattering cross sections off nucleons, keeping into account cosmological and electroweak precision constraints. The consequences for the detectability of the {gamma}{sub 1} with direct and indirect experiments are dramatic. The spin-independent cross section probability distribution peaks at {approx} 10{sup -11} pb, i.e. below the sensitivity of ton-scale experiments. The spin-dependent cross-section drives the predicted neutrino flux from the center of the Sun below the reach of present and upcoming experiments. The only strategy that remains open appears to be direct detection with ton-scale experiments sensitive to spin-dependent cross-sections. On the other hand, the LHC with 1 fb{sup -1} of data should be able to probe the current best-fit UED parameters.

  9. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  10. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  11. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  12. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  13. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  14. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2014" "Module value, total shipments (thousand dollars)" "Total Modules ",5425417 "Module average value (dollars per peak watt)" "Total Modules ",0.87 "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  15. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charger Installations | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project and the ChargePoint America project were conducted for the Department of Energy by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2011-2013 the project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations

  17. Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages One of the major problems in the use of heat flow data in a quantitative manner has been the variability of closely spaced measurements. It is suggested that this variability is directly related to hydrothermal circulation in an ''effectively permeable'' oceanic crust. As a consequence, only where this crust is sealed from the seawater by an extensive and

  18. Impact Limiter Tests of Four Commonly Used Materials And Limiter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of four impact limiter materials was tested at four different load rates, quasi-statically, 44 feet per second (ftjs), (a 9 meter drop test per lOCF71), 33 fts and 22 fts. ...

  19. Analysis of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He fast neutron detector using pulse shape fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, R.P. Ray, H.; Jordan, K.A.; Murer, D.

    2015-03-15

    An empirical investigation of the scintillation mechanism in a pressurized {sup 4}He gas fast neutron detector was conducted using pulse shape fitting. Scintillation signals from neutron interactions were measured and averaged to produce a single generic neutron pulse shape from both a {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source and a (d,d) neutron generator. An expression for light output over time was then developed by treating the decay of helium excited states in the same manner as the decay of radioactive isotopes. This pulse shape expression was fitted to the measured neutron pulse shape using a least-squares optimization algorithm, allowing an empirical analysis of the mechanism of scintillation inside the {sup 4}He detector. A further understanding of this mechanism in the {sup 4}He detector will advance the use of this system as a neutron spectrometer. For {sup 252}Cf neutrons, the triplet and singlet time constants were found to be 970 ns and 686 ns, respectively. For neutrons from the (d,d) generator, the time constants were found to be 884 ns and 636 ns. Differences were noted in the magnitude of these parameters compared to previously published data, however the general relationships were noted to be the same and checked with expected trends from theory. Of the excited helium states produced from a {sup 252}Cf neutron interaction, 76% were found to be born as triplet states, similar to the result from the neutron generator of 71%. The two sources yielded similar pulse shapes despite having very different neutron energy spectra, validating the robustness of the fits across various neutron energies.

  20. Peak fitting applied to low-resolution enrichment measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracken, D.; McKown, T.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Gunnink, R.; Kartoshov, M.; Kuropatwinski, J.; Raphina, G.; Sokolov, G.

    1998-12-01

    Materials accounting at bulk processing facilities that handle low enriched uranium consists primarily of weight and uranium enrichment measurements. Most low enriched uranium processing facilities draw separate materials balances for each enrichment handled at the facility. The enrichment measurement determines the isotopic abundance of the {sup 235}U, thereby determining the proper strata for the item, while the weight measurement generates the primary accounting value for the item. Enrichment measurements using the passive gamma radiation from uranium were developed for use in US facilities a few decades ago. In the US, the use of low-resolution detectors was favored because they cost less, are lighter and more robust, and don`t require the use of liquid nitrogen. When these techniques were exported to Europe, however, difficulties were encountered. Two of the possible root causes were discovered to be inaccurate knowledge of the container wall thickness and higher levels of minor isotopes of uranium introduced by the use of reactor returns in the enrichment plants. the minor isotopes cause an increase in the Compton continuum under the 185.7 keV assay peak and the observance of interfering 238.6 keV gamma rays. The solution selected to address these problems was to rely on the slower, more costly, high-resolution gamma ray detectors when the low-resolution method failed. Recently, these gamma ray based enrichment measurement techniques have been applied to Russian origin material. The presence of interfering gamma radiation from minor isotopes was confirmed. However, with the advent of fast portable computers, it is now possible to apply more sophisticated analysis techniques to the low-resolution data in the field. Explicit corrections for Compton background, gamma rays from {sup 236}U daughters, and the attenuation caused by thick containers can be part of the least squares fitting routine. Preliminary results from field measurements in Kazakhstan will be

  1. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-12

    One of the frontiers of today?s nuclear science is the ?journey to the limits? of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  2. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  3. Intensity limitations in compact H{sup minus} cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baartman, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    At TRIUMF, we have demonstrated 2.5 mA in a compact H{sup -} cyclotron. It is worthwhile to explore possibility of going to even higher intensity. In small cyclotrons, vertical focusing vanishes at the center. The space charge tune shift further reduces vertical focusing, thus determining an upper limit on instantaneous current. Limit on average current is of course also dependent upon phase acceptance, but this can be made quite large in an H{sup -} cyclotron. Longitudinal space charge on the first turn can reduce the phase acceptance as well. For finite ion source brightness, another limit comes from bunching efficiency in presence of space charge forces. We present methods of calculating and optimizing these limits. In particular, we show that it is possible to achieve 10mA in a 50 MeV compact H{sup -} cyclotron.

  4. Plaxica Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: UK-based technology company developing a new generation of polymers derived from sustainable resources. References: Plaxica Limited1 This article is a...

  5. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  6. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  7. Density-fitted singles and doubles coupled cluster on graphics processing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherrill, David; Sumpter, Bobby G; DePrince, III, A. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    We adapt an algorithm for singles and doubles coupled cluster (CCSD) that uses density fitting (DF) or Cholesky decomposition (CD) in the construction and contraction of all electron repulsion integrals (ERI s) for use on heterogeneous compute nodes consisting of a multicore CPU and at least one graphics processing unit (GPU). The use of approximate 3-index ERI s ameliorates two of the major difficulties in designing scientific algorithms for GPU s: (i) the extremely limited global memory on the devices and (ii) the overhead associated with data motion across the PCI bus. For the benzene trimer described by an aug-cc-pVDZ basis set, the use of a single NVIDIA Tesla C2070 (Fermi) GPU accelerates a CD-CCSD computation by a factor of 2.1, relative to the multicore CPU-only algorithm that uses 6 highly efficient Intel core i7-3930K CPU cores. The use of two Fermis provides an acceleration of 2.89, which is comparable to that observed when using a single NVIDIA Kepler K20c GPU (2.73).

  8. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  9. EnergyFit Nevada (formerly known as the Nevada Retrofit Initiative) final report and technical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvill, Anna; Bushman, Kate; Ellsworth, Amy

    2014-06-17

    The EnergyFit Nevada (EFN) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP, and referred to in this document as the EFN program) currently encourages Nevada residents to make whole-house energy-efficient improvements by providing rebates, financing, and access to a network of qualified home improvement contractors. The BBNP funding, consisting of 34 Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) and seven State Energy Program (SEP) grants, was awarded for a three-year period to the State of Nevada in 2010 and used for initial program design and implementation. By the end of first quarter in 2014, the program had achieved upgrades in 553 homes, with an average energy reduction of 32% per home. Other achievements included: Completed 893 residential energy audits and installed upgrades in 0.05% of all Nevada single-family homes1 Achieved an overall conversation rate of 38.1%2 7,089,089 kWh of modeled energy savings3 Total annual homeowner energy savings of approximately $525,7523 Efficiency upgrades completed on 1,100,484 square feet of homes3 $139,992 granted in loans to homeowners for energy-efficiency upgrades 29,285 hours of labor and $3,864,272 worth of work conducted by Nevada auditors and contractors4 40 contractors trained in Nevada 37 contractors with Building Performance Institute (BPI) certification in Nevada 19 contractors actively participating in the EFN program in Nevada 1 Calculated using 2012 U.S. Census data reporting 1,182,870 homes in Nevada. 2 Conversion rate through March 31, 2014, for all Nevada Retrofit Initiative (NRI)-funded projects, calculated using the EFN tracking database. 3 OptiMiser energy modeling, based on current utility rates. 4 This is the sum of $3,596,561 in retrofit invoice value and $247,711 in audit invoice value.

  10. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  11. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a

  12. Moment-Based Probability Modeling and Extreme Response Estimation, The FITS Routine Version 1.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MANUEL,LANCE; KASHEF,TINA; WINTERSTEIN,STEVEN R.

    1999-11-01

    This report documents the use of the FITS routine, which provides automated fits of various analytical, commonly used probability models from input data. It is intended to complement the previously distributed FITTING routine documented in RMS Report 14 (Winterstein et al., 1994), which implements relatively complex four-moment distribution models whose parameters are fit with numerical optimization routines. Although these four-moment fits can be quite useful and faithful to the observed data, their complexity can make them difficult to automate within standard fitting algorithms. In contrast, FITS provides more robust (lower moment) fits of simpler, more conventional distribution forms. For each database of interest, the routine estimates the distribution of annual maximum response based on the data values and the duration, T, over which they were recorded. To focus on the upper tails of interest, the user can also supply an arbitrary lower-bound threshold, {chi}{sub low}, above which a shifted distribution model--exponential or Weibull--is fit.

  13. 01-12-2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 2000 - Mechanical Failure of Supplied Air Fitting Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2000 File (public): PDF icon 01-12-2000

  14. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  15. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  16. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  17. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  18. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  19. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  20. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  1. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region, at 4.16 a gallon, down a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.68 a gallon, down 1.7

  3. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Prices increased in all regions across the U.S. The highest prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.74 a gallon,

  4. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.02 a gallon. That's down a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, down 1.3 cents.

  5. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.00 a gallon. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a gallon, down 4.9 and 3.9 cents, respectively, from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, down 1.1 cents.

  6. U.S. diesel prices increase … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 2.1 cents.

  7. V Fuels Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based biodiesel producers. References: V-Fuels Biodiesel Limited1...

  8. Belize Electricity Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Belize Electricity Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Belize Electricity Limited Name: Belize Electricity Limited Abbreviation: BEL Address: PO Box 327 Place: Belize City,...

  9. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 6.55 6.86 8.24 8.99 9.49 10.78 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.76 7.66 7.50 6.80 7.15 7.72

  10. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 10.31 9.45 9.65 9.90 10.91 14.77 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.59 6.58 6.40 6.23 5.99 5.76

  11. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 6.48 6.44 7.16 8.01 11.73 19.29 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.38 6.17 7.03

  12. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  13. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  14. A Code to Produce Cell Averaged Cross Sections for Fast Critical Assemblies and Fast Power Reactors.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-05-14

    Version 00 SLAROM solves the neutron integral transport equations to determine the flux distribution and spectra in a fast reactor lattice and calculates cell averaged effective cross sections. The code uses multigroup data of the type in DLC-111/JFS that use Bondarenko factors for resonance effects.

  15. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 9.96 9.53 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31

  16. Higgs triplets and limits from precision measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Dawson, Sally; Krupovnickas, Tadas; /Brookhaven

    2006-04-01

    In this letter, they present the results on a global fit to precision electroweak data in a Higgs triplet model. In models with a triplet Higgs boson, a consistent renormalization scheme differs from that of the Standard Model and the global fit shows that a light Higgs boson with mass of 100-200 GeV is preferred. Triplet Higgs bosons arise in many extensions of the Standard Model, including the left-right model and the Little Higgs models. The result demonstrates the importance of the scalar loops when there is a large mass splitting between the heavy scalars. It also indicates the significance of the global fit.

  17. Simulation and fitting of complex reaction network TPR: The key is the objective function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Savara, Aditya Ashi

    2016-07-07

    In this research, a method has been developed for finding improved fits during simulation and fitting of data from complex reaction network temperature programmed reactions (CRN-TPR). It was found that simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR presents additional challenges relative to simulation and fitting of simpler TPR systems. The method used here can enable checking the plausibility of proposed chemical mechanisms and kinetic models. The most important finding was that when choosing an objective function, use of an objective function that is based on integrated production provides more utility in finding improved fits when compared to an objective function based onmore » the rate of production. The response surface produced by using the integrated production is monotonic, suppresses effects from experimental noise, requires fewer points to capture the response behavior, and can be simulated numerically with smaller errors. For CRN-TPR, there is increased importance (relative to simple reaction network TPR) in resolving of peaks prior to fitting, as well as from weighting of experimental data points. Using an implicit ordinary differential equation solver was found to be inadequate for simulating CRN-TPR. Lastly, the method employed here was capable of attaining improved fits in simulation and fitting of CRN-TPR when starting with a postulated mechanism and physically realistic initial guesses for the kinetic parameters.« less

  18. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  19. Empirical Fit to Precision Inclusive Electron-Proton Cross Sections in the Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.E. Christy; Peter Bosted

    2010-05-01

    An empirical fit is described to measurements of inclusive inelastic electron-proton cross sections in the kinematic range of four-momentum transfer $0 \\le Q^2<8$ GeV$^2$ and final state invariant mass $1.1<3.1$ GeV. The fit is constrained by the recent high precision longitudinal and transverse (L/T) separated cross section measurements from Jefferson Lab Hall C, un-separated Hall C measurements up to $Q^2$ $\\approx 7.5$ ${\\rm GeV}^2$, and photoproduction data at $Q^2 = 0$. Compared to previous fits, the present fit covers a wider kinematic range, fits both transverse and longitudinal cross sections, and features smooth transitions to the photoproduction data at $Q^2=0$ and DIS data at high $Q^2$ and $W$.

  20. Global fits of the dark matter-nucleon effective interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: paolo.gondolo@utah.edu

    2014-09-01

    The effective theory of isoscalar dark matter-nucleon interactions mediated by heavy spin-one or spin-zero particles depends on 10 coupling constants besides the dark matter particle mass. Here we compare this 11-dimensional effective theory to current observations in a comprehensive statistical analysis of several direct detection experiments, including the recent LUX, SuperCDMS and CDMSlite results. From a multidimensional scan with about 3 million likelihood evaluations, we extract the marginalized posterior probability density functions (a Bayesian approach) and the profile likelihoods (a frequentist approach), as well as the associated credible regions and confidence levels, for each coupling constant vs dark matter mass and for each pair of coupling constants. We compare the Bayesian and frequentist approach in the light of the currently limited amount of data. We find that current direct detection data contain sufficient information to simultaneously constrain not only the familiar spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions, but also the remaining velocity and momentum dependent couplings predicted by the dark matter-nucleon effective theory. For current experiments associated with a null result, we find strong correlations between some pairs of coupling constants. For experiments that claim a signal (i.e., CoGeNT and DAMA), we find that pairs of coupling constants produce degenerate results.

  1. Tritium Detection Methods and Limitations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Detection Methods and Limitations Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 2014 Tom Voss, Northern New Mexico DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING FOR TRITIUM FACILITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-1105-2002 Radiological Training for Tritium Facilities U.S. Department of Energy, Radiological Control Programs for Special Tritium Compounds, DOE-STD- draft, Washington, D.C.

  2. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  3. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  4. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  5. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (million kWh)",," (Billion BTU)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"

  6. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row"

  7. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  8. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  9. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  10. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  11. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  12. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy, is a notice issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document."

  13. Picosecond Pulse Recirculation for High Average Brightness Thomson Scattering-based Gamma-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenov, V. A.

    2009-06-12

    Pulse recirculation has been successfully demonstrated with the interaction laser system of LLNL's Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray (T-REX) source. The recirculation increased twenty-eight times the intensity of the light coming out of the laser system, demonstrating the capability of increasing the gamma-ray flux emitted by T-REX. The technical approach demonstrated could conceivably increase the average gamma-ray flux output by up to a hundred times.

  14. Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that

  15. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  16. Coherent radar estimates of average high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the average ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. Average Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The average Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.

  17. Minnesota Member Lists the Twin Cities' First Energy Fit Certified Home |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Minnesota Member Lists the Twin Cities' First Energy Fit Certified Home Minnesota Member Lists the Twin Cities' First Energy Fit Certified Home Photo of a small house from the front, with a tree shading the house and expanse of front lawn. A home purchased and upgraded by Better Buildings Residential Network member the Center for Energy and Environment (CEE) made headlines as the first "Energy Fit" certified home listed on the Minnesota Multiple Listing Service

  18. An Algorithm for Obtaining Reliable Priors for Constrained-Curve Fits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrence Draper; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Nilmani Mathur; Jianbo Zhang

    2004-03-01

    We introduce the ''Sequential Empirical Bayes Method'', an adaptive constrained-curve fitting procedure for extracting reliable priors. These are then used in standard augmented-chi-square fits on separate data. This better stabilizes fits to lattice QCD overlap-fermion data at very low quark mass where a priori values are not otherwise known. We illustrate the efficacy of the method with data from overlap fermions, on a quenched 16{sup 3} x 28 lattice with spatial size La = 3.2 fm and pion mass as low as {approx} 180 MeV.

  19. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  20. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  1. Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biomass resources overview and perspectives on best fits for fuel cells. Presented by Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  2. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings - Steam Tip Sheet #17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  4. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  5. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  6. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  7. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  8. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  9. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  10. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  12. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  13. Northeast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Resources » Northeast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT? Northeast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT? Presentation delivered by Justin Barnes of the N.C. Solar Center during the 2009 Northeastern Solar Cities Conference Solar Energy Financing session. Date October 2009 Topic Solar Basics & Educating Consumers Financing, Incentives & Market Analysis Subprogram Soft Costs Author North Carolina Solar Center

  14. FITTING OF THE DATA FOR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS IN UNSATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Bullard

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate diffusion coefficients in unsaturated porous media for use in the TSPA-VA analyses. Using experimental data, regression techniques were used to curve fit the diffusion coefficient in unsaturated porous media as a function of volumetric water content. This calculation substantiates the model fit used in Total System Performance Assessment-1995 An Evaluation of the Potential Yucca Mountain Repository (TSPA-1995), Section 6.5.4.

  15. Maximum-likelihood fitting of data dominated by Poisson statistical uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    1996-06-01

    The fitting of data by {chi}{sup 2}-minimization is valid only when the uncertainties in the data are normally distributed. When analyzing spectroscopic or particle counting data at very low signal level (e.g., a Thomson scattering diagnostic), the uncertainties are distributed with a Poisson distribution. The authors have developed a maximum-likelihood method for fitting data that correctly treats the Poisson statistical character of the uncertainties. This method maximizes the total probability that the observed data are drawn from the assumed fit function using the Poisson probability function to determine the probability for each data point. The algorithm also returns uncertainty estimates for the fit parameters. They compare this method with a {chi}{sup 2}-minimization routine applied to both simulated and real data. Differences in the returned fits are greater at low signal level (less than {approximately}20 counts per measurement). the maximum-likelihood method is found to be more accurate and robust, returning a narrower distribution of values for the fit parameters with fewer outliers.

  16. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  17. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  18. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  19. Nufcor International Limited Nufcor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited (Nufcor) Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: UK-based uranium marketing services company. References: Nufcor International Limited (Nufcor)1 This article...

  20. Mauktika Energy Limited MEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mauktika Energy Limited MEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mauktika Energy Limited (MEL) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500033 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  1. Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Voith Hydro Wavegen Limited Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.wavegen.co.uk This...

  2. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  3. SRSL Ethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SRSL Ethanol Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: SRSL Ethanol Limited Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Product: Mumbai-based ethanol subsidiary of Shree Renuka Sugars...

  4. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

  5. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2A 2AZ Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Trust Enterprises...

  6. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limiting Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Limiting Technologies Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: N1 8HA Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based...

  7. Clipper Windpower Europe Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clipper Windpower Europe Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 7TJ Sector: Wind energy...

  8. Rix Biodiesel Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rix Biodiesel Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rix Biodiesel Limited Place: Hull, United Kingdom Zip: HU8 7JR Product: Manufacture, blends and resells biodiesel....

  9. Tidal Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tidal Energy Limited (TEL) Place: Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom Zip: CF23 8RS Product: Tidal stream device developer. Coordinates:...

  10. Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited Place: Mumbai, India Zip: 400 021 Sector: Biomass Product: Indian cement company. the company...

  11. Transmission Capital Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transmission Capital Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Transmission Capital Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2V 7HR Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product:...

  12. Impact Capital Partners Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Partners Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Impact Capital Partners Limited Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: CA 90067-1509 Product: Los Angeles-based, investment...

  13. Power Projects Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Projects Limited Address: PO Box 25456 Panama Street Place: Wellington Zip: 6146 Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  14. Catamount Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Catamount Energy Limited Place: United Kingdom Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind power project developer working on projects in Scotland....

  15. Central Electronics Limited CEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Limited CEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Electronics Limited (CEL) Place: Sahibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201010 Sector: Solar Product: String...

  16. United Biofuels Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Biofuels Private Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Biofuels Private Limited Place: Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Biomass Product: India-based owner and operator...

  17. Renewable Fuels Limited RFL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited RFL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Fuels Limited (RFL) Place: York, United Kingdom Zip: YO19 6ET Sector: Biomass Product: Supplies various biomass fuels and...

  18. BFC Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BFC Solutions Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: BFC Solutions Limited Place: Taunton, England, United Kingdom Zip: TA1 PEJ Sector: Carbon Product: Somerset-based...

  19. China Innovation Investment Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Innovation Investment Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Innovation Investment Limited Place: Hong Kong Sector: Solar Product: Hong Kong-listed alternative energy...

  20. Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Harvard Dedicated Energy Limited Place: Massachusetts Phone Number: (617) 495-5560 Website: www.energyandfaciliti...

  1. Greenergy Biofuels Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Greenergy Biofuels Limited Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: WC1V 7BD Sector: Biofuels Product: Imports, blends...

  2. United Group Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Group Limited Place: Perth, Western Australia, Australia Zip: 6001 Product: The United Group Resources (UGL) division is an EPC and...

  3. WaikatoLink Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaikatoLink Limited Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Individual Angel network )...

  4. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fcc and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.

  5. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  6. INVESTIGATION ON THE FLAME EXTINCTION LIMIT OF FUEL BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2005-02-01

    Lean flame extinction limits of binary fuel mixtures of methane (CH{sub 4}), propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}), and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) were measured using a twin-flame counter-flow burner. Experiments were conducted to generate an extinction equivalence ratio vs. global stretch rate plot and an extrapolation method was used to calculate the equivalence ratio corresponding to an experimentally unattainable zero-stretch condition. The foregoing gases were selected because they are the primary constitutes of natural gas, which is the primary focus of the present study. To validate the experimental setup and methodology, the flame extinction limit of pure fuels at zero stretch conditions were also estimated and compared with published values. The lean flame extinction limits of methane (f{sub ext} = 4.6%) and propane (f{sub ext} = 2.25%) flames measured in the present study agreed with the values reported in the literature. It was observed that the flame extinction limit of fuel blends have a polynomial relation with the concentration of component fuels in the mixture. This behavior contradicts with the commonly used linear Le Chatelier's approximation. The experimentally determined polynomial relations between the flame extinction limits of fuel blends (i.e. methane-propane and methane-ethane) and methane concentration are as follows: (1) Methane-Propane--%f{sub ext} = (1.05 x 10{sup -9}) f{sup 5}-(1.3644 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(6.40299 x 10{sup -6}) f{sup 3}-(1.2108459 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2}+(2.87305329 x 10{sup -3}) f+2.2483; (2) Methane-Ethane--%f{sub ext} = (2.1 x 10{sup -9})f{sup 5}-(3.5752 x 10{sup -7}) f{sup 4}+(2.095425 x 10{sup -5}) f{sup 3}-(5.037353 x 10{sup -4}) f{sup 2} + 6.08980409 f + 2.8923. Where f{sub ext} is the extinction limits of methane-propane and methane-ethane fuel blends, and f is the concentration (% volume) of methane in the fuel mixture. The relations were obtained by fitting fifth order curve (polynomial regression) to experimentally

  7. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  8. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  9. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  10. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  11. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  12. Kubo–Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new formulation of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman–Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman–Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement withmore » ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.« less

  13. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  14. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 39,245 37,530 30,909 29,915 24,309 30,956 29,057 30,423 32,071 30,248 1990's 32,144 33,395 35,908 38,067 40,244 40,973 43,050 36,239 36,785 35,384 2000's 36,968 33,840 36,458 34,793 34,645 31,991 33,597 33,561 29,639 29,705 2010's 35,418 36,947 38,159

  16. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 40.85 44.62 71.22 40.85 71.22 -42.6 Canada* 85.43 69.79 74.16 85.43 74.16 15.2 Dominican Republic 213.68 - 461.75 213.68 461.75 -53.7 Guatemala - - 359.27 - 359.27 - Honduras - - 54.43 - 54.43 - Jamaica 38.10 39.48 45.51 38.10 45.51 -16.3 Mexico 28.06 28.52 70.79 28.06

  17. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 91.86 102.82 92.36 91.86 92.36 -0.5 Canada* 88.10 104.16 87.30 88.10 87.30 0.9 Guatemala - 66.22 - - - - Honduras 78.02 78.02 - 78.02 - - Mexico 111.56 110.99 108.37 111.56 108.37 2.9 South America Total 64.83 75.44 96.14 64.83 96.14 -32.6 Argentina - - 100.77 -

  18. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  19. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  1. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  2. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  3. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  4. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  5. Limiting electron beam current for cyclic induction acceleration in a constant guide field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanunnikov, V.N.

    1982-09-01

    Theoretical relations are derived for the limiting beam current in a cyclic induction accelerator (CIA) with a constant guide field. The calculations are in agreement with the available experimental data. It is shown that the limiting average beam current in a CIA is of the order of 100 microamperes, i.e., the level attained in microtrons and linear accelerators. The CIA may find industrial applications.

  6. Density fitting for three-electron integrals in explicitly correlated electronic structure theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, James C.; Manby, Frederick R.

    2014-01-28

    The principal challenge in using explicitly correlated wavefunctions for molecules is the evaluation of nonfactorizable integrals over the coordinates of three or more electrons. Immense progress was made in tackling this problem through the introduction of a single-particle resolution of the identity. Decompositions of sufficient accuracy can be achieved, but only with large auxiliary basis sets. Density fitting is an alternative integral approximation scheme, which has proven to be very reliable for two-electron integrals. Here, we extend density fitting to the treatment of all three-electron integrals that appear at the MP2-F12/3*A level of theory. We demonstrate that the convergence of energies with respect to auxiliary basis size is much more rapid with density fitting than with the traditional resolution-of-the-identity approach.

  7. Correcting for telluric absorption: Methods, case studies, and release of the TelFit code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Kraus, Adam; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Ground-based astronomical spectra are contaminated by the Earth's atmosphere to varying degrees in all spectral regions. We present a Python code that can accurately fit a model to the telluric absorption spectrum present in astronomical data, with residuals of ∼3%-5% of the continuum for moderately strong lines. We demonstrate the quality of the correction by fitting the telluric spectrum in a nearly featureless A0V star, HIP 20264, as well as to a series of dwarf M star spectra near the 819 nm sodium doublet. We directly compare the results to an empirical telluric correction of HIP 20264 and find that our model-fitting procedure is at least as good and sometimes more accurate. The telluric correction code, which we make freely available to the astronomical community, can be used as a replacement for telluric standard star observations for many purposes.

  8. Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon: New fit and analysis of uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alberico, W. M.; Giunti, C.; Bilenky, S. M.; Graczyk, K. M.

    2009-06-15

    Electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron, obtained from a new fit of data, are presented. The proton form factors are obtained from a simultaneous fit to the ratio {mu}{sub p}G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} determined from polarization transfer measurements and to ep elastic cross section data. Phenomenological two-photon exchange corrections are taken into account. The present fit for protons was performed in the kinematical region Q{sup 2} is an element of (0,6) GeV{sup 2}. For both protons and neutrons we use the latest available data. For all form factors, the uncertainties and correlations of form factor parameters are investigated with the {chi}{sup 2} method.

  9. Improved Potential Energy Surface of Ozone Constructed Using the Fitting by Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ayouz, Mehdi; Babikov, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    New global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state of ozone is constructed at the complete basis set level of the multireference configuration interaction theory. A method of fitting the data points by analytical permutationally invariant polynomial function is adopted. A small set of 500 points is preoptimized using the old surface of ozone. In this procedure the positions of points in the configuration space are chosen such that the RMS deviation of the fit is minimized. New ab initio calculations are carried out at these points and are used to build new surface. Additional points are addedmore » to the vicinity of the minimum energy path in order to improve accuracy of the fit, particularly in the region where the surface of ozone exhibits a shallow van der Waals well. New surface can be used to study formation of ozone at thermal energies and its spectroscopy near the dissociation threshold.« less

  10. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  11. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  12. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  13. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  14. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  15. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  17. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  18. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  19. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  20. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  1. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  2. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  3. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  4. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  5. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  6. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  7. Measurement and fitting of spectrum and pulse shapes of a liquid methane moderator at IPNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, J.M.; Robinson, R.A.; Taylor, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured the absolute intensity, and the energy spectrum, and the pulse shapes as function of neutron energy for the IPNS liquid CH/sub 4/ F moderator, at 108 K. We have fitted the spectrum, corrected for attenuation by aluminum in the beam, using a new cutoff function and fitted the pulse shapes to a new function which is the sum of two decaying exponentials, convoluted with a gaussian, and determined the wavelength variation of the parameters. We present here the results of a preliminary analysis.

  8. TORUS AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PROPERTIES OF NEARBY SEYFERT GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM FITTING INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Mason, Rachel; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Rodriguez Espinosa, Jose Miguel; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.; Roche, Patrick F.; Levenson, Nancy A.; Elitzur, Moshe; Packham, Christopher; Young, Stuart; Diaz-Santos, Tanio

    2011-08-01

    We used the CLUMPY torus models and a Bayesian approach to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions and ground-based high angular resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy of 13 nearby Seyfert galaxies. This allowed us to put tight constraints on torus model parameters such as the viewing angle i, the radial thickness of the torus Y, the angular size of the cloud distribution {sigma}{sub torus}, and the average number of clouds along radial equatorial rays N{sub 0}. We found that the viewing angle i is not the only parameter controlling the classification of a galaxy into type 1 or type 2. In principle, type 2s could be viewed at any viewing angle i as long as there is one cloud along the line of sight. A more relevant quantity for clumpy media is the probability for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) photon to escape unabsorbed. In our sample, type 1s have relatively high escape probabilities, P{sub esc} {approx} 12%-44%, while type 2s, as expected, tend to have very low escape probabilities. Our fits also confirmed that the tori of Seyfert galaxies are compact with torus model radii in the range 1-6 pc. The scaling of the models to the data also provided the AGN bolometric luminosities L{sub bol}(AGN), which were found to be in good agreement with estimates from the literature. When we combined our sample of Seyfert galaxies with a sample of PG quasars from the literature to span a range of L{sub bol}(AGN) {approx} 10{sup 43}-10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}, we found plausible evidence of the receding torus. That is, there is a tendency for the torus geometrical covering factor to be lower (f{sub 2} {approx} 0.1-0.3) at high AGN luminosities than at low AGN luminosities (f{sub 2} {approx} 0.9-1 at {approx}10{sup 43}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}). This is because at low AGN luminosities the tori appear to have wider angular sizes (larger {sigma}{sub torus}) and more clouds along radial equatorial rays. We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that this is due to

  9. Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1J 8DY Product: London-based company focused on trading of biodiesel....

  10. GenDrive Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GenDrive Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: GenDrive Limited Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Zip: CB23 3GY Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Developing...

  11. Mistral Invest Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mistral Invest Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mistral Invest Limited Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: W1U 7DW Sector: Wind energy Product: Private Equity Fund aiming...

  12. Zebec Biogas Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zebec Biogas Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zebec Biogas Limited Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G12 9JD Product: Sotland-based biogas company. The firm is...

  13. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  14. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  15. EU Energy Wind Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: EU Energy (Wind) Limited Place: Central Milton Keynes, United Kingdom Zip: K9 1LH Sector: Wind energy Product: The company will be...

  16. Lead Hero Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hero Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lead Hero Limited Place: China Product: China-based company that holds a 100% interest in XiAn Lv Jing and a 15.05% interest in...

  17. IT Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IT Power Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: IT Power Limited Place: Basingstoke, England, United Kingdom Zip: RG24 8AG Sector: Renewable Energy Product: IT Power is a...

  18. Exorka International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exorka International Limited is a specialist developer of low-temperature geothermal electricity generation, incorporated in England. References: Exorka International...

  19. Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Undergraduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Time limits The length of participation in the undergraduate program is limited to a maximum of six years for students pursuing a bachelor's degree and three years for students pursuing an

  20. Limited English Proficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited English Proficiency Limited English Proficiency On August 11, 2000, President Clinton signed Executive Order 13166, "Improving Access to Services for Persons with Limited English Proficiency." The Executive Order requires federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to examine the programs and services they provide, to determine whether there is a need for language assistance for persons with Limited English proficiency (LEP) related to their programs and services, and

  1. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  2. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  3. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  4. One-point fitting of the flux density produced by a heliostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collado, Francisco J.

    2010-04-15

    Accurate and simple models for the flux density reflected by an isolated heliostat should be one of the basic tools for the design and optimization of solar power tower systems. In this work, the ability and the accuracy of the Universidad de Zaragoza (UNIZAR) and the DLR (HFCAL) flux density models to fit actual energetic spots are checked against heliostat energetic images measured at Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). Both the fully analytic models are able to acceptably fit the spot with only one-point fitting, i.e., the measured maximum flux. As a practical validation of this one-point fitting, the intercept percentage of the measured images, i.e., the percentage of the energetic spot sent by the heliostat that gets the receiver surface, is compared with the intercept calculated through the UNIZAR and HFCAL models. As main conclusions, the UNIZAR and the HFCAL models could be quite appropriate tools for the design and optimization, provided the energetic images from the heliostats to be used in the collector field were previously analyzed. Also note that the HFCAL model is much simpler and slightly more accurate than the UNIZAR model. (author)

  5. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes

  6. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; et al

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with anymore » transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes. However, the current strategies for TnSeq are

  7. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  8. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  9. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  10. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  11. Electrical signature analysis to quantify human and animal performance on fitness and therapy equipment such as a treadmill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-05-18

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  12. Idaho Cleanup Project Clearance Limits for Personal Property

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho Cleanup Project Clearance Limits for Personal Property Kevin Konzen*, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC ; Craig Nesshoefer, Idaho Cleanup Project Abstract: CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI) had sought alternative surface clearance limits for personal property from those referenced in DOE Order 458.1, which were approved September 2013 by the Department of Energy. Because much of the property would remain within DOE control, implementation was contingent upon receiving an exemption from 10 CFR 835, Surface Contamination Values (pending). CWI requested these changes due to inadequate instrument sensitivity of standard field instruments used across the nuclear industry for the clearance of several listed radionuclides. This included 241Pu, 125I, and 129I listed in the transuranic category; 90Sr, 126I, 131I and 133I listed in the thorium category; and several Hard-To-Detect (HTD) radionuclides listed in the beta-gamma emitter category. Instrument detection capabilities are now required to be justified by DOE Order 458.1, with personal property meeting the measurement objectives specified in MARSAME. MARSAME provides a consistent approach across the industry for determining the instrument MDC for comparison with the clearance limits of personal property. Challenges were discovered with the standard GM pancake probe for achieving the required sensitivity necessary for releasing property with radionuclides listed in the beta-gamma emitter category, and was determined incapable of surveying beta-gamma emitters with total surface clearance limits below this category using standard field scanning techniques. This affected 90Sr and iodine radionuclides listed in the thorium and transuranic categories. Likewise, the transuranic category included all radionuclides meeting the generic definition of a transuranic radionuclide, such as 241Pu. CWI proposed establishing an HTD category with higher clearance limits for all radionuclides with an average beta or electron emission up to 50 keV. CWI also

  13. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  14. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  15. Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Limits and Work Schedules Graduate Program Time Limits and Work Schedules Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Time Limits The length of participation in the graduate program is limited as follows: With a bachelor's pursuing a master's degree: 4 years With a bachelor's pursuing a PhD: 7 years With a master's

  16. Interim Guidance Regarding Limitations on CERCLA Liability |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Inner-Office Memorandum: Interim Guidance Regarding Limitations on CERCLA LiabilityPermitting...

  17. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation- Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells Preprint Michael L. Bolen, Sachit Grover, Charles W. Teplin, Howard M. Branz, and Paul Stradins National...

  18. Wedotebary Nigeria Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Wedotebary Nigeria Limited Place: Bukuru, Nigeria Product: Nigeria-based manufacturing conglomerate. Coordinates: 9.79017, 8.85481 Show Map Loading map......

  19. Local Generation Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Sector: Biomass Product: UK-based biomass firm developing anaerobic digestion plants. References: Local Generation Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  20. CarbonPlan Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as a consultant advising on renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, & corporate social responsibility. References: CarbonPlan Limited1 This article is a stub. You can...

  1. Amperex Technology Limited ATL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Limited (ATL) Place: N.T., Hong Kong Product: Designer and manufacturer of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) battery cells and batteries for OEM customers making cell phones,...

  2. Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited MAHAGENCO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Limited (MAHAGENCO) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400051 Product: Power generating firm planning to set up a...

  3. Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, China Zip: 50011 Sector: Hydro Product: China-based small hydro project developer. References: Hebei Hydroelectric Company Limited1 This...

  4. Proactive Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Product: Scotland-based renewable energy company that is developing a 5MW biogas plant in South Lanarkshire. References: Proactive Energy Limited1 This article is a...

  5. Colony Mills Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Lahore, Pakistan Sector: Solar Product: Yarn manufacturer, plans to set up solar thermal plant. References: Colony Mills Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  6. Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optimizing areal capacities through understanding the limitations of lithium-ion electrodes Increasing the areal capacity or electrode thickness in lithium ion batteries is ...

  7. Vihaan Networks Limited VNL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Vihaan Networks Limited (VNL) Place: Gurgaon, Haryana, India Zip: 122015 Sector: Solar Product: Developer of solar-powered GSM system for rural...

  8. Cumbria Wind Farms Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: SY16 2LW Sector: Services Product: Provides operational and maintenance services in Cumbria, Cornwall and Wales. References: Cumbria Wind Farms Limited1...

  9. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P. 08 HYDROGEN; 14...

  10. Royal Energy Limited REL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (REL) Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400 016 Product: Mumbai-based ethanol and biodiesel producer. References: Royal Energy Limited (REL)1 This article is a stub. You...

  11. EVO Electric Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: GU21 5JY Product: EVO Electric Limited develops electrical motors and generators for use in gensets, powertrains, and traction motors in...

  12. Green Heat Solutions Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Green Heat Solutions Limited Region: Scotland Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: http: This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  13. Acquasol Infrastructure Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Acquasol Infrastructure Limited Place: Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Zip: 5000 Sector: Solar Product: Adelaide based solar thermal project and...

  14. Carnegie Wave Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Address: 1 124 Stirling Highway Place: North Fremantle Zip: 6159 Region: Australia Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Year Founded: 1993 Website: www.carnegiewave.com...

  15. Power Paper Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Paper Limited Place: Kiryat Arye, Petah Tikva, Israel Zip: 49130 Product: Power Paper is a developer of next-generation, printable...

  16. 12 Voltz Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Place: Cumbria, United Kingdom Zip: LA8 9NH Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Selling and delivering broad range of advanced energy generating...

  17. Caldyne Automatics Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage product manufacturer; also makes lighting systems based on solar, wind and solar wind hybrid systems. References: Caldyne Automatics Limited1 This article is a stub....

  18. Bharat Renewable Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Limited Place: Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Product: Uttar Pradesh-based joint venture company for the production, procurement, cultivation and plantation of crops...

  19. PP-22 British Columbia Electric Company, Limited

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presidential permit authorizing British Columbia Electric Company, Limited to construct, operate, and maintain electric transmission facilities at the U.S-Canadian border.

  20. EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Centre Land Trading Limited EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited Order Authorizing Centre Land Trading Limited to export electric energy to Canada EA-365 Centre Land Trading Limited ...

  1. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  2. Fitness for duty in the nuclear industry: Update of the technical issues 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, N.; Grant, T.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an update of information on the technical issues surrounding the creation, implementation, and maintenance of fitness-for-duty (FFD) policies and programs. It has been prepared as a resource for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and nuclear power plant personnel who deal with FFD programs. It contains a general overview and update on the technical issues that the NRC considered prior to the publication of its original FFD rule and the revisions to that rule (presented in earlier NUREG/CRs). It also includes chapters that address issues about which there is growing concern and/or about which there have been substantial changes since NUREG/CR-5784 was published. Although this report is intended to support the NRC`s rule making on fitness for duty, the conclusions of the authors of this report are their own and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the NRC.

  3. Fitting FFT-derived spectra: Theory, tool, and application to solar radio spike decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Marin, William; Boone, Kristine

    2014-07-10

    Spectra derived from fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of time-domain data intrinsically contain statistical fluctuations whose distribution depends on the number of accumulated spectra contributing to a measurement. The tail of this distribution, which is essential for separating the true signal from the statistical fluctuations, deviates noticeably from the normal distribution for a finite number of accumulations. In this paper, we develop a theory to properly account for the statistical fluctuations when fitting a model to a given accumulated spectrum. The method is implemented in software for the purpose of automatically fitting a large body of such FFT-derived spectra. We apply this tool to analyze a portion of a dense cluster of spikes recorded by our FASR Subsystem Testbed instrument during a record-breaking event that occurred on 2006 December 6. The outcome of this analysis is briefly discussed.

  4. Preexisting compensatory amino acids compromise fitness costs of a HIV-1 T cell escape mutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Hora, Bhavna; Song, Hongshuo; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Perelson, Alan S.; Haynes, Barton F.; McMichael, Andrew J.; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fitness costs and slower disease progression are associated with a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutation T242N in Gag in HIV-1-infected individuals carrying HLA-B*57/5801 alleles. However, the impact of different context in diverse HIV-1 strains on the fitness costs due to the T242N mutation has not been well characterized. To better understand the extent of fitness costs of the T242N mutation and the repair of fitness loss through compensatory amino acids, we investigated its fitness impact in different transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Results: The T242N mutation resulted in various levels of fitness loss in four different T/F viruses. However, the fitness costs were significantly compromised by preexisting compensatory amino acids in (Isoleucine at position 247) or outside (glutamine at position 219) the CTL epitope. Moreover, the transmitted T242N escape mutant in subject CH131 was as fit as the revertant N242T mutant and the elimination of the compensatory amino acid I247 in the T/F viral genome resulted in significant fitness cost, suggesting the fitness loss caused by the T242N mutation had been fully repaired in the donor at transmission. Analysis of the global circulating HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database showed a high prevalence of compensatory amino acids for the T242N mutation and other T cell escape mutations. Conclusions: Our results show that the preexisting compensatory amino acids in the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains could significantly compromise the fitness loss due to CTL escape mutations and thus increase challenges for T cell based vaccines.

  5. Preexisting compensatory amino acids compromise fitness costs of a HIV-1 T cell escape mutation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Donglai; Zuo, Tao; Hora, Bhavna; Song, Hongshuo; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Perelson, Alan S.; Haynes, Barton F.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fitness costs and slower disease progression are associated with a cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutation T242N in Gag in HIV-1-infected individuals carrying HLA-B*57/5801 alleles. However, the impact of different context in diverse HIV-1 strains on the fitness costs due to the T242N mutation has not been well characterized. To better understand the extent of fitness costs of the T242N mutation and the repair of fitness loss through compensatory amino acids, we investigated its fitness impact in different transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Results: The T242N mutation resulted in various levels of fitness loss in four different T/F viruses. However, themore » fitness costs were significantly compromised by preexisting compensatory amino acids in (Isoleucine at position 247) or outside (glutamine at position 219) the CTL epitope. Moreover, the transmitted T242N escape mutant in subject CH131 was as fit as the revertant N242T mutant and the elimination of the compensatory amino acid I247 in the T/F viral genome resulted in significant fitness cost, suggesting the fitness loss caused by the T242N mutation had been fully repaired in the donor at transmission. Analysis of the global circulating HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database showed a high prevalence of compensatory amino acids for the T242N mutation and other T cell escape mutations. Conclusions: Our results show that the preexisting compensatory amino acids in the majority of circulating HIV-1 strains could significantly compromise the fitness loss due to CTL escape mutations and thus increase challenges for T cell based vaccines.« less

  6. Northesast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Justin Barnes N.C. Solar Center N.C. State University 2009 Northeastern Solar America Cities Conference Pittsburgh, PA October 16, 2009 Northeast U.S. Solar Policy: Sunny, With a Chance of...FIT? DSIRE SOLAR!! * Interactive Policy Map: Provides quick access to state specific solar information * Solar Policy Guide: Offers descriptions of various state and local policy types for promoting solar; status and trends of individual policies; specific policy examples; and links to additional resources *

  7. Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research October 22, 2015, Accomplishments Fitting the Lithium-Sulfur Battery with a New Membrane The lithium-sulfur battery has higher energy storage capacity and lower cost than lithium ion. But there is a serious stumbling block. Polysulfides form in the cathode during battery cycling and pass through the membrane to contaminate the lithium metal anode. This results in a rapid decline in performance. JCESR researchers appear to have found a solution to the problem - the

  8. CNS employees rise to fitness challenge | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rise to ... CNS employees rise to fitness challenge Posted: August 29, 2016 - 10:57am Y-12 Site Manager Bill Tindal (second left) and Karen Lacy (right), CNS wellness coordinator and Active for Life program co-director, congratulate members of CNS's winning Active for Life challenge team. This spring, more than 750 Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC employees participated in the Active for Life℠ challenge, an 8-week program, sponsored by the American Cancer Society®, that encouraged employees

  9. Model Fit to Experimental Data for Foam-Assisted Deep Vadose Zone Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roostapour, A.; Lee, G.; Zhong, Lirong; Kam, Seung I.

    2014-01-15

    Foam has been regarded as a promising means of remeidal amendment delivery to overcome subsurface heterogeneity in subsurface remediation processes. This study investigates how a foam model, developed by Method of Characteristics and fractional flow analysis in the companion paper of Roostapour and Kam (2012), can be applied to make a fit to a set of existing laboratory flow experiments (Zhong et al., 2009) in an application relevant to deep vadose zone remediation. This study reveals a few important insights regarding foam-assisted deep vadose zone remediation: (i) the mathematical framework established for foam modeling can fit typical flow experiments matching wave velocities, saturation history , and pressure responses; (ii) the set of input parameters may not be unique for the fit, and therefore conducting experiments to measure basic model parameters related to relative permeability, initial and residual saturations, surfactant adsorption and so on should not be overlooked; and (iii) gas compressibility plays an important role for data analysis, thus should be handled carefully in laboratory flow experiments. Foam kinetics, causing foam texture to reach its steady-state value slowly, may impose additional complications.

  10. New facility design and work method for the quantitative fit testing laboratory. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, G.F.

    1989-05-01

    The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) tests the quantitative fit of masks which are worn by military personnel during nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare. Subjects are placed in a Dynatech-Frontier Fit Testing Chamber, salt air is fed into the chamber, and samples of air are drawn from the mask and the chamber. The ratio of salt air outside the mask to salt air inside the mask is called the quantitative fit factor. A motion-time study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the layout and work method presently used in the laboratory. A link analysis was done to determine equipment priorities, and the link data and design guidelines were used to develop three proposed laboratory designs. The proposals were evaluated by projecting the time and motion efficiency, and the energy expended working in each design. Also evaluated were the lengths of the equipment links for each proposal, and each proposal's adherence to design guidelines. A mock-up was built of the best design proposal, and a second motion-time study was run. Results showed that with the new laboratory and work procedures, the USAFSAM analyst could test 116 more subjects per year than are currently tested. Finally, the results of a questionnaire given to the analyst indicated that user acceptance of the work area improved with the new design.

  11. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  12. Reply to comment on ''New limits on intrinsic charm in the nucleon from global analysis of parton distribution''

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro; Hobbs, Timothy J.; Londergan, J. T.; Melnitchouk, Wally

    2016-01-05

    We reply to the Comment of Brodsky and Gardner on our paper "New limits on intrinsic charm in the nucleon from global analysis of parton distributions" [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 082002 (2015)]. We address a number of incorrect claims made about our fitting methodology, and elaborate how global QCD analysis of all available high-energy data provides no evidence for a large intrinsic charm component of the nucleon.

  13. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAAs High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  14. Adiabatic limits on Riemannian Heisenberg manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, A A

    2008-02-28

    An asymptotic formula is obtained for the distribution function of the spectrum of the Laplace operator, in the adiabatic limit for the foliation defined by the orbits of an invariant flow on a compact Riemannian Heisenberg manifold. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  15. Eclectic Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Limited Place: Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom Zip: NG21 9PR Sector: Wind energy Product: Design, manufacture D400, StealthGen micro wind, DuoGen wind and water...

  16. Beam limiter for thermonuclear fusion devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Manfred S.

    1976-01-01

    A beam limiter circumscribes the interior surface of a vacuum vessel to inhibit collisions of contained plasma and the vessel walls. The cross section of the material making up the limiter has a flatsided or slightly concave portion of increased width towards the plasma and portions of decreased width towards the interior surface of the vessel. This configuration is designed to prevent a major fraction of the material sputtered, vaporized and blistered from the limiter from reaching the plasma. It also allows adequate heat transfer from the wider to the narrower portions. The preferred materials for the beam limiter are solids of sintered, particulate materials of low atomic number with low vapor pressure and low sputtering and blistering yields.

  17. A2Wind Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Startup with strong capability in carbon fibre design targeting the wind turbine blade space. References: A2Wind Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  18. Greenrock Energy Services Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: EH2 2JG Product: Scotland-based company installing ground source heat pump systems. References: Greenrock Energy Services Limited1 This article is a stub. You...

  19. EarthEnergy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cornwall, United Kingdom Product: EarthEnergy Systems specialises in ground source heat pump systems. References: EarthEnergy Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  20. Crionaig Power Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    government approval for a 140MW, 39-turbine wind farm at Eisgein on the Isle of Lewis. References: Crionaig Power Limited1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  1. Principle Energy Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Principle Energy Limited Place: Isle of Man, United Kingdom Zip: 1M1 1LB Sector: Renewable Energy Product: A UK-based renewable energy company focusing on bioethanol projects in...

  2. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-06-01

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours.

  3. The IAEA neutron coincidence counting (INCC) and the DEMING least-squares fitting programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.; Rinard, P.M.; Wenz, T.R.; Lewis, W.; Pham, P.; Ridder, P. de

    1998-12-01

    Two computer programs are described: (1) the INCC (IAEA or International Neutron Coincidence Counting) program and (2) the DEMING curve-fitting program. The INCC program is an IAEA version of the Los Alamos NCC (Neutron Coincidence Counting) code. The DEMING program is an upgrade of earlier Windows{reg_sign} and DOS codes with the same name. The versions described are INCC 3.00 and DEMING 1.11. The INCC and DEMING codes provide inspectors with the software support needed to perform calibration and verification measurements with all of the neutron coincidence counting systems used in IAEA inspections for the nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium.

  4. Integration of TGS and CTEN assays using the CTEN{_}FIT analysis and databasing program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estep, R.

    2000-05-01

    The CTEN{_}FIT program, written for Windows 9x/NT in C++, performs databasing and analysis of combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) passive and active neutron assay data and integrates that with isotopics results and gamma-ray data from methods such as tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). The binary database is reflected in a companion Excel database that allows extensive customization via Visual Basic for Applications macros. Automated analysis options make the analysis of the data transparent to the assay system operator. Various record browsers and information displays simplified record keeping tasks.

  5. Maximize, minimize or target - optimization for a fitted response from a designed experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Cao, Yongtao; Michaela, Christine

    2016-04-01

    One of the common goals of running and analyzing a designed experiment is to find a location in the design space that optimizes the response of interest. Depending on the goal of the experiment, we may seek to maximize or minimize the response, or set the process to hit a particular target value. After the designed experiment, a response model is fitted and the optimal settings of the input factors are obtained based on the estimated response model. Furthermore, the suggested optimal settings of the input factors are then used in the production environment.

  6. A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakasuji, Mamoru

    2013-08-15

    When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

  7. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results

  8. LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang, E-mail: akerlof@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  9. Analyticity constraints on the Landshoff-Donnachie fit to total cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, M. M.; Halzen, F.

    2006-12-01

    Landshoff and Donnachie [A. Donnachie and P. V. Landshoff, Phys. Lett. B 296, 227 (1992).; P. V. Landshoff, hep-ph/0509240] parametrize the energy behavior of pp and pp scattering cross sections with five parameters, using: {sigma}{sup +}=56.08s{sup -0.4525}+21.70s{sup 0.0808} for pp, {sigma}{sup -}=98.39s{sup -0.4525}+21.70s{sup 0.0808} for pp. Using the four analyticity constraints of Block and Halzen [M. M. Block and F. Halzen, Phys. Rev. D 72, 036006 (2005).], we simultaneously fit the Landshoff-Donnachie form to the same sieved set of pp and pp cross section and {rho} data that Block and Halzen used for a very good fit to a ln{sup 2}s parametrization. We show that the satisfaction of the analyticity constraints will require modification of the Landshoff-Donnachie parametrization for lower energies, thus altering its inherent appeal of simplicity and universality.

  10. Limitations of the planning organ at risk volume (PRV) concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroom, Joep C. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.stroom@nki.nl; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: Previously, we determined a planning target volume (PTV) margin recipe for geometrical errors in radiotherapy equal to M{sub T} = 2{sigma} + 0.7{sigma}, with {sigma} and {sigma} standard deviations describing systematic and random errors, respectively. In this paper, we investigated margins for organs at risk (OAR), yielding the so-called planning organ at risk volume (PRV). Methods and Materials: For critical organs with a maximum dose (D{sub max}) constraint, we calculated margins such that D{sub max} in the PRV is equal to the motion averaged D{sub max} in the (moving) clinical target volume (CTV). We studied margins for the spinal cord in 10 head-and-neck cases and 10 lung cases, each with two different clinical plans. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, we also investigated whether a margin recipe was feasible. Results: For the 20 spinal cords considered, the average margin recipe found was: M{sub R} = 1.6{sigma} + 0.2{sigma} with variations for systematic and random errors of 1.2{sigma} to 1.8{sigma} and -0.2{sigma} to 0.6{sigma}, respectively. The variations were due to differences in shape and position of the dose distributions with respect to the cords. The recipe also depended significantly on the volume definition of D{sub max}. For critical organs with a dose-volume constraint, the PRV concept appears even less useful because a margin around, e.g., the rectum changes the volume in such a manner that dose-volume constraints stop making sense. Conclusion: The concept of PRV for planning of radiotherapy is of limited use. Therefore, alternative ways should be developed to include geometric uncertainties of OARs in radiotherapy planning.

  11. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  12. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 ...

  13. Average Residential Price

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    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 ...

  14. Average Commercial Price

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    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  18. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Maryland 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Michigan 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 New Jersey 10.11 9.51

  19. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.74 6.82 7.05 6.94 7.34 7.70 1973-2016 Alabama 9.81 9.70 10.04 10.46 10.45 11.13 1989-2016 Alaska 7.88 7.87 7.87 7.90 8.00 8.41 1989-2016 Arizona 8.93 9.32 9.73 9.07 8.77 8.69 1989-2016 Arkansas 7.16 6.74 7.11 6.85 7.11 7.22 1989-2016 California 7.98 8.43 8.12 7.14 7.29 7.38 1989-2016 Colorado 5.79 5.94 5.91 5.95 6.04 7.88 1989-2016 Connecticut NA 7.26 7.90 9.33 9.82 11.77 1989-2016 Delaware 8.75 8.58 8.79 9.33 10.03 10.87 1989-2016 District of Columbia 9.50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31

  20. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.30 8.39 9.23 9.66 11.64 14.49 1973-2016 Alabama 12.00 11.12 12.01 14.27 16.95 19.07 1989-2016 Alaska 8.91 9.03 9.09 9.63 10.41 12.14 1989-2016 Arizona 11.99 13.82 18.05 16.53 17.44 19.47 1989-2016 Arkansas 9.54 9.06 10.33 10.89 13.73 15.40 1989-2016 California 11.45 11.52 10.60 10.50 11.51 11.37 1989-2016 Colorado 6.06 6.44 6.67 6.82 7.07 12.43 1989-2016 Connecticut 10.32 10.65 11.71 12.85 15.00 19.15 1989-2016 Delaware 10.09 9.71 10.24 11.47 13.44 17.54 1989-2016 District of Columbia 9.96

  1. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31 1989-2016 Florida 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38 1989-2016 Georgia 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53 1989-2016 Maryland NA 8.18 8.87 NA NA 9.85 1989-2016 Michigan 6.50 6.64 6.63 6.48 7.23 8.19 1989-2016 New Jersey 7.76 7.66 7.50 6.80 7.15 7.72 1989-2016 New York 6.59 6.58 6.40 6.23 5.99 5.76 1989-2016 Ohio 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.38 6.17 7.03 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69 1989-2016 Virginia 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  2. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    96 9.53 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 1989-2016 Florida 16.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Georgia 10.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Maryland 9.95 9.46 11.04 NA 12.66 16.06 1989-2016 Michigan 7.25 7.58 7.80 7.71 9.56 12.33 1989-2016 New Jersey 6.55 6.86 8.24 8.99 9.49 10.78 1989-2016 New York 10.31 9.45 9.65 9.90 10.91 14.77 1989-2016 Ohio 6.48 6.44 7.16 8.01 11.73 19.29 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Virginia 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51

  3. Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xueming

    2010-12-15

    The robust dissipative soliton molecules (DSM's) exhibiting as the quasirectangular spectral profile are investigated numerically and observed experimentally in mode-locked fiber lasers with the large normal path-averaged dispersion and the large net cavity dispersion. These DSM's have an independently evolving phase with a pulse duration T{sub 0} of about 20 ps and a peak-to-peak separation of about 8T{sub 0}. Under laboratory conditions, the proposed laser delivers vibrating DSM's with an oscillating amplitude of less than a percent of peak separation. Numerical simulations show that DSM's are characterized by a spectral modulation pattern with about a 3-dB modulation depth measured as an averaged value. The experimental observations are in excellent agreement with the numerical predictions.

  4. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  5. PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership PP-206 Frontera Generation Limited Partnership Presidential permit authorizing Frontera Generation Limited Partnership to construct,...

  6. Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software Representation of Limited Rights Data ...

  7. Closure of the Averaged Equations for Disperse Two-Phase Flow by Direct Numerical Simulation: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrea Prosperetti

    2006-03-24

    The report briefly describes the activities carried out in the course of the project. A first line of research was the development of systematic closure relations for averaged equations for disperse multiphase flow. A second line was the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of Navier-Stokes flows with many suspended particles. The report also lists the 21 journal articles in which this work is more fully decsribed.

  8. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  9. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  10. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  11. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonovi?, Marko E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q{sup 2}) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  12. Limited Conditions of Operations Tracking Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-12-17

    The Lco tracking program is a computer based solution for tracking time limited action items for Limited Conditions of Operation (LCO) for nuclear and industrial processes. This use is not limited to any process except those not requiring specific action steps and times. The visual and audible assistance the LCO Tracking Program provides significantly reduces the chance of missing crucial actions required for safe operation of any facility in time of limited operations. The LCOmore » Tracking Program maintains all applicable action steps and times for each limited condition for the facility in its data base. The LCO Tracking Program is used to enter that condition by number, and the data base provides the applicble action steps and starts tracking their times based on the time the LCO was entered. The LCO display graphically displays, by colored bar charts, the time expired/time remaining of each specific action item. At 60% time expired, the bar chart turns yellow to caution personnel and then turns red at 90% time expired. Then an audible alarm is sounded at 95% as a warning, to finish or accomplish the required actions to satisfy the requirements. These warning and alarm limits are modifiable by the user and can be set at different values for each action. The display file is dynamic in function, checking every minute, and responds in real time to changes to the LCO Tracking Form file, providing the visual and audible warnings as to the status of the action steps chosen for display. The LCO Tracking Program efficiently tracks action times in minutes or days, up to 2 years. All current LCO''s are easily documentated using the LCO Tracking Form file with ease of printing and disposition. The Lco Tracking Program is designed as a user friendly program with navigational buttons to simplify use.« less

  13. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Connors, Alanna [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Freeman, Peter E. [Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Zezas, Andreas, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: dvd@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: jinx@ics.uci.ed, E-mail: aconnors@eurekabayes.co, E-mail: pfreeman@cmu.ed, E-mail: azezas@cfa.harvard.ed [Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-710 03, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2010-08-10

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  14. GET FiT Plus: De-risking clean energy business models in a developing country context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-15

    GET Fit was first conceived in January 2010 when the United Nations Secretary General's Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC) invited Deutsche Bank Climate Change Advisors (DBCCA) to present new concepts to drive renewable energy investment in developing regions. DBCCA responded with the Global Energy Transfer Feed-in Tariffs Program (GET FiT), a proposal to support both renewable energy scale up and energy access through the creation of new international public-private partnerships. The concept was inspired by the theory that feed-in tariffs could serve as an effective policy structure for both public and private investment and knowledge transfer from the developed world. The original GET FiT concept was designed with input from over 160 individuals from the renewable energy, financial and international development communities. The original GET FiT report was issued in April 2010. This report reflects continued engagement of stakeholders around the world. GET FiT plus is an effort to capture the key outcomes of the GET FiT consultation process and use them to catalyze ongoing dialogue and debate about the future of international support for renewable energy in developing regions. These outcomes have been translated into key research priorities. These priorities, as well as some short issue briefs are part of this report.

  15. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  16. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  17. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  18. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  19. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2and O3on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2and tropospheric O3are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3and O3for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2had significant positive effect on birchmorecatkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O3(elevated O3decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2and O3can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.less

  20. Spectral observations of Ellerman bombs and fitting with a two-cloud model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D.; Li, Ying; Fang, Cheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-09-01

    We study the Hα and Ca II 8542 Å line spectra of four typical Ellerman bombs (EBs) in the active region NOAA 11765 on 2013 June 6, observed with the Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph installed at the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. Considering that EBs may occur in a restricted region in the lower atmosphere, and that their spectral lines show particular features, we propose a two-cloud model to fit the observed line profiles. The lower cloud can account for the wing emission, and the upper cloud is mainly responsible for the absorption at line center. After choosing carefully the free parameters, we get satisfactory fitting results. As expected, the lower cloud shows an increase of the source function, corresponding to a temperature increase of 400-1000 K in EBs relative to the quiet Sun. This is consistent with previous results deduced from semi-empirical models and confirms that local heating occurs in the lower atmosphere during the appearance of EBs. We also find that the optical depths can increase to some extent in both the lower and upper clouds, which may result from either direct heating in the lower cloud, or illumination by an enhanced radiation on the upper cloud. The velocities derived from this method, however, are different from those obtained using the traditional bisector method, implying that one should be cautious when interpreting this parameter. The two-cloud model can thus be used as an efficient method to deduce the basic physical parameters of EBs.

  1. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO 2 and O 3 on Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 and tropospheric O 3 are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO 3 and O 3 for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO 2 increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O 3 increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little floweringmore » has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO 2 had significant positive effect on birch catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO 2 increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO 2 concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O 3 (elevated O 3 decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO 2 , plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO 2 , while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O 3 . Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO 2 and O 3 can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.« less

  2. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica{reg_sign} computer programs which are provided.

  3. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spinecho, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  4. Approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit: General assessment of the main limiting mechanisms in photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vossier, Alexis Gualdi, Federico; Dollet, Alain; Ares, Richard; Aimez, Vincent

    2015-01-07

    In principle, the upper efficiency limit of any solar cell technology can be determined using the detailed-balance limit formalism. However, “real” solar cells show efficiencies which are always below this theoretical value due to several limiting mechanisms. We study the ability of a solar cell architecture to approach its own theoretical limit, using a novel index introduced in this work, and the amplitude with which the different limiting mechanisms affect the cell efficiency is scrutinized as a function of the electronic gap and the illumination level to which the cell is submitted. The implications for future generations of solar cells aiming at an improved conversion of the solar spectrum are also addressed.

  5. Hungary petroleum privatization limited by economic concerns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-04

    Once the leading economic hope of eastern Europe, a newly doubt-filled, postelection Hungary is deciding on limited oil privatization amid strategic worries and falling production. Those worries contrast with the bright promise seen in Hungary after the collapse of communism. The paper discusses energy supplies; profile of the former petroleum monopoly, Magyar Olaj es Gaz (MOL); the state owned Mineralimpex; strategic supplies; MOL privatization; post-election politics; and MOL's subsidiaries.

  6. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  7. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  8. Transmitted virus fitness and host T cell responses collectively define divergent infection outcomes in two HIV-1 recipients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ling; Pfafferott, Katja J.; Baalwa, Joshua; Conrod, Karen; Dong, Catherine C.; Chui, Cecilia; Rong, Rong; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica L.; Tang, Jianming; et al

    2015-01-08

    Control of virus replication in HIV-1 infection is critical to delaying disease progression. While cellular immune responses are a key determinant of control, relatively little is known about the contribution of the infecting virus to this process. To gain insight into this interplay between virus and host in viral control, we conducted a detailed analysis of two heterosexual HIV-1 subtype A transmission pairs in which female recipients sharing three HLA class I alleles exhibited contrasting clinical outcomes: R880F controlled virus replication while R463F experienced high viral loads and rapid disease progression. Near full-length single genome amplification defined the infecting transmitted/foundermore » (T/F) virus proteome and subsequent sequence evolution over the first year of infection for both acutely infected recipients. T/F virus replicative capacities were compared in vitro, while the development of the earliest cellular immune response was defined using autologous virus sequence-based peptides. The R880F T/F virus replicated significantly slower in vitro than that transmitted to R463F. While neutralizing antibody responses were similar in both subjects, during acute infection R880F mounted a broad T cell response, the most dominant components of which targeted epitopes from which escape was limited. In contrast, the primary HIV-specific T cell response in R463F was focused on just two epitopes, one of which rapidly escaped. This comprehensive study highlights both the importance of the contribution of the lower replication capacity of the transmitted/founder virus and an associated induction of a broad primary HIV-specific T cell response, which was not undermined by rapid epitope escape, to long-term viral control in HIV-1 infection. It underscores the importance of the earliest CD8 T cell response targeting regions of the virus proteome that cannot mutate without a high fitness cost, further emphasizing the need for vaccines that elicit a breadth of

  9. Transmitted virus fitness and host T cell responses collectively define divergent infection outcomes in two HIV-1 recipients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ling; Pfafferott, Katja J.; Baalwa, Joshua; Conrod, Karen; Dong, Catherine C.; Chui, Cecilia; Rong, Rong; Claiborne, Daniel T.; Prince, Jessica L.; Tang, Jianming; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Cormier, Emmanuel; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Perelson, Alan S.; Shaw, George M.; Karita, Etienne; Gilmour, Jill; Goepfert, Paul; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Allen, Susan A.; Borrow, Persephone; Hunter, Eric; Douek, Daniel C.

    2015-01-08

    Control of virus replication in HIV-1 infection is critical to delaying disease progression. While cellular immune responses are a key determinant of control, relatively little is known about the contribution of the infecting virus to this process. To gain insight into this interplay between virus and host in viral control, we conducted a detailed analysis of two heterosexual HIV-1 subtype A transmission pairs in which female recipients sharing three HLA class I alleles exhibited contrasting clinical outcomes: R880F controlled virus replication while R463F experienced high viral loads and rapid disease progression. Near full-length single genome amplification defined the infecting transmitted/founder (T/F) virus proteome and subsequent sequence evolution over the first year of infection for both acutely infected recipients. T/F virus replicative capacities were compared in vitro, while the development of the earliest cellular immune response was defined using autologous virus sequence-based peptides. The R880F T/F virus replicated significantly slower in vitro than that transmitted to R463F. While neutralizing antibody responses were similar in both subjects, during acute infection R880F mounted a broad T cell response, the most dominant components of which targeted epitopes from which escape was limited. In contrast, the primary HIV-specific T cell response in R463F was focused on just two epitopes, one of which rapidly escaped. This comprehensive study highlights both the importance of the contribution of the lower replication capacity of the transmitted/founder virus and an associated induction of a broad primary HIV-specific T cell response, which was not undermined by rapid epitope escape, to long-term viral control in HIV-1 infection. It underscores the importance of the earliest CD8 T cell response targeting regions of the virus proteome that cannot mutate without a high fitness cost, further emphasizing the need for vaccines that elicit a

  10. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  11. The low noise limit in gene expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.

  12. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  13. Combined SM Higgs Limits at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumnack, N.

    2009-10-01

    We combine results from CDF and D{sup 0} on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b} have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D{sup 0}, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  14. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  15. The low noise limit in gene expression

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dar, Roy D.; Weinberger, Leor S.; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L.; Razooky, Brandon S.

    2015-10-21

    Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i) the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii) the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiencymore » can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. Lastly, these results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1) a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2) high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.« less

  16. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  17. Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Fault Current Limiters (FCL) Fact Sheet Plugging America Into the Future of Power: Superconducting & Solid-state Power Equipment What are Fault Current Limiters Why do we need Fault Current Limiters What are the benefits to utilities Fault Current Limiter projects Fault Current Limiters (926.42 KB) More Documents & Publications An Assessment of Fault Current Limiter Testing Requirements Superconductivity Program Overview Superconductivity for

  18. One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broitman, Dani; Ayalon, Ofira; Kan, Iddo

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste management schemes are generally implemented at national or regional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local conditions characteristics and constraints are often neglected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We developed an economic model able to compare multi-level waste management options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A detailed test case with real economic data and a best-fit scenario is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most efficient schemes combine clear National directives with local level flexibility. - Abstract: As environmental awareness rises, integrated solid waste management (WM) schemes are increasingly being implemented all over the world. The different WM schemes usually address issues such as landfilling restrictions (mainly due to methane emissions and competing land use), packaging directives and compulsory recycling goals. These schemes are, in general, designed at a national or regional level, whereas local conditions and constraints are sometimes neglected. When national WM top-down policies, in addition to setting goals, also dictate the methods by which they are to be achieved, local authorities lose their freedom to optimize their operational WM schemes according to their specific characteristics. There are a myriad of implementation options at the local level, and by carrying out a bottom-up approach the overall national WM system will be optimal on economic and environmental scales. This paper presents a model for optimizing waste strategies at a local level and evaluates this effect at a national level. This is achieved by using a waste assessment model which enables us to compare both the economic viability of several WM options at the local (single municipal authority) level, and aggregated results for regional or national levels. A test case based on various WM approaches in Israel (several implementations of mixed and separated waste) shows that local characteristics significantly

  19. Evaluation of fitting functions for the representation of an O(/sup 3/P)+H/sub 2/ potential energy surface. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, A.F.; Schatz, G.C.; Bowman, J.M.

    1981-05-01

    The DIM surface of Whitlock, Muckerman, and Fisher for the O(/sup 3/P)+H/sub 2/ system is used as a test case to evaluate the usefulness of a variety of fitting functions for the representation of potential energy surfaces. Fitting functions based on LEPS, BEBO, and rotated Morse oscillator (RMO) forms are examined. Fitting procedures are developed for combining information about a small portion of the surface and the fitting function to predict where on the surface more information must be obtained to improve the accuracy of the fit. Both unbiased procedures and procedures heavily biased toward the saddle point region of the surface are investigated. Collinear quasiclassical trajectory calculations of the reaction rate constant and one and three dimensional transition state theory rate constant calculations are performed and compared for selected fits and the exact DIM test surface. Fitting functions based on BEBO and RMO forms are found to give quite accurate results.

  20. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  1. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  2. Torque limited drive for manual valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Philip G.; Underwood, Daniel E.

    1989-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a torque-limiting handwheel device for preventing manual valves from being damaged due to the application of excessive torque during the opening or closing operation of the valves. Torque can only be applied when ridges in the handwheel assembly engage in channels machined in the face of the baseplate. The amount of torque required for disengagement of the ridges from the channels is determined by the force exerted by various Bellville springs and the inclination of the side faces of the channels.

  3. Electrically detected magnetic resonance modeling and fitting: An equivalent circuit approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, D. M. G.; Batagin-Neto, A.; Nunes-Neto, O.; Gmez, J. A.; Graeff, C. F. O.

    2014-01-21

    The physics of electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) quadrature spectra is investigated. An equivalent circuit model is proposed in order to retrieve crucial information in a variety of different situations. This model allows the discrimination and determination of spectroscopic parameters associated to distinct resonant spin lines responsible for the total signal. The model considers not just the electrical response of the sample but also features of the measuring circuit and their influence on the resulting spectral lines. As a consequence, from our model, it is possible to separate different regimes, which depend basically on the modulation frequency and the RC constant of the circuit. In what is called the high frequency regime, it is shown that the sign of the signal can be determined. Recent EDMR spectra from Alq{sub 3} based organic light emitting diodes, as well as from a-Si:H reported in the literature, were successfully fitted by the model. Accurate values of g-factor and linewidth of the resonant lines were obtained.

  4. An Endogenous Accelerator for Viral Gene Expression Confers a Fitness Advantage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Melissa; Bolovan-Fritts, Cynthia; Dar, Roy D.; Womack, Andrew; Simpson, Michael L; Shenk, Thomas; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction circuits have long been known to differentiate between signals by amplifying inputs to different levels. Here, we describe a novel transcriptional circuitry that dynamically converts greater input levels into faster rates, without increasing the final equilibrium level (i.e. a rate amplifier). We utilize time-lapse microscopy to study human herpesvirus (cytomegalovirus) infection of live cells in real time. Strikingly, our results show that transcriptional activators accelerate viral gene expression in single cells without amplifying the steady-state levels of gene products in these cells. Experiment and modeling show that rate amplification operates by dynamically manipulating the traditional gain-bandwidth feedback relationship from electrical circuit theory to convert greater input levels into faster rates, and is driven by highly self-cooperative transcriptional feedback encoded by the virus s essential transactivator, IE2. This transcriptional rate-amplifier provides a significant fitness advantage for the virus and for minimal synthetic circuits. In general, rate-amplifiers may provide a mechanism for signal-transduction circuits to respond quickly to external signals without increasing steady-state levels of potentially cytotoxic molecules.

  5. Fitness-for-service and decisions for petroleum and chemical equipment. PVP-Volume 315

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prager, M.; Becht, C. IV; Depadova, T.A.; Okazaki, M.; Onyewuenyi, O.A.; Smith, J.P.; Takezono, S.; Weingart, L.J.; Yagi, K.

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a series of publications intended to present the technical foundation for broadly accepted practices to establish the mechanical integrity of equipment in service. A focal point for this activity has been a Materials Properties Council program on fitness-for-service (FSS) reported in earlier PVP volumes. Work reported here covers the full range of equipment of interest to petroleum and chemical companies from LNG to creep service and provides a snapshot of current Codes, methods, concerns, and problems. It encompasses crack-like flaws and local thinning situations, welds, clad vessels, storage tanks, and pressure vessels. The work in progress is only a start, and the papers herein should be viewed as part of the process of validating the techniques used. While most of the applications are to petroleum refineries and natural gas processing plants, some papers deal with fossil-fuel power plants, nuclear power plants, synthetic fuels refineries, and materials for high-temperature applications. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Electronic coupling calculations with transition charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles derived from electrostatic potential fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Kazuhiro J.

    2014-12-07

    A transition charge, dipole, and quadrupole from electrostatic potential (TrESP-CDQ) method for electronic coupling calculations is proposed. The TrESP method is based on the classical description of electronic Coulomb interaction between transition densities for individual molecules. In the original TrESP method, only the transition charge interactions were considered as the electronic coupling. In the present study, the TrESP method is extended to include the contributions from the transition dipoles and quadrupoles as well as the transition charges. Hence, the self-consistent transition density is employed in the ESP fitting procedure. To check the accuracy of the present approach, several test calculations are performed to a helium dimer, a methane dimer, and an ethylene dimer. As a result, the TrESP-CDQ method gives a much improved description of the electronic coupling, compared with the original TrESP method. The calculated results also show that the self-consistent treatment to the transition densities contributes significantly to the accuracy of the electronic coupling calculations. Based on the successful description of the electronic coupling, the contributions to the electronic coupling are also analyzed. This analysis clearly shows a negligible contribution of the transition charge interaction to the electronic coupling. Hence, the distribution of the transition density is found to strongly influence the magnitudes of the transition charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles. The present approach is useful for analyzing and understanding the mechanism of excitation-energy transfer.

  7. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  8. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  9. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenderholt, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    2007-01-08

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k{sup 3}-weighted EXAFS data.

  10. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  11. Chapter_2_Limited_Areas_Vault-Type_Rooms_and_Temporary_Limited_Areas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Limited Areas, VTRs, and Temporary Limited Areas Chapter 2 describes the security procedures adopted by DOE HQ to implement the requirements of the following DOE directives: * DOE Order 473.3, Protection Program Operations * DOE Order 471.6, Change 1, Information Security * DOE Order 475.2A, Identifying Classified Information * Classification Bulletin TNP-32, Classification Guidance for Classified Meeting Locations at DOE/NNSA or DOE/NNSA Contractor Sites or Facilities, dated May 27, 2010 DOE

  12. A study on nondestructive evaluation technique by the use of interface guided waves on shrink fit structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Park, Jun-Pil; Rose, Joseph L.; Huh, Hyung; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Dong-Ok

    2014-02-18

    Guided wave was widely studied for plate and pipe due to the great application area. Guided wave has advantage on long distance inspection for an inaccessible area and apart from transducer. Quite often shrink fit structures were found in nuclear power facilities. In this paper, two pipes were designed with perfect shrink fit condition for Stainless Steel 316. The displacement distribution was calculated with boundary condition. The interface wave propagation pattern was analyzed by the numerical modeling. The experimental results show a possibility of weld delamination and defect detection.

  13. Microtearing turbulence: Magnetic braiding and disruption limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firpo, Marie-Christine

    2015-12-15

    A realistic reduced model involving a large poloidal spectrum of microtearing modes is used to probe the existence of some stochasticity of magnetic field lines. Stochasticity is shown to occur even for the low values of the magnetic perturbation δB/B devoted to magnetic turbulence that have been experimentally measured. Because the diffusion coefficient may strongly depend on the radial (or magnetic-flux) coordinate, being very low near some resonant surfaces, and because its evaluation implicitly makes a normal diffusion hypothesis, one turns to another indicator appropriate to diagnose the confinement: the mean residence time of magnetic field lines. Their computation in the microturbulence frame points to the existence of a disruption limit, namely of a critical order of magnitude of δB/B above which stochasticity is no longer benign yet, leads to a macroscopic loss of confinement in some tens to hundred of electron toroidal excursions. Since the level of magnetic turbulence δB/B has been measured to grow with the plasma electron density, this would also be a density limit.

  14. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  15. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  16. Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025

  17. SunDwel Solar Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SunDwel Solar Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: SunDwel Solar Limited Name: SunDwel Solar Limited Address: 1 Tower Road Place: Washington, United Kingdom Sector: Solar...

  18. What is the best method to fit time-resolved data? A comparison of the residual minimization and the maximum likelihood techniques as applied to experimental time-correlated, single-photon counting data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Santra, Kalyan; Zhan, Jinchun; Song, Xueyu; Smith, Emily A.; Vaswani, Namrata; Petrich, Jacob W.

    2016-02-10

    The need for measuring fluorescence lifetimes of species in subdiffraction-limited volumes in, for example, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, entails the dual challenge of probing a small number of fluorophores and fitting the concomitant sparse data set to the appropriate excited-state decay function. This need has stimulated a further investigation into the relative merits of two fitting techniques commonly referred to as “residual minimization” (RM) and “maximum likelihood” (ML). Fluorescence decays of the well-characterized standard, rose bengal in methanol at room temperature (530 ± 10 ps), were acquired in a set of five experiments in which the total number ofmore » “photon counts” was approximately 20, 200, 1000, 3000, and 6000 and there were about 2–200 counts at the maxima of the respective decays. Each set of experiments was repeated 50 times to generate the appropriate statistics. Each of the 250 data sets was analyzed by ML and two different RM methods (differing in the weighting of residuals) using in-house routines and compared with a frequently used commercial RM routine. Convolution with a real instrument response function was always included in the fitting. While RM using Pearson’s weighting of residuals can recover the correct mean result with a total number of counts of 1000 or more, ML distinguishes itself by yielding, in all cases, the same mean lifetime within 2% of the accepted value. For 200 total counts and greater, ML always provides a standard deviation of <10% of the mean lifetime, and even at 20 total counts there is only 20% error in the mean lifetime. Here, the robustness of ML advocates its use for sparse data sets such as those acquired in some subdiffraction-limited microscopies, such as STED, and, more importantly, provides greater motivation for exploiting the time-resolved capacities of this technique to acquire and analyze fluorescence lifetime data.« less

  19. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  20. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.