Sample records for average wti spot

  1. A technical look at the WTI incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPA has granted Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) temporary authorization to burn hazardous waste in its new incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio. The approval is based on preliminary data showing that the incinerator was able to meet EPA`s emission standards for dioxins and furans in tests run this summer. WTI is allowed to continue burning waste pending final evaluation of its March 1993 performance tests. The action marks yet another hurdle cleared by WTI in its 11-year effort to construct and operate a commercial hazardous waste incinerator. The facility`s long-standing predicament as a target for environmental and public interest groups has made it the subject of numerous lawsuits and many legal reviews. In this article, however, we focus on the technical aspects of the system. The WTI incinerator is described in {open_quotes}Performance Testing of a Rotary Kiln Incinerator,{close_quotes} a paper by Alfred Sigg of Von Roll, Incorporated (Norcross, Georgia). The paper was presented at the 1993 Incineration Conference, which was held in Knoxville, Tennessee on May 3-7, 1993. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 2. Introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Overview; Facility Background; Risk Assessment History at WTI; Peer Review Comments and Key Assumptions; and References.

  3. Influence of target structure on film stress in WTi sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, C.F.; Wang, H.; Gilman, P. [Materials Research Corp., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the effect of sputtering target microstructure on the deposited film stress was investigated. By controlling the metallurgical process, two types of W-10wt%Ti target constituents, namely single-phase and multiple-phase WTi, were prepared. The former one was composed of W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phase only, the latter one was with W, W-rich ({beta}Ti,W) and Ti-rich ({beta}Ti,W) phases. The stress of the films deposited on 12.7 cm diameter silicon oxide wafers from the single-phase target tends to be more compressive than that from the multiple-phase target. By increasing wafer temperature, the compressive stress was linearly decreased. In addition, the level of film stress was also affected by the film thickness and other sputtering parameters. To understand the causes for the differences in film stress between the multiple-phase and single-phase derived films, an evaluation of the film structure using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and mechanical testing using a nano-indentation instrument were performed. Finer domains with denser laminar structure were observed on the films deposited from the single-phase target. However, no significant difference in mechanical properties was found between these two from the nano-indentation measurements. It is envisioned that the more uniform solid solution between the W and Ti in the films obtained by sputtering the single-phase targets generates a higher compressive stress when deposited on the silicon oxide wafers resulting in a higher compressive stress.

  4. Economically rational expectations theory: evidence from the WTI oil price survey data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strength in the oil market. KEYWORDS: expectations formation, oil price CLASSIFICATION: D84, G14, Q43 expectations in the oil market: evidence from survey data 1. Introduction Oil price shocks are among the mainEconomically rational expectations theory: evidence from the WTI oil price survey data Georges PRAT

  5. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume I is a description of the components and methodologies used in the risk assessment and provides a summary of the major results from the three components of the assessment.

  6. Report on the technical workshop on WTI incinerator risk issues. Held in Washington, DC on December 8-9, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report includes information and materials from a peer review workshop organized by EPA's Risk Assessment Forum (RAF) for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and Region 5. The meeting was held in Washington, DC, at the Holiday Inn Capitol on December 8-9, 1993. The subject of the peer review was a draft project plan prepared by EPA Region 5 for assessing risk at an incinerator operated by Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) in East Liverpool, Ohio. The peer review panel was convened to evaluate the project plan as the scientific foundation for a risk assessment, which will be used in setting final permit conditions for the WTI facility.

  7. EIND510 Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EIND510\\EIND510 Fall 2011\\EIND510 syllabus Fall 2011.docx 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    EIND510 ­ Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EIND510\\EIND510 Fall 2011\\EIND;EIND510 ­ Usability Engineering C:\\NWARD Dell Laptop\\WTI_MSU\\Teaching\\EIND510 Usability Engineering\\EI

  8. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 3. Characterization of the nature and magnitude of emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume III of the report describes the methods used to estimate both stack and fugitive emission rates from the facility.

  9. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 4. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition modeling of emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume IV describes the air dispersion model used to estimate air concentrations and particle deposition, as well as the results of the modeling exercise.

  10. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 1. Executive summary. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume I is a description of the components and methodologies used in the risk assessment and provides a summary of the major results from the three components of the assessment.

  11. Report on the US EPA technical workshop on WTI incinerator risk assessment issues. Held in Washington, DC on January 11, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information and materials from a peer review workshop organized by EPA`s Risk Assessment Forum for Region 5 and the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The subject of the peer review was a draft document prepared by Region 5 assessing risk at an incinerator operated by Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) in East Liverpool, Ohio. This report summarizes the discussions that took place at the peer review workshop. The report opens with an overview of the workshop and a history of EPA`s WTI incinerator risk assessment activities (section 1), then presents the chairperson`s summary (section 2) and the five work group chairs` summaries (section 3). The body of the report ends with highlights of the peer reviewers` preliminary comments and of the comments offered by workshop observers (section 4).

  12. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 6. Screening ecological risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Screening Ecological Risk Assessment (SERA) includes an evaluation of available biotic information from the site vicinity to provide a preliminary description of potential ecological receptors (e.g., rare, threatened and endangered species; migratory birds; and important game species), and important ecological habitats (e.g., wetland areas). A conceptual site model is developed that describe show stressors associated with the WTI facility might affect the ecological components in the surrounding environment through the development and evaluation of specific ecological endpoints. Finally, an estimate of the potential for current and/or future adverse impacts to the biotic component of the environment is provided, based on the integration of potential exposures of ecological receptors to WTI emissions and toxicological threshold values.

  13. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis: Selection and assessment of potential release scenarios. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. The Accident Analysis is an evaluation of the likelihood of occurrence and resulting consequences from several general classes of accidents that could potentially occur during operation of the facility. The Accident Analysis also evaluates the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures in reducing off-site impacts. Volume VII describes in detail the methods used to conduct the Accident Analysis and reports the results of evaluations of likelihood and consequence for the selected accident scenarios.

  14. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 6. Screening ecological risk assessment (SERA). Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. The Screening Ecological Risk Assessment (SERA) is an analysis of the potential significance of risks to ecological receptors (e.g., plants, fish, wildlife) from exposure to facility emissions. The SERA was performed using conservative assumptions and approaches to determine if a further, more refined analysis is warranted. Volume VI describes in detail the methods used in the SERA and reports the results of the SERA in terms of site-specific risks to ecological receptors.

  15. DNA microarray (spot) .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. DNA microarray DNA (spot) . DNA probe , probe (hybridization) . DNA microarray cDNA oligonucleotide oligonucleotide cDNA probe . oligonucleotide microarray , DNA , probe . oligonucleotide microarray probe

  16. Utility spot pricing, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweppe, Fred C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the present spot pricing study carried out for SCE and PG&E is to develop the concepts which wculd lead to an experimental design for spot pricing in the two utilities. The report suggests a set of experiments ...

  17. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 5. Human health risk assessment (HHRA): Evaluation of potential risks from multipathway exposure to emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) portion of the WTI Risk Assessment involves the integration of information about the facility with site-specific data for the surrounding region and population to characterize the potential human health risks due to emissions from the facility. The estimation of human health risks is comprised of the following general steps: (1) identification of substances of potential concern; (2) estimation of the nature and magnitude of chemical releases from the WTI facility; (3) prediction of the atmospheric transport of the emitted contaminants; (4) determination of the types of adverse effects associated with exposure to the substances of potential concern (referred to as hazard identification), and the relationship between the level of exposure and the severity of any health effect (referred to as dose-response assessment); (5) estimation of the magnitude of exposure (referred to as exposure assessment); and (6) characterization of the health risks associated with exposure (referred to as risk characterization).

  18. ARE Update Volume 11, Number 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wit, Joeri; Smith, Aaron; Kovacs, Kent; Simon, Leo K.; Stratton, Susan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Texas Intermediate (WTI), which describes the grade ofarticle, we describe how the WTI spot price relates to worldCushing is a hub at which WTI and other domestic crude oils

  19. MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    IRB 6400 MAIN APPLICATIONS Spot welding Press tending Material handling Machine tending Palletizing N Poke welding All IRB 6400R-versions have Foundry Plus protection. For details, see under manipulator 6400PE 1600 kg Others 2060 - 2390 kg ENVIRONMENT Ambient temperature Manipulator 5 ­ 50°C Relative

  20. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CT, Bean AS. Black-spot poison ivy: A rare phenomenon. J AmJG, Lucky AW. Black spot poison ivy: A report of 5 cases andis unique for black-spot poison ivy. The UFLC-MS/MS urushiol

  1. R Supplement R.1 First Things First

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . soiltemp - A 64 × 36 matrix of surface soil temperatures. Chapter 2 oil - Crude oil, WTI spot price FOB (in

  2. Utility spot pricing study : Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caramanis, Michael C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spot pricing covers a range of electric utility pricing structures which relate the marginal costs of electric generation to the prices seen by utility customers. At the shortest time frames prices change every five ...

  3. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Hovanski, Yuri [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Grant, Glenn J [ORNL; Dahl, Michael E [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  4. Blind spots between quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Zambrano; Alfredo M Ozorio de Almeida

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overlap of a large quantum state with its image, under tiny translations, oscillates swiftly. We here show that complete orthogonality occurs generically at isolated points. Decoherence, in the Markovian approximation, lifts the correlation minima from zero much more quickly than the Wigner function is smoothed into a positive phase space distribution. In the case of a superposition of coherent states, blind spots depend strongly on positions and amplitudes of the components, but they are only weakly affected by relative phases and the various degrees and directions of squeezing. The blind spots for coherent state triplets are special in that they lie close to an hexagonal lattice: Further superpositions of translated triplets, specified by nodes of one of the sublattices, are quasi-orthogonal to the original triplet and to any state, likewise constructed on the other sublattice.

  5. Nonlinear Analysis and Dynamic Structure in the Energy Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aghababa, Hajar

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas Spot Price ($/MMBTU) . . . 50 2.10 Price and Return of West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Daily Spot Price (Dollars/Barrel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.11 Price and Return of Europe Brent, Daily Spot Price....4 Differenced log of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) Monthly Spot Price Index (Dollars/Barrel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 4.5 Differenced log of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) Monthly Spot Price Index (Dollars/Barrel) January 1970...

  6. Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part II. Mechanisms of Spot Weld Nugget Formation S. A. GEDEON and T. W. EAGAR Dynamic inspection monitoring of the weld current, voltage, resistance of material variations and weld process parameter modifications on resistance spot welding of coated

  7. BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS Nuri Tasdemir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS by Nuri Ta¸sdemir BS, in Electrical and Electronics in Computer Engineering Bogazi¸ci University 2007 #12;ii BLIND SPOTS OF QUALITATIVE SIMULATORS APPROVED BY: Prof. A.C. Cem Say . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Thesis Supervisor) Prof. H. Levent Akin

  8. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) (13056 ORNL, 13055 PNNL) Friction Stir Spot...

  9. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  10. CMB Cold Spot from Inflationary Feature Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from {\\it WMAP} and {\\it Planck} maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at $\\ell \\sim 20$.

  11. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  12. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  13. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  14. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2283­2300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 ­ Accepted: 9 March 2004 ­ Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  15. TRANSIENT THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    temperature response during resistance spot welding was measured and discussed with various process parameters that the measurement of temperature profiles developed during the welding process is very important in this respect composition on galvanized steel, the temperature distribution during welding was monitored in a one

  16. THE OCCURRENCE OF SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS, AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of postlarval spot and Atlantic croaker within the Cape Fear River estuary, N.C., above a steam electric power, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Beaufort, NC 28516. 'Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Cape Fear. 'Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Cape Fear Studies. Ocean larval fish, November 1976-1978. Environmental

  17. Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic T.D. Mount Department that the average price in 1999, when market-based offers were allowed, was twice as high as it was in the previous two seasons when offers had to be cost-based. The primary cause was that the price spikes in 1999 were

  18. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ewert, Uwe [BAM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One possibility is to use the wires in the ASTM E2002 unsharpness gage and take two orthogonal images. The signal levels in the image need to be linear with radiation exposure and so may need conversion if a nonlinear detector is used to acquire the image.

  19. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  20. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  1. Solar Renewable Energy Credits (SRECs) Spot Market Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: While interested parties can still trade DE SRECs in the spot market, the spot market in itself is limited since most of the SRECs produced are part of the SREC Purchase Program, or the SREC...

  2. Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it to Improve Duty-cycle MPG - plus Increasing Propulsion and Reducing Cost Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and...

  3. EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library EECBG Success Story: Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 9:53am Addthis Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing...

  4. Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library Bright Green Spot: Fort Worth Library September 30, 2010 - 4:07pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell Fort Worth's Central Library is seeing tremendous...

  5. Prediction of cooling rate and microstructure in laser spot welds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    during laser spot welding of low alloy steel. A transient heat transfer model that takes into account

  6. Population Assessment of the Northern Spotted Owl in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owl Management Plan. Within our survey areas, Spotted Owl occupancy declined by 49% between 1992.C. Conservation Foundation Carla B. Lenihan, Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management #12;Population Assessment of the Northern Spotted Owl in British Columbia 1992-2001 Page 1 Abstract In 1997, the Spotted Owl Management Plan

  7. On the mechanism of operation of a cathode spot cell in a vacuum arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Petrov, A. A. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bochkarev, M. B. [Institute of Electrophysics, UB, RAS, 106 Amundsen St., Ekaterinburg 620016 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, S. A., E-mail: sb@nsc.gpi.ru [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, 38 Vavilov St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The erosive structures formed on a tungsten cathode as a result of the motion of the cathode spot of a vacuum arc over the cathode surface have been examined. It has been found that the average mass of a cathode microprotrusion having the shape of a solidified jet is approximately equal to the mass of ions removed from the cathode within the lifetime of a cathode spot cell carrying a current of several amperes. The time of formation of a new liquid-metal jet under the action of the reactive force of the plasma ejected by the cathode spot is about 10?ns, which is comparable to the lifetime of a cell. The growth rate of a liquid-metal jet is ?10{sup 4}?cm/s. The geometric shape and size of a solidified jet are such that a new explosive emission center (spot cell) can be initiated within several nanoseconds during the interaction of the jet with the dense cathode plasma. This is the underlying mechanism of the self-sustained operation of a vacuum arc.

  8. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  9. Berkeley Lab's SPOT Suite Transforms Beamline Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefits offorSPOT Suite Transforms

  10. ClearSpot Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpot Energy Jump to: navigation, search

  11. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  12. Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eric Rosen, Duke University Medical Center Jefferson Lab Medical Imager Spots Breast Cancer March 3, 2005 Newport News, VA - A study published in the February issue of the...

  13. An inequality for potentials and the “hot–spots” conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    inequality, by the conformal invariance of Brownian motion, implies a result of Pascu [13] on “hot–spots” for certain symmetric convex domains. ?Supported in ...

  14. Statistical Modeling of Spot Instance Prices in Public Cloud Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Statistical Modeling of Spot Instance Prices in Public Cloud Environments Bahman Javadi, Ruppa K resources has introduced many trade-offs between price, per- formance and recently reliability. Amazon's Spot Instances (SIs) create a competitive bidding option for the public Cloud users at lower prices

  15. Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Cinematography of Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel Sheet Preweld and postweld current modifications on the resistance spot welding of galvanized steel sheet ·are analyzed using high phenomena through· out the weld process are discussed. In addition. the duration of current modifi· cation

  16. Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhulai, Sandjai

    Modelling spot and forward prices for energy companies Dafydd Steele MSc Stochastics and Financial forward and spot prices for energy com- panies. The two main ways of modelling power prices are stochastic Mathematics dafydd.steele@edf-energy.com August 5, 2010 #12;Abstract The focus of this thesis is on modelling

  17. Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm

  18. Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Hot Spot Conditions during Cavitation in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III-13 the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants

  19. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...

  20. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  1. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  2. April market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spot market price for uranium outside the USA weakened further during April, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.35, to $7.10 per pound U3O8. This is the lowest Exchange Value observed in nearly twenty years, comparable to Values recorded during the low price levels of the early 1970s. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.40, to $2.95 per pound U3O8. Transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that are both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on April 30 at $10.05 per pound U3O8, up $0.05 from the sum of corresponding March Values. Four near-term concentrates transactions were reported, totalling nearly 1.5 million pounds equivalent U3O8. One long-term sale was reported. The UF6 Value also declined, as increased competition among sellers led to a $0.50 decrease, to $24.50 per kgU as UF6. However, the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.65, to $5.90 per kgU as UF6, reflecting an effective US market level of $30.40 per kgU. Two near term transactions were reported totalling approximately 1.1 million pounds equivalent U3O8. In total, eight uranium transactions totalling 28 million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported, which is about average for April market activity.

  3. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US.

  4. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  5. Wall and laser spot motion in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huser, G.; Courtois, C.; Monteil, M.-C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wall and laser spot motion measurements in empty, propane-filled and plastic (CH)-lined gold coated cylindrical hohlraums were performed on the Omega laser facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Wall motion was measured using axial two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging and laser spot motion was perpendicularly observed through a thinned wall using streaked hard x-ray imaging. Experimental results and 2D hydrodynamic simulations show that while empty targets exhibit on-axis plasma collision, CH-lined and propane-filled targets inhibit wall expansion, corroborated with perpendicular streaked imaging showing a slower motion of laser spots.

  6. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  7. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  8. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  9. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  10. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 2–24 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  11. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  12. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmermann, Bjorn [WOLFRAM RESEARCH INC.; Nichols, Albert L [LLNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  13. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  14. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  15. average aspect ratios: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiency versus a function of mobility ratio and aspect ratio for staggered line-drive waterflood pattern Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ratios on five-spot and...

  16. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  17. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  18. australian wholesale spot: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    australian wholesale spot First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 FirstChoice Wholesale...

  19. SPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    . In a two-component approach to pricing, a nonlinear pricing scheme is used for cost recovery and a utility for cost recovery, and (ii) an options-based approach to price the risk of deviations in the loss based QoSPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS Aparna Gupta Decision

  20. Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Bright Spots in the South Carolina the Economy 2012 African American Economic Summit Doug Woodward Professor of Economics #12;Overview · Why we should worry. ­ Global economy and financial contagion. ­ U.S. economy and political uncertainty. · Why we should be happy. ­ South Carolina economy healing. · Robust

  1. Quantifying intrapopulation variability in stable isotope data for Spotted Seatrout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    111 Quantifying intrapopulation variability in stable isotope data for Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Abstract--Stable isotope (SI) values of carbon (13C) and nitrogen patterns of enrichment in fish caught from coastal to off- shore sites and as a function of fish size

  2. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr. [Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Physics Department, University of Windsor, 292 Essex Hall, 401 Sunset Ave. N9B 3P4 Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  3. Spot Convenience Yield Models for Energy Michael Ludkovski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludkovski, Mike

    . This is not true for some commodities, such as electricity. Even for mature markets like crude oil where spot of fu- ture asset and current consumption values. However, unlike financial deriva- tives, storage, the agent has the option of flexibility with regards to consumption (no risk of commodity shortage

  4. Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan-Fang

    Front Vehicle Blind Spot Translucentization Based on Augmented Reality Che-Tsung Lin, Yu-Chen Lin--Recently, WAVE/DSRC has become an attrac- tive technology for vehicular safety applications. Vehicles with WAVE/DSRC devices can communicate with their neighboring vehicles to exchange information to achieve collaborative

  5. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment. Raman Scattering from 1,3-Propanedithiol at a Hot Spot: Theory Meets Experiment. Abstract: We compute the Raman...

  6. EGG AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SPOT, LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS (SCIAENIDAE)l

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlantic and GulfofMexico coasts from Massachusetts Bay to the Bay of Campeche (Johnson 1978). Spot spawns

  7. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF CANDIDATE HOT SPOTS IN RADIO GALAXIES AND QUASARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martini, Paul

    of a few hot spots (Simkin 1978), surveys by Saslaw, Tyson, & Crane (1978; STC) and Crane, Tyson, & Saslaw

  8. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  9. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  10. IMPROVING MULTI-LATTICE ALIGNMENT BASED SPOKEN KEYWORD SPOTTING Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, William Stafford

    , such as when- ever it is inconvenient, unsafe, or impossible for the user to enter a search query using and the utterance being searched is beneficial for spoken keyword spotting. In this paper, we introduce several im- prove the performance of spoken keyword spotting. Index Terms-- Spoken keyword spotting, lattice

  11. The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The NordPool Market The spot and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Modelling and pricing in electricity markets Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration and electricity forward relation Spot price modelling HJM approach to forwards Conclusions Overview

  12. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  13. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  14. When Barriers to Markets Fail: Pipeline Deregulation, Spot Markets, and the Topology of the Natural Gas Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vany, Arthur; Walls, W. David

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental Research on Deregulation, natural Gas Pipelineto MarketsFail: Pipeline Deregulation,Spot Markets,and theto Markets Fall: Deregulation, Spot Markets, And the

  15. Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

  16. Multi-spot ignition in type Ia supernova models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roepke, F K; Niemeyer, J C; Woosley, S E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic survey of the capabilities of type Ia supernova explosion models starting from a number of flame seeds distributed around the center of the white dwarf star. To this end we greatly improved the resolution of the numerical simulations in the initial stages. This novel numerical approach facilitates a detailed study of multi-spot ignition scenarios with up to hundreds of ignition sparks. Two-dimensional simulations are shown to be inappropriate to study the effects of initial flame configurations. Based on a set of three-dimensional models, we conclude that multi-spot ignition scenarios may improve type Ia supernova models towards better agreement with observations. The achievable effect reaches a maximum at a limited number of flame ignition kernels as shown by the numerical models and corroborated by a simple dimensional analysis.

  17. Multi-spot ignition in type Ia supernova models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer; S. E. Woosley

    2005-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic survey of the capabilities of type Ia supernova explosion models starting from a number of flame seeds distributed around the center of the white dwarf star. To this end we greatly improved the resolution of the numerical simulations in the initial stages. This novel numerical approach facilitates a detailed study of multi-spot ignition scenarios with up to hundreds of ignition sparks. Two-dimensional simulations are shown to be inappropriate to study the effects of initial flame configurations. Based on a set of three-dimensional models, we conclude that multi-spot ignition scenarios may improve type Ia supernova models towards better agreement with observations. The achievable effect reaches a maximum at a limited number of flame ignition kernels as shown by the numerical models and corroborated by a simple dimensional analysis.

  18. Magnetic fields, spots and weather in chemically peculiar stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Kochukhov

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    New observational techniques and sophisticated modelling methods has led to dramatic breakthroughs in our understanding of the interplay between the surface magnetism, atomic diffusion and atmospheric dynamics in chemically peculiar stars. Magnetic Doppler images, constructed using spectropolarimetric observations of Ap stars in all four Stokes parameters, reveal the presence of small-scale field topologies. Abundance Doppler mapping has been perfected to the level where distributions of many different chemical elements can be deduced self-consistently for one star. The inferred chemical spot structures are diverse and do not always trace underlying magnetic field geometry. Moreover, horizontal chemical inhomogeneities are discovered in non-magnetic CP stars and evolving chemical spots are observed for the first time in the bright mercury-manganese star alpha And. These results show that in addition to magnetic fields, another important non-magnetic structure formation mechanism acts in CP stars.

  19. A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

  20. Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas William

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...

  1. Empirical analysis of the spot market implications ofprice-elastic demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2004-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulated electricity industries share one common feature: the absence of any significant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, electricity industries continue to charge most consumers an average cost based on regulated retail tariff from the era of vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are forced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in open markets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who are sometimes forbidden by regulators from signing hedging contracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time (or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price of electricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumption in response to price signals. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic, and electricity generation resources can be stretched to the point where system stability is threatened. This, then, facilitates many other problems associated with electricity markets, such as market power and price volatility. Indeed, economic theory suggests that even modestly price-responsive demand can remove the stress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To test this theory, we use actual generator bid data from the New York control area to construct supply stacks, and intersect them with demand curves of various slopes to approximate different levels of demand elasticity. We then estimate the potential impact of real-time pricing on the equilibrium spot price and quantity. These results indicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a more price-elastic demand. Such analysis can provide policymakers with a measure of how effective price-elastic demand can potentially reduce prices and maintain consumption within the capability of generation resources.

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

  3. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  4. The Recent Metals Price Retreat: So Long Super Cycle?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to get some perspective on whether current metal prices are `high' or `low' by historical standards/Haver Analytics. Gold (London PM fixing) Crude Oil (WTI) #12;CRBMetals Price Index KR-CRB Spot Commodity Price.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 #12;Crude Oil Price (WTI) Spot Oil Price: West Texas

  5. Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings to the right people

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    Top Spot is an intelligent advertising product that targets your most suitable listings to the right people by suburb and price. Top Spot listings appear at the top of the search results page estate agency both before and after signing up to Top Spot. 72% MORE VIEWS^ Advertising with Top Spot

  6. The Information Role of Spot Prices and Inventories

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S.6, 2014 IndependentInformation Role of Spot

  7. Spot Prices for Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables TablesPricesSpot Prices (Crude

  8. Imager Spots and Samples Tiny Tumors | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |Hot SpringsemployedImager Spots and Samples

  9. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  10. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  11. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  12. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  13. Hot spot-derived shock initiation phenomena in heterogeneous nitromethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stahl, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solid silica particles to gelled nitromethane offers a tractable model system for interrogating the role of impedance mismatches as one type of hot spot 'seed' on the initiation behaviors of explosive formulations. Gas gun-driven plate impact experiments are used to produce well-defined shock inputs into nitromethane-silica mixtures containing size-selected silica beads at 6 wt%. The Pop-plots or relationships between shock input pressure and rundistance (or time)-to-detonation for mixtures containing small (1-4 {micro}m) and large (40 {micro}m) beads are presented. Overall, the addition of beads was found to influence the shock sensitivity of the mixtures, with the smaller beads being more sensitizing than the larger beads, lowering the shock initiation threshold for the same run distance to detonation compared with neat nitromethane. In addition, the use of embedded electromagnetic gauges provides detailed information pertaining to the mechanism of the build-up to detonation and associated reactive flow. Of note, an initiation mechanism characteristic of homogeneous liquid explosives, such as nitromethane, was observed in the nitromethane-40 {micro}m diameter silica samples at high shock input pressures, indicating that the influence of hot spots on the initiation process was minimal under these conditions.

  14. The magnetic configuration of a delta-spot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balthasar, Horst; Louis, Rohan E; Verma, Meetu; Denker, Carsten

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sunspots, which harbor both magnetic polarities within one penumbra, are called delta-spots. They are often associated with flares. Nevertheless, there are only very few detailed observations of the spatially resolved magnetic field configuration. We present an investigation performed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the Vacuum Tower Telescope in Tenerife. We observed a sunspot with a main umbra and several additional umbral cores, one of them with opposite magnetic polarity (the delta-umbra). The delta-spot is divided into two parts by a line along which central emissions of the spectral line Ca II 854.2 nm appear. The Evershed flow comming from the main umbra ends at this line. In deep photospheric layers, we find an almost vertical magnetic field for the delta-umbra, and the magnetic field decreases rapidly with height, faster than in the main umbra. The horizontal magnetic field in the direction connecting main and delta-umbra is rather smooth, but in one location next to a bright penumbral featu...

  15. Transformation from spots to waves in a model of actin pattern formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen Whitelam; Till Bretschneider; Nigel J. Burroughs

    2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Actin networks in certain single-celled organisms exhibit a complex pattern-forming dynamics that starts with the appearance of static spots of actin on the cell cortex. Spots soon become mobile, executing persistent random walks, and eventually give rise to traveling waves of actin. Here we describe a possible physical mechanism for this distinctive set of dynamic transformations, by equipping an excitable reaction-diffusion model with a field describing the spatial orientation of its chief constituent (which we consider to be actin). The interplay of anisotropic actin growth and spatial inhibition drives a transformation at fixed parameter values from static spots to moving spots to waves.

  16. Host-specific strain of Stemphylium causes leaf spot disease of California spinach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koike, Steven T.; Henderson, Diana M.; Butler, Edward E.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spinach culti- vars developed leaf spots within 2 weeks, while the wateras onto spinach lines used in downy mildew research. A water

  17. Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence of cost and price risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, X.; Kaminsky, P.; Tomecek, P.; Yuen, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal spot market inventory strategies in the presence ofeither increase or decrease inventory by buying or sellingof actively managing inventory during the period rather than

  18. Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

  19. A Study of Strategies for Oil and Gas Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordt, David Paul

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of liquidity to sophisticated transaction services ......... 4 3.1 WTI crude oil drastically increased and declined from 2007?2008 illustrating commodity price volatility....................................................... 32 3.2 Second highest... Page 4.3 Common knowledge impacts average bid ratios for producing and undeveloped properties........................................................................ 56 5.1 Correlation oil price (WTI) to proved reserve market metrics, $/boe...

  20. Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano; Tunstall, Lewis C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. T...

  1. AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    AUTOMATIC HOT SPOT DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION IN WHOLE BODY FDG-PET IMAGES Haiying Guan1 , Toshiro a system for automatic hot spots detection and segmentation in whole body FDG-PET images. The main in clinical PET images. 1.INTRODUCTION Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 de- oxyglucose

  2. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Ruth Francis-Floyd and Peggy Reed2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR920 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (White Spot) Infections in Fish1 Ruth Francis-Floyd and Peggy that causes "Ich" or "white spot disease." This disease is a major prob- lem to aquarists and commercial fish producers world wide. Ichthyophthirius is an important disease of tropical fish, goldfish, and food fish

  3. Stochastic Dominance Tests for Risk Lovers: with Application to Oil Spot and Futures Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    Stochastic Dominance Tests for Risk Lovers: with Application to Oil Spot and Futures Markets for risk averters and risk lovers to study the performance of the oil spot and futures markets in both pre that there is no arbitrage opportunity between these two markets and conclude that market efficiency and market rationality

  4. The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of the Dysfunctional Spot Market for Electricity in California on the Cost of Forward), the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) program on Reliability and Markets at the U Cruz, California. #12;ABSTRACT The unexpectedly high spot prices for electricity in the summer of 2000

  5. Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process Modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ( l Resistance Spot Welding of Galvanized Steel: Part I. Material Variations and Process to determine their effects on the acceptable range of resistance spot welding conditions for galvanized steel upsloping and downsloping of the weld current, preheat current, postheat current, electrode tip geometry

  6. Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting electricity spot market prices with a k-factor GIGARCH process. Abdou Kâ Diongue this method to the German electricity price market for the period August 15, 2000 - De- cember 31, 2002 and we, Pelacchi and Venturini (2002) investigate several markets. In addition, electricity spot prices exhibit

  7. Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Subauroral proton spots visualize the Pc1 source A. G. Yahnin,1 T. A. Yahnina,1 and H. U. Frey2 observations from the IMAGE spacecraft revealed a new type of proton aurora ­ subauroral proton spots, which map onto the vicinity of the plasmapause. It has been suggested that this proton aurora is produced

  8. Control of Black Spot of Roses with Sulphur-Copper Dust.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyle, E. W. (Eldon W.)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -off. Black spot was controlled with dusting (less than 0.1% of leaflet infection on September 23) and 3nt to ;easoll e and - - the CONTROL OF BLACK SPOT OF ROSES WITH SULPHUR-COPPER DUST 23 Table 10. Effect of time of cutting off understock tope...

  9. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  10. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  11. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  12. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  13. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  14. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  15. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  16. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  17. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  18. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  19. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  20. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  1. SU-E-J-72: Geant4 Simulations of Spot-Scanned Proton Beam Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanehira, T; Sutherland, K; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Shirato, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate density inhomogeneities which can effect dose distributions for real-time image gated spot-scanning proton therapy (RGPT), a dose calculation system, using treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) spot position data, was developed based on Geant4. Methods: A Geant4 application was developed to simulate spot-scanned proton beams at Hokkaido University Hospital. A CT scan (0.98 × 0.98 × 1.25 mm) was performed for prostate cancer treatment with three or four inserted gold markers (diameter 1.5 mm, volume 1.77 mm3) in or near the target tumor. The CT data was read into VQA. A spot scanning plan was generated and exported to text files, specifying the beam energy and position of each spot. The text files were converted and read into our Geant4-based software. The spot position was converted into steering magnet field strength (in Tesla) for our beam nozzle. Individual protons were tracked from the vacuum chamber, through the helium chamber, steering magnets, dose monitors, etc., in a straight, horizontal line. The patient CT data was converted into materials with variable density and placed in a parametrized volume at the isocenter. Gold fiducial markers were represented in the CT data by two adjacent voxels (volume 2.38 mm3). 600,000 proton histories were tracked for each target spot. As one beam contained about 1,000 spots, approximately 600 million histories were recorded for each beam on a blade server. Two plans were considered: two beam horizontal opposed (90 and 270 degree) and three beam (0, 90 and 270 degree). Results: We are able to convert spot scanning plans from VQA and simulate them with our Geant4-based code. Our system can be used to evaluate the effect of dose reduction caused by gold markers used for RGPT. Conclusion: Our Geant4 application is able to calculate dose distributions for spot scanned proton therapy.

  2. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  3. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  4. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  5. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  6. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  7. Decision making in coastal fisheries conflict: the case of red drum and spotted seatrout legislation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Richard Travis

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stricter Measures Called For The TPWD Increases Regulations on Red and Spotted Seatrout Illegal Netting 61 65 66 Drum TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) IV CASE FINDINGS (continued) The Opposition Increases The Legislative Process Economic Impact... and spotted seatrout caught in Texas February 12 May 19 H. B. 980 S. B. 139 Called for a halt to harvest of red drum and spotted seatrout in Texas by all persons February 12 killed Red drum and spotted seat rout to be made permanently illegal...

  8. Hot spot generation in energetic materials created by long-wavelength infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ming-Wei; You, Sizhu; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Dlott, Dana D., E-mail: dlott@illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot spots produced by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) radiation in an energetic material, crystalline RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), were studied by thermal-imaging microscopy. The LWIR source was a CO{sub 2} laser operating in the 28-30?THz range. Hot spot generation was studied using relatively low intensity (?100?W cm{sup ?2}), long-duration (450 ms) LWIR pulses. The hot spots could be produced repeatedly in individual RDX crystals, to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of hot spot generation by LWIR, since the peak hot-spot temperatures were kept to ?30?K above ambient. Hot spots were generated preferentially beneath RDX crystal planes making oblique angles with the LWIR beam. Surprisingly, hot spots were more prominent when the LWIR wavelength was tuned to be weakly absorbed (absorption depth ?30??m) than when the LWIR wavelength was strongly absorbed (absorption depth ?5??m). This unexpected effect was explained using a model that accounts for LWIR refraction and RDX thermal conduction. The weakly absorbed LWIR is slightly focused underneath the oblique crystal planes, and it penetrates the RDX crystals more deeply, increasing the likelihood of irradiating RDX defect inclusions that are able to strongly absorb or internally focus the LWIR beam.

  9. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  10. Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Crivellin; Martin Hoferichter; Massimiliano Procura; Lewis C. Tunstall

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP-nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, the amount of isospin violation is found to be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon couplings and the associated hadronic uncertainties. This becomes especially relevant once the increased sensitivity of future direct-detection experiments corners the MSSM into these regions of parameter space.

  11. May market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seven uranium transactions totalling nearly three million pounds equivalent U3O8 were reported during May, but only two, totalling less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8, involved concentrates. As no discretionary buying occurred during the month, and as near-term supply and demand were in relative balance, prices were steady, while both buyers and sellers appeared to be awaiting some new market development to signal the direction of future spot-market prices. The May 31, 1993, Exchange Value and the Restricted American market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates were both unchanged at $7.10, and $2.95 per pound U3O8, respectively. NUEXCO's judgement was that transactions for significant quantities of uranium concentrates that were both deliverable in and intended for consumption in the USA could have been concluded on May 31 at $10.05 per pound U3O8. Two near-term concentrate transactions were reported in which one US utility purchased less than 200 thousand pounds equivalent U3O8 from two separate sellers. These sales occurred at price levels at or near the May 31 Exchange Value plus RAMP. No long-term uranium transactions were reported during May. Consequently, the UF6 Value decreased $0.20 to $24.30 per kgU as UF6, reflecting some weakening of the UF6 market outside the USA.

  12. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  13. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  14. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  15. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  16. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  17. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  18. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  19. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  20. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  1. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  2. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  3. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  4. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  5. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  6. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  7. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  8. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  9. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  10. X-ray imaging with monochromatic and small focal spot size sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of x-ray energy and intensity (under investigation) Measurements at the Elettra (Trieste) synchrotron Edge Response Function at ATF * Spot size * He Pipe added * 10 7 10 8...

  11. Calculation of the fast ion tail distribution for a spherically symmetric hot spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDevitt, C. J.; Tang, X.-Z.; Guo, Z. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Berk, H. L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast ion tail for a spherically symmetric hot spot is computed via the solution of a simplified Fokker-Planck collision operator. Emphasis is placed on describing the energy scaling of the fast ion distribution function in the hot spot as well as the surrounding cold plasma throughout a broad range of collisionalities and temperatures. It is found that while the fast ion tail inside the hot spot is significantly depleted, leading to a reduction of the fusion yield in this region, a surplus of fast ions is observed in the neighboring cold plasma region. The presence of this surplus of fast ions in the neighboring cold region is shown to result in a partial recovery of the fusion yield lost in the hot spot.

  12. Influence of spot size on propagation dynamics of laser-produced tin plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?Color online? Images of the tin plume recorded with 280 ? mdynamics of laser-produced tin plasma S. S. Harilal a?dynamics of an expanding tin plume for various spot sizes

  13. Retinal response of Macaca mulatta to picosecond laser pulses of varying energy and spot size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roach, William P.

    We investigate the relationship between the laser beam at the retina (spot size) and the extent of retinal injury from single ultrashort laser pulses. From previous studies it is believed that the retinal effect of single ...

  14. Photovoltaic ground fault and blind spot electrical simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems pose a fire and shock hazard. To mitigate these risks, AC-isolated, DC grounded PV systems in the United States use Ground Fault Protection Devices (GFPDs), e.g., fuses, to de-energize the PV system when there is a ground fault. Recently the effectiveness of these protection devices has come under question because multiple fires have started when ground faults went undetected. In order to understand the limitations of fuse-based ground fault protection in PV systems, analytical and numerical simulations of different ground faults were performed. The numerical simulations were conducted with Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) using a circuit model of the PV system which included the modules, wiring, switchgear, grounded or ungrounded components, and the inverter. The derivation of the SPICE model and the results of parametric fault current studies are provided with varying array topologies, fuse sizes, and fault impedances. Closed-form analytical approximations for GFPD currents from faults to the grounded current carrying conductor-known as %E2%80%9Cblind spot%E2%80%9D ground faults-are derived to provide greater understanding of the influence of array impedances on fault currents. The behavior of the array during various ground faults is studied for a range of ground fault fuse sizes to determine if reducing the size of the fuse improves ground fault detection sensitivity. The results of the simulations show that reducing the amperage rating of the protective fuse does increase fault current detection sensitivity without increasing the likelihood of nuisance trips to a degree. Unfortunately, this benefit reaches a limit as fuses become smaller and their internal resistance increases to the point of becoming a major element in the fault current circuit.

  15. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  16. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  17. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  18. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Achla

    permission. Estimating the Volatility of Wholesale Electricity Spot Prices in the US Lester Hadsell; Achla

  19. Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Heng; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Li Yupeng; Li Xiaoqiang; Zhang Xiaodong; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to assess the monitor unit (MU) values and position accuracy of spot scanning proton beams as recorded by the daily treatment logs of the treatment control system, and furthermore establish the feasibility of using the delivered spot positions and MU values to calculate and evaluate delivered doses to patients. Methods: To validate the accuracy of the recorded spot positions, the authors generated and executed a test treatment plan containing nine spot positions, to which the authors delivered ten MU each. The spot positions were measured with radiographic films and Matrixx 2D ion-chambers array placed at the isocenter plane and compared for displacements from the planned and recorded positions. Treatment logs for 14 patients were then used to determine the spot MU values and position accuracy of the scanning proton beam delivery system. Univariate analysis was used to detect any systematic error or large variation between patients, treatment dates, proton energies, gantry angles, and planned spot positions. The recorded patient spot positions and MU values were then used to replace the spot positions and MU values in the plan, and the treatment planning system was used to calculate the delivered doses to patients. The results were compared with the treatment plan. Results: Within a treatment session, spot positions were reproducible within {+-}0.2 mm. The spot positions measured by film agreed with the planned positions within {+-}1 mm and with the recorded positions within {+-}0.5 mm. The maximum day-to-day variation for any given spot position was within {+-}1 mm. For all 14 patients, with {approx}1 500 000 spots recorded, the total MU accuracy was within 0.1% of the planned MU values, the mean (x, y) spot displacement from the planned value was (-0.03 mm, -0.01 mm), the maximum (x, y) displacement was (1.68 mm, 2.27 mm), and the (x, y) standard deviation was (0.26 mm, 0.42 mm). The maximum dose difference between calculated dose to the patient based on the plan and recorded data was within 2%. Conclusions: The authors have shown that the treatment log file in a spot scanning proton beam delivery system is precise enough to serve as a quality assurance tool to monitor variation in spot position and MU value, as well as the delivered dose uncertainty from the treatment delivery system. The analysis tool developed here could be useful for assessing spot position uncertainty and thus dose uncertainty for any patient receiving spot scanning proton beam therapy.

  20. Universitt Tbingen Mathematisches Institut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tübingen, Universität

    Approximation S() := m-1 i=0 [(1 - )Wti + Wti+1 ](Wti+1 - Wti ) des Integrals t 0 WsdWs. Zeigen Sie lim ||||0 S

  1. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  2. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  3. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  4. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  5. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  6. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  7. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  8. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  9. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  10. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  11. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  12. SU-D-BRE-06: Modeling the Dosimetric Effects of Volumetric and Layer-Based Repainting Strategies in Spot Scanning Proton Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J E; Beltran, C; Herman, M G; Kruse, J J [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare multiple repainting techniques as strategies for mitigating the interplay effect in free-breathing, spot scanning proton plans. Methods: An analytic routine modeled three-dimensional dose distributions of pencil-beam proton plans delivered to a moving target. The interplay effect was studied in subsequent calculations by modeling proton delivery from a clinical synchrotron based spot scanning system and respiratory target motion, patterned from surrogate breathing traces from clinical 4DCT scans and normalized to nominal 0.5 and 1 cm amplitudes. Two distinct repainting strategies were modeled. In idealized volumetric repainting, the plan is divided up and delivered multiple times successively, with each instance only delivering a fraction of the total MU. Maximum-MU repainting involves delivering a fixed number of MU per spot and repeating a given energy layer until the prescribed MU are reached. For each of 13 patient breathing traces, the dose was computed for up to four volumetric repaints and an array of maximum-MU values. Delivery strategies were inter-compared based on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and delivery time. Results: Increasing levels of repainting generally improved plan quality and reduced dosimetric variability at the expense of longer delivery time. Motion orthogonal to the scan direction yielded substantially greater dose deviations than motion parallel to the scan direction. For a fixed delivery time, maximum-MU repainting was most effective relative to idealized volumetric repainting at small maximum-MU values. For 1 cm amplitude motion orthogonal to the scan direction, the average homogeneity metric (D5 – D95)[%] of 23.4% was reduced to 7.6% with a 168 s delivery using volumetric repainting compared with 8.7% in 157.2 s for maximum-MU repainting. The associated static target homogeneity metric was 2.5%. Conclusion: Maximum-MU repainting can provide a reasonably effective alternative to volumetric repainting for systems without the capability to switch energies rapidly.

  13. DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE, Dow, volatility spillovers, conditional correlations, crude oil prices, spot, forward and futures prices , stock relying heavily on this source of energy. As a result of such dependence, fluctuations in crude oil prices

  14. Arrowhead Center: Modeling Energy Market Volatility Report Title: Modeling Energy Market Volatility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    10 5 Percent Change in Oil and Gas Extraction Employment: REMI Historic 2000 to 2009 and Experiment 2 in New Mexico 2 2 US Oil Rig Counts and WTI Spot Prices January 2000 to December 2009 7 3 US Natural Gas Rig Counts and Henry Hub Spot Price January 2000 to December 2009 7 4 US Oil and Gas Rig Counts

  15. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  16. An investigation of the dynamic separation of spot welds under plane tensile pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bohan; Fan, Chunlei; Chen, Danian, E-mail: chdnch@nbu.edu.cn; Wang, Huanran; Zhou, Fenghua [Mechanics and Materials Science Research Center, Ningbo University, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed ultra-high-speed tests for purely opening spot welds using plane tensile pulses. A gun system generated a parallel impact of a projectile plate onto a welded plate. Induced by the interactions of the release waves, the welded plate opened purely under the plane tensile pulses. We used the laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate. We then used a scanning electron microscope to investigate the recovered welded plates. We found that the interfacial failure mode was mainly a brittle fracture and the cracks propagated through the spot nugget, while the partial interfacial failure mode was a mixed fracture comprised ductile fracture and brittle fracture. We used the measured velocity histories to evaluate the tension stresses in the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate by applying the characteristic theory. We also discussed the different constitutive behaviors of the metals under plane shock loading and under uniaxial split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. We then compared the numerically simulated velocity histories of the free surfaces of the free part and the spot weld of the welded plate with the measured results. The numerical simulations made use of the fracture stress criteria, and then the computed fracture modes of the tests were compared with the recovered results.

  17. Trajectory-based interpretation of Young's experiment, the Arago-Fresnel laws and the Poisson-Arago spot for photons and massive particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Davidovic; A. S. Sanz; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; D. Dimic

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a trajectory based interpretation for Young's experiment, the Arago-Fresnel laws and the Poisson-Arago spot. This approach is based on the equation of the trajectory associated with the quantum probability current density in the case of massive particles, and the Poynting vector for the electromagnetic field in the case of photons. Both the form and properties of the evaluated photon trajectories are in good agreement with the averaged trajectories of single photons observed recently in Young's experiment by Steinberg's group at the University of Toronto. In the case of the Arago-Fresnel laws for polarized light, the trajectory interpretation presented here differs from those interpretations based on the concept of "which-way" (or "which-slit") information and quantum erasure. More specifically, the observer's information about the slit that photons went through is not relevant to the existence of interference; what is relevant is the form of the electromagnetic energy density and its evolution, which will model consequently the distribution of trajectories and their topology. Finally, we also show that the distributions of end points of a large number of evaluated photon trajectories are in agreement with the distributions measured at the screen behind a circular disc, clearly giving rise to the Poisson-Arago spot.

  18. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  19. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  20. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  1. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  2. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  3. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  4. Real-time spot size camera for pulsed high-energy radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, S.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focal spot size of an x-ray source is a critical parameter which degrades resolution in a flash radiograph. For best results, a small round focal spot is required. Therefore, a fast and accurate measurement of the spot size is highly desirable to facilitate machine tuning. This paper describes two systems developed for Los Alamos National Laboratory's Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X-rays (PHERMEX) facility. The first uses a CCD camera combined with high-brightness floors, while the second utilizes phosphor storage screens. Other techniques typically record only the line spread function on radiographic film, while systems in this paper measure the more general two-dimensional point-spread function and associated modulation transfer function in real time for shot-to-shot comparison.

  5. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  6. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  7. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  8. Six years of monitoring annual changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fifteen dates of spring-time SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data from spring 1987 through spring 1992 were analyzed to monitor annual changes in a 150-hectare, southeastern floodplain marsh. The marsh underwent rapid changes during the six years from a swamp dominated by non-persistent, thermally tolerant macrophytes to persistent macrophyte and shrub-scrub communities as reactor discharges declined to Pen Branch. Savannah River flooding was also important in the timing of the shift of these wetland communities. SPOT HRV data proved to be an efficient and effective method to monitor trends in these wetland community changes.

  9. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  10. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  11. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  13. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  14. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  15. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  16. Details of the Electro-Mechanical (E/M) Impedance Health Monitoring of Spot-Welded Structural Joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    1 Details of the Electro-Mechanical (E/M) Impedance Health Monitoring of Spot-Welded Structural sensors for health monitoring spot-welded structural joints. Experiments were performed on aluminum-electric transducer; Crack propagation; Crack detection. 1. INTRODUCTION Health monitoring of structural joints

  17. Price-based Congestion-Control in Wi-Fi Hot Spots Roberto Battiti(*), Marco Conti(**), Enrico Gregori(**), Mikalai Sabel(*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    if they are in the transmission range of an access point. A new business model, named Wi-Fi Hot Spots, is now emerging to exploit offer with Wi-Fi. To reach an efficient use of the scarce bandwidth resources, market mechanisms the potentialities of this technology. A hot spot is a "critical" business area, e.g., airports, stations, hotels

  18. Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks and long memory models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Forecasting the conditional volatility of oil spot and futures prices with structural breaks of oil spot and futures prices using three GARCH-type models, i.e., linear GARCH, GARCH with structural that oil price fluctuations influence economic activity and financial sector (e.g., Jones and Kaul, 1996

  19. Experimental results obtained during fatigue testing of a spot-welded lap-shear structural-joint specimen are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    in a number of industries. Spot welding is the traditional method of assembly for steel-based automotive and construction of vehicular structures indicate a strong diversification of material usage, with aluminum and polymeric composites projected to play a major role. While aluminum is amenable to both spot welding

  20. Spot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils Tung-Chang Liu,1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polarized laser beam irradiates an ultra-thin foil and accelerates nearly the whole foil by the radiationSpot size dependence of laser accelerated protons in thin multi-ion foils Tung-Chang Liu,1,a) Xi of the effect of the laser spot size of a circularly polarized laser beam on the energy of quasi

  1. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  2. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  3. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  4. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  5. Subauroral morning proton spots (SAMPS) as a result of plasmapause-ring-current interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Østgaard, Nikolai

    Subauroral morning proton spots (SAMPS) as a result of plasmapause-ring-current interaction H. U) that rotate with 70­95% of the Earth's corotation speed. Coincident particle measurements by DMSP confirm of the previous geomagnetic storm with the lowest latitude observations after the strongest storms. The rotation

  6. A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    A Scalable Soft Spot Analysis Methodology for Compound Noise Effects in Nano-meter Circuits Chong methodology to study the vulnerability of digital ICs exposed to nano-meter noise and transient soft errors. First, we define "softness" as an important characteristic to gauge system vulnerability. Then several

  7. Revised 1/11/05 SPOTTED SEAL (Phoca largha): Alaska Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    during the breeding season, and only spotted seals are strongly associated with pack ice (Shaughnessy conducted over the Bering Sea pack ice in spring and along the western Alaska coast during summer (Rugh et overwinter in the Bering Sea along the ice edge and make east-west movements along the edge (Lowry et al

  8. Preliminary Report Biology of the Spotted Seal (Phoca largha) in Alaska from 1962 to 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is present, spotted seals are found along the pack ice edge where the ice is loosely packed (Fay 1974 in that they prefer loose pack ice and they will readily haul out on land, which they do frequently in summer (e that are dependent on sea ice during some portion of the year; the other three species include the bearded seal

  9. Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Futures pricing in electricity markets based on stable CARMA spot models Gernot M¨uller Vortrag im years, electricity markets throughout the world have undergone massive changes due to deregulations risk but also against price movements. Consequently, statistical modeling and estimation of electricity

  10. Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    Reduced form electricity spot price modeling with a view towards spike risk Prof. Dr. Meyer. Februar 2010, 16:15 Uhr Seminarraum, Ludwigstraße 33 I The recent deregulation of electricity markets has led to the creation of energy exchanges, where the electricity is freely traded. We study the most

  11. Title of Dissertation / Thesis: PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF SPOT TRUCK-LOAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation / Thesis: PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF SPOT TRUCK-LOAD PROCUREMENT MARKETS USING SEQUENTIAL AUCTIONS Miguel Andres Figliozzi, Ph.D., 2004 Dissertation / Thesis Directed By By Miguel Andres Figliozzi Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University

  12. Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Integration of Contracted Renewable Energy and Spot Market Supply to Serve Flexible Loads Anthony-mail: oren@ieor.berkeley.edu). Abstract: We present a contract for integrating renewable energy supply the Participating Intermittent Resources Program, which fa- cilitates the integration of renewable energy sources

  13. Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaimungal, Sebastian

    Energy Spot Price Models and Spread Options Pricing Samuel Hikspoors and Sebastian Jaimungal In this article, we construct forward price curves and value a class of two asset exchange options for energy the implied market prices of risk for this commodity. 1. Introduction The energy commodity markets

  14. Fracture toughness of the molten zone of resistance spot welds Florent Krajcarz1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ). In these tests, the load vs. load line displacement curve is recorded to derive the weld strength (i.e. maximal of the base metal still significantly influences the load vs. displacement curve, yet to a lesser extent than and the crack extension resistance of the molten zone of resistance spot welds under Mode I loading has been

  15. Dynamic Interactions in the Western United States Electricity Spot Markets Christine A. Jerko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by a highly interconnected transmission system and established trading regime (De Vany and Walls, 1999b this new world." Most studies of electricity pricing have investigated market structure and power, reasons), in examining spot markets in England and Wales and the Nordic countries, notes there is significant differences

  16. THE FROBENIUS INTEGRABILITY THEOREM AND THE BLIND-SPOT PROBLEM FOR MOTOR VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskow, Shari

    -side automotive mirror that has no blind-spot or distortion. While reasonably good solutions have been found driver-side mirror compared with a aluminum prototype designed using the method described in [7, the issue of the driver's field of view is a crucial one for automotive safety. According to a U

  17. Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atreya, Sushil

    Chemical markers of possible hot spots on Mars Ah-San Wong and Sushil K. Atreya Department not be ruled out. If outgassing does occur somewhere on Mars, water, carbon dioxide, sulfur species, methane, and to a lesser extent, halogens would be the likely molecules of outgassing, based on terrestrial analogs

  18. Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and J¨urgen Jahns Traditional Fresnel zone plates (TFZPs) and photon sieves [1, 2, 3] can be used for the focusing and imaging of soft x.e. a modified Fresnel zone plate, MFZP) can realized the same functions as a photon sieve. In particular, we

  19. DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

  20. Spoken Keyword Spotting via Multi-Lattice Alignment Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilmes, Jeff

    , or impossible for the user to enter a search query using a standard keyboard. For example, speech queries and a second phone lattice repre- senting a long utterance needing to be searched. We implement this joint representation. Index Terms: speech lattice, keyword spotting, graphical mod- els, lattice alignment 1

  1. Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joint Modelling of Gas and Electricity spot prices N. Frikha1 , V. Lemaire2 October 9, 2009 for developing a risk management framework as well as pricing of options. Many derivatives on both electricity to price projects in energy (see [10] for an introduction). Thus, modelling jointly the evolution of gas

  2. 21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 Trio: Enabling Sustainable and Scalable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    management. Use energy harvesting. Improve energy mgmt. Reduce power draw. #12;21 Apr 2006 IPSN / SPOTS `06 harvesting · Improve energy "transfer" ­ Lower operating voltage ­ Adapt load (e.g. MPP) · Decrease power ­ Increasing Lifetime through Solar Energy Solar Cell Short Circuit Current Richmond Field Station, August 24

  3. Spot weldability of TRIP assisted steels with high carbon and aluminium contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Spot weldability of TRIP assisted steels with high carbon and aluminium contents G. S. Jung1 , K. Y of their aluminium concentrations of 3?5 or 5?6 wt-% and which also have high carbon contents of 0?3 or 0?4 wt-% when-ferrite, Ductility ratio, Weldability Introduction One variant of low alloy steel that benefits from transformation

  4. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana, E-mail: srinbhu@vt.edu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  5. Hot-spot mix in ignition-scale implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Hammel, B. A.; Suter, L. J.; Ralph, J.; Scott, H.; Barrios, M. A.; Bradley, D. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Collins, G. W.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target depends on the formation of a central hot spot with sufficient temperature and areal density. Radiative and conductive losses from the hot spot can be enhanced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The concentric spherical layers of current National Ignition Facility (NIF) ignition targets consist of a plastic ablator surrounding a thin shell of cryogenic thermonuclear fuel (i.e., hydrogen isotopes), with fuel vapor filling the interior volume [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. The Rev. 5 ablator is doped with Ge to minimize preheat of the ablator closest to the DT ice caused by Au M-band emission from the hohlraum x-ray drive [D. S. Clark et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052703 (2010)]. Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by high-mode () ablator-surface perturbations can cause Ge-doped ablator to mix into the interior of the shell at the end of the acceleration phase [B. A. Hammel et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056310 (2011)]. As the shell decelerates, it compresses the fuel vapor, forming a hot spot. K-shell line emission from the ionized Ge that has penetrated into the hot spot provides an experimental signature of hot-spot mix. The Ge emission from tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) cryogenic targets and gas-filled plastic-shell capsules, which replace the THD layer with a mass-equivalent CH layer, was examined. The inferred amount of hot-spot-mix mass, estimated from the Ge K-shell line brightness using a detailed atomic physics code [J. J. MacFarlane et al., High Energy Density Phys. 3, 181 (2006)], is typically below the 75-ng allowance for hot-spot mix [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. Predictions of a simple mix model, based on linear growth of the measured surface-mass modulations, are consistent with the experimental results.

  6. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  7. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  8. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  9. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2006 IEEE 22nd IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Hot Spot Cooling using Embedded Thermoelectric Coolers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric Coolers G. Jeffrey Snyder, Marco Soto, Randy Alley, David Koester, Bob Conner Nextreme Thermal spot temperatures when efficiently integrated with a heat spreader. Embedded thermoelectric cooling (e by today's advanced processors. Keywords Localized hot spot cooling. Thermoelectric, Peltier Cooling

  10. Implications of changing correlations between WTI and other commodities, asset classes, and implied volatility

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLess thanThousandUndergroundImplications of

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - uncertainty_past_wti.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG NorthandEnergyConti,

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - uncertainty_wti_2009_2010.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG NorthandEnergyConti,09 - December

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - uncertainty_wti_2011_2012.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG NorthandEnergyConti,09 -

  14. Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Finite element simulation of laser spot welding A. De, S. K. Maiti, C. A. Walsh and H. K. D. H laser spot welding, taking into account the temperature dependence of the physical properties and latent formation during laser spot welding, although the `double ellipsoidal' representation requires an a priori

  15. Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

  16. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  17. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  20. Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

  1. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  2. Artificial neural networks for centroiding elongated spots in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mello, A T; Guzman, D; Guesalaga, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of Adaptive Optics in Extremely Large Telescopes brings new challenges, one of which is the treatment of Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors images. When using this type of sensors in conjunction with laser guide stars for sampling the pupil of telescopes with 30+ m in diameter, it is necessary to compute the centroid of elongated spots, whose elongation angle and aspect ratio are changing across the telescope pupil. Existing techniques such as Matched Filter have been considered as the best technique to compute the centroid of elongated spots, however they are not good at coping with the effect of a variation in the Sodium profile. In this work we propose a new technique using artificial neural networks, which take advantage of the neural network's ability to cope with changing conditions, outperforming existing techniques in this context. We have developed comprehensive simulations to explore this technique and compare it with existing algorithms.

  3. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Junjun, E-mail: junjun.shen@hzg.de; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining Processes, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  4. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  5. Blind Spots for neutralino Dark Matter in the MSSM with an intermediate m_A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peisi Huang; Carlos E. M. Wagner

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spin-independent neutralino Dark Matter scattering off heavy nuclei in the MSSM. We identify analytically the blind spots in direct detection for intermediate values of $m_A$. In the region where $\\mu$ and $M_{1,2}$ have opposite signs, there is not only a reduction of the lightest CP-even Higgs coupling to neutralinos, but also a destructive interference between the neutralino scattering through the exchange of the lightest CP-even Higgs and that through the exchange of the heaviest CP-even Higgs. At critical values of $m_A$, the tree-level contribution from the light Higgs exchange cancels the contribution from the heavy Higgs, so the scattering cross section vanishes. We denote these configurations as blind spots, since they provide a generalization of the ones previously discussed in the literature, which occur at very large values of $m_A$. We show that the generalized blind spots may occur in regions of parameter space that are consistent with the obtention of the proper neutralino relic density, and can be tested by non-standard Higgs boson searches and EWino searches at the LHC and future linear colliders.

  6. Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW) of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Pan, Tsung-Yu

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) is applied to join advanced high strength steels (AHSS): galvannealed dual phase 780 MPa steel (DP780GA), transformation induced plasticity 780 MPa steel (TRIP780), and hot-stamped boron steel (HSBS). A low-cost Si3N4 ceramic tool was developed and used for making welds in this study instead of polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) material used in earlier studies. FSSW has the advantages of solid-state, low-temperature process, and the ability of joining dissimilar grade of steels and thicknesses. Two different tool shoulder geometries, concave with smooth surface and convex with spiral pattern, were used in the study. Welds were made by a 2-step displacement control process with weld time of 4, 6, and 10 seconds. Static tensile lap-shear strength achieved 16.4 kN for DP780GA-HSBS and 13.2kN for TRIP780-HSBS, above the spot weld strength requirements by AWS. Nugget pull-out was the failure mode of the joint. The joining mechanism was illustrated from the cross-section micrographs. Microhardness measurement showed hardening in the upper sheet steel (DP780GA or TRIP780) in the weld, but softening of HSBS in the heat-affect zone (HAZ). The study demonstrated the feasibility of making high-strength AHSS spot welds with low-cost tools.

  7. Fourier-phase analysis of the orbiting bright-spot model for AGN variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Karas

    1997-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Fourier power spectra and phases of a signal from a large number of radiating sources orbiting around a black hole are investigated. It is assumed that the individual sources (bright spots) are located in an accretion disc and their lifetime exceeds the corresponding orbital period. This model is relevant for the short-time X-ray variability of active galactic nuclei. Previous works on this subject were mostly concentrated on temporal characteristics and power spectra of observed light curves. In our present contribution, Fourier phases are brought into consideration and studied systematically for a broad range of input parameters. In particular, conditions for the phase coherence are discussed. It is shown that one can discriminate between the two classes of models which are currently under consideration--orbital motion of a large number of sources versus short-lived independent flares--although parameters of the model are not completely arbitrary. It is also shown that predicted power spectra depend rather strongly on the spot distribution across the disk surface. We conclude that the orbital motion of the spots cannot be the only reason for the source fluctuations, but it certainly influences observational properties of the source intrinsic variability.

  8. A high resolution view of the jet termination shock in a hot spot of the nearby radio galaxy Pictor A: implications for X-ray models of radio galaxy hot spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Tingay; E. Lenc; G. Brunetti; M. Bondi

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Images made with the VLBA have resolved the region in a nearby radio galaxy, Pictor A, where the relativistic jet that originates at the nucleus terminates in an interaction with the intergalactic medium, a so-called radio galaxy hot spot. This image provides the highest spatial resolution view of such an object to date (16 pc), more than three times better than previous VLBI observations of similar objects. The north-west Pictor A hot spot is resolved into a complex set of compact components, seen to coincide with the bright part of the hot spot imaged at arcsecond-scale resolution with the VLA. In addition to a comparison with VLA data, we compare our VLBA results with data from the HST and Chandra telescopes, as well as new Spitzer data. The presence of pc-scale components in the hot spot, identifying regions containing strong shocks in the fluid flow, leads us to explore the suggestion that they represent sites of synchrotron X-ray production, contributing to the integrated X-ray flux of the hot spot, along with X-rays from synchrotron self-Compton scattering. This scenario provides a natural explanation for the radio morphology of the hot spot and its integrated X-ray emission, leading to very different predictions for the higher energy X-ray spectrum compared to previous studies. From the sizes of the individual pc-scale components and their angular spread, we estimate that the jet width at the hot spot is in the range 70 - 700 pc, which is comparable to similar estimates in PKS 2153-69, 3C 205, and 4C 41.17. The lower limit in this range arises from the suggestion that the jet may dither in its direction as it passes through hot spot backflow material close to the jet termination point, creating a "dentist drill" effect on the inside of a cavity 700 pc in diameter.

  9. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  10. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  11. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  12. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  13. Resistance spot welding of ultra-fine grained steel sheets produced by constrained groove pressing: Optimization and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodabakhshi, F.; Kazeminezhad, M., E-mail: mkazemi@sharif.edu; Kokabi, A.H.

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Constrained groove pressing as a severe plastic deformation method is utilized to produce ultra-fine grained low carbon steel sheets. The ultra-fine grained sheets are joined via resistance spot welding process and the characteristics of spot welds are investigated. Resistance spot welding process is optimized for welding of the sheets with different severe deformations and their results are compared with those of as-received samples. The effects of failure mode and expulsion on the performance of ultra-fine grained sheet spot welds have been investigated in the present paper and the welding current and time of resistance spot welding process according to these subjects are optimized. Failure mode and failure load obtained in tensile-shear test, microhardness, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope images have been used to describe the performance of spot welds. The region between interfacial to pullout mode transition and expulsion limit is defined as the optimum welding condition. The results show that optimum welding parameters (welding current and welding time) for ultra-fine grained sheets are shifted to lower values with respect to those for as-received specimens. In ultra-fine grained sheets, one new region is formed named recrystallized zone in addition to fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal. It is shown that microstructures of different zones in ultra-fine grained sheets are finer than those of as-received sheets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance spot welding process is optimized for joining of UFG steel sheets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum welding current and time are decreased with increasing the CGP pass number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microhardness at BM, HAZ, FZ and recrystallized zone is enhanced due to CGP.

  14. The LaueUtil toolkit for Laue photocrystallography. II. Spot finding and integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw A.; Fournier, Bertrand; Makal, Anna; Coppens, Philip (SUNYB); (LBNL)

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A spot-integration method is described which does not require prior indexing of the reflections. It is based on statistical analysis of the values from each of the pixels on successive frames, followed for each frame by morphological analysis to identify clusters of high value pixels which form an appropriate mask corresponding to a reflection peak. The method does not require prior assumptions such as fitting of a profile or definition of an integration box. The results are compared with those of the seed-skewness method which is based on minimizing the skewness of the intensity distribution within a peak's integration box. Applications in Laue photocrystallography are presented.

  15. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Liubin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xi Tingting [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas of the Ministry of Education of China and Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); He Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  16. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from {approx}0.1 mm to {approx}0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of {approx}80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  17. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  18. Wear testing of friction stir spot welding tools for joining of DP 980 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridges, Chris; Miles, Michael; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Steel, Russell

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Several tooling materials have been evaluated in prior studies, including silicon nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN). Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, where a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) was used in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re (designated as Q60), and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re (designated at Q70). The sheet material used for all wear testing was DP 980. Tool profiles were measured periodically during the testing process in order to show the progression of wear as a function of the number of spots produced. Lap shear testing was done each time a tool profile was taken in order to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. For the welding parameters chosen for this study the Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  19. Joint strength in high speed friction stir spot welded DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, Nathan; Miles, Michael; Hartman, Trent; Hovanski, Yuri; Hong, Sung Tae; Steel, Russell

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High speed friction stir spot welding was applied to 1.2 mm thick DP 980 steel sheets under different welding conditions, using PCBN tools. The range of vertical feed rates used during welding was 2.5 mm – 102 mm per minute, while the range of spindle speeds was 2500 – 6000 rpm. Extended testing was carried out for five different sets of welding conditions, until tool failure. These welding conditions resulted in vertical welding loads of 3.6 – 8.2 kN and lap shear tension failure loads of 8.9 – 11.1 kN. PCBN tools were shown, in the best case, to provide lap shear tension fracture loads at or above 9 kN for 900 spot welds, after which tool failure caused a rapid drop in joint strength. Joint strength was shown to be strongly correlated to bond area, which was measured from weld cross sections. Failure modes of the tested joints were a function of bond area and softening that occurred in the heat-affected zone.

  20. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  1. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  2. Monitoring seasonal and annual wetland changes in a freshwater marsh with SPOT HRV data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Eleven dates of SPOT HRV data along with near-concurrent vertical aerial photographic and phenological data for 1987, 1988, and 1989 were evaluated to determine seasonal and annual changes in a 400-hectare, southeastern freshwater marsh. Early April through mid-May was the best time to discriminate among the cypress (Taxodium distichum)/water tupelo (Nyssa acquatica) swamp forest and the non-persistent (Ludwigia spp.) and persistent (Typha spp.) stands in this wetlands. Furthermore, a ten-fold decrease in flow rate from 11 cubic meters per sec (cms) in 1987 to one cms in 1988 was recorded in the marsh followed by a shift to drier wetland communities. The Savannah River Site (SRS), maintained by the US Department of Energy, is a 777 km{sup 2} area located in south central South Carolina. Five tributaries of the Savannah River run southwest through the SRS and into the floodplain swamp of the Savannah River. This paper describes the use of SPOT HRV data to monitor seasonal and annual trends in one of these swamp deltas, Pen Branch Delta, during a three-year period, 1987--1989.

  3. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  4. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  6. Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding of DP 980 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, Michael; Ridges, Chris; Hovanski, Yuri; Peterson, Jeremy; Santella, M. L.; Steel, Russel

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction stir spot welding has been shown to be a viable method of joining ultra high strength steel (UHSS), both in terms of joint strength and process cycle time. However, the cost of tooling must be reasonable in order for this method to be adopted as an industrial process. Recently a new tool alloy has been developed, using a blend of PCBN and tungsten rhenium (W-Re) in order to improve the toughness of the tool. Wear testing results are presented for two of these alloys: one with a composition of 60% PCBN and 40% W-Re, and one with 70% PCBN and 30% W-Re. The sheet material used for all wear testing was 1.4 mm DP 980. Lap shear testing was used to show the relationship between tool wear and joint strength. The Q70 tool provided the best combination of wear resistance and joint strength.

  7. On the development of nugget growth model for resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Kang, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk; Cai, Lilong, E-mail: zhoukang326@126.com, E-mail: melcai@ust.hk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we developed a general mathematical model to estimate the nugget growth process based on the heat energy delivered into the welds by the resistance spot welding. According to the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer, and the effect of electrode force during the welding process, the shape of the nugget can be estimated. Then, a mathematical model between heat energy absorbed and nugget diameter can be obtained theoretically. It is shown in this paper that the nugget diameter can be precisely described by piecewise fractal polynomial functions. Experiments were conducted with different welding operation conditions, such as welding currents, workpiece thickness, and widths, to validate the model and the theoretical analysis. All the experiments confirmed that the proposed model can predict the nugget diameters with high accuracy based on the input heat energy to the welds.

  8. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China); Lin Shumei [School of life science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yanga Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa.

  9. An investigation of the areal sweep efficiency of the developed five-spot well pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edman, William Douglas

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (x+bx. y, t+bt))eD(x, y, t). (4) where A=1. 0 B s -(2+ y) C= i. o D(x) = -(P(x, y-Ay, t) - (2- y )P(x, y, t)+ P(x, y, tfty t)). Equation (4) is written for each grid point in a particular row. The pressure at each grid point at time (the...?"' sly it& +be io]lowing. l2 P I I I I SMSLLEST l%TTERN I UNIT OF SYMSIETRY I I I I I I I 0? I I I I 8 INJECTION WELL o PRODUCTION WELL I DEVELOPED FIVE-SPOT WELL PATTE RN FIGURE I the study. APer the pressure distx'ibution for a...

  10. Spots and stripes: Pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell chemotaxis shown by feather morphogenesis and mathematical simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    Spots and stripes: Pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell chemotaxis shown cells Placode ERK Mathematical modeling Chemotaxis A key issue in stem cell biology patterns, ranging from stripes to spots, can be obtained when the level of p-ERK activity is adjusted

  11. Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Plant Disease Note 2004 | Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Bulb and Seed Crops in Washington. L. J. du Toit, Washington State University of the NP gene. In August 2003, symptoms of IYSV infection were observed in two onion bulb crops, each

  12. Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-limited pulse duration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Repetitive petawatt-class laser with near-diffraction-limited focal spot and transform-loop feedback control systems in the temporal and spatial domains are used to yield Fourier-transform acceleration and x-ray generation. Keywords: petawatt, diffraction limited, transform limited, spatial

  13. Ultrafast laser ablation ICP-MS: role of spot size, laser fluence, and repetition rate in signal intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Ultrafast laser ablation ICP-MS: role of spot size, laser fluence, and repetition rate in signal,a Richard E. Russob and Ahmed Hassaneina Ultrafast laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass system. Though ultrafast laser ablation sample introduction provides better accuracy and precision

  14. P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    i ...) P~!ETRIC STUDY OF HEAT FLOW DURING RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING Euiwhan Kim and Thomas W. Eagar case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material proper- ties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current

  15. An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Analysis of Price Volatility in Different Spot Markets for Electricity in the U.S.A. by Tim for electricity in the USA vary in fundamental ways. In particular, markets in the East, such as New England, New in the new auction markets for electricity can be described by a stochastic regime-switching model

  16. INVESTIGATION OF "HOT-SPOTS" AS A FUNCTION OF MATERIAL REMOVAL IN A LARGE-GRAIN NIOBIUM CAVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel

    2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Poster - The performance of a single-cell cavity made of RRR > 200 large-grain niobium has been investigated as a function of material removal by buffered chemical polishing. Temperature maps of the cavity surface at 1.7 and 2.0 K were taken for each step of chemical etching and revealed several 'hot-spots', which contribute to the degradation of the cavity quality factor as a function of the RF surface field, mostly at high field levels. It was found that the number of 'hot-spots' decreased for larger material removal. Interestingly, the losses of the 'hot-spots' at different locations evolved differently for successive material removal. The cavity achieved peak surface magnetic fields of about of 130 mT and was limited mostly by thermal quench. By measuring the temperature dependence of the surface resistance at low field between 4.2 K and 1.7 K, the variation of niobium material parameters as a function of material removal could also be investigated. This contribution shows the results of the RF tests along with the temperature maps and the analysis of the losses caused by the 'hot-spots'.

  17. Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Philip S.

    Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter in Jupiter's troposphere, with stable layers near cloud bases [4,6,7]. We use these two results to determine horizontal band in Fig. 2 shows that vortex- model derived static stability (white bars) is consistent

  18. www.octri.org/funding "Designing a Convenient and Precise Device for Home Dried Blood Spot Collection"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    www.octri.org/funding "Designing a Convenient and Precise Device for Home Dried Blood Spot-art methods require frequent laboratory visits for venous blood draws and subsequent analysis. There are no readily available methods for in-home collection of patient blood samples with the necessary accuracy

  19. Assessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to decouple the production and trading of the commodity natural gas from its transportation. Advocates arguedAssessing the Degree of Spot Market Integration For U.S. Natural Gas: Evidence from Daily Price Economics Abstract: This paper assesses the degree of market integration in the U.S. natural gas market

  20. Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok Choudhary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Identifying HotSpots in Lung Cancer Data Using Association Rule Mining Ankit Agrawal and Alok, IL 60201, USA Email: {ankitag,choudhar}@eecs.northwestern.edu Abstract--We analyze the lung cancer. The resulting rules conform with existing biomedical knowledge and provide interesting insights into lung cancer

  1. Theory of Topological Phenomena in Condensed Matter Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    topological insulators (WTI). However, a more surprisingBurgers vector and three WTI indices[144] is nonzero - whichin the case of the WTI. Thus far, the characterization of

  2. Variability assessment and mitigation in advanced VLSI manufacturing through design-manufacturing co-optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Kwangok

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to read stability; WTI (WTV) is write trip current (SINM increases and WTI decreases, as the transistor widthread ability and smaller WTI represents worse writeability.

  3. The Smell of Petroleum: Health, Insecurity, and Citizenship in "Revolutionary" Ecuador

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welcome, Nicholas Scott

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in relation to the international WTI price benchmark. 3 Inproducts, and can The WTI index is one of two internationalfor crude petroleum. WTI, the West Texas Intermediate, is

  4. Go Global Newsletter, Winter/Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global & International Studies

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The World Tribunal on Iraq (WTI) held its final session inits inception and conduct. The WTI is one expression of themoral globalization. ” The WTI generated intense interest in

  5. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  6. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  7. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  8. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  9. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  10. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  11. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41[degree] API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing.

  12. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  13. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  14. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  15. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  16. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  17. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  18. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  19. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  20. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  2. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  3. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  4. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill (£¥¤§¦¨¦© ¡ ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  5. Statistical Analysis of Microarray Data with Replicated Spots: A Case Study withSynechococcusWH8102

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, E. V.; Phillippy, K. H.; Brahamsha, B.; Haaland, D. M.; Timlin, J. A.; Elbourne, L. D. H.; Palenik, B.; Paulsen, I. T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until recently microarray experiments often involved relatively few arrays with only a single representation of each gene on each array. A complete genome microarray with multiple spots per gene (spread out spatially across the array) was developed in order to compare the gene expression of a marine cyanobacterium and a knockout mutant strain in a defined artificial seawater medium. Statistical methods were developed for analysis in the special situation of this case study where there is gene replication within an array and where relatively few arrays are used, which can be the case with current array technology. Due in partmore »to the replication within an array, it was possible to detect very small changes in the levels of expression between the wild type and mutant strains. One interesting biological outcome of this experiment is the indication of the extent to which the phosphorus regulatory system of this cyanobacterium affects the expression of multiple genes beyond those strictly involved in phosphorus acquisition.« less

  6. Aspects of the life history and population dynamics of the spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, David Noboru

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Spot are distributed from &5 to 73 m but are most abundant at 5-9 m. Spot of one cohort recruit to the Gulf primarily in two periods, May- July (Spring), at 3-7 mo, and January-March (winter), at 13-18 mo of age. Recruitment occurs in waters &5-16 m.... Collection Observed Size Ran e 955 Confidence Limits about h N 99% Conf idence Limits of bs rvations Spring Recruitment Group 1 Oct 77 D 4 Rov 77 D 137-207 166, 1 148-201 173. 1 69 331. 2 9 373. 6 161. 7-170. 5 158. 2-188. 0 117. 7-214. 5...

  7. Effect of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on the Prevention of White Spot Lesions in Patients Undergoing Active Orthodontic Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutto Fretty, Corneil Kimberly

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    of translucency of the enamel, as a result of demineralization. No cavitation is usually evident, but the surface may feel rougher than normal when checked with a sharp instrument. Sliverstone described four distinct zones of a carious lesion in enamel... followed by shorter periods of remineralization, will result in cavitation of the enamel surface.2 Etiology of White Spot Lesions WSLs are caused by the accumulation of plaque and bacteria on the enamel surfaces of teeth, and are affected...

  8. Detection of surface carbon and hydrocarbons in hot spot regions of niobium superconducting rf cavities by Raman spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cao, C.; Ford, D.; Bishnoi, S.; Proslier, T.; Albee, B.; Hommerding, E.; Korczakowski, A.; Cooley, L.; Ciovati, G.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman microscopy/spectroscopy measurements are presented on high purity niobium (Nb) samples, including pieces from hot spot regions of a tested superconducting rf cavity that exhibit a high density of etch pits. Measured spectra are compared with density functional theory calculations of Raman-active, vibrational modes of possible surface Nb-O and Nb-H complexes. The Raman spectra inside particularly rough pits in all Nb samples show clear differences from surrounding areas, exhibiting enhanced intensity and sharp peaks. While some of the sharp peaks are consistent with calculated NbH and NbH2 modes, there is better overall agreement with C-H modes in chain-type hydrocarbons. Other spectra reveal two broader peaks attributed to amorphous carbon. Niobium foils annealed to >2000°C in high vacuum develop identical Raman peaks when subjected to cold working. Regions with enhanced C and O have also been found by SEM/EDX spectroscopy in the hot spot samples and cold-worked foils, corroborating the Raman results. Such regions with high concentrations of impurities are expected to suppress the local superconductivity and this may explain the correlation between hot spots in superconducting rf (SRF) cavities and the observation of a high density of surface pits. The origin of localized high carbon and hydrocarbon regions is unclear at present but it is suggested that particular processing steps in SRF cavity fabrication may be responsible.

  9. Universit'es de Paris 6 & Paris 7 -CNRS (UMR 7599) PR'EPUBLICATIONS DU LABORATOIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Paris 6

    ) "Zti-1 * * (Wti Wti-1) , together with the final data "Ytssn= g(Xsstn). Of course, given (Y= (ti ti-1) E Yti(Wti Wti-1)jFti-1 ss ss ss ss

  10. Bern, 5. Juli 2010 Nachhaltige Entwicklung an der Universitt Bern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    ...............................................................................................................37 3.3 World Trade Institute (WTI), Prof. Matthi

  11. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  12. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  13. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  14. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  15. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Introduction and Summary of Results; Facility Background; Facility Emissions; Atmospheric Dispersion and Deposition Modeling of Emissions; Human Health Risk Assessment; Screening Ecological Risk Assessment; Accident Analysis; Additional Analysis in Response to Peer Review Recommendations; References.

  16. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 2. Introduction. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume provides a description of the facility, and its location and setting in the three-state area of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia; an overview of previous risk assessments conducted by U.S. EPA for this site, including the preliminary assessment of inhalation exposure and the screening-level risk analyses of indirect exposure; and a summary of comments provided by the Peer Review Panel on the Project Plan.

  17. The impact of uncertainty and risk measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Soojin; Jo, Soojin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For example, the daily West Texas Intermediate (WTI) pricefrequency. Thus, daily West Texas In- termediate (WTI) is

  18. America and the Misshaping of a New World Order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunn, Giles; Gutiérrez-Jones, Carl

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the World Tribunal on Iraq (WTI) held in Istanbul in Juneinternational criminal law. The WTI heard testimony from ?

  19. MTHODES BASIQUES EN STATISTIQUE TD 2, 28 SEPTEMBRE 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Ismaël

    aléatoires Wti+1 - Wti sont indépendantes de loi N(0, ti+1 - ti). (1) Montrer que ce problème peut être

  20. Averaged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R. K. Mofrad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    , in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic dragAveraged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R 2009; published 26 March 2010 We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model

  1. ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89) Interaction of atmospheric and efflorescence equate to a change in state from solid to liquid as the relative humidity (RH) changes. RH can change due to an increase in the mixing ratio of water vapor ­ (equating to more collisions of water

  2. Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    .nguyen@postgrads.unisa.edu.au Albert Guill´en i F`abregas Engineering Department University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK guillen@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 lars.rasmussen@unisa.edu.au Abstract-- Power allocation with peak-to-average power con

  3. Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit

  4. ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy initial energy distributions. We show that wave energy is not stable, and instead scintillation is created

  5. Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem

  6. Neurocomputing 69 (2006) 10621065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstner, Wulfram

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Spike-triggered voltage; h-current; Damped voltage oscillations 1 oscillations. The model comprises a variable v for the membrane voltage, with time-scale tv and a secondNeurocomputing 69 (2006) 1062­1065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on membrane

  7. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  8. WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA M In geophysics, a homomorphic system is used to modelize the convolution of an emitted wavelet (source) with the impulse response of the earth into the sum of the log spectra of the wavelet and the earth's response

  9. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  10. Asymptotic scaling corrections in QCD with Wilson fermions from the 3-loop average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alles; A. Feo; H. Panagopoulos

    1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the 3-loop perturbative expansion of the average plaquette in lattice QCD with N_f massive Wilson fermions and gauge group SU(N). The corrections to asymptotic scaling in the corresponding energy scheme are also evaluated. We have also improved the accuracy of the already known pure gluonic results at 2 and 3 loops.

  11. Expansion and Growth of Structure Observables in a Macroscopic Gravity Averaged Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijenayake, Tharake

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of averaging inhomogeneities on expansion and large-scale structure growth observables using the exact and covariant framework of Macroscopic Gravity (MG). It is well-known that applying the Einstein's equations and spatial averaging do not commute and lead to the averaging problem. For the MG formalism applied to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, this gives an extra dynamical term encapsulated as an averaging density parameter denoted $\\Omega_A$. An exact isotropic cosmological solution of MG for the flat FLRW metric is already known in the literature, we derive here an anisotropic exact solution. Using the isotropic solution, we compare the expansion history to current data of distances to supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, CMB last scattering surface, and Hubble constant measurements, and find $-0.05 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.07$ (at the 95% CL). For the flat metric case this reduces to $-0.03 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.05$. We also find that the inclusion of this ter...

  12. Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haran, Murali

    Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections

  13. Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Bradley S.

    Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows V. Mejia and N. D of 53 lava flows from southern Patagonia (latitudes 49.5°­52.1°S) that include the Pali-Aike volcanic, 7 figures, 3 tables. Keywords: paleomagnetic secular variation; Patagonia; Pali-Aike Volcanic Field

  14. POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading. 11. Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch, 7th ed., Chap. 14. Introduction Polymers Polymers are a special in this experiment, or may be of different types. Polymers are very important in biological systems. For example

  15. Is Average Run Length to False Alarm Always an Informative Criterion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Yajun

    applications, including statistical process control (SPC), industrial quality control, target or signal- point detection. A partial list includes cumulative sum (CUSUM), Shewhart's control chart, exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, Shiyayev-Roberts proce- dures, window-limited control charts, and scan

  16. Average Consensus in the Presence of Delays in Directed Graph Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    @kth.se. #12;directed interconnection topology (digraph). The objective of a consensus problem is to have all values that the nodes initially posses (initial values). When the agents (asymptotically) reach agreement shown in [4] that, under a fixed interconnection topology, average consensus can be reached

  17. ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    . Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis

  18. Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

    1994-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.

  19. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  20. Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Seminario de Estadística e Investigación Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for cycle solution concepts, called web values, are introduced axiomatically, each one with respect to some specific recursive algorithms to calculate them. Additionally the efficiency and stability of web values are studied

  1. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  2. Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily. Instead of throwing paper and containers in the trash,recycle them in single-stream receptacles conveniently located throughout campus.These guidelines will help you recycle more and waste less. What's recyclable? · Mixed

  3. S79JUNE 2006STATE OFTHE CLIMATE IN 2005 | FIG. 6.28. European average temperature anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­90 average. Romania and Bulgaria received significant rainfall excesses during the year, with August totals above average in Romania (Fig. 6.29). A warm January, with areas of eastern Ukraine more than 5°C above

  4. New determination of the D0?K??+?0 and D0?K??+?+?? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, David M.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    New determination of the D0!K?!+!0 and D0!K?!+!+!? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

  5. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  6. Improving spot-scanning proton therapy patient specific quality assurance with HPlusQA, a second-check dose calculation engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackin, Dennis; Li, Yupeng; Taylor, Michael B.; Kerr, Matthew; Holmes, Charles; Sahoo, Narayan; Poenisch, Falk; Li, Heng; Lii, Jim; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the use of HPlusQA, spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT) dose calculation software developed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, as second-check dose calculation software for patient-specific quality assurance (PSQA). The authors also showed how HPlusQA can be used within the current PSQA framework.Methods: The authors compared the dose calculations of HPlusQA and the Eclipse treatment planning system with 106 planar dose measurements made as part of PSQA. To determine the relative performance and the degree of correlation between HPlusQA and Eclipse, the authors compared calculated with measured point doses. Then, to determine how well HPlusQA can predict when the comparisons between Eclipse calculations and the measured dose will exceed tolerance levels, the authors compared gamma index scores for HPlusQA versus Eclipse with those of measured doses versus Eclipse. The authors introduce the ??? transformation as a way to more easily compare gamma scores.Results: The authors compared measured and calculated dose planes using the relative depth, z/R × 100%, where z is the depth of the measurement and R is the proton beam range. For relative depths than less than 80%, both Eclipse and HPlusQA calculations were within 2 cGy of dose measurements on average. When the relative depth was greater than 80%, the agreement between the calculations and measurements fell to 4 cGy. For relative depths less than 10%, the Eclipse and HPlusQA dose discrepancies showed a negative correlation, ?0.21. Otherwise, the correlation between the dose discrepancies was positive and as large as 0.6. For the dose planes in this study, HPlusQA correctly predicted when Eclipse had and had not calculated the dose to within tolerance 92% and 79% of the time, respectively. In 4 of 106 cases, HPlusQA failed to predict when the comparison between measurement and Eclipse's calculation had exceeded the tolerance levels of 3% for dose and 3 mm for distance-to-agreement.Conclusions: The authors found HPlusQA to be reasonably effective (79%± 10%) in determining when the comparison between measured dose planes and the dose planes calculated by the Eclipse treatment planning system had exceeded the acceptable tolerance levels. When used as described in this study, HPlusQA can reduce the need for patient specific quality assurance measurements by 64%. The authors believe that the use of HPlusQA as a dose calculation second check can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the QA process.

  7. A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

  8. A gradient system on the quantum information space realizing the averaged learning equation of Hebb type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshio Uwano; Hiromi Yuya

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The averaged learning equation (ALEH) applicable to the principal component analyzer is studied from both quantum information geometry and dynamical system viewpoints. On the quantum information space (QIS), the space of regular density matrices endowed with the quantum SLD-Fisher metric, a gradient system is given as an extension of the ALEH; on the submanifold, consisting of the diagonal matrices, of the QIS, the gradient flow coincides with the ALEH up to a local diffeomorphism.

  9. Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellers, D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance By: David Sellers, Senior Engineer, Portland Energy Conservation Inc, Portland, Oregon ABSTRACT This paper discusses using basic... by contacting the author at: Dsellers@peci.org www.peci.org Phone: - 503-248-4636 extension 224 Mailing address through August 3, 2001 Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 921 SW Washington Street Suite 312 Portland, Oregon 97205 Mailing address after August 3...

  10. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  11. Average discharge rate representation of voice onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinex, D.G.; McDonald, L.P.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to synthesized stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT) were obtained. The syllables, heard as /ga/--/ka/ or /da/--/ta/, were similar to those previously used by others in psychophysical experiments with human and with chinchilla subjects. Average discharge rates of neurons tuned to the frequency region near the first formant generally increased at the onset of voicing, for VOTs longer than 20 ms. These rate increases were closely related to spectral amplitude changes associated with the onset of voicing and with the activation of the first formant; as a result, they provided accurate information about VOT. Neurons tuned to frequency regions near the second and third formants did not encode VOT in their average discharge rates. Modulations in the average rates of these neurons reflected spectral variations that were independent of VOT. The results are compared to other measurements of the peripheral encoding of speech sounds and to psychophysical observations suggesting that syllables with large variations in VOT are heard as belonging to one of only two phonemic categories.

  12. MHD processes during the cascade development of the neck and hot spot in an X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Stepniewski, W. [Kaliski Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Poland); Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from two-dimensional MHD simulations of X-pinch implosion. The simulations were performed in the (r, z) and (x, y) geometries for homogeneous (dense plasma) and heterogeneous (core-corona) loads. The formation of a minidiode, the development of a neck and an X-radiating hot spot, and the influence of the plasma corona on the implosion dynamics of the dense X-pinch plasma were investigated. For through simulations, the conical neck model was used, whereas a detailed analysis of the X-ray burst was performed in the parabolic neck model. The MHD processes occurring during the implosion of oblique shock waves and the onset of instability of the plasma column were examined. It is found that, due to the quasi-periodic character of these processes, the neck compression proceeds in a cascade fashion. The plasma state in a hot spot just before the break of the neck is analyzed, and the possibility of generating fast particle beams is considered.

  13. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  14. Limit Distribution of Averages over Unstable Periodic Orbits Forming Chaotic Attractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of representativeness of a single long unstable periodic orbit for properties of the chaotic attractor it is embedded in. Y. Saiki and M. Yamada [Phys. Rev. E 79, 015201(R) (2009)] have recently suggested the hypothesis that there exist a limit distribution of averages over unstable periodic orbits with given number of loops, N, which is not a Dirac delta-function for infinitely long orbits. In this paper we show that the limit distribution is actually a delta-function and standard deviations decay as 1/sqrt(N) for large enough N.

  15. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  16. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5: March 22, 2010 Average

  17. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  18. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  19. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  20. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  1. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of0023

  2. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices

  3. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices4

  4. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices44

  5. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices445

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West AverageMexico"

  7. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment ActivitiesAge Refining Air1,D O E /drivers toAverage

  8. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average Price

  9. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average

  10. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average

  11. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average.

  12. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices of

  13. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices

  14. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

  15. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  16. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  17. Conditional averaging on volumetric velocity fields for analysis of the pseudo-periodic organization of jet-in-crossflow vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric velocimetry measurements have been performed on a round jet in crossflow (JICF). Two kind of conditional averaging process are presented : a global conditional average (GCA) and a local conditional average (LCA). Vortices crossing the JICF symmetry plane are used to quantify the jet pseudo-periodicity leading to the GCA and LCA definitions. Because they make possible to improve the velocity field resolution as well as to significantly reduce the experimental noise, these conditional averages are an interesting and efficient way to study the instantaneous swirling structures of this instantaneous flow.

  18. Statistical Model Analysis of (n,p) Cross Sections and Average Energy For Fission Neutron Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odsuren, M.; Khuukhenkhuu, G. [Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of charged particle emission reaction cross sections for fast neutrons is important to both nuclear reactor technology and the understanding of nuclear reaction mechanisms. In particular, the study of (n,p) cross sections is necessary to estimate radiation damage due to hydrogen production, nuclear heating and transmutations in the structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. On the other hand, it is often necessary in practice to evaluate the neutron cross sections of the nuclides for which no experimental data are available.Because of this, we carried out the systematical analysis of known experimental (n,p) and (n,a) cross sections for fast neutrons and observed a systematical regularity in the wide energy interval of 6-20 MeV and for broad mass range of target nuclei. To explain this effect using the compound, pre-equilibrium and direct reaction mechanisms some formulae were deduced. In this paper, in the framework of the statistical model known experimental (n,p) cross sections averaged over the thermal fission neutron spectrum of U-235 are analyzed. It was shown that the experimental data are satisfactorily described by the statistical model. Also, in the case of (n,p) cross sections the effective average neutron energy for fission spectrum of U-235 was found to be around 3 MeV.

  19. A Multi-chain Measurements Averaging TDC Implemented in a 40 nm FPGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi Shen; Shubin Liu; Binxiang Qi; Qi An; Shengkai Liao; Chengzhi Peng; Weiyue Liu

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision and high resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a 40 nm fabrication process Virtex-6 FPGA is presented in this paper. The multi-chain measurements averaging architecture is used to overcome the resolution limitation determined by intrinsic cell delay of the plain single tapped-delay chain. The resolution and precision are both improved with this architecture. In such a TDC, the input signal is connected to multiple tapped-delay chains simultaneously (the chain number is M), and there is a fixed delay cell between every two adjacent chains. Each tapped-delay chain is just a plain TDC and should generate a TDC time for a hit input signal, so totally M TDC time values should be got for a hit signal. After averaging, the final TDC time is obtained. A TDC with 3 ps resolution (i.e. bin size) and 6.5 ps precision (i.e. RMS) has been implemented using 8 parallel tapped-delay chains. Meanwhile the plain TDC with single tapped-delay chain yields 24 ps resolution and 18 ps precision.

  20. Identification and characterization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein VP31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Li [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Xie Xixian [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China); Yang Feng [Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China)]. E-mail: mbiotech@public.xm.fj.cn

    2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a combination of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry, a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 31 kDa (termed as VP31) was identified from purified shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelope fraction. The resulting amino acid (aa) sequence matched an open reading frame (WSV340) of the WSSV genome. This ORF contained 783 nucleotides (nt), encoding 261 aa. A fragment of WSV340 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with a 6His-tag, and then specific antibody was raised. Western blot analysis and the immunoelectron microscope method (IEM) confirmed that VP31 was present exclusively in the viral envelope fraction. The neutralization experiment suggested that VP31 might play an important role in WSSV infectivity.

  1. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Sahul Hameed, A.S. [OIE Expert, OIE Reference Laboratory for WTD, C. Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509 (India); Kwang, Jimmy, E-mail: kwang@tll.org.s [Animal Health Biotechnology, Temasek Lifesciences Laboratory, 1 Research Link, National University of Singapore, 117604 (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  2. Coastal Dynamics 2013 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Coastal Dynamics 2013 1915 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES in coastal vegetated waters with short waves. The model adopts the 3-D phase-averaged shallow water flow mesh in the vertical direction. The flow model is coupled with a spectral wave deformation model called

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2002 1535 Error Statistics for Average Power Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Shuangqing

    for Average Power Measurements in Wireless Communication Systems Shuangqing Wei, Student Member, IEEE, and Dennis L. Goeckel, Member, IEEE Abstract--The measurement of the average received power is essential for power control and dynamic channel allocation in wireless communication systems. However, due

  4. New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body Adrian Dumitrescu Minghui Jiang Csaba D. T´oth March 14, 2011 Abstract The Fermat-Weber center of a planar body Q that for any convex body Q in the plane, the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of Q to the points

  5. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  6. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY Department of Statistics, University of precipitation (PoP) forecasts using this approach. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was introduced by Raftery et

  7. Spot Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Treatment Planning Technique and Analysis of Consequences of Rotational and Translational Alignment Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Jeff, E-mail: jmeye3@utsouthwestern.ed [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques; Amos, Richard [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Conventional proton therapy with passively scattered beams is used to treat a number of tumor sites, including prostate cancer. Spot scanning proton therapy is a treatment delivery means that improves conformal coverage of the clinical target volume (CTV). Placement of individual spots within a target is dependent on traversed tissue density. Errors in patient alignment perturb dose distributions. Moreover, there is a need for a rational planning approach that can mitigate the dosimetric effect of random alignment errors. We propose a treatment planning approach and then analyze the consequences of various simulated alignment errors on prostate treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten control patients with localized prostate cancer underwent treatment planning for spot scanning proton therapy. After delineation of the clinical target volume, a scanning target volume (STV) was created to guide dose coverage. Errors in patient alignment in two axes (rotational and yaw) as well as translational errors in the anteroposterior direction were then simulated, and dose to the CTV and normal tissues were reanalyzed. Results: Coverage of the CTV remained high even in the setting of extreme rotational and yaw misalignments. Changes in the rectum and bladder V45 and V70 were similarly minimal, except in the case of translational errors, where, as a result of opposed lateral beam arrangements, much larger dosimetric perturbations were observed. Conclusions: The concept of the STV as applied to spot scanning radiation therapy and as presented in this report leads to robust coverage of the CTV even in the setting of extreme patient misalignments.

  8. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  9. have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic approach to maintaining abstinence, the illness is ar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    have spotted. Drug addiction can be treated and abstinence achieved, and with a programmatic to treat a specific problem. This knowledge can assist the employee in making an informed choice from a list of ap- proved providers. If a managed care referral is made to a therapist to treat a problem

  10. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  11. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  12. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  13. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  14. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  15. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  16. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  17. Abstract crystals Department of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Arun

    is a normal crystal define a bijection si : B B by sib = ~f wti(b) i b, if wti(b) 0, ~e -wti(b) i b, if wti, b2 B2} with wti(b1 b2) = wti(b1) + wti(b2), i(b1 b2) = max{i(b1), i(b2) - wt(b1), i }, i(b1 b2

  18. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  19. Area-preserving maps models of gyro-averaged ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. da Fonseca; D. del-Castillo-Negrete; I. L. Caldas

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

  20. Optimal Heisenberg-style bounds for the average performance of arbitrary phase estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominic W. Berry; Michael J. W. Hall; Marcin Zwierz; Howard M. Wiseman

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate bound to the accuracy of phase estimates is often assumed to be given by the Heisenberg limit. Recent work seemed to indicate that this bound can be violated, yielding measurements with much higher accuracy than was previously expected. The Heisenberg limit can be restored as a rigorous bound to the accuracy provided one considers the accuracy averaged over the possible values of the unknown phase, as we have recently shown [Phys. Rev. A 85, 041802(R) (2012)]. Here we present an expanded proof of this result together with a number of additional results, including the proof of a previously conjectured stronger bound in the asymptotic limit. Other measures of the accuracy are examined, as well as other restrictions on the generator of the phase shifts. We provide expanded numerical results for the minimum error and asymptotic expansions. The significance of the results claiming violation of the Heisenberg limit is assessed, followed by a detailed discussion of the limitations of the Cramer-Rao bound.

  1. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  2. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  3. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  4. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  5. Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Joon Ho

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates how indoor daylight environments affect patient Average Length of Stay (ALOS), by evaluating and analyzing daylight levels in patient rooms in comparison to their ALOS. The patient ALOS data were taken at one general hospital...

  6. Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray A. Berry

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

  7. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  8. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, Devon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Page McAdams, H. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Physics, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20 Degree-Sign and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be averaged to sufficiently remove partial-pixel artifacts. MITSa7 does appear to subtly reduce the contrast of high-frequency 'edge' information, but the removal of partial-pixel artifacts makes the appearance of low-contrast, fine-detail anatomy even more conspicuous in MITSa7 slices. MITSa7 also appears to render simulated subtle 5 mm pulmonary nodules with greater visibility than MITS alone, in both the open lung and regions overlying the mediastinum. Finally, the MITSa7 technique reduces stochastic image variance, though the in-plane stochastic SNR (for very thin objects which do not span multiple MITS planes) is only improved at spatial frequencies between 0.05 and 0.20 cycles/mm. Conclusions: The MITSa7 method is an improvement over traditional single-plane MITS for thoracic imaging and the pulmonary nodule detection task, and thus the authors plan to use the MITSa7 approach for all future MITS research at the authors' institution.

  9. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  10. Improving the hot-spot pressure and demonstrating ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic deuterium–tritium implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Bonino, M. J.; Collins, T. J. B.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Follett, R. K.; Forrest, C. J.; Froula, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Janezic, R.; Kelly, J. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaching ignition in direct-drive (DD) inertial confinement fusion implosions requires achieving central pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. The OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is used to study the physics of implosions that are hydrodynamically equivalent to the ignition designs on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)]. It is shown that the highest hot-spot pressures (up to 40 Gbar) are achieved in target designs with a fuel adiabat of ? ? 4, an implosion velocity of 3.8?×?10{sup 7}?cm/s, and a laser intensity of ?10{sup 15}?W/cm{sup 2}. These moderate-adiabat implosions are well understood using two-dimensional hydrocode simulations. The performance of lower-adiabat implosions is significantly degraded relative to code predictions, a common feature between DD implosions on OMEGA and indirect-drive cryogenic implosions on the NIF. Simplified theoretical models are developed to gain physical understanding of the implosion dynamics that dictate the target performance. These models indicate that degradations in the shell density and integrity (caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the target acceleration) coupled with hydrodynamics at stagnation are the main failure mechanisms in low-adiabat designs. To demonstrate ignition hydrodynamic equivalence in cryogenic implosions on OMEGA, the target-design robustness to hydrodynamic instability growth must be improved by reducing laser-coupling losses caused by cross beam energy transfer.

  11. Plasmon Mapping in Metallic Nanostructures and its Application to Single Molecule Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: Imaging Electromagnetic Hot-Spots and Analyte Location

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camden, Jon P

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A major component of this proposal is to elucidate the connection between optical and electron excitation of plasmon modes in metallic nanostructures. These accomplishments are reported: developed a routine protocol for obtaining spatially resolved, low energy EELS spectra, and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectra from the same nanostructures.; correlated optical scattering spectra and plasmon maps obtained using STEM/EELS.; and imaged electromagnetic hot spots responsible for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SMSERS).

  12. An inheritance and cytological study of angular leaf spot resistance in the F? generation of a gossypium three-species hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, Willis Warren

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions of natural and artificial infection. Resistance has been transmitted to selections from hybrids of Stoneville 20 with susceptible varieties and to their backcrosses. The results of genetic studies by Blank (1949) and Bird and Blank (1951) suggest..................... ...................... .. 19 2. Distribution of F2 progeny of ZJ?1 x Deltapine among angular leaf spot grades for number of days from inocula? tion to infection ........................... ? ? ? ? ? 20 3* Distribution of the disease grades of individual plants in F2...

  13. Quality of Life and Toxicity From Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Thomas J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek; Nguyen, Quyhn Nhu; Mathai, Benson [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ron; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Amos, Richard A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States); Mahmood, Usama; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.; Hoffman, Karen E.; McGuire, Sean E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K., E-mail: aklee@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report quality of life (QOL)/toxicity in men treated with proton beam therapy for localized prostate cancer and to compare outcomes between passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT) and spot-scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer enrolled on a prospective QOL protocol with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up were reviewed. Comparative groups were defined by technique (PSPT vs SSPT). Patients completed Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaires at baseline and every 3-6 months after proton beam therapy. Clinically meaningful differences in QOL were defined as ?0.5 × baseline standard deviation. The cumulative incidence of modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ?2 gastrointestinal (GI) or genitourinary (GU) toxicity and argon plasma coagulation were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 226 men received PSPT, and 65 received SSPT. Both PSPT and SSPT resulted in statistically significant changes in sexual, urinary, and bowel Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite summary scores. Only bowel summary, function, and bother resulted in clinically meaningful decrements beyond treatment completion. The decrement in bowel QOL persisted through 24-month follow-up. Cumulative grade ?2 GU and GI toxicity at 24 months were 13.4% and 9.6%, respectively. There was 1 grade 3 GI toxicity (PSPT group) and no other grade ?3 GI or GU toxicity. Argon plasma coagulation application was infrequent (PSPT 4.4% vs SSPT 1.5%; P=.21). No statistically significant differences were appreciated between PSPT and SSPT regarding toxicity or QOL. Conclusion: Both PSPT and SSPT confer low rates of grade ?2 GI or GU toxicity, with preservation of meaningful sexual and urinary QOL at 24 months. A modest, yet clinically meaningful, decrement in bowel QOL was seen throughout follow-up. No toxicity or QOL differences between PSPT and SSPT were identified. Long-term comparative results in a larger patient cohort are warranted.

  14. The giant star of the symbiotic system YY Her: Rotation, Tidal wave, Solar-type cycle and Spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Formiggini; Elia M. Leibowitz

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the historical light curve of the symbiotic star YY Her, from 1890 up to December 2005. A secular declining trend is detected, at a rate of ~.01 magn in 1000 d, suggesting that the system could belong to the sub-class of symbiotic novae. Several outburst events are superposed on this slow decline. Three independent periodicities are identified in the light curve. A quasi-periodicity of 4650.7 d is detected for the outburst occurrence. We suggest that it is a signature of a solar-type magnetic dynamo cycle in the giant component. A period of 593.2 d modulates the quiescent light curve and it is identified as the binary period of the system. During outburst events the system shows a stable periodic oscillation of 551.4 d. We suggest that it is the rotation period of the giant.The secondary minima detected at some epochs of quiescence are probably due to dark spots on the surface of the rotating giant. The difference between the frequencies of these two last periods is the frequency of a tidal wave in the outer layers of the giant. A period which is a beat between the magnetic cycle and the tidal wave period is also apparent in the light curve. YY Her is a third symbiotic system exhibiting these cycles in their light curve, suggesting that a magnetic dynamo process is prevalent in the giant components of symbiotic stars, playing an important role in the outburst mechanism of some of these systems.

  15. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab (for a single 2D gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 9. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37

  16. Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although nearly any SDS-PAGE system can be utilized upstream of an LC-MS analysis, the DPCF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Directions for in-gel tryptic digestions of coomassie-stained 1D Bands and 2D Spots. NOTE: Although digestion should be done in a BSC or laminar flow hood. 2. Wear nitrile (not latex) gloves. 3. Wear a lab gel spot, use 25-30 µL of 10 ng/µL trypsin). 5. Digest overnight for 16-18 hours at 37°C. 6. Following

  17. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kerosene or diesel fuel oil reduced the stand of the grass 95 percent following 4 applications in each of 4 tests. Ten thousand gallons of this mixture were used at College Station for crown-oiling scattered second gowth Johnsongrass in 49 1 acres... and kerosene kill tender second-growth ~hnsongrass when temperatures are high. lowever, they are slow in killing the grass uring low temperatures and when the grass .ears the boot stage. Oil-soluble dinitro and :her proved fortifiers can be added to diesel...

  18. Spot-spraying Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, H. E.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphtha1 None. Toxicity greater than needed for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts under most conditions. Diesel fuel None. Toxicity low. Reliable oil' or for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts kerosene1 only during hot weather. Use dies e 1 and kerosene inter...- changeably in mixed sprays. '/z naphtha None. Reliable for crown-oiling l/z diesel 6-inch sprouts under most con- ditions. C-56 in C-56 (hexachlorocyclopenta- kerosene diene)' increases penetration of plant tissue. 1 qt. C-56. Toxicity equal to naphtha...

  19. Audio Spots | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshley BoyleAn overheadTechnical1AttendeesNews

  20. Implementation Shortfall One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has ruled the algorithmic trading world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in the fact that it does not require such cost predictions. VWAP vs. Arrival Price So how does arrival priceImplementation Shortfall ­ One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has year toward using decision price, or implementation shortfall, algorithms. ITG®'s Hitesh Mittal

  1. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA’s High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  2. A STABILIZED VOLUME-AVERAGING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA AND BINARY ALLOY SOLIDIFICATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    A STABILIZED VOLUME-AVERAGING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA AND BINARY ALLOY of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 188 Frank H. T. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 algorithm is presented for the analysis of flow in porous media and in the solidification of binary alloys

  3. Quick Reference for Employers A paid internship benefitting both employer and graduate. The average term of the internship is 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    ;.................................................................................................................................. A paid internship benefitting both employer and graduate. The average term of the internship is 12 weeks that the internship will lead to a permanent position, and in many cases this occurs. However, there is no obligation to convert an internship into a permanent position and this programme gives you an ideal opportunity to trial

  4. 1428 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Digital Average Current-Mode Controller for DCDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controls the output power, while an internal (fast) loop controls the current. This paper introduces a digital average current mode controller for dc power supplies in PVD applica- tions. The controller control loop enable opera- tion over wide ranges of output power and voltage. The proposed control

  5. Ph.D. Theses 1. M. Dasgupta Study of cross section and average angular momenta in fusion reactions of 28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Ph.D. Theses 1990-2013 1. M. Dasgupta Study of cross section and average angular momenta in fusion (TIFR, 1992) 2. Pragya Singh Spectroscopy of high spin nuclear states of 92,91,90 Mo excited by heavy collisions (TIFR, 1993) 6. A.K. Saxena Studies of neutron emission in heavy ion induced fusion

  6. Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    35 Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo- ratory for testing one particularly promising alternative to fossil fuels: solar energy. In contrast to fossil fuels as much energy strikes the earth in the form of solar radiation as is used in a whole year throughout

  7. Econometric and Neural Network Analysis of the Labor Productivity and Average Gross Earnings Indices in the Romanian Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Econometric and Neural Network Analysis of the Labor Productivity and Average Gross Earnings and models that were used consist of several lag econometric models, ARIMA processes, as well as feed forward AGEI and LPI. Key-Words: - labor productivity, econometric model, ARIMA, VAR, neural network, forecast

  8. Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. The streak camera is operated at a sweep speed of up to 8 ps/mm, shot-to-shot jitter is less than 1 ps, but have an internal jitter more than a few tens of picoseconds. This jitter is due to the statistical

  9. The impact of uncertainty and risk measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Soojin; Jo, Soojin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price series begins in 1983,West Texas In- termediate (WTI) is used to estimate theof data sets by using WTI for both the main VAR and realized

  10. Classification and characterization of topological insulators and superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mong, Roger

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weak topological insulators (WTI) . . . . . 1.4 Topologicalweak topological insulators (WTI). The surfaces of STIs haveSTI STM TI TRIM/TRIMs TRS TKNN VPT WTI one-dimension, two-

  11. Animal-Vehicle Collision Data Collection Throughout the United States and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huijser, Marcel P.; Wagner, Meredith E.; Hardy, Amanda; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Fuller, Julie A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Montana State University (WTI-MSU), P.O. Box 174250,and population dynamics. At WTI-MSU, Julie worked withroad ecology projects at WTI-MSU. She is currently working

  12. Large-Scale Variability Characterization and Robust Design Techniques for Nanoscale SRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zheng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.22 Definition of WTV and WTI from measured N-DD . The write trip current (WTI) is defined as the currentthe definitions of WTV and WTI on the N-curve. One important

  13. 354 2010 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference ISSCC 2010 / SESSION 19 / HIGH-PERFORMANCE EMBEDDED MEMORY / 19.7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Borivoje

    .92) with the write trip current (WTI) met- ric. Although WTI is a static current metric [4], it reflects dynamic WTI, however, requires access to internal nodes, which is impractical in dense SRAM arrays. Figure 19

  14. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  15. Temperature-averaged and total free-free Gaunt factors for $\\kappa$ and Maxwellian distributions of electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Avillez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. Optically thin plasmas may deviate from thermal equilibrium and thus, electrons (and ions) are no longer described by the Maxwellian distribution. Instead they can be described by $\\kappa$-distributions. The free-free spectrum and radiative losses depend on the temperature-averaged (over the electrons distribution) and total Gaunt factors, respectively. Thus, there is a need to calculate and make available these factors to be used by any software that deals with plasma emission. Methods. We recalculated the free-free Gaunt factor for a wide range of energies and frequencies using hypergeometric functions of complex arguments and the Clenshaw recurrence formula technique combined with approximations whenever the difference between the initial and final electron energies is smaller than $10^{-10}$ in units of $z^2Ry$. We used double and quadruple precisions. The temperature- averaged and total Gaunt factors calculations make use of the Gauss-Laguerre integration with 128 nodes. Results. The temperature-av...

  16. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  17. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  18. Coarse-grained transport of a turbulent flow via moments of the Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Rafail V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we introduce new coarse-grained variables for a turbulent flow in the form of moments of its Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation. With the exception of the collision moments, the transport equations for the new variables are identical to the usual moment equations, and thus naturally lend themselves to the variety of already existing closure methods. Under the anelastic turbulence approximation, we derive equations for the Reynolds-averaged turbulent fluctuations around the coarse-grained state. We show that the global relative entropy of the coarse-grained state is bounded from above by the Reynolds average of the fine-grained global relative entropy, and thus obeys the time decay bound of Desvillettes and Villani. This is similar to what is observed in the rarefied gas dynamics, which makes the Grad moment closure a good candidate for truncating the hierarchy of the coarse-grained moment equations. We also show that, under additional assumptions on the form of the coarse-grained collision terms, one a...

  19. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  20. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  1. Discrete Time Approximation and Monte-Carlo Simulation of Backward Stochastic Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Paris 6

    , ~Z ti-1 )(ti - ti-1) - ~Zti-1 · (Wti - Wti-1 ) , together with the final data ~Y tn = g(X tn-time approximation (Y , Z) : Y tn = g X tn , Z ti-1 = (ti - ti-1)-1 E Y ti (Wti - Wti-1 )|Fti-1 Y ti-1 = E Y ti, involved in the above discretization scheme, reduce to the regression of Y ti and Y ti (Wti - Wti-1

  2. Interfacial analysis of the ex-situ reinforced phase of a laser spot welded Zr-based bulk metallic glass composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Huei-Sen, E-mail: huei@isu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China); Jang, Jason Shian-Ching [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Dong-Yih [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, 81148, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Gu, Jhen-Wang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 84001, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To study the interfacial reaction of the ex-situ reinforced phase (Ta) of a Zr-based ((Zr{sub 48}Cu{sub 36}Al{sub 8}Ag{sub 8})Si{sub 0.75} + Ta{sub 5}) bulk metallic glass composite after laser spot welding, the interfacial regions of the reinforced phases located at specific zones in the welds including the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were investigated. Specimen preparation from the specific zones for transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed using the focused ion beam technique. The test results showed that the reinforced phases in the parent material, weld fusion zone and heat affected zone were all covered by an interfacial layer. From microstructure analysis, and referring to the phase diagram, it was clear that the thin layers are an intermetallic compound ZrCu phase. However, due to their different formation processes, those layers show the different morphologies or thicknesses. - Highlights: • An ex-situ Zr-based BMG composite was laser spot welded. • The interfacial regions of the RPs located at PM, WFZ and HAZ were investigated. • The RPs in the PM, WFZ and HAZ were all covered by a ZrCu interfacial layer. • Due to different formation processes, those layers show the different morphology.

  3. Spot-Scanning Proton Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Chordoma and Chondrosarcoma: Clinical Outcome of 26 Patients Treated at Paul Scherrer Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rombi, Barbara [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); ATreP (Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy), Trento (Italy)] [Provincial Agency for Proton Therapy; Italy; Ares, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.ares@psi.ch [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Schneider, Ralf; Goitein, Gudrun; Staab, Adrian; Albertini, Francesca; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J. [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Timmermann, Beate [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland) [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); WestGerman Proton Therapy Center Essen (Germany)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical results of fractionated spot-scanning proton radiation therapy (PT) in 26 pediatric patients treated at Paul Scherrer Institute for chordoma (CH) or chondrosarcoma (CS) of the skull base or axial skeleton. Methods and Materials: Between June 2000 and June 2010, 19 CH and 7 CS patients with tumors originating from the skull base (17) and the axial skeleton (9) were treated with PT. Mean age at the time of PT was 13.2 years. The mean prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) for CH and 66 Gy (RBE) for CS, at a dose of 1.8-2.0 Gy (RBE) per fraction. Results: Mean follow-up was 46 months. Actuarial 5-year local control (LC) rates were 81% for CH and 80% for CS. Actuarial 5-year overall survival (OS) was 89% for CH and 75% for CS. Two CH patients had local failures: one is alive with evidence of disease, while the other patient succumbed to local recurrence in the surgical pathway. One CS patient died of local progression of the disease. No high-grade late toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Spot-scanning PT for pediatric CH and CS patients resulted in excellent clinical outcomes with acceptable rates of late toxicity. Longer follow-up time and larger cohort are needed to fully assess tumor control and late effects of treatment.

  4. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 7. Accident analysis; selection and assessment of potential release scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this part of the assessment, several accident scenarios are identified that could result in significant releases of chemicals into the environment. These scenarios include ruptures of storage tanks, large magnitude on-site spills, mixing of incompatible wastes, and off-site releases caused by tranpsortation accidents. In evaluating these scenarios, both probability and consequence are assessed, so that likelihood of occurrence is coupled with magnitude of effect in characterizing short term risks.

  5. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) Hazardous Waste Incineration Facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 3. Characterization of the nature and magnitude of emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Introduction; Data Used in Characterizing Emissions; Incinerator Stack Emissions; Fugitive Emissions; Uncertainty in Emissions Characterization; and References.

  6. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 4. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition modeling of emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Introduction; Technical Description of ISC-COMPDEP; Modeling Input Parameters; Discussion of Modeling Results; Summary and Major Assumptions; and References.

  7. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incineration facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 8. Additional analysis in response to peer review recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Introduction; Combustion Engineering; Air Dispersion and Deposition Modeling; Accident Analysis; Exposure Assessment; Toxicology; and Ecological Risk Assessment.

  8. In the Beginnings: The Apotropaic Use of Scriptural Incipits in Late Antique Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanzo, Joseph Emanuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    katafugh~j tou~ sw~sai/ me. wti krataiwsij k(ai\\ ) katafugh/read me); me (read moi); wti (read o#ti) krataiwsij (read

  9. Effective Rural ITS Outreach: The California Program for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowen, Patrick

    stakeholder involvement methods, and examples of how the Western Transportation Institute (WTI), Montana State were prioritized to local conditions, WTI and Caltrans conducted a of pilot workshop. Based

  10. Discrete-time approximation of doubly reflected BSDEs Jean-Franois Chassagneux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    } such that and define (Y , ¯Z) by the backward induction: ¯Z ti = (ti+1 - ti)-1 E (Wti+1 - Wti )(Y ti+1 ) | Fti

  11. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental Impact Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philliber, Jeff

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glenwood, New Mexico, [WTI 02-1], 1995. Zeiner, D.C. , W.F.Manual, Glenwood, New Mexico, [WTI 02-1], 1995. Yee, Henry,

  12. Universitat Tubingen Mathematisches Institut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tübingen, Universität

    i=0 Wi (Wti+1 - Wti ) des Integrals t 0 WsdWs, wobei i = (1 - )ti + ti+1. Zeigen Sie lim 0 R = 1 2 W

  13. Generalized fractional smoothness and Lp-variation of BSDEs with non-Lipschitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -distance between the stochastic integral T 0 ZsdWs and its discrete counterpart n i=1 Zti-1 (Wti -Wti-1 ) is upper

  14. R.H. Shumway and D.S. Stoffer Time Series Analysis and Its Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1) and below: Write wti instead of wit, and write cov(wti, wtj) instead of cov(wit, wjt) for consistency. · p

  15. DC SQUID spectrometers for nuclear quadrupole and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TonThat, D.H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as dpJdt + O, where The thermal transition rates Wti can bewritten as Wti = By Wji , where By is the Boltzmann ratio (

  16. Menace and Management: Power in the Human-Monkey Social Worlds of Delhi and Shimla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, Daniel Allen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    time. According to the WTI report, the monkey facilities at86 All of this, claims the WTI report, was jeopardized by

  17. BROWNIAN MOTION INDEXED BY A TIME SCALE DAVID GROW AND SUMAN SANYAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Suman

    on the proba- bility space (C0[0, ), P) and the increments Wti - Wti-1 are normally distributed with mean zero

  18. Analyzing Static and Dynamic Write Margin for Nanometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    : Static Approaches `0' `1' BL Sweep (VBL) N-Curve (WTV,WTI) WM WM WTI WTV #12;10/6/2008 ISLPED 2008 5

  19. Beating the Averages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ... didn't need to be secretive, because even if our competitors had known we were using Lisp, they wouldn't have understood why: “If they were that smart they'

  20. DOE Average Results

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | DepartmentIOffshore WindEnergy's FY2016Appoints DOE

  1. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91 8.10

  2. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91

  3. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47

  4. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14 11.39

  5. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14

  6. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06

  7. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 Monthly Annual

  8. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662 564

  9. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662

  10. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease3.01 12.33 11.85 10.97

  11. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket Module8.28

  12. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket

  13. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  14. Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskal, P; Silarski, M; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, L; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Raczy?ski, L; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Salabura, P; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wi?licki, W; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a novel method of hit time and hit position reconstruction in long scintillator detectors. We take advantage of the fact that for this kind of detectors amplitude and shape of registered signals depends strongly on the position where particle hit the detector. The reconstruction is based on determination of the degree of similarity between measured and averaged signals stored in a library for a set of well-defined positions along the scintillator. Preliminary results of validation of the introduced method with experimental data obtained by means of the double strip prototype of the J-PET detector are presented.

  15. Burnup calculation by the method of first-flight collision probabilities using average chords prior to the first collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpushkin, T. Yu., E-mail: timka83@yandex.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to calculate the burnup of materials of cells and fuel assemblies using the matrices of first-flight neutron collision probabilities rebuilt at a given burnup step is presented. A method to rebuild and correct first collision probability matrices using average chords prior to the first neutron collision, which are calculated with the help of geometric modules of constructed stochastic neutron trajectories, is described. Results of calculation of the infinite multiplication factor for elementary cells with a modified material composition compared to the reference one as well as calculation of material burnup in the cells and fuel assemblies of a VVER-1000 are presented.

  16. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  17. Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Moskal; N. G. Sharma; M. Silarski; T. Bednarski; P. Bia?as; J. Bu?ka; E. Czerwi?ski; A. Gajos; D. Kami?ska; L. Kap?on; A. Kochanowski; G. Korcyl; J. Kowal; P. Kowalski; T. Kozik; W. Krzemie?; E. Kubicz; Sz. Nied?wiecki; M. Pa?ka; L. Raczy?ski; Z. Rudy; O. Rundel; P. Salabura; A. S?omski; J. Smyrski; A. Strzelecki; A. Wieczorek; W. Wi?licki; I. Wochlik; M. Zieli?ski; N. Zo?

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a novel method of hit time and hit position reconstruction in long scintillator detectors. We take advantage of the fact that for this kind of detectors amplitude and shape of registered signals depends strongly on the position where particle hit the detector. The reconstruction is based on determination of the degree of similarity between measured and averaged signals stored in a library for a set of well-defined positions along the scintillator. Preliminary results of validation of the introduced method with experimental data obtained by means of the double strip prototype of the J-PET detector are presented.

  18. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA–

  19. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  20. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.