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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Estimating Averaging Times for Point and Path-Averaged Measurements of Turbulence Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty over how long to average turbulence variables to achieve some desired level of statistical stability is a common concern in boundary-layer meteorology. Several models exist that predict averaging times for measurements of variances ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

On Lateral Dispersion Coefficients as Functions of Averaging Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plume dispersion coefficients are discussed in terms of single-particle and relative diffusion, and are investigated as functions of averaging time. To demonstrate the effects of averaging time on the relative importance of various dispersion ...

C. M. Sheih

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Average Predictability Time. Part II: Seamless Diagnoses of Predictability on Multiple Time Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new method for diagnosing predictability on multiple time scales without time averaging. The method finds components that maximize the average predictability time (APT) of a system, where APT is defined as the integral of ...

Timothy DelSole; Michael K. Tippett

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Average waiting time profiles of uniform DQDB model  

SciTech Connect

The Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) system consists of a linear arrangement of N nodes that communicate with each other using two contra-flowing buses; the nodes use an extremely simple protocol to send messages on these buses. This simple, but elegant, system has been found to be very challenging to analyze. We consider a simple and uniform abstraction of this model to highlight the fairness issues in terms of average waiting time. We introduce a new approximation method to analyze the performance of DQDB system in terms of the average waiting time of a node expressed as a function of its position. Our approach abstracts the intimate relationship between the load of the system and its fairness characteristics, and explains all basic behavior profiles of DQDB observed in previous simulation. For the uniform DQDB with equal distance between adjacent nodes, we show that the system operates under three basic behavior profiles and a finite number of their combinations that depend on the load of the network. Consequently, the system is not fair at any load in terms of the average waiting times. In the vicinity of a critical load of 1 {minus} 4/N, the uniform network runs into a state akin to chaos, where its behavior fluctuates from one extreme to the other with a load variation of 2/N. Our analysis is supported by simulation results. We also show that the main theme of the analysis carries over to the general (non-uniform) DQDB; by suitably choosing the inter-node distances, the DQDB can be made fair around some loads, but such system will become unfair as the load changes.

Rao, N.S.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maly, K.; Olariu, S.; Dharanikota, S.; Zhang, L.; Game, D. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

5

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion of generalized limit (see e.g. [2, 17]). In any Date: October 3-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation with ensemble av- erages. Finite-time averages have

Rosa, Ricardo M. S.

6

On the Average Value of Correlated Time Series, with Applications in Dendroclimatology and Hydrometeorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a number of areas of applied climatology, time series are either averaged to enhance a common underlying signal or combined to produce area averages. How well, then, does the average of a finite number (N) of time series represent the ...

T. M. L. Wigley; K. R. Briffa; P. D. Jones

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are either based on an ergodic hypothesis (see e.g. [23]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion is to derive similar estimates directly for finite-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation

Jolly, Michael S.

8

KOLMOGOROV THEORY VIA FINITE-TIME AVERAGES C. FOIAS1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]) or through a mathematically esoteric notion of generalized limit (see e.g. [2, 17]). In any Date: May 2, 2005 estimates directly for finite-time averages without resorting to any esoteric relation with ensemble av

Temam, Roger

9

Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time-averaged fluxes of lead and fallout radionuclides to sediments in Florida Bay J. A. Robbins,1 between the maximum atmospheric radionuclide fallout and peaks in sediment temporal records of 137 Cs

10

Local volume-time averaged equations of motion for dispersed, turbulent, multiphase flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In most flows of liquids and their vapors, the phases are dispersed randomly in both space and time. These dispersed flows can be described only statistically or in terms of averages. Local volume-time averaging is used here to derive a self-consistent set of equations governing momentum and energy transfer in dispersed, turbulent, multiphase flows. The empiricisms required for use with these equations are the subject of current research.

Sha, W.T.; Slattery, J.C.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Time Scales and Variability of Area-Averaged Tropical Oceanic Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis of time series of area-averaged rainfall over the oceans has been conducted around the diurnal time scale. The results of our analysis can be applied directly to the problem of establishing the magnitude of expected errors ...

Kyung-Sup Shin; Gerald R. North; Yoo-Shin Ahn; Phillip A. Arkin

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter [Advanced Energy Systems, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, FI-02015 HUT (Finland)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Global Distribution of the Time-Average Wind Stress Curl from NSCAT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-average wind stress curl field for the global ocean is computed from the wind retrievals of the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) mission spanning the period 1 October 1996–29 June 1997. Particular attention is paid to large-amplitude, small-...

Ralph F. Milliff; Jan Morzel

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Impacts of time-of-day on average electricity prices and utility load factors  

SciTech Connect

A degree of rationalism is brought to the rate debate between marginalist time of day advocates and embedded cost traditionalists by an empirical analysis. Studies show that neither side can claim victory. The results show that blanket statements cannot be made concerning the impacts of TOD in demand and load factor, and that rates reduce only slightly. This paper summarizes the impacts of marginal cost TOD rates on peak demand, generation, load factor, and the average price of electricity. The methodology includes calculation of marginal cost, prediction of effect of TOD on load shapes by means of a Load Curve Forecasting model, and a production costing model. A matrix shows that impacts of TOD rates on individual utilities will depend on the specific utility customer mix, load shape, and generation mix.

Chamberlin, J.H.; Dickson, C.T.; Spann, R.M.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARECIBO MULTI-FREQUENCY TIME-ALIGNED PULSAR AVERAGE-PROFILE AND POLARIZATION DATABASE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present Arecibo time-aligned, total intensity profiles for 46 pulsars over an unusually wide range of radio frequencies and multi-frequency, polarization-angle density diagrams, and/or polarization profiles for 57 pulsars at some or all of the frequencies 50, 111/130, 430, and 1400 MHz. The frequency-dependent dispersion delay has been removed in order to align the profiles for study of their spectral evolution, and wherever possible the profiles of each pulsar are displayed on the same longitude scale. Most of the pulsars within Arecibo's declination range that are sufficiently bright for such spectral or single pulse analysis are included in this survey. The calibrated single pulse sequences and average profiles are available by web download for further study.

Hankins, Timothy H. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rankin, Joanna M. [Physics Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 (United States)], E-mail: thankins@nrao.edu, E-mail: Joanna.Rankin@uvm.edu

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Time Series of Daily Averaged Cloud Fractions over Landfast First-Year Sea Ice from Multiple Data Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time series of daily averaged cloud fractions (CFs) collected from different platforms—two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on Terra and Aqua satellites, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)...

Xin Jin; John M. Hanesiak; David G. Barber

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Test for Inhomogeneous Variance in Time-averaged Temperature Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many climatic applications, including detection of climate change, require temperature time series that are free from discontinuities introduced by nonclimatic events such as relocation of weather stations. Although much attention has been ...

Mary W. Downton; Richard W. Katz

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The Modeled Response of the Mean Winter Circulation to Zonally Averaged SST Trends  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the atmospheric winter circulation in both hemispheres to changes in the meridional gradient of sea surface temperature (SST) is examined in an atmospheric general circulation model. Climatological SSTs are employed for the ...

Gudrun Magnusdottir

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The average running time of an algorithm as a midpoint between fuzzy sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2003, Nieto and Torres introduced the notions of segment and midpoint between fuzzy sets with the aim of giving applications to medicine [J.J. Nieto, A. Torres, Midpoints for fuzzy sets and their application in medicine, Artif. Intell. Med. 27 (2003) ... Keywords: Asymmetric distance, Fuzzy set, Midpoint, Running time of computing, Weighted maximum distance

Pedro Tirado; Oscar Valero

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method and apparatus for measuring response time  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

Johanson, E.W.; August, C.

1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method and apparatus for measuring response time  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring the response time of an electrical instrument which generates an output signal in response to the application of a specified input, wherein the output signal varies as a function of time and when subjected to a step input approaches a steady-state value, comprises the steps of: (a) applying a step input of predetermined value to the electrical instrument to generate an output signal; (b) simultaneously starting a timer; (c) comparing the output signal to a reference signal to generate a stop signal when the output signal is substantially equal to the reference signal, the reference signal being a specified percentage of the steady-state value of the output signal corresponding to the predetermined value of the step input; and (d) applying the stop signal when generated to stop the timer.

Johanson, Edward W. (New Lenox, IL); August, Charles (Darien, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage systems were originally designed to shift the on-peak cooling production to off-peak cooling production to reduce the on-peak demand. Based on the current electricity charging structure, the reduction of both on-peak and off-peak demands is becoming an exceedingly important issue. Reduction of both on-peak and off-peak demands can also extend the life span and defer or eliminate the replacement of power transformers due to potential shortage of building power capacity with anticipated equipment load increases. The next day daily average electricity demand is a critical set point to operate chillers and associated pumps at the appropriate time. For this paper, a mathematic analysis was conducted for annual daily average cooling of a building and three real-time building load forecasting models were developed. They are first-order autogressive model, random walk model and linear regression model. Finally, the comparison of results show the random walk model provides the best forecast.

Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Residential Real-time Price Response Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric industry is gaining experience with innovative price responsive demand pilots and limited roll-outs to customers. One of these pilots is investigating real-time pricing signals to engage end-use systems and local distributed generation and storage in a distributed optimization process. Attractive aspects about the approach include strong scalability characteristics, simplified interfaces between automation devices, and the adaptability to integrate a wide variety of devices and systems. Experience in this nascent field is revealing a rich array of for engineering decisions and the application of complexity theory. To test the decisions, computer simulations are used to reveal insights about design, demand elasticity, and the limits of response (including consumer fatigue). Agent-based approaches lend themselves well in the simulation to modeling the participation and interaction of each piece of equipment on a distribution feeder. This paper discusses rate design and simulation experiences at the distribution feeder level where consumers and their HVAC systems and water heaters on a feeder receive real-time pricing signals.

Widergren, Steven E.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chassin, David P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Pratt, Robert G.

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fault-Tolerant Average Execution Time Optimization for General-Purpose Multi-Processor System-On-Chips, Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract 1 Fault-tolerance is due to the semiconductor technology development important, not only for safety-critical systems but also for general-purpose (non-safety critical) systems. However, instead of guaranteeing that deadlines always are met, it is for general-purpose systems important to minimize the average execution time (AET) while ensuring fault-tolerance. For a given job and a soft (transient) error probability, we define mathematical formulas for AET that includes bus communication overhead for both voting (active replication) and rollback-recovery with checkpointing (RRC). And, for a given multi-processor system-on-chip (MPSoC), we define integer linear programming (ILP) models that minimize AET including bus communication overhead when: (1) selecting the number of checkpoints when using RRC, (2) finding the number of processors and job-to-processor assignment when using voting, and (3) defining fault-tolerance scheme (voting or RRC) per job and defining its usage for each job. Experiments demonstrate significant savings in AET. I.

Mikael Väyrynen; Virendra Singh; Erik Larsson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

HYBRID GREY RELATIONAL ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND AUTO REGRESSIVE INTEGRATED MOVING AVERAGE MODEL FOR FORECASTING TIME-SERIES DATA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to develop a new hybrid model by combining a linear and nonlinear model for forecasting time-series data. The proposed model (GRANN_ARIMA) integrates nonlinear grey relational artificial neural network (GRANN) and a linear autoregressive ...

Roselina Sallehuddin; Siti Mariyam Hj. Shamsuddin

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Atmosphere Response Time Scales Estimated from AOGCM Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global-mean surface air temperature response of the climate system to a specific radiative forcing shows characteristic time scales. Identifying these time scales and their corresponding amplitudes (climate sensitivity) allows one to ...

D. J. L. Olivié; G. P. Peters; D. Saint-Martin

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Beyond long memory in heart rate variability: An approach based on fractionally integrated autoregressive moving average time series models with conditional heteroscedasticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) series exhibit long memory and time-varying conditional variance. This work considers the Fractionally Integrated AutoRegressive Moving Average (ARFIMA) models with Generalized AutoRegressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (GARCH) errors. ARFIMA-GARCH models may be used to capture and remove long memory and estimate the conditional volatility in 24 h HRV recordings. The ARFIMA-GARCH approach is applied to fifteen long term HRV series available at Physionet

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

New Computer Software Enables Rapid Response to Time-critical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Computer Software Enables Rapid Response to Time-critical Emergencies November 3, 2006 Tweet EmailPrint The U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and...

29

Analysis of time response of lossy multiconductor transmission line networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract —Systems are considered consisting of an arbitrary number of multiconductor transmission lines joined and terminated by arbitrary linear networks. The fines are assumed to be Iossy, with frequency-dependent parameters. The system is analyzed in the frequency domain, and the inverse Fourier transform is used to obtain tbe time-domain response.

Antonije R. Djordjevic; Tapan; K. Sarkar; Senior Member

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract—Dynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

31

DOE Average Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE DOE Average Results FY 12 DOE Target FY 12 Customer Perspective: Customer Satisfaction: -Timeliness 92 88 -Quality 94 92 Effective Service Partnership: -Extent of Customer Satisfaction with the responsiveness, etc. 90 92 Internal Business Perspective: Acquisition Excellence: -Extent to which internal quality control systems are effective 90 88 Most Effective Use of Contracting Approaches to Maximize Efficiency and Cost Effectiveness: Use of Competition: -% of total $'s obligated on competitive acquisitions >$3000 (Agency Level Only) 94 85 -% of acquisition actions competed for actions > $3000 (Agency Level Only) 65 68 Performance Based Acquisition: - % PBA actions relative to total eligible new acquisition actions (applicable to new actions > $25K) 82

32

Wintertime Blocking and Mountain Forcing of the Zonally-Averaged Flow: A Cross-Spectral Time Series Analysis of Observed Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nine winters of Northern Hemisphere observations are used for a statistical analysis of the relation between the mountain forcing of the zonally-averaged barotropic wind and blocking. Thereby, the temporal variability of the phenomenon “blocking” ...

Werner Metz

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Continuous Time Series of Catchment-Averaged Sensible Heat Flux from a Large Aperture Scintillometer: Efficient Estimation of Stability Conditions and Importance of Fluxes under Stable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) observes the intensity of the atmospheric turbulence across large distances, which is related to the path-averaged sensible heat flux H. In this paper, two problems in the derivation of continuous series of H ...

Bruno Samain; Willem Defloor; Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Modeling Time-dependent Responses of Piezoelectric Fiber Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of polymer constituent in piezoelectric fiber composites (PFCs) could lead to significant viscoelastic behaviors, affecting overall performance of PFCs. High mechanical and electrical stimuli often generate significant amount of heat, increasing temperatures of the PFCs. At elevated temperatures, most materials, especially polymers show pronounced time-dependent behaviors. Predicting time-dependent responses of the PFCs becomes important to improve reliability in using PFCs. We study overall performance of PFCs having unidirectional piezoceramic fibers, such as PZT fibers, dispersed in viscoelastic polymer matrix. Two types of PFCs are studied, which are active fiber composites (AFCs) and macro fiber composites (MFCs). AFCs and MFCs consist of unidirectional PZT fibers dispersed in epoxy placed between two interdigitated electrode and kapton layers. The AFCs have a circular fiber cross-section while the MFCs have a square fiber cross-section. Finite element (FE) models of representative volume elements (RVEs) of active PFCs, having square and circular fiber cross-sections, are generated for composites with 20, 40, and 60 percent fiber contents. Two FE micromechanical models having one fiber embedded in epoxy matrix and five fibers placed in epoxy matrix are considered. A continuum 3D piezoelectric element in ABAQUS FE is used. A general time-integral function is applied for the mechanical, electrical, and piezoelectric properties in order to incorporate the time-dependent effect and histories of loadings. The effective properties of PZT-5A/epoxy and PZT-7A/LaRC-SI piezocomposites determined from the FE micromechanical models are compared to available experimental data and analytical solutions in the literature. Furthermore, the effect of viscoelastic behaviors of the LaRC-SI matrix at an elevated temperature on the overall electro-mechanical and piezoelectric constants are examined.

Li, Kuo-An

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Demand response : Daylighting The New York Times Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand response Overview The architectural approach The owner's approach Daylighting field study Daylighting control systems Automated roller shades Procurement specifications...

36

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Price Average Commercial Price Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes...

37

AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LET YPPF = XCDF LET XPPF = YCDF. Default: None Synonyms: ASH is a synonym for the AVERAGE SHIFTED HISTOGRAM command. ...

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

38

Using certes to infer client response time at the web server  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As businesses continue to grow their World Wide Web presence, it is becoming increasingly vital for them to have quantitative measures of the mean client perceived response times of their web services. We present Certes (CliEnt Response Time Estimated ... Keywords: Web server, client perceived response time

David Olshefski; Jason Nieh; Dakshi Agrawal

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A Gas Tension Device with Response Times of Minutes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development and testing of a new, fast response, profiling gas tension device (GTD) that measures total dissolved air pressure is presented. The new GTD equilibrates a sample volume of air using a newly developed (patent pending) tubular ...

Craig McNeil; Eric D’Asaro; Bruce Johnson; Matthew Horn

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Core Measure Average KTR Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measure Measure Average KTR Results FY 12 Target FY 12 DOE M&O CONTRACTOR (KTR) BSC RESULTS FY 2012 Customer Perspective and level of communication provided by the procurement office 95 92 Internal Business Perspective: Assessment (%) of the degree to which the purchasing system is in compliance with stakeholder requirements 97 Local Goals % Delivery on-time (includes JIT, excludes Purchase Cards) 88 84 % of total dollars obligated, on actions > $150K , that were awarded using effective competition 73 Local Goals Rapid Purchasing Techniques: -% of transactions placed by users 77 Local Goals -% of transactions placed through electronic commerce 62 Local Goals Average Cycle Time: -Average cycle time for <= $150K 8 6 to 9 days

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

In disaster response, timely collection and exploitation of remotely sensed imagery is of increasing importance. Image  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract In disaster response, timely collection and exploitation of remotely sensed imagery. Introduction The collection and utilization of airborne/satellite imagery for disaster response has become expected and necessary. The response phase of the disaster cycle is the time period between impact (e

Hodgson, Michael E.

42

average | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average average Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (7 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

43

Deployment of Demand Response as a Real-Time Resource in Organized Markets  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deployment of Demand Response as a Real-Time Resource in Organized Markets Deployment of Demand Response as a Real-Time Resource in Organized Markets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Deployment of Demand Response as a Real-Time Resource in Organized Markets Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040619008000973 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/deployment-demand-response-real-time- Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance Regulations: Resource Integration Planning This article examines the use of demand response as a dispatchable resource

44

Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow  

SciTech Connect

A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

Richard W. Johnson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Census Division Number of Average Monthly Average Retail Price...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Monthly Average Retail Price Average Monthly Bill State Consumers Consumption (kWh) (Cents per Kilowatthour) (Dollar and cents) New England 34,271 67,907 12.55 8,520.25...

46

Correcting Airborne Temperature Data for Lags Introduced by Instruments with Two-Time-Constant Responses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne resistance wire temperature sensors can introduce a time lag before ambient air temperature changes are registered. It has been found that a second-order linear response system adequately describes the behavior of the Rosemount non-...

G. W. Inverarity

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Space–Time Variability of Rainfall and Extreme Flood Response in the Menomonee River Basin, Wisconsin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrometeorological processes that control flash flooding are examined through analyses of space–time rainfall variability and flood response in the Milwaukee metropolitan region. The analyses focus on four flood events in the Menomonee River ...

Yu Zhang; James A. Smith

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Evaluation of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe. Part III: Time Response and Laser Inhomogeneity Limitations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronic response time of the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP) has been evaluated and is shown to affect the measurement of droplet size. The size of droplets are underestimated when airspeeds exceed 50 m s?1 and size ...

Darrel Baumgardner; Michael Spowart

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Application of neural networks to measurement of temperature sensor response time  

SciTech Connect

One of the important components in nuclear reactor safety systems is the temperature measurement systems. The time response characteristics of the resistance temperature detector (RTD), the type of sensor used in PWR safety systems, is commonly represented by the time constant, which is defined as the time required to achieve 63.2% of steady-state value following a unit step change in the input. The time constant of an RTD can be measured in a laboratory by a plunge test. The results of the plunge test performed in a laboratory may not reflect the time constant of an RTD installed in a nuclear power plant. An in situ testing method called the loop current step response (LCSR) test can be applied to measure the response transients of RTDs installed in a nuclear power plant. In an LCSR test, heat is generated by passing a current through the sensing wire. A transformation has been developed to achieve the desired time constant from the LCSR response transient. However, this transformation involves complicated computation, highly trained personnel, and specialized equipment to obtain the time constant of the RTD. Because of these difficulties, a back-propagation neural network has been developed to predict the time constant from LCSR response transients.

Cahyono, A.; Katz, E.M.; Kerlin, T.W. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Review of resistance temperature detector time response characteristics. Safety evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is used extensively for monitoring water temperatures in nuclear reactor plants. The RTD element does not respond instantaneously to changes in water temperature, but rather there is a time delay before the element senses the temperature change, and in nuclear reactors this delay must be factored into the computation of safety setpoints. For this reason it is necessary to have an accurate description of the RTD time response. This report is a review of the current state of the art of describing and measuring this time response.

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

52

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent space-time in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, {\\em achronal} null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out wormholes and closed timelike curves.

Noah Graham; Ken D. Olum

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban, 2010 PP 389­401 389 ABSTRACT Experimental testing of a vertical axis wind turbine within the urban of the turbine. Temporal variation of the wind with respect to the direction and velocity fluctuations

Tullis, Stephen

54

On Web Quality of Service: Approaches to Measurement of End-to-End Response Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tools for direct measurement of Quality of Service (QoS) as represented by End-To-End Response Time (ETE RT) are gaining acceptance. However, classifications of such tools were developed before the wide commercial adoption of the Web and are, thus, out ...

Mike Tsykin

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Time and Frequency Response of a Resistance-Wire Aircraft Atmospheric Temperature Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat transfer characteristics of an aircraft-mounted resistance-wire atmospheric temperature sensor are modeled to determine the time and frequency responses. The sensor element (Rosemount 102E4AL) consists of a 25-?m-diameter platinum wire ...

G. A. Payne; C. A. Friehe; D. K. Edwards

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Time-domain Fatigue Response and Reliability Analysis of Offshore Wind Turbines with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-domain based simulation model of 750 kW land-based wind turbine Gear contact fatigue analysis of a wind of 750 kW land-based wind turbine Gear contact fatigue analysis of a wind turbine drive train under response and reliability analysis #12;Time domain based simulation model of 750 kW land-based wind turbine

Nørvåg, Kjetil

57

Time-Dependent Response to Cooling in a Beta-Plane Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-dependent response of an ocean basin to the imposition of cooling (or heating) is examined in the context of a quasigeostrophic, two-layer model on the beta plane. The focus is on the structure and magnitude of the vertical motion and ...

Joseph Pedlosky

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

EIA Average Energy Consumption 2005  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table US8. Average Consumption by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household Fuels Used (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel)

59

Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)  

SciTech Connect

The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG&G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the “risetime” for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps.

Don Pellinen and Michael Griffin

2009-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Grid-Averaged Surface Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the inadequacies of formulations for surface fluxes for use in numerical models of atmospheric flow. The difficulty is that numerical models imply spatial averaging over each grid area. Existing formulations am based on the ...

L. Mahrt

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Time-domain sampling of x-ray pulses using an ultrafast sample response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We employ the ultrafast response of a 15.4 nm thin SrRuO{sub 3} layer grown epitaxially on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate to perform time-domain sampling of an x-ray pulse emitted from a synchrotron storage ring. Excitation of the sample with an ultrashort laser pulse triggers coherent expansion and compression waves in the thin layer, which turn the diffraction efficiency on and off at a fixed Bragg angle during 5 ps. This is significantly shorter than the duration of the synchrotron x-ray pulse of 100 ps. Cross-correlation measurements of the ultrafast sample response and the synchrotron x-ray pulse allow to reconstruct the x-ray pulse shape.

Gaal, P.; Shayduk, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Wilhelm-Conrad-Roentgen Campus, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schick, D.; Herzog, M.; Bojahr, A.; Goldshteyn, J.; Navirian, H. A.; Leitenberger, W. [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Vrejoiu, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Khakhulin, D.; Wulff, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Bargheer, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Wilhelm-Conrad-Roentgen Campus, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

62

High average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A real-time emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with sodar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, the authors have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. MATHEW/ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. The models are initialized using an array of surface wind measurements from meteorological towers coupled with vertical profiles from an acoustic sounder (sodar). The workstation automatically acquires the meteorological data every 15 minutes. A source term is generated using either defaults or a real-time stack monitor. Model outputs include contoured isopleths displayed on site geography or plume densities shown over 3-D color shaded terrain. The models are automatically updated every 15 minutes to provide the emergency response manager with a continuous display of potentially hazardous ground-level conditions if an actual release were to occur. Model run time is typically less than 2 minutes on 6 megaflop ({approximately}30 MIPS) workstations. Data acquisition, limited by dial-up modem communications, requires 3 to 5 minutes.

Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Baskett, R.L. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (US)

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of periodic response factors for use with the radiant time series method  

SciTech Connect

Harris and McQuiston (1988) developed conduction transfer function (CTF) coefficients corresponding to 41 representative wall assemblies and 42 representative roof assemblies for use with the transfer function method (TFM). They also developed a grouping procedure that allows design engineers to determine the correct representative wall or roof assembly that most closely matches a specific wall or roof assembly. The CTF coefficients and the grouping procedure have been summarized in the ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals (1989, 1993, 1997) and the ASHRAE Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual, second edition. More recently, a new, simplified design cooling load calculation procedure, the radiant time series method (RTSM), has been developed. The RTSM uses periodic response factors to model transient conductive heat transfer. While not a true manual load calculation procedure, it is quite feasible to implement the RTSM in a spreadsheet. To be useful in such an environment, it would be desirable to have a pre-calculated set of periodic response factors. Accordingly, a set of periodic response factors has been calculated and is presented in this paper.

Spitler, J.D.; Fisher, D.E.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Size-based Scheduling with Differentiated Services to Improve Response Time of Highly Varying Flow Sizes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sizes of Internet objects are known to be highly varying. We evaluate an M/G/1 queue under foreground background N (FBN ) scheduling policy for job size distributions with varying coefficient of variability (CoV) to analyze the impact of variability of job sizes to the performance of the policy. We find that FBN is very efficient in reducing the response time and minimizing the number of jobs that are penalized (i.e., have a higher response time under FBN than under processor sharing (PS)) when job sizes have a high CoV. We also propose and analyze variants of FBN called fixed priority FBN (FP \\Gamma FBN ) and differential FBN (DF \\Gamma FBN ), which introduce service differentiation by classifying jobs into high priority and low priority and then servicing the high priority before low priority jobs in an FBN related order. The numerical analysis conducted for highly varying job sizes reveals that FP \\Gamma FBN achieves a perfect service differentiation at the expense of a high penalty for the low priority small jobs. While DF \\Gamma FBN offers acceptable service differentiation, it does not penalize small jobs with low priority at all. Moreover, FP \\Gamma FBN and DF \\Gamma FBN can guarantee the service of high priority jobs even under overload.

Idris A. Rai; Guillaume Urvoy-keller; Ernst W. Biersack

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) Crude Oil (dollars per barrel) West Texas Intermediate Spot Average ............................ 102.88 93.42 92.24 87.96 94.34 94.10 105.84 96.30 95.67 95.33 95.67 93.33 94.12 97.64 95.00 Brent Spot Average ........................................................... 118.49 108.42 109.61 110.09 112.49 102.58 110.27 108.29 106.33 105.00 103.00 102.00 111.65 108.41 104.08 Imported Average .............................................................. 108.14 101.18 97.18 97.64 98.71 97.39 103.07 100.03 99.64 99.33 99.69 97.35 101.09 99.85 99.04 Refiner Average Acquisition Cost ...................................... 107.61 101.44 97.38 97.27 101.14 99.45 105.24 100.44 100.15 99.82 100.18 97.83 100.83 101.61 99.50 Liquid Fuels (cents per gallon) Refiner Prices for Resale Gasoline .........................................................................

67

Not Just Your Average EMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the EMS and achieving goals) No one's time is solely committed to the EMS or Sustainability (multiple employees are committed full time to Environmental Compliance) ...

68

The Response Time of the Temperature of the Equatorial Troposphere to ENSO Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air temperature anomalies, averaged over the troposphere to 200 mb and around the earth from 10°S to 10°N, lag the similarly averaged El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) atmospheric latent heating anomalies by about one month. Most of the latent ...

Allan J. Clarke; Kwang-Y. Kim

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory and linear-response calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present simple equations for a canonical-basis formulation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory. The equations are obtained from the TDHFB theory with an approximation that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the canonical basis. The canonical-basis formulation significantly reduces the computational cost. We apply the method to linear-response calculations for even-even light nuclei and demonstrate its capability and accuracy by comparing our results with recent calculations of the quasi-particle random-phase approximation with Skyrme functionals. We show systematic studies of E1 strength distributions for Ne and Mg isotopes. The evolution of the low-lying pygmy strength seems to be determined by the interplay of several factors, including the neutron excess, separation energy, neutron shell effects, deformation, and pairing.

Shuichiro Ebata; Takashi Nakatsukasa; Tsunenori Inakura; Kenichi Yoshida; Yukio Hashimoto; Kazuhiro Yabana

2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

70

Nonlinear response of vessel walls due to short-time thermomechanical loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maintaining structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during a postulated core melt accident is an important safety consideration in the design of the vessel. This study addresses the failure predictions of the vessel due to thermal and pressure loadings fro the molten core debris depositing on the lower head of the vessel. Different loading combinations were considered based on the dead load, yield stress assumptions, material response and internal pressurization. The analyses considered only short term failure (quasi static) modes, long term failure modes were not considered. Short term failure modes include plastic instabilities of the structure and failure due to exceeding the failure strain. Long term failure odes would be caused by creep rupture that leads to plastic instability of the structure. Due to the sort time durations analyzed, creep was not considered in the analyses presented.

Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.

Mazloom, M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, P.O. Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project.

Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baskett, R.L. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the California ISO load following and regulation requirements into the future • Value of fast responsive resources depending on their ramping capability • Potential impacts of the balancing authority area control error limit (BAAL), which is a part of the newly proposed NERC standard “Balancing Resources and Demand” • Potential impacts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) frequency responsive reserve (FRR) standard • Recommendations for the next phase of the project. The following main conclusions and suggestions for the future have been made: • The analysis of regulation ramping requirements shows that the regulation system should be able to provide ramps of at least 40-60 MW per minute for a period up to 6 minutes. • Evaluate if changes are needed in the California ISO AGC system to effectively accommodate new types of fast regulation resources and minimize the California ISO regulation procurement. • California ISO may consider creating better market opportunities for and incentives for fast responsive resources. • An additional study of low probability high ramp events can be recommended to the California ISO. • The California ISO may be willing to consider establishing a more relaxed target CPS2 compliance level. • A BAAL-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the BAAL standard and its numerical values for the California ISO. The study may involve an assessment of advantages of the distributed frequency-based control for the California ISO system. The market-related issues that arise in this connection can be also investigated. • A FRR-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the FRR standard and its numerical values for the California ISO.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

75

SU?E?I?89: Real?Time Information and Decision Support for Radiological Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Emergency response and medical preparedness for radiological incidents is one of the critical cornerstones for Homeland Security

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Achronal averaged null energy condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Real-time wind estimation and display for chem/bio attack response using UAV data .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The defense response to a Chemical and Biological attack would be importantly based on predicting the dispersion of a toxic cloud. Considering that an Unmanned… (more)

Sir, CristiaÌ

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Residential Customer Response to Real-time Pricing: The Anaheim Critical Peak Pricing Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to reduce the day-ahead or real-time price in the Californiaon day- ahead and real-time prices, particularly duringday-ahead and real-time wholesale prices. Declaring a CPP

Wolak, Frank A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Time response of the high-field electron distribution function in GaAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical calculations have been made of the high-field electron distribution function for GaAs, its small-signal frequency response and its behavior in large sinusoidal electric fields-The response speed is limited by the low scattering rate within ...

H. D. Rees

1969-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Spectral and Parametric Averaging for Integrable Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos - spectral averaging and parametric averaging. For spectral averaging, we introduce a new procedure - rescaled spectral averaging. Unlike traditional spectral averaging, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance. Parametric averaging, while not as accurate as rescaled spectral averaging for the correlation function of spectral staircase and interval level number variance, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

Tao Ma; R. A. Serota

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Short-Time-Scale Processes in a Mature Hurricane as a Response to Sea Surface Fluctuations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To clarify the effect of fluctuations in surface stress and heat fluxes on the intensity of a mature-state hurricane, a sensitivity analysis is performed by using a cloud-permitting nonhydrostatic axisymmetric adjoint model. The response function ...

Kosuke Ito; Yoichi Ishikawa; Yoshiaki Miyamoto; Toshiyuki Awaji

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Fast Time Response Tunable Diode Laser Measurements of Atmospheric Trace Gases for Eddy Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast-response, atmospheric trace gas monitor, based on the principle of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, has been developed for making eddy correlation measurements of dry deposition fluxes. This system, which is capable of ...

G. L. Ogram; F. J. Northrup; G. C. Edwards

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Assimilation of Time-averaged Pseudoproxies for Climate Reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the efficacy of a novel ensemble data assimilation (DA) technique in climate field reconstruction (CFR) of surface temperature. We employ a minimalistic, computationally inexpensive DA technique that requires only a static ensemble of ...

Nathan J. Steiger; Gregory J. Hakim; Eric J. Steig; David S. Battisti; Gerard H. Roe

84

Time-Mean Response over the Tropical Pacific to Increased C02 in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-mean response over the tropical Pacific region to a quadrupling Of CO2 is investigated using a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model. Tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) rise by about 4°–5°C. The zonal ...

Thomas R. Knutson; Syukuro Manabe

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Financial Performance over Time for Selected U.S. Corporations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a subject long debated since the 1930s, but the premises of the topic in regards to the what, how, why, and to whom it should be remain in question. The relation between CSR and corporate financial performance (CFP) has emerged at the forefront of this debate, particularly within the last 30 years, yet no unified theory has been reached. Other scholars interested in CSR have criticized the emphasis on CFP as a means of economic justification for what they believe to be a broader social issue, and have attempted to redirect the focus in CSR research to include other motivations and outcomes associated with organizational stakeholders other than shareholders. Using a descriptive and instrumental stakeholder theory approach, the focus of the current study was to explore CSR practices in both a dependent and independent sense. These theoretical underpinnings reflect stakeholder management decisions based on organizational characteristics, and the strategic management of various organizational stakeholders, respectively. The study population consisted of a diverse array of 353 U.S.- based corporations, 80 percent from the Fortune 500. Data included eleven corporate classification variables that represented organizations’ geographical location, industry, executive leadership dimensions, and financial health. It also included six CFP variables that represented accounting and market-based measures, and seven CSR variables that represented the key organizational stakeholders of the local community and environment, employees, and customers. The corporate classification variables were utilized to assess CSR performances, while CFP was assessed by analyzing differences among levels of the CSR practices. These assessments were performed for organizations for the twelve years within 1991-2002. Several results that assisted in informing descriptive and instrumental stakeholder theory were produced through the examination of previously used and under-explored variables. Specifically, the study results included new insights regarding how several organizational characteristics related to their CSR practices. Study findings provided elaboration regarding how performance differences in seven key CSR categories affected six representative accounting and market-based measures of corporate financial performance. Implications for practice for organizational decision-makers are provided along with detailed information pertaining to how, with inferences as to why, firms engage in CSR. Additionally, associated financial outcomes from different levels of CSR implementation are reported. Key findings from the study were that the CSR practices regarding employees and the environment remained stable over the twelve-year time period. Additionally, organizations’ geographical location, financial health, and corporate leadership dimensions had an impact on CSR practices for various stakeholder groups, with the exception of employees. A high level of investment in CSR for certain stakeholder groups did not produce the best financial outcomes in all cases; however, organizations that emphasized CSR in the categories relative to the community and its employees outperformed others with respect to certain financial performance measures.

Phelan Ribera, Kelli Catherine

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Self-adaptive and time-constrained data distribution paths for emergency response scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emergency response scenarios where team members coordinate impromptu towards the common human rescue goal are pushing to the extreme the demand for novel services fully aware of any (dynamically collected) relevant information describing the disaster ... Keywords: adaptive context data distribution, context data distribution, context-awareness, disaster areas

Mario Fanelli; Luca Foschini; Antonio Corradi; Azzedine Boukerche

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Power Saving Design for Servers under Response Time Constraint Shengquan Wang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

also observe that PowerSleep might not always be a good choice due to the mode transition overhead whenNap scheme was proposed to handle the dominant idle time by quickly transitioning in and out of a low power in the sleep power mode for extra time to aggregate more jobs to reduce the mode transition frequency. We

Wang, Shengquan

88

Implication of Spatial Averaging in Complex-Terrain Wind Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of wind over complex terrain have been conducted at three times and two locations in Northern California. Instrumentation included conventional cup-vane anemometers and optical anemometers with spatial averaging over path lengths of 0.6-1 ...

W. M. Porch

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Benthic Boundary-Layer Velocity Profiles: Dependence on Averaging Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between benthic boundary-layer velocity profiles and current meter averaging time is investigated using detailed (0.61 Hz) current measurements recorded within 1 m of the bottom on the inner continental shelf. The percentage of ...

Barry M. Lesht

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Linear-response and real-time time-dependent density functional theory studies of core-level near-edge x-ray absorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss our implementation and application of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to core-level near-edge absorption spectroscopy, using both linear-response (LR) and real-time (RT) approaches. We briefly describe our restricted window TDDFT (REWTDDFT) approach for core excitations which has also been reported by others groups. This is followed by a detailed discussion of real-time TDDFT techniques tailored to core excitations, including obtaining spectral information through delta-function excitation, post-processing time-dependent signals, and resonant excitation through quasi-monochromatic excitation. We present results for the oxygen K-edge of water and carbon dioxide; the carbon K-edge of carbon dioxide; the ruthenium L3-edge for the hexaamminerutheium(III) ion, including scalar relativistic corrections via the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA); and the carbon and fluorine K-edges for a series of fluorobenzenes. In all cases, the calculated spectra are found to be in good agreement with experiment, requiring only a uniform shift on the order of a few percent. Real-time TDDFT visualization of excited state charge densities are used to visually examine the nature of each excitation, which gives insight into the effects of atoms bound to the absorbing center.

Lopata, Kenneth A.; Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Khalil, Munira; Govind, Niranjan

2012-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

91

Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

92

Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock  

SciTech Connect

Organisms in the genus Shewanella have become models for response to environmental stress. One of the most important environmental stresses is change in osmolarity. In this study, we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during osmotic stress. Osmotic stress in SB2B was induced through exposure to NaCl, and the time-course proteomics response was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Protein trends were qualitatively compared to gene expression trends and to phenotypic characterization. Osmotic stress affects motility, and has also been associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition (due to induction of branched chain amino acid degradation pathways); however, we show this is not the case for SB2B. Although proteins and genes involved with branched chain amino acid degradation are induced, fatty acid degradation pathways are not induced and no change in the fatty acid profile occurs in SB2B as a result of osmotic shock. The most extensive response of SB2B over the time course of acclimation to high salt involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased expression of signal transduction associated with motility and restricted cell division and DNA replication. After SB2B has switched to increased branched chain amino acid degradation, motility, and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels.

Parnell, John J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

94

Changes in the Timing of Snowmelt and Streamflow in Colorado: A Response to Recent Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trends in the timing of snowmelt and associated runoff in Colorado were evaluated for the 1978–2007 water years using the regional Kendall test (RKT) on daily snow-water equivalent (SWE) data from snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) sites and daily ...

David W. Clow

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Real-Time Analysis of Local Wind Patterns for Application to Nuclear-Emergency Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) has sponsored development of a computer-based system for real-time analysis of local wind measurements in a complex-terrain setting. Mass-consistent modeling of tower- and Doppler-sounder data produces ...

Richard H. Thuillier

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

From Short-Scale Atmospheric Variability to Global Climate Dynamics: Toward a Systematic Theory of Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Traditionally, climate is defined by the properties of the averages of the meteorological fields over an appropriate time interval. In this paper the properties of the time-averaged observables of a red noise atmosphere and of a simplified model ...

C. Nicolis; G. Nicolis

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Analysis of Trade-Off Between Power Saving and Response Time in Disk Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is anticipated that in the near future disk storage systems will surpass application servers and will become the primary consumer of power in the data centers. Shutting down of inactive disks is one of the more widespread solutions to save power consumption of disk systems. This solution involves spinning down or completely shutting off disks that exhibit long periods of inactivity and placing them in standby mode. A file request from a disk in standby mode will incur an I/O cost penalty as it takes time to spin up the disk before it can serve the file. In this paper, we address the problem of designing and implementing file allocation strategies on disk storage that save energy while meeting performance requirements of file retrievals. We present an algorithm for solving this problem with guaranteed bounds from the optimal solution. Our algorithm runs in O(nlogn) time where n is the number of files allocated. Detailed simulation results and experiments with real life workloads are also presented.

Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

99

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for expensive solar cells. In one design, for example, mirrors fo- cus light on a Stirling engine, a high-performance Stirling engine shuttles a working fluid, such as hydrogen gas, between two chambers (a). The cold chamber to a Stirling engine that converts heat to electricity. The mirrors in the concentrator are positioned to focus

100

The averaged control system of fast oscillating control systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For control systems that either have an explicit periodic dependence on time or have periodic solutions and small controls, we define an average control system that takes into account all possible variations of the control, and prove that its solutions approximate all solutions of the oscillating systems as oscillations go faster. The dimension of its velocity set is characterised geomtrically. When it is maximum the average system defines a Finsler metric, unfortunately not twice differntiable in general. Under particular assumptions, valid for the control two body system, this Finsler metric generates a Hamiltonian flow on the cotangent bundle. For minimum time control, this average system proves that averaging the Hamiltonian given by the maximum principle is a valid approximation.

Bombrun, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing Support Retail Competition and Demand Response?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Competition and Demand Response? Galen Barbose, Ranjitbenefit of stimulating demand response. To evaluate themarket development and demand response – we conducted a

Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Optimization Online - String-Averaging Projected Subgradient ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 29, 2013 ... Optimization Online. String-Averaging Projected Subgradient Methods for Constrained Minimization. Yair Censor(yair ***at*** math.haifa.ac.il)

103

Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This graph shows that propane was not alone in experiencing excess supply in 1998 and extraordinary stock builds. Note that the graph shows average stock levels ...

104

Bayesian curve estimation by model averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Bayesian approach is used to estimate a nonparametric regression model. The main features of the procedure are, first, the functional form of the curve is approximated by a mixture of local polynomials by Bayesian model averaging (BMA), second, the ... Keywords: BIC criterion, Bayesian model averaging, Local polynomial regression, Nonparametric curve fitting, Robustness

Daniel Peña; Dolores Redondas

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

A time convolution less density matrix approach to the nonlinear optical response of a coupled system-bath complex  

SciTech Connect

Time convolution less density matrix theory (TCL) is a powerful and well established tool to investigate strong system-bath coupling for linear optical spectra. We show that TCL equations can be generalised to the nonlinear optical response up to a chosen order in the optical field. This goal is achieved via an time convolution less perturbation scheme for the reduced density matrices of the electronic system. In our approach, the most important results are the inclusion of a electron-phonon coupling non-diagonal in the electronic states and memory effects of the bath: First, the considered model system is introduced. Second, the time evolution of the statistical operator is expanded with respect to the external optical field. This expansion is the starting point to explain how a TCL theory can treat the response up to in a certain order in the external field. Third, new TCL equations, including bath memory effects, are derived and the problem of information loss in the reduced density matrix is analysed. For this purpose, new dimensions are added to the reduced statistical operator to compensate lack of information in comparison with the full statistical operator. The theory is benchmarked with a two level system and applied to a three level system including non-diagonal phonon coupling. In our analysis of pump-probe experiments, the bath memory is influenced by the system state occupied between pump and probe pulse. In particular, the memory of the bath influences the dephasing process of electronic coherences developing during the time interval between pump and probe pulses.

Richter, Marten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Nichtlineare Optik und Quantenelektronik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: marten.richter@tu-berlin.de; Knorr, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Nichtlineare Optik und Quantenelektronik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SalinityAverage SalinityAverage Jump to: navigation, search Property Name SalinityAverage Property Type Number Description Mean average of the low and high end measurements of the salinity [ppm] of the fluid. This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: C Coso Geothermal Area Pages using the property "SalinityAverage" Showing 19 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 975 + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3500 + C Chena Geothermal Area + 325 + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + 6700 + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + 2295 + E East Mesa Geothermal Area + 3750 + G Geysers Geothermal Area + 217 + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 18750 +

107

Puget Sound Operational Forecast System - A Real-time Predictive Tool for Marine Resource Management and Emergency Responses  

SciTech Connect

To support marine ecological resource management and emergency response and to enhance scientific understanding of physical and biogeochemical processes in Puget Sound, a real-time Puget Sound Operational Forecast System (PS-OFS) was developed by the Coastal Ocean Dynamics & Ecosystem Modeling group (CODEM) of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PS-OFS employs the state-of-the-art three-dimensional coastal ocean model and closely follows the standards and procedures established by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). PS-OFS consists of four key components supporting the Puget Sound Circulation and Transport Model (PS-CTM): data acquisition, model execution and product archive, model skill assessment, and model results dissemination. This paper provides an overview of PS-OFS and its ability to provide vital real-time oceanographic information to the Puget Sound community. PS-OFS supports pacific northwest region’s growing need for a predictive tool to assist water quality management, fish stock recovery efforts, maritime emergency response, nearshore land-use planning, and the challenge of climate change and sea level rise impacts. The structure of PS-OFS and examples of the system inputs and outputs, forecast results are presented in details.

Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Chase, Jared M.; Wang, Taiping

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Lagged Average Predictions in a Predictability Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagged average predictions are examined here within the context of an idealized predictability experiment. Lagged predictions contribute to making better forecasts than the forecasts obtained from using only the latest initial state. Analytic ...

John O. Roads

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Probabilistic Visibility Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that has been used in probabilistic weather forecasting to calibrate forecast ensembles and generate predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. ...

Richard M. Chmielecki; Adrian E. Raftery

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

111

The Shape of Averaged Drop Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape of averaged drop size distributions (DSD) is studied from a large sample of data (892 h) collected at several sites of various latitudes. The results show that neither the hypothesis of an exponential distribution to represent rainfall ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jean-Pierre Lacaux

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A high average power pockels cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduced the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

Daly, T.P.

1986-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

113

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

INVERSIONS FOR AVERAGE SUPERGRANULAR FLOWS USING FINITE-FREQUENCY KERNELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I analyze the maps recording the travel-time shifts caused by averaged plasma anomalies under an 'average supergranule', constructed by means of statistical averaging over 5582 individual supergranules with large divergence signals detected in two months of Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Dopplergrams. By utilizing a three-dimensional validated time-distance inversion code, I measure a peak vertical velocity of 117 {+-} 2 m s{sup -1} at depths around 1.2 Mm in the center of the supergranule and a root-mean-square vertical velocity of 21 m s{sup -1} over the area of the supergranule. A discrepancy between this measurement and the measured surface vertical velocity (a few m s{sup -1}) can be explained by the existence of the large-amplitude vertical flow under the surface of supergranules with large divergence signals, recently suggested by Duvall and Hanasoge.

Svanda, Michal, E-mail: michal@astronomie.cz [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (v.v.i.), Fricova 298, CZ-25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

115

Variable-response model of electricity demand by time of day: Results of a Wisconsin pricing experiment: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observationally alike households may differ in demand parameters and thus in economic quantities that are functions of those parameters. We have proposed a methodology for dealing with this variation. Estimation of both translog and CES versions of the model with data from the Wisconsin Electricity Pricing Experiment revealed considerable variation among households in time-of-day electricity consumption demand parameters for both summer and winter seasons and for several different definitions of the peak period. Observed household characteristics explained only a small share of total household differences, but permanent household differences dominated month-to-month variation in either expenditure shares or log consumption ratios in most cases. Permanent differences among households are important relative to total variation, including transitory month-to-month variation. We calculated various economic variables from the demand parameters, including the partial elasticity of substitution, compensated and uncompensated elasticities, and a measure of electricity expenditure under peak load pricing required to maintain the utility level under flat rate pricing relative to the flat rate expenditure. Because these are nonlinear functions of the household demand parameters, the mean parameter value over households with different demand parameters may be substantially different from the value of the function at mean values, under the representative household paradigm. For time-of-day electricity demand, variation among households is significant but small relative to mean parameter values. Therefore, controlling for the effect of household variation makes little difference in these mean calculations, but it does imply substantial variation among households in the welfare implications (and elasticities of response) of the introduction of time-of-day pricing. 25 refs., 12 tabs.

Lillard, L.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

rates that are based on average electricity costs and bear little relation to the true production costs of electricity as they vary over time. Demand response is a tariff or...

117

World average top-quark mass  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 report, Staff Forecast: Retail Electricity Prices, 2005 to 2018, was prepared with contributions from the technical assistance provided by Greg Broeking of R.W. Beck, Inc. in preparing retail price forecasts

119

Exact bounds for average pairwise network reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several methods for finding exact bounds of average pairwise network connectivity (APNC) are proposed. These methods allows faster decision making about if a network is reliable for its purpose. Previous results on cumulitive updating of all-terminal ... Keywords: algorithm, network reliability, pairwise connectivity

Alexey Rodionov; Olga Rodionova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Transient Response to Localized Episodic Heating in the Tropics. Part I: Excitation and Short-Time Near-Field Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical response to localized, unsteady tropical heating is studied in a stochastic framework. Spectral statistics of the random wave response are derived from those of tropical convection using the primitive equations for a spherical ...

Murry L. Salby; Rolando R. Garcia

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Hybridization of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) with probabilistic neural networks (PNNs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are one of the most important time series models applied in financial market forecasting over the past three decades. Improving forecasting especially time series forecasting accuracy is an important ... Keywords: Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), Hybrid models, Probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), Time series forecasting

Mehdi Khashei; Mehdi Bijari; Gholam Ali Raissi Ardali

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sources Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Of Average Individual Radiation Exposure Natural background Medical Consumer products Industrial, security, educational and research Occupational 0.311 rem 0.300 rem 0.013 rem 0.0003 rem 0.0005 rem Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, provides radiological protection services and oversight at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These services include radiation dose measurements for persons who enter areas where they may be exposed to radiation or radioactive material. The results are periodically reported to monitored individuals. The results listed are based on a radiation dose system developed by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The system uses the terms "effective dose," "equivalent dose" and units of rem. You may be more familiar with the term "millirem" (mrem), which is 1/1000 of a rem.

123

Fat turnover in obese slower than average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9-04 9-04 For immediate release: 09/23/2011 | NR-11-09-04 Fat turnover in obese slower than average Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly This scanning electron micrograph image shows part of a lobule of adipose tissue (body fat). Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat. Photo courtesy of David Gregory & Debbie Marshall/Wellcome Images LIVERMORE, Calif. -- It may be more difficult for obese people to lose fat because the "turnover" rate is much slower for those overweight than average weight individuals. New research in the Sept. 25 online edition of the journal Nature shows that the turnover (storage and loss rate) of fat in the human body is about 1 1/2 years compared to fat cells, which turnover about every 10 years,

124

Natural Gas Prices: Well Above Recent Averages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The recent surge in spot prices at the Henry Hub are well above a typical range for 1998-1999 (in this context, defined as the average, +/- 2 standard deviations). Past price surges have been of short duration. The possibility of a downward price adjustment before the end of next winter is a source of considerable risk for storage operators who acquire gas at recent elevated prices. Storage levels in the Lower 48 States were 7.5 percent below the 5-year average (1995-1999) by mid-August (August 11), although the differential is only 6.4 percent in the East, which depends most heavily on storage to meet peak demand. Low storage levels are attributable, at least in part, to poor price incentives: high current prices combined with only small price

125

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

Nonlocal imaging by conditional averaging of random reference measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the nonlocal imaging of an object by conditional averaging of the random exposure frames of a reference detector, which only sees the freely propagating field from a thermal light source. A bucket detector, synchronized with the reference detector, records the intensity fluctuations of an identical beam passing through the object mask. These fluctuations are sorted according to their values relative to the mean, then the reference data in the corresponding time-bins for a given fluctuation range are averaged, to produce either positive or negative images. Since no correlation calculations are involved, this correspondence imaging technique challenges our former interpretations of "ghost" imaging. Compared with conventional correlation imaging or compressed sensing schemes, both the number of exposures and computation time are greatly reduced, while the visibility is much improved. A simple statistical model is presented to explain the phenomenon.

Kai-Hong Luo; Boqiang Huang; Wei-Mou Zheng; Ling-An Wu

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

Dunham, Scott

128

Average-case active learning with costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the expected cost of a greedy active learning algorithm. Our analysis extends previous work to a more general setting in which different queries have different costs. Moreover, queries may have more than two possible responses and the distribution ...

Andrew Guillory; Jeff Bilmes

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand Response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

130

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

131

Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing Support Retail Competition and Demand Response?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are paying prices indexed to the real-time spot market, andusage at hourly prices indexed to the real-time and/or day-who pay prices indexed to the real-time market. Utility and

Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Average Price of Natural Gas Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Quantity and Average Price of Natural Gas Production in the United States, 1930-1996 (Volumes in Million Cubic Feet, Prices in Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Table Year Gross Withdrawals Used for Repressuring Nonhydro- carbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss Dry Production Average Wellhead Price of Marketed Production 1930 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,978,911 75,140 1,903,771 0.08 1931 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,721,902 62,288 1,659,614 0.07 1932 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,593,798 51,816 1,541,982 0.06 1933 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,596,673 48,280 1,548,393 0.06 1934 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,815,796 52,190 1,763,606 0.06 1935 ....................... NA NA NA NA 1,968,963 55,488 1,913,475 0.06 1936 ....................... 2,691,512 73,507 NA 392,528 2,225,477

134

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Average values and dispersion (in parentheses) Base-pair Parameters --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller Opening 3DNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.77) -11.79(4.14) 0.57(2.80) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.74) -11.35(5.26) 0.63(3.05) CEHS A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.75) -11.82(4.14) 0.56(2.78) B 0.00(0.21) -0.14(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.73) -11.37(5.27) 0.62(3.03) CompDNA A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.12(7.70) -11.81(4.14) 0.56(2.79) B 0.00(0.21) -0.15(0.12) 0.09(0.19) 0.53(6.70) -11.37(5.26) 0.62(3.03) Curves A 0.01(0.23) -0.18(0.10) 0.02(0.25) -0.13(7.85) -11.76(4.12) 0.57(2.80)

135

Locally Calibrated Probabilistic Temperature Forecasting Using Geostatistical Model Averaging and Local Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors introduce two ways to produce locally calibrated grid-based probabilistic forecasts of temperature. Both start from the Global Bayesian model averaging (Global BMA) statistical postprocessing method, which has constant predictive bias ...

William Kleiber; Adrian E. Raftery; Jeffrey Baars; Tilmann Gneiting; Clifford F. Mass; Eric Grimit

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

The Effects of Volume Averaging on Spectra Measured with a Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the Lyman-alpha hygrometer averages turbulent fluctuations in humidity over a right circular cylinder, the spectral response of the instrument degrades at higher wavenumbers. This paper contains a derivation of the three-dimensional ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Database of average-power damage thresholds at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have completed a database of average-power, laser-induced, damage thresholds at 1064 nm on a variety of materials. Measurements were made with a newly constructed laser to provide design input for moderate and high average-power laser projects. The measurements were conducted with 16-ns pulses at pulse-repetition frequencies ranging from 6 to 120 Hz. Samples were typically irradiated for time ranging from a fraction of a second up to 5 minutes (36,000 shots). We tested seven categories of samples which included antireflective coatings, high reflectors, polarizers, single and multiple layers of the same material, bare and overcoated metal surfaces, bare polished surfaces, and bulk materials. The measured damage threshold ranged from 46 J/cm/sup 2/ for a bare polished glass substrate. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Rainer, F.; Hildum, E.A.; Milam, D.

1987-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

138

Stochastic Averaging of Idealized Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability in the climate system involves interactions across a broad range of scales in space and time. While models of slow “climate” variability may not explicitly account for fast “weather” processes, the dynamical influence of these ...

Adam H. Monahan; Joel Culina

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited)  

SciTech Connect

A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

Nelson, A. J.; Cooper, G. W. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Smelser, R.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Real-time x-ray response of biocompatible solution gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the real-time x-ray irradiation response of charge and pH sensitive solution gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors. The devices show stable and reproducible behavior under and following x-ray radiation, including a linear integrated response with dose into the muGy range. Titration measurements of devices in solution reveal that the linear pH response and sensitivity are not only retained under x-ray irradiation, but an irradiation response could also be measured. Since the devices are biocompatible, and can be simultaneously operated in aggressive fluids and under hard radiation, they are well-suited for both medical radiation dosimetry and biosensing applications.

Hofstetter, Markus; Funk, Maren; Paretzke, Herwig G.; Thalhammer, Stefan [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Howgate, John; Sharp, Ian D.; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Demand Response-Enabled Model Predictive HVAC Load Control in Buildings using Real-Time Electricity Pricing.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A practical cost and energy efficient model predictive control (MPC) strategy is proposed for HVAC load control under dynamic real-time electricity pricing. The MPC strategy… (more)

Avci, Mesut

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Electricity > Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price > Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State: Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by ...

143

On the String Averaging Method for Sparse Common Fixed Points ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 10, 2008 ... gate a string-averaging algorithmic scheme that favorably handles the ... are special cases of the string-averaging and of the BIP algorithmic ...

144

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State, 2009: Census Division State Number of Consumers Average Monthly Consumption ...

145

Average summer gasoline prices expected to be slightly lower ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The retail price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.63 per gallon during this summer driving season, slightly below average prices over ...

146

Table 5B. Commercial average monthly bill by census division...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Census Division " " State ","Number of Consumers "," Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Price (Cents per Kilowatthour)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New...

147

Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing Support Retail Competition and Demand Response?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

other states are indexed to the PJM real-time energy market.Pricing New Jersey Maryland PJM region* NYISO region ISO-NEpenetration data for the PJM region as a whole in addition

Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Killing Two Birds with One Stone: Can Real-Time Pricing Support Retail Competition and Demand Response?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ahead energy market, for which hourly prices are published aPJM real-time energy market. Hourly prices in this marketenergy market provide customers with a more compelling incentive for price

Barbose, Galen; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Neenan, Bernie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Recovery and Resilience After a Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Medical Decision model for Managing an Effective, Timely, and Balanced Response  

SciTech Connect

Based on experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, a real-time, medical decision model is presented by which to make key health-related decisions given the central role of health and medical issues in such disasters. Focus is on response and recovery activities that are safe, timely, effective, and well-organized. This approach empowers on-site decision makers to make interim decisions without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Key features of this approach include ongoing assessment, consultation, information, and adaption to the changing conditions. This medical decision model presented is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure.

Coleman, C. Norman [National Cancer Institute, NIH; Blumenthal, Daniel J. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Department of Energy

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fine-Resolved, Near-Coastal Spatiotemporal Variation of Temperature in Response to Insolation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses GIS-based modeling of incoming solar radiation to quantify fine-resolved spatiotemporal responses of monthly average temperature, and diurnal temperature variation, at different times and locations within a field study area located ...

Nikki Vercauteren; Georgia Destouni; Carl Johan Dahlberg; Kristoffer Hylander

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

PowerSleep: A Smart Power-Saving Scheme with Sleep for Servers under Response Time Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to handle the dominant idle time by quickly transitioning in and out of a low power sleep mode. Under Power PowerNap significantly, in particular when the single mode transition overhead is large. In the study is in the transition mode. The power consumption in our study is the system-level power, including the power consumed

Wang, Shengquan

152

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Gulf Coast Refinery District API Gravity (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Degree)

153

System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

Berndt, Ernst R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

2011 Brief: U.S. average gasoline and diesel prices over $3 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The average price U.S. drivers paid for gasoline and diesel during 2011 never fell below $3 per gallon, marking the first time the national pump price for both ...

155

Estimation of Area-Averaged Rainfall over Tropical Oceans from Microwave Radiometry: A Single Channel Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new simple retrieval algorithm for estimating area-time averaged rain rates over tropical oceans by using single channel microwave measurements from satellites. The algorithm was tested by using the Nimbus-5 Electrically ...

Kyung-Sup Shin; Phil E. Riba; Gerald R. North

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A high average power electro-optic switch using KTP  

SciTech Connect

High damage threshold, high thermal conductivity, and small thermo-optic coefficients make KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) an attractive material for use in a high average power Q-switch. However, electro-chromic damage and refractive index homogeneity have prevented the utilization of KTP in such a device in the past. This work shows that electro-chromic damage is effectively suppressed using capacitive coupling, and a KTP crystal can be Q-switched for 1.5 {times} 10{sup 9} shots without any detectable electro-chromic damage. In addition, KTP with the high uniformity and large aperture size needed for a KTP electro-optic Q-switch can be obtained from flux crystals grown at constant temperature. A thermally compensated, dual crystal KTP Q-switch, which successfully produced 50 mJ pulses with a pulse width of 8 ns (FWHM), has been constructed. In addition, in off-line testing the Q-switch showed less than 7% depolarization at an average power loading of 3.2 kW/cm{sup 2}.

Ebbers, C.A.; Cook, W.M.; Velsko, S.P.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Improvement of Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average models using Fuzzy logic and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series forecasting is an active research area that has drawn considerable attention for applications in a variety of areas. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models are one of the most important time series models used in financial ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Exchange rate, Financial markets, Fuzzy logic, Time series forecasting

Mehdi Khashei; Mehdi Bijari; Gholam Ali Raissi Ardali

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: July 12, 2004 8: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles on AddThis.com... Fact #328: July 12, 2004 Expected Average Annual Miles Twenty-five percent of the respondents to a nationwide survey said that

159

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #536: September 15, 2008 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: September 15, 2008 Average Used Car Prices Up and Used Light Truck Prices Down to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 536: September 15, 2008 Average Used...

160

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #517: May 5, 2008 State Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18, 2008 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 517: May 5, 2008 State Average Gasoline Prices, April 18,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per Vehicle by Vehicle Type and Age to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 87: May 4, 1999 Average Annual Miles per...

162

Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical way of postprocessing forecast ensembles to create predictive probability density functions (PDFs) for weather quantities. It represents the predictive PDF as a weighted average of PDFs centered on ...

J. Mc Lean Sloughter; Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Chris Fraley

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 744:...

164

Improving Wind Profiler–Measured Winds Using Coplanar Spectral Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented that increases the detectability of weak clear-air signals by averaging Doppler spectra from coplanar wind profiler beams. The method, called coplanar spectral averaging (CSA), is applied to both simulated wind profiler ...

Robert Schafer; Susan K. Avery; Kenneth S. Gage; Paul E. Johnston; D. A. Carter

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Vorticity Dynamics and Zonally Averaged Ocean Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnostic equations relating the zonally averaged overturning circulation to north–south density variations are derived and used to determine a new closure scheme for use in zonally averaged ocean models. The presentation clarifies the dynamical ...

Daniel G. Wright; Cornelis B. Vreugdenhil; Tertia M. C. Hughes

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Table 5C. Industrial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Electricity > Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price > Industrial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State: Table 5C. Industrial ...

167

Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States

168

Optimization Online - "Block-Iterative and String-Averaging ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 19, 2009 ... Optimization Online. "Block-Iterative and String-Averaging Projection Algorithms in Proton Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction".

169

Table 4. Average retail price for bundled and unbundled consumers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 4. Average retail price for bundled and unbundled consumers by sector, Census Division, and State 2011

170

A study of the utility of heat collectors in reducing the response time of automatic fire sprinklers located in production modules of Building 707  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several of the ten production Modules in Building 707 at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant recently underwent an alteration which can adversely affect the performance of the installed automatic fire sprinkler systems. The Modules have an approximate floor to ceiling height of 17.5 ft. The alterations involved removing the drop ceilings in the Modules which had been at a height of 12 ft above the floor. The sprinkler systems were originally installed with the sprinkler heads located below the drop ceiling in accordance with the nationally recognized NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. The ceiling removal affects the sprinkler`s response time and also violates NFPA 13. The scope of this study included evaluation of the feasibility of utilizing heat collectors to reduce the delays in sprinkler response created by the removal of the drop ceilings. The study also includes evaluation of substituting quick response sprinklers for the standard sprinklers currently in place, in combination with a heat collector.

Shanley, J.H. Jr.; Budnick, E.K. Jr. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Wheaton, MD (United States)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Light: in response to time.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Light can be described as the sensation aroused by stimulation of the visual organs; making vision possible. Being predominately visual beings, understanding the power of… (more)

VAUGHN, CHAD DEAN

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: March 8, 2004 0: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310: March 8, 2004 Average Material Consumption for a Domestic Automobile on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #310:

173

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Consumer Data Apps Challenges Resources About Blogs Let's Talk Feedback Consumer You are here Data.gov » Communities » Consumer » Data Average Interest Rate for Treasury Securities Dataset Summary Description This dataset shows the average interest rates for U.S Treasury securities for the most recent month compared with the same month of the previous year. The data is broken down by the various marketable and non-marketable securities. The summary page for the data provides links for monthly reports from 2001 through the current year. Average Interest Rates are calculated on the total unmatured interest-bearing debt. The average interest rates for total marketable, total non-marketable and total interest-bearing debt do not include the U.S. Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities.

174

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Average depth may ...

176

Table AP7. Average Expenditures for Home Appliances and Lighting ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

177

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

All Electricity Reports Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price With Data for 2011 | Release Date: September 27, 2012 | Next Release Date: September, 2013 Previous editions...

178

Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

106 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 5. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price of Electricity

179

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)"...

180

Average wholesale electric power prices rose in 2010 - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average wholesale electric power prices rose in 2010, due to higher national natural gas prices and increased demand for electricity, particularly in the Eastern ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Class of Ownership, Number of Consumers, Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and Energy Service Providers by State: T12:

182

Today in Energy - Average wholesale natural gas prices mostly ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average spot natural gas prices, which reflect the wholesale price of natural gas at major trading points, generally declined in most U.S. regional markets about 7% ...

183

Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

184

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

185

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract):  
Relative Humidity at 10 m...

186

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

187

District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

188

Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

189

,"U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Commercial...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Mcf)",1,"Annual",2011...

190

,"U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Industrial...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Average Annual Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Mcf)",1,"Annual",2011...

191

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared to last year. ... wholesale electric power prices often trend together with natural gas prices.

192

Average wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Wholesale spot natural gas prices rose across the country in 2010. Average spot natural gas prices at the Henry Hub—a key benchmark location for pricing throughout ...

193

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

194

EIA Renewable Energy- Average Energy Conversion Efficiency of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Renewables and Alternate Fuels > Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Annual Report > Annual Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules by Source: Average Energy ...

195

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

196

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

197

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

198

,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Monthly","11/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Data 2","Annual Average Natural Gas Prices",11,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1922" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngm03vmall.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/data_publications/natural_gas_monthly/ngm.html"

199

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per ...

200

A study of time-dependent responses of a mechanical displacement ventilation (DV) system and an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system : building energy performance of the UFAD system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DR light : percentage DR of lighting usage limit (%) 3. LMTPEDR responses of the lighting usage limit DR activities (PEDR responses of the lighting usage limit DR activities (

Yu, Jong Keun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Variation in Nimbus-7 Cloud Estimates. Part I: Zonal Averages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zonal averages of low, middle and total cloud amount estimates derived from measurements from Nimbus-7 have been analyzed for the six-year period April 1979 through March 1985. The globally and zonally averaged values of six-year annual means and ...

Bryan C. Weare

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

East Asia from NREL East Asia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

203

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa from NREL Africa from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

204

Drift time variations in CdZnTe detectors measured with alpha-particles: Their correlation with the detector’s responses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Homogeneity of properties related to material crystallinity is a critical parameter for achieving high-performance CdZnTe (CZT) radiation detectors. Unfortunately, this requirement is not always satisfied in today's commercial CZT material due to high concentrations of extended defects, in particular subgrain boundaries, which are believed to be part of the causes hampering the energy resolution and efficiency of CZT detectors. In the past, the effects of subgrain boundaries have been studied in Si, Ge and other semiconductors. It was demonstrated that subgrain boundaries tend to accumulate secondary phases and impurities causing inhomogeneous distributions of trapping centers. It was also demonstrated that subgrain boundaries result in local perturbations of the electric field, which affect the carrier transport and other properties of semiconductor devices. The subgrain boundaries in CZT material likely behave in a similar way, which makes them responsible for variations in the electron drift time and carrier trapping in CZT detectors. In this work, we employed the transient current technique to measure variations in the electron drift time and related the variations to the device performances and subgrain boundaries, whose presence in the crystals were confirmed with white beam X-ray diffraction topography and infrared transmission microscopy.

Bolotnikov A. E.; Butcher, J.; Hamade, M.; Petryk, M.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Yang, G.; and James, R.

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

205

Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Long-run marginal costs lower than average costs  

SciTech Connect

The thesis of this article is that the long-run marginal costs of electricity are not always greater than the present average costs, as is often assumed. As long as short-run costs decrease with new plant additions, the long-run marginal cost is less than long-run average cost. When average costs increase with new additions, long-run marginal costs are greater than long-run average costs. The long-run marginal costs of a particular utility may be less than, equal to, or greater than its long-run average costs - even with inflation present. The way to determine which condition holds for a given utility is to estimate costs under various combinations of assumptions: probable load growth, zero load growth, and load growth greater than expected; and changes in load factor with attendant costs. Utilities that can demonstrate long-run marginal costs lower than long-run average costs should be encouraged to build plant and increase load, for the resulting productivity gains and slowing of inflation. Utilities that face long-run marginal costs greater than long-run average costs should discourage growth in sales through any available means.

Hunter, S.R.

1980-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

207

Response to 'Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field''[Phys. Plasmas 19, 094701 (2012)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

Liu Jian [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin Hong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Analysis of genes regulated by the peroxide response regulator PerR in Borrelia burgdorferi using real-time RT-PCR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is a spirochetal bacterium that is transmitted to mammals via the bite of an Ixodes tick. The environments that the bacterium is exposed to when it resides in the tick and mammal are quite disparate and include differences in temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration. Although it has been shown that the aforementioned factors alter gene expression, few regulatory proteins have been identified in the B. burgdorferi genome. bb0647 encodes a peroxide response regulator (PerR) which regulates gene expression in response to oxidative stress in other organisms. Several borrelial genes with homology to known oxidative stress genes, and the pathogenesis-associated gene dbpA, contain putative PerR binding domains. To determine if PerR regulates the expression of oxidative stress genes in B. burgdorferi, we inactivated perR from a non-infectious B. burgdorferi strain (designated Lab), creating strain JS167. JS167 is hyper-resistant to reactive oxygen species and has increased superoxide dismutase activity compared to the Lab parental strain. JS167 makes four-fold more DbpA protein than Lab. We analyzed the expression of two oxidative stress genes, napA and sodA, and dbpA using real-time RT-PCR in JS167 and the infectious isolate MSK5 compared to Lab. We found napA and dbpA were induced 1.13-fold and 2.89-fold in JS167 compared to Lab, and sodA was induced 1.78-fold more in Lab than in JS167. The napA and sodA results indicate that the hyper-resistance of JS167 to reactive oxygen species is not due to the up-regulation of these two genes. MSK5 contains all known borrelial plasmids, and we therefore expect that gene expression be more tightly regulated in this strain compared to Lab. dbpA and sodA were expressed 3.48-fold and 1.25-fold more in Lab than in MSK5 and napA was expressed 1.38-fold more in MSK5. The low level of expression of dbpA in MSK5 does not correspond to DbpA protein levels in this isolate. Further studies addressing the effect of different oxygen concentrations and/or the presence of different oxidative stressors are needed to determine how these genes are regulated in response to oxidative stress.

Swingle, Kristen Lynn

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Ave. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kakati, M. [Thermal Plasma Processed Materials Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402, Assam (India)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Estimation of the Long-run Average Relationship in Nonstationary Panel Time Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Econo¬ metrics, New York, Wiley Makela, T. (2002): "Long runhas been explored by Makela (2002) He followed the

Sun, Yixiao

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Atmospheric Energetics in the Wavelet Domain. Part II: Time-Averaged Observed Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelet energetics (WE) is a useful generalization of traditional wavenumber energetics, for analyzing atmospheric dynamics. WE is doubly indexed by wavenumber band j and location k. The interpretation is that 2 to the jth power is proportional ...

Aimé Fournier

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the SERC southeast ...

213

Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040

214

ARM - Evaluation Product - Average of Cloud Condensation Nuclei...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are averaged together. The %ss in the CCN data stream is calculated using a heat transfer and fluid dynamics model flow model (Lance et al., 2006). The model uses the...

215

Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10.34 9.79 11.62 14.97 NA 20.70 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 8.35 8.21 9.11 9.52 9.96 10.36...

216

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

94 11.57 12.82 15.94 18.40 18.73 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 8.38 8.32 8.27 8.38 7.91 6.66...

217

Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.35 10.04 12.02 15.43 17.45 16.48 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 9.03 9.30 10.67 11.84 12.79 NA...

218

annual average heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average heating degree days average heating degree days Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords annual average heating degree days climate GIS NASA SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.7 MiB)

219

Average Diurnal Variation of Summer Lightning over the Floirida Peninsula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data derived from a large network of electric field mills have been used to determine the average diurnal variation of lightning in a Florida seacoast environment. These data were obtained at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape ...

Launa M. Maier; E. Philip Krider; Michael W. Maier

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

2012 Brief: Average wholesale electricity prices down compared to ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average, on-peak (weekdays from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.) day-ahead electricity prices were lower across the entire United States in 2012 compared to 2011.

222

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

223

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

224

Exact Averaging of Atmospheric State and Flow Variables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new set of averaging rules is put forward that exactly determines the means of air temperature, mixing ratio, and velocity by incorporating weighting factors in accordance with physical conservation laws. For the temperature and velocity, ...

Andrew S. Kowalski

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 88. Annual average Henry Hub spot prices for natural gas in five cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Reference

226

Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 86. Annual average Henry Hub spot natural gas prices, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per million Btu) Henry Hub Spot Price 1990.00

227

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensembles used for probabilistic weather forecasting often exhibit a spread-error correlation, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper proposes a statistical method for postprocessing ensembles based on Bayesian model averaging (BMA), ...

Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting; Fadoua Balabdaoui; Michael Polakowski

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 10.55 11.24 13.80 16.87 19.85 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 9.51 9.87 10.27 11.46 12.38 12.89...

229

Semi-supervised training for the averaged perceptron POS tagger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes POS tagging experiments with semi-supervised training as an extension to the (supervised) averaged perceptron algorithm, first introduced for this task by (Collins, 2002). Experiments with an iterative training on standard-sized ...

Drahomíra "johanka" Spoustová; Jan Haji?; Jan Raab; Miroslav Spousta

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A Statistical Averaging Method for Wind Profiler Doppler Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented for Doppler spectral averaging that more reliably identifies the profiler radar return from clear air in the presence of contamination—for example, from migrating bird echoes. These very sensitive radars profile the wind ...

David A. Merritt

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact 638: August 30, 2010...

232

Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2001-2010 are Excel zipped files & 1994-2000 are PDF files ... and Average Retail Price for Power Marketers and ... U.S. Department of Energy USA.gov FedStats.

233

U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

234

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal irradiance...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b>  
Global Horizontal Irradiance
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

235

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

>  
Direct Normal Irradiance (kWhm2day)
NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Jan 2008)
22-year Monthly & Annual Average...

236

Average utilization of the nation's natural gas combined-cycle ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (purple line) and 2010 (red line) average capacity factors for natural gas plant operations between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. rose from 26% to 32%.

237

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average

238

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt irradiance GIS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

& Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)
Parameter: Latitude Tilt Radiation (kWhm2day)
Internet: http:eosweb.larc.nasa.govsse
Note 1:...

239

Some Considerations Relevant to Computing Average Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three data bases of gridded surface temperature anomalies were used to assess the sensitivity of the average estimated Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature anomaly to: 1) extreme gridpoint values and 2) zonal band contributions. Over the last 100 ...

S. L. Grotch

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

242

Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" 4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Supplier(b)","Supplier(c)","Factors"

243

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South America from NREL South America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

244

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI), global horizontal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central America and the Carribean from NREL Central America and the Carribean from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal and tilted flat-plates, and 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to solar collectors. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

245

U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Conventional, Average 3.030 3.137 3.122 3.063 3.042 2.972 1994-2013 Conventional Regular 3.005 3.116 3.102 3.040 3.017 2.948 1994-2013 Conventional Midgrade 3.167 3.256 3.239 3.200 3.193 3.121 1994-2013 Conventional Premium 3.269 3.354 3.327 3.291 3.274 3.203 1994-2013 Oxygenated, Average - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Regular - - - - - - 1994-2013 Oxygenated Midgrade - - - - - - 1994-2013

246

Bayesian Model Averaging’s Problematic Treatment of Extreme Weather and a Paradigm Shift That Fixes It  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods of ensemble postprocessing in which continuous probability density functions are constructed from ensemble forecasts by centering functions around each of the ensemble members have come to be called Bayesian model averaging (BMA) or “...

Craig H. Bishop; Kevin T. Shanley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Carrier Noise Reduction in Speckle Correlation Interferometry by a Unique Averaging Technique  

SciTech Connect

We present experimental result of carrier speckle noise averaging by a novel approach to generate numerous identical correlation fringes with randomly different speckles. The surface under study is sprayed with a new dry paint or a layer each time for the repetitive experiments to generate randomly different surfaces of the carrier speckle patterns.

Pechersky, M.J.

1999-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that could be removed or modified to produce %E2%80%9Ccleaner%E2%80%9D neutron signals? This process was first developed and then applied to the axial neutron time of flight detectors at the ZFacility mentioned above. First, MCNPPoliMi was used to model relevant portions of the facility between the source and the detector locations. To obtain useful statistics, variance reduction was utilized. Then, the resulting collision output table produced by MCNPPoliMi was further analyzed by a MATLAB postprocessing code. This converted the energy deposited by neutron and photon interactions in the plastic scintillator (i.e., nTOF detector) into light output, in units of MeVee%D1%84 (electron equivalent) vs time. The time response of the detector was then folded into the signal via another MATLAB code. The simulated response was then compared with experimental data and shown to be in good agreement. To address the issue of neutron scattering, an %E2%80%9CIdeal Case,%E2%80%9D (i.e., a plastic scintillator was placed at the same distance from the source for each detector location) with no structural components in the problem. This was done to produce as %E2%80%9Cpure%E2%80%9D a neutron signal as possible. The simulated waveform from this %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was then compared with the simulated data from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry (i.e., the detector at the same location, but with all the structural materials now included). The %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was subtracted from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry case, and this was determined to be the contribution due to scattering. The time response was deconvolved out of the empirical data, and the contribution due to scattering was then subtracted out of it. A transformation was then made from dN/dt to dN/dE to obtain neutron spectra at two different detector locations.

Nelson, Alan J. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Cooper, Gary Wayne [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.  

SciTech Connect

There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that could be removed or modified to produce %E2%80%9Ccleaner%E2%80%9D neutron signals? This process was first developed and then applied to the axial neutron time of flight detectors at the ZFacility mentioned above. First, MCNPPoliMi was used to model relevant portions of the facility between the source and the detector locations. To obtain useful statistics, variance reduction was utilized. Then, the resulting collision output table produced by MCNPPoliMi was further analyzed by a MATLAB postprocessing code. This converted the energy deposited by neutron and photon interactions in the plastic scintillator (i.e., nTOF detector) into light output, in units of MeVee%D1%84 (electron equivalent) vs time. The time response of the detector was then folded into the signal via another MATLAB code. The simulated response was then compared with experimental data and shown to be in good agreement. To address the issue of neutron scattering, an %E2%80%9CIdeal Case,%E2%80%9D (i.e., a plastic scintillator was placed at the same distance from the source for each detector location) with no structural components in the problem. This was done to produce as %E2%80%9Cpure%E2%80%9D a neutron signal as possible. The simulated waveform from this %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was then compared with the simulated data from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry (i.e., the detector at the same location, but with all the structural materials now included). The %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was subtracted from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry case, and this was determined to be the contribution due to scattering. The time response was deconvolved out of the empirical data, and the contribution due to scattering was then subtracted out of it. A transformation was then made from dN/dt to dN/dE to obtain neutron spectra at two different detector locations.

Nelson, Alan J. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Cooper, Gary Wayne [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

"2012 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial" Industrial" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",34164,67854.037,11.83487,8030.4373 "Connecticut",4647,63947.063,12.672933,8103.9685 "Maine",2780,90741.457,7.9819499,7242.9376 "Massachusetts",21145,66710.826,12.566635,8383.3057 "New Hampshire",3444,47247.217,11.83228,5590.423 "Rhode Island",1927,39935.911,10.676724,4263.8471 "Vermont",221,536044.12,9.9796777,53495.475 "Middle Atlantic",45836,126368.14,7.4903534,9465.42 "New Jersey",12729,50817.89,10.516509,5344.2677

252

"2012 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential" Residential" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6203726,634.13095,15.713593,99.644755 "Connecticut",1454651,730.85302,17.343298,126.75402 "Maine",703770,530.56349,14.658797,77.774225 "Massachusetts",2699141,627.15845,14.912724,93.52641 "New Hampshire",601697,614.81776,16.070168,98.802249 "Rhode Island",435448,597.34783,14.404061,86.042344 "Vermont",309019,565.03618,17.006075,96.090478 "Middle Atlantic",15727423,700.63673,15.272654,107.00582

253

Globally Averaged Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations: Monthly and Annual  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chlorofluorocarbons » Chlorofluorocarbons » Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations Globally Averaged Atmospheric CFC-11 Concentrations: Monthly and Annual Data for the Period 1975-1992 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1010 data Data (DB1010) Investigator M. A. K. Khalil and R. A. Rasmussen Description This data set presents globally averaged atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbon 11, known also as CFC-11 or F-11 (chemical name: trichlorofluoromethane; formula: CCl3F). The monthly global average data are derived from flask air samples collected at eight sites in six locations over the period August 1980-July 1992. The sites are Barrow (Alaska), Cape Meares (Oregon), Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa (Hawaii), Cape Matatula (American Samoa), Cape Grim (Tasmania), Palmer Station, and the

254

Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian, a Two-Dimensional, and a Three-Dimensional Model The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) code for predicting off-site consequences, MACCS2 (Chanin, et al. 1998) (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2), uses a simplified model for atmospheric transport and d ispersion (ATD), that is, a straight-line Gaussian model. The MACCS2 calculations are used by the NRC for planning purposes, for cost-benefit analyses, and in level-3 probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs). The MACCS2 ATD model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, even for its purposes. The justification for its use has been

255

Bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code for stellarator transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A computer code for solving the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation appropriate to stellarator transport has been developed, and its first applications made. The code is much faster than the bounce-averaged Monte-Carlo codes, which up to now have provided the most efficient numerical means for studying stellarator transport. Moreover, because the connection to analytic kinetic theory of the Fokker-Planck approach is more direct than for the Monte-Carlo approach, a comparison of theory and numerical experiment is now possible at a considerably more detailed level than previously.

Mynick, H.E.; Hitchon, W.N.G.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

257

AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.  

SciTech Connect

High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.

BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1983-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1983-2013 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1983-2013 Connecticut - - - - - - 1983-2013 Maine - - - - - - 1983-2013 Massachusetts - - - - - - 1983-2013

259

Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 91.2 2006-2011 Commercial Average Price 12.77 14.29 11.83 10.47 10.42 10.21 1967-2012 Local Distribution Companies 11.29 NA...

260

Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

8.75 8.56 9.26 11.63 12.68 13.68 1989-2013 Commercial Average Price 7.67 7.51 7.84 8.78 9.69 10.30...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Table WF01. Average Consumer Prices and Expenditures for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Heating Oil U.S. Average Consumption (gallons) 522.7 531.7 572.5 538.2 574.1 465.3 539.9 546.9 1.3 ... Wood 2,094 2,179 2,353 2,424 2,454 2,520 2,582 ...

263

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1 Adrian E. Raftery, Fadoua forecasting often exhibit a spread-skill relationship, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper of PDFs centered around the individual (possibly bias-corrected) forecasts, where the weights are equal

Washington at Seattle, University of

264

Information Leakage via Electromagnetic Emanation and Effectiveness of Averaging Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that there is relationship between electromagnetic emanation and processing information in IT devices such as personal computers and smart cards. In this paper, we show how to estimate amount of information that is leaked as electromagnetic ... Keywords: Tempest, Channel capacity, electromagnetic emanation, averaging technique

Hidema Tanaka

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Spatial analysis based on variance of moving window averages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R02 R04 R06 R08 R16 I n Window size B R02 R06 R10 R14 R20R04 R08 R12 R16 R24 R36 I n Window size Wu et al. , Fig. 2Based on Variance of Moving Window Averages B. M. Wu, K. V.

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V; Ferrandino, F J; Hao, J J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

A Vertically Averaged Circulation Model Using Boundary-Fitted Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional vertically averaged circulation model using boundary-fitted coordinates has been developed for predicting sea level and currants in estuarine and shelf waters. The basic idea of the approach is to use a set of coupled quasi-...

Malcolm L. Spaulding

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Digestion time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Digestion time Digestion time Name: Don Mancosh Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I have always given the rule of thumb in class that material we eat is with us for about 24 hours before exiting the body. The question arises about the time value of liquids. Getting a big coke prior to a 3 hour drive generally means that there will be a stop along the way. Is there a generalization made about liquids in the body similar to the one for solid food? Replies: A physician would give a better answer, but I hazard this: the only liquids which people consume (deliberately) in significant quantities are water, ethyl alcohol and various oils. Water and alcohol are absorbed on a time scale of seconds to minutes through the mouth, stomach and digestive tract. The oils are huge molecules, so I'd guess like any other greasy food they get absorbed in the upper digestive tract. Some of them, perhaps the longest and most nonpolar, are not absorbed at all --- cf. the old-time remedy of mineral oil for constipation --- so there should be some average time-before-what's-left-is-excreted such as you're looking for, and my (wild) guess is that it would not differ substantially from that for food. You can define an average lifetime in the body for alcohol, since the natural level is zero. Rough guidelines are widespread in the context of drunk driving laws. But this is not really possible for water. One's body is normally full up to the brim with water, and there's no way for the body to distinguish between water molecules recently absorbed and molecules that've been moping around since the Beatles split up. Thus the water entering the toilet bowl after the pit stop is not in general the same water as was in the big coke. If you were to consider for water just the average time between drinking and peeing, it would seem to depend strongly on how well hydrated the body was before the drink, and how much was drunk. During sustained heavy exertion in the sun and dry air one can easily drink a pint of water an hour without peeing at all. On the other hand, if one is willing to drink enough water fast enough, so as to establish a high excess of body water one can pee 8 ounces 15 minutes or less after drinking 8 ounces.

268

The quiet Sun average Doppler shift of coronal lines up to 2 MK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The average Doppler shift shown by spectral lines formed from the chromosphere to the corona reveals important information on the mass and energy balance of the solar atmosphere, providing an important observational constraint to any models of the solar corona. Previous spectroscopic observations of vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lines have revealed a persistent average wavelength shift of lines formed at temperatures up to 1 MK. At higher temperatures, the behaviour is still essentially unknown. Here we analyse combined SUMER/SoHO and EIS/Hinode observations of the quiet Sun around disk centre to determine, for the first time, the average Doppler shift of several spectral lines formed between 1 and 2 MK, where the largest part of the quiet coronal emission is formed. The measurements are based on a novel technique applied to EIS spectra to measure the difference in Doppler shift between lines formed at different temperatures. Simultaneous wavelength-calibrated SUMER spectra allow establishing the absolute value a...

Dadashi, Neda; Solanki, Sami K

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A study of time-dependent responses of a mechanical displacement ventilation (DV) system and an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system : building energy performance of the UFAD system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5.4: PEDR (Peak Electricity Demand Reduction) responses ofFigure 5.3: Hourly electricity demand on a typical summeror achieve deeper electricity demand reduction than OH.

Yu, Jong Keun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 78.29 77.25 102.62 77.88 105.14 -25.9 Canada* 81.61 80.70 110.67 81.30 112.16 -27.5 Dominican Republic 78.54 75.09 73.89 75.77 76.61 -1.1 Honduras - 54.58 54.43 54.58 54.43 0.3 Jamaica 480.00 54.43 - 54.72 55.42 -1.3 Mexico 73.45 75.81 94.36 74.35 100.95 -26.3 Other** 80.33 389.30 70.37 82.45 76.10 8.3 South America Total 107.72 108.02 149.99 107.88

271

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 240.59 241.38 218.40 240.85 225.80 6.7 Canada* 147.49 330.47 243.04 183.08 286.56 -36.1 Mexico 316.57 211.63 189.12 273.97 171.71 59.6 Other** 612.42 485.63 134.48 525.92 135.04 289.5 South America Total 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Other** 140.65 156.15 322.70 148.29 250.36 -40.8 Europe Total 259.26 255.24 - 257.06 427.83 -39.9 Other**

272

Probability density function transformation using seeded localized averaging  

SciTech Connect

Seeded Localized Averaging (SLA) is a spectrum acquisition method that averages pulse-heights in dynamic windows. SLA sharpens peaks in the acquired spectra. This work investigates the transformation of the original probability density function (PDF) in the process of applying SLA procedure. We derive an analytical expression for the resulting probability density function after an application of SLA. In addition, we prove the following properties: 1) for symmetric distributions, SLA preserves both the mean and symmetry. 2) for uni-modal symmetric distributions, SLA reduces variance, sharpening the distributions peak. Our results are the first to prove these properties, reinforcing past experimental observations. Specifically, our results imply that in the typical case of a spectral peak with Gaussian PDF the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transformed peak becomes narrower even with averaging of only two pulse-heights. While the Gaussian shape is no longer preserved, our results include an analytical expression for the resulting distribution. Examples of the transformation of other PDFs are presented. (authors)

Dimitrov, N. B. [Operations Research Dept., Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Jordanov, V. T. [Yantel, LLC, Santa Fe, NM 87508 (United States)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 263.21 252.66 353.05 261.29 356.01 -26.6 Canada 263.51 252.66 353.05 258.82 356.01 -27.3 Panama 263.09 - - 263.09 - - South America Total 196.86 194.14 175.88 195.94 181.01 8.2 Brazil - - 157.60 - 157.60 - Colombia 196.86 194.14 322.06 195.94 246.68 -20.6 Europe Total 181.55 232.13 385.65 225.53 384.96 -41.4 Czech Republic - 475.91 - 475.91 - - Spain 360.51

274

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

275

Association of Wire Code Configuration With Long-Term Average 60-Hz Magnetic Fields and Exposure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have reported associations between cancer and the configuration of outdoor electric utility lines, popularly referred to as the wire code, which were developed as a surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure to magnetic fields. A study was conducted to measure the magnetic fields in over 200 houses in eight areas within the contiguous United States. This interim report presents the major results of that study.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Status of Average-x from Lattice QCD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As algorithms and computing power have advanced, lattice QCD has become a precision technique for many QCD observables. However, the calculation of nucleon matrix elements remains an open challenge. I summarize the status of the lattice effort by examining one observable that has come to represent this challenge, average-x: the fraction of the nucleon's momentum carried by its quark constituents. Recent results confirm a long standing tendency to overshoot the experimentally measured value. Understanding this puzzle is essential to not only the lattice calculation of nucleon properties but also the broader effort to determine hadron structure from QCD.

Dru Renner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis quantifies the relative merit of various technological advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors and presents them graphically as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. Substantial annual energy gains (exceeding 50% at 350/sup 0/C) are shown to be attainable with improved parabolic troughs.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Dollar Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 AEO 1996 1994 7.09 6.99 6.94 6.93 6.96 6.96 6.96 6.97 6.98 6.97 6.98 6.95 6.95 6.94 6.96 6.95 6.91 AEO 1997 1995 6.94 6.89 6.90 6.91 6.86 6.84 6.78 6.73 6.66 6.60 6.58 6.54 6.49 6.48 6.45 6.36

279

[Global warming and the running average sunspot number  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported in your pages that the Bush administration`s views and actions regarding how or whether to react to possible global warming due to greenhouse gases have been influenced by the so-called Marshall report. This unrefereed report, released by the George C. Marshall Institute, had as its principal conclusion the finding that the 0.5{degree} C global warming of the last century was mostly due to solar variability and, thus, the greenhouse warming of the 21st century can be expected to be a relatively small l{degree} C or so. The authors support this finding by comparing the 33-year running average sunspot number with the trend in annual average global temperature and noting the parallel between the two, especially during the 1940s--1960s when the temperature trend was downward. Subsequent letters to Science debated the merits of this and other conclusions contained in the report. I now present additional technical evidence which shows that, quite aside from the question of whether the data presented in the report support its conclusions, the actual figure on which the above conclusion is based is in error.

Fernau, M.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Calculations of nonspherically averaged charge densities for subtitutionally disordered alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on screening transformations of muffin-tin orbitals introduced by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2571 (1984)], we have developed a formalism for calculating the non-spherically averaged charge densities of substitutionally disordered alloys using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation (KKR CPA) method in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). We have validated our method by calculating charge densities for ordered structures, where we find that our approach yields charge densities that are essentially indistinguishable from the results of full-potential methods. For substitutionally disordered alloys, where full-potential methods have not been implemented so far, our approach can be used to calculate reliable non-spherically averaged charge densities from spherically symmetric one-electron potentials obtained from the KKR-ASA CPA. We report on our study of differences in charge denisty between ordered AlLi in L1{sub o} phase and substitutionally disordered Al{sub 0.5}Li{sub 0.5} on face-centered cubic lattice.

Singh, P.P.; Gonis, A.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

Marek A. Szalek

2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

282

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime  

SciTech Connect

Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) Most electricity customers see electricity rates that are based on average electricity costs and bear little relation to the true production costs of electricity as they vary over time. Demand response is a tariff or program established to motivate changes in electric use by end-use customers in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to give

285

A new hybrid for improvement of auto-regressive integrated moving average models applying particle swarm optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time series forecasting is an active research applied significantly in a variety of economics areas. Over the past three decades an auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, as one of the most important time series models, has been applied ... Keywords: ARIMA, Forecasting, PSOARIMA

Shahrokh Asadi; Akbar Tavakoli; Seyed Reza Hejazi

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Optimal Timing for Assessment of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer: Do All Patients Benefit From Waiting Longer Than 6 Weeks?  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To estimate the metabolic activity of rectal cancers at 6 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}FDG]PET/CT) imaging and correlate with response to CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT (54 Gy, 5-fluouracil-based) were prospectively studied ( (ClinicalTrials.org) identifier (NCT00254683)). All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies (at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks from CRT completion). Clinical assessment was at 12 weeks. Maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured and recorded at each PET/CT study after 1 h (early) and 3 h (late) from {sup 18}FDG injection. Patients with an increase in early SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks were considered 'bad' responders and the others as 'good' responders. Results: Ninety-one patients were included; 46 patients (51%) were 'bad' responders, whereas 45 (49%) patients were 'good' responders. 'Bad' responders were less likely to develop complete clinical response (6.5% vs. 37.8%, respectively; P=.001), less likely to develop significant histological tumor regression (complete or near-complete pathological response; 16% vs. 45%, respectively; P=.008) and exhibited greater final tumor dimension (4.3 cm vs. 3.3 cm; P=.03). Decrease between early (1 h) and late (3 h) SUVmax at 6-week PET/CT was a significant predictor of 'good' response (accuracy of 67%). Conclusions: Patients who developed an increase in SUVmax after 6 weeks were less likely to develop significant tumor downstaging. Early-late SUVmax variation at 6-week PET/CT may help identify these patients and allow tailored selection of CRT-surgery intervals for individual patients.

Perez, Rodrigo O. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil) [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Habr-Gama, Angelita, E-mail: gamange@uol.com.br [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sao Juliao, Guilherme P. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sousa, Afonso H.S.; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; Imperiale, Antonio R. [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lynn, Patricio B.; Proscurshim, Igor [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Angelita and Joaquim Gama Institute, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nahas, Sergio Carlos [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Colorectal Surgery Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ono, Carla Rachel; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil) [Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Experimental investigation of a moving averaging algorithm for motion perpendicular to the leaf travel direction in dynamic MLC target tracking  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) motion tracking with complex intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields, target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction can cause beam holds, which increase beam delivery time by up to a factor of 4. As a means to balance delivery efficiency and accuracy, a moving average algorithm was incorporated into a dynamic MLC motion tracking system (i.e., moving average tracking) to account for target motion perpendicular to the MLC leaf travel direction. The experimental investigation of the moving average algorithm compared with real-time tracking and no compensation beam delivery is described. Methods: The properties of the moving average algorithm were measured and compared with those of real-time tracking (dynamic MLC motion tracking accounting for both target motion parallel and perpendicular to the leaf travel direction) and no compensation beam delivery. The algorithm was investigated using a synthetic motion trace with a baseline drift and four patient-measured 3D tumor motion traces representing regular and irregular motions with varying baseline drifts. Each motion trace was reproduced by a moving platform. The delivery efficiency, geometric accuracy, and dosimetric accuracy were evaluated for conformal, step-and-shoot IMRT, and dynamic sliding window IMRT treatment plans using the synthetic and patient motion traces. The dosimetric accuracy was quantified via a {gamma}-test with a 3%/3 mm criterion. Results: The delivery efficiency ranged from 89 to 100% for moving average tracking, 26%-100% for real-time tracking, and 100% (by definition) for no compensation. The root-mean-square geometric error ranged from 3.2 to 4.0 mm for moving average tracking, 0.7-1.1 mm for real-time tracking, and 3.7-7.2 mm for no compensation. The percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test ranged from 4 to 30% for moving average tracking, 0%-23% for real-time tracking, and 10%-47% for no compensation. Conclusions: The delivery efficiency of moving average tracking was up to four times higher than that of real-time tracking and approached the efficiency of no compensation for all cases. The geometric accuracy and dosimetric accuracy of the moving average algorithm was between real-time tracking and no compensation, approximately half the percentage of dosimetric points failing the {gamma}-test compared with no compensation.

Yoon, Jai-Woong; Sawant, Amit; Suh, Yelin; Cho, Byung-Chul; Suh, Tae-Suk; Keall, Paul [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 131-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 2006 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Network-based consensus averaging with general noisy channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the consensus averaging problem on graphs under general noisy channels. We study a particular class of distributed consensus algorithms based on damped updates, and using the ordinary differential equation method, we prove that the updates converge almost surely to exact consensus for finite variance noise. Our analysis applies to various types of stochastic disturbances, including errors in parameters, transmission noise, and quantization noise. Under a suitable stability condition, we prove that the error is asymptotically Gaussian, and we show how the asymptotic covariance is specified by the graph Laplacian. For additive parameter noise, we show how the scaling of the asymptotic MSE is controlled by the spectral gap of the Laplacian.

Rajagopal, Ram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

relative humidity GIS data at relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of

291

Low-frequency plasma conductivity in the average-atom approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-frequency properties of a plasma are examined within the average-atom approximation, which presumes that scattering of a conducting electron on each atom takes place independently of other atoms. The relaxation time tau distinguishes a high-frequency region omega tau > 1, where the single-atom approximation is applicable explicitly, from extreme low frequencies omega tau 1, reproducing the Ziman formula in the static limit, results based on the Kubo-Greenwood formula for high frequencies, and satisfying the conductivity sum-rule precisely. The correspondence between physical processes leading to the conventional Ohm's law and the infrared properties of QED is discussed. The suggested average-atom approach to frequency-dependent conductivity is illustrated by numerical calculations for the an aluminum plasma in the temperature range 2--10 eV.

Kuchiev, M Yu

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

Spatial Averaging of HF Radar Data for Wave Measurement Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HF radar data are often collected for time periods that are optimised for current measurement applications where, in many cases, very high temporal resolution is needed. Previous work has demonstrated that this does not provide sufficient ...

Lucy R. Wyatt; Jasmine B. D. Jaffrés; Mal L. Heron

294

Table 15. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual (nominal cents per kilowatt-hour) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 6.38 6.96 7.63 8.23 8.83 9.49 AEO 1983 6.85 7.28 7.74 8.22 8.68 9.18 13.12 AEO 1984 6.67 7.05 7.48 7.89 8.25 8.65 11.53 AEO 1985 6.62 6.94 7.32 7.63 7.89 8.15 8.46 8.85 9.20 9.61 10.04 AEO 1986 6.67 6.88 7.05 7.18 7.35 7.52 7.65 7.87 8.31 8.83 9.41 10.01 10.61 11.33 12.02 AEO 1987 6.63 6.65 6.92 7.12 7.38 7.62 7.94 8.36 8.86 11.99 AEO 1989* 6.50 6.75 7.14 7.48 7.82 8.11 8.50 8.91 9.39 9.91 10.49 11.05 11.61 AEO 1990 6.49 6.72 8.40 10.99 14.5 AEO 1991 6.94 7.31 7.59 7.82 8.18 8.38 8.54 8.73 8.99 9.38 9.83 10.29 10.83 11.36 11.94 12.58 13.21 13.88 14.58 15.21 AEO 1992 6.97 7.16 7.32 7.56 7.78 8.04 8.29 8.57 8.93 9.38 9.82 10.26 10.73 11.25 11.83 12.37 12.96 13.58 14.23 AEO 1993

295

Plate with a hole obeys the averaged null energy condition  

SciTech Connect

The negative energy density of Casimir systems appears to violate general relativity energy conditions. However, one cannot test the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) using standard calculations for perfectly reflecting plates, because the null geodesic would have to pass through the plates, where the calculation breaks down. To avoid this problem, we compute the contribution to ANEC for a geodesic that passes through a hole in a single plate. We consider both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in two and three space dimensions. We use a Babinet's principle argument to reduce the problem to a complementary finite disk correction to the perfect mirror result, which we then compute using scattering theory in elliptical and spheroidal coordinates. In the Dirichlet case, we find that the positive correction due to the hole overwhelms the negative contribution of the infinite plate. In the Neumann case, where the infinite plate gives a positive contribution, the hole contribution is smaller in magnitude, so again ANEC is obeyed. These results can be extended to the case of two plates in the limits of large and small hole radii. This system thus provides another example of a situation where ANEC turns out to be obeyed when one might expect it to be violated.

Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price of U.S. Coal Imports Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2013 Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2013 January - March 2013 April - June 2012 2013 2012 Percent Change North America Total 147.86 138.39 191.01 144.86 197.96 -26.8 Canada 147.86 138.39 191.00 144.86 197.95 -26.8 Mexico - - 286.23 - 286.23 - South America Total 75.29 80.74 86.52 77.20 87.17 -11.4 Argentina - - 504.70 - 504.70 - Colombia 74.87 80.74 83.03 76.96 85.25 -9.7 Peru 87.09 - - 87.09 - - Venezuela 91.81 - 122.01 91.81 112.61 -18.5 Europe Total - 136.50 137.33 136.50 146.31 -6.7

297

Climate: monthly and annual average atmospheric pressure GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric pressure GIS data at atmospheric pressure GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract):Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of the region is +0.5 added to the the Lat/Lon value. These data are

298

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

An averaging theorem for FPU in the thermodynamic limit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider an FPU chain composed of $N\\gg 1$ particles, and endow the phase space with the Gibbs measure corresponding to a small temperature $\\beta^{-1}$. Given a fixed $Korder $\\beta^{1-a}$, $a>0$) for initial data in a set of large measure. Furthermore, the time autocorrelation function of the energy of each packet does not decay significantly for times of order $\\beta$. The restrictions on the shape of the packets are very mild. All estimates are uniform in the number $N$ of particles and thus hold in the thermodynamic limit $N\\to\\infty$, $\\beta>0$.

Alberto Maiocchi; Dario Bambusi; Andrea Carati

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

On the Rossby Wave Source and the Steady Linear Response to Tropical Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-level spectral model with a zonally homogeneous climate is used to study the steady response of a spherical atmosphere to tropical heating. Solutions are obtained by both averaging the time integration of the model and solving for the ...

Jianchun Qin; Walter A. Robinson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern US. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low-frequency oscillations. This paper discusses modulation procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

2012 Brief: Average 2012 crude oil prices remain near 2011 levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Brent crude oil averaged $111.67 per barrel, slightly above the 2011 average of $111.26. West Texas Intermediate oil averaged $94.05 per barrel in 2012, ...

304

UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

Dallum, Gregory E

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1. “Economic” demand response and real time pricing (Implications of Demand Response Programs in CompetitiveAdvanced Metering, and Demand Response in Electricity

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

FY 2008 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS 8 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR FY 2008 FY 2004 FY 2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 National Taraets Customer Perspective Objective: Customer Satisfaction 93 9 3 Core Measure: Customer Satisfaction Rating Internal Business Perspective Objective: Effective Internal Controls 95 93 Core Measure: assessment of degree to which purchasing systems are in compliance Objective: Effective Supplier Management 8 3 8 1 Core Measure: % Delivery on-time, including Just-in-Time Objective: Use of Effective Competition 7 1 74 Core Measure: % of total dollars obligated on actions over $100,000 that were competed N/A - locally set 84 N/A - locally set 2 FY 2008 FY 2004 FY 2005 FY2006 FY 2007 FY2008 National Tarpets

307

FY 2010 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FY 2010 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS FY 2010 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR FY 2010 FY 2006 FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009 FY 2010 National Targets Customer Perspective Objective: Customer Satisfaction 94 94 95 95 94 92 Core Measure: Customer Satisfaction Rating Internal Business Perspective Objective: Effective Internal Controls 94 95 97 97 95 N/A - locally set Core Measure: assessment of degree to which purchasing systems are in compliance Objective: Effective Supplier Management 83 83 84 86 85 84 Core Measure: % Delivery on-time, including Just-in-Time Objective: Use of Effective Competition 69 71 67 74 75 N/A - locally set

308

FY 2009 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS 9 CONTRACTOR PURCHASING BALANCED SCORECARD RESULTS DEPARTMENTAL AVERAGES BY FISCAL YEAR FY 2009 FY2005 FY2006 FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009 National Tarpets Customer Perspective Objective: Customer Satisfaction Core Measure: Customer Satisfaction Rating Internal Business Perspective Objective: Effective Internal Controls 93 94 Core Measure: assessment of degree to which purchasing systems are in compliance Objective: Effective Supplier Management 8 1 83 Core Measure: % Delivery on-time, including Just-in-Time Objective: Use of Effective Competition 74 69 Core Measure: % of total dollars obligated on actions over $100,000 that were competed 97 97 N/A - locally set 84 8 6 84 67 74 N/A - locally set 2 FY 2009 FY 2005 FY 2006 FY 2007 FY 2008 FY2009 National Targets

309

Internet Topology over Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are few studies that look closely at how the topology of the Internet evolves over time; most focus on snapshots taken at a particular point in time. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the topology of the Autonomous Systems graph of the Internet, examining how eight commonly-used topological measures change from January 2002 to January 2010. We find that the distributions of most of the measures remain unchanged, except for average path length and clustering coefficient. The average path length has slowly and steadily increased since 2005 and the average clustering coefficient has steadily declined. We hypothesize that these changes are due to changes in peering policies as the Internet evolves. We also investigate a surprising feature, namely that the maximum degree has changed little, an aspect that cannot be captured without modeling link deletion. Our results suggest that evaluating models of the Internet graph by comparing steady-state generated topologies to snapshots of the real data ...

Edwards, Benjamin; Stelle, George; Forrest, Stephanie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Mentor Responsibilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mentors Mentors       QuarkNet Home - Information - Calendar - Contacts - Projects - Forms: EoI - Teachers Year 1 - At each Center during the first year two teachers will join the project. Mentoring lead teacher for an eight-week summer research appointment. Working with the lead teachers to plan a year-2 three-week local institute for the assoicate teachers. Working with the lead teachers to recruit year-2 teachers. Providing information for program evaluation (selected Centers). Year 2 - During the second year on average 10 new teachers will join each group bringing the total to 12 at each Center. Working with the lead teachers to offer the year-2 institute. Planning with the teachers how they will continue the collaboration for at least one week total time during the year. For example, this could mean regular network meetings during the school year or it might mean getting together each summer for one week.

311

Lagrangian and Eulerian Time-Scale Relations in the Daytime Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian (neutral balloon) and Eulerian (tower and aircraft) turbulence observations were made in the daytime mixed layer near Boulder, Colorado. Average sampling time was 25 min. Average Lagrangian time scale is 70 s and average ratio of ...

Steven R. Hanna

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Real-time battery impedance spectrum is acquired using a one-time record. Fast Summation Transformation (FST) is a parallel method of acquiring a real-time battery impedance spectrum using a one-time record that enables battery diagnostics. An excitation current to a battery is a sum of equal amplitude sine waves of frequencies that are octave harmonics spread over a range of interest. A sample frequency is also octave and harmonically related to all frequencies in the sum. The time profile of this signal has a duration that is a few periods of the lowest frequency. The voltage response of the battery, average deleted, is the impedance of the battery in the time domain. Since the excitation frequencies are known and octave and harmonically related, a simple algorithm, FST, processes the time record by rectifying relative to the sine and cosine of each frequency. Another algorithm yields real and imaginary components for each frequency.

Morrison, John L. (Butte, MT); Morrison, William H. (Manchester, CT); Christophersen, Jon P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

Complete calculation of evaluated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties for s-process nucleosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present contribution represents a significant improvement of our previous calculation of Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates. Addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, such as ROSFOND and Low-Fidelity Covariance Project, and improvements in data processing techniques allowed us to extend it for entire range of sprocess nuclei, calculate Maxwellian-averaged cross section uncertainties for the first time, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations using ENDF libraries and current Java technologies will be discussed and new results will be presented.

Pritychenko, B.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and States" "East North Central",17.9,2251,1869,1281,892,741,508 "Illinois",4.8,2186,1911,1451,860,752,571 "Michigan",3.8,1954,1559,962,729,582,359 "Wisconsin",2.3,2605,2091,1258,1105,887,534

315

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States" "Mountain",7.9,1928,1695,1105,723,635,415 "Mountain North",3.9,2107,1858,912,776,684,336 "Colorado",1.9,2082,1832,722,896,788,311 "Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming",2,2130,1883,1093,691,610,354

316

Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

317

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: March 22, 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length on AddThis.com... Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip

318

Structural brain variation, age, and response time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

faster RTs in the senior group (BAs 19, 37, 46, 9, 8, 6, 13,Brodmann areas, especially in BAs 46, 9, and other parts ofparahippocampus, and BAs 46/9 have all been reported to be

Haier, Richard J; Jung, Rex E; Yeo, Ronald A; Head, Kevin; Alkire, Michael T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424  

SciTech Connect

As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

Whitworth, Julia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, Abigail [DOE

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

320

Worst-Case and Average-Case Analysis of n-Detection Test Sets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test sets that detect each target fault n times (n-detection test sets) are typically generated for restricted values of n due to the increase in test set size with n. We perform both a worst-case analysis and an average-case analysis to check the effect of restricting n on the unmodeled fault coverage of an (arbitrary) n-detection test set. Our analysis is independent of any particular test set or test generation approach. It is based on a specific set of target faults and a specific set of untargeted faults. It shows that, depending on the circuit, very large values of n may be needed to guarantee the detection of all the untargeted faults. We discuss the implications of these results.

Pomeranz, Irith

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5: April 28, 5: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices on AddThis.com... Fact #265: April 28, 2003 State Average Fuel Prices The American Automobile Association tracks gasoline and diesel prices

322

Calibrating Multimodel Forecast Ensembles with Exchangeable and Missing Members Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a statistical postprocessing technique that generates calibrated and sharp predictive probability density functions (PDFs) from forecast ensembles. It represents the predictive PDF as a weighted average of PDFs ...

Chris Fraley; Adrian E. Raftery; Tilmann Gneiting

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to 3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's...

324

What is the average heat content of U.S. coal? - FAQ - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

What is the average heat content of U.S. coal? In 2012, the average heat content of coal produced in the United States was about 20.14 million ...

325

2012 Brief: Average 2012 crude oil prices remain near 2011 levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average crude oil prices in 2012 were at historically high levels for the second year in a row. Brent crude oil averaged $111.67 per barrel, slightly above the 2011 ...

326

Leffler's Method of Estimating Average Temperatures of Appalachian Summits: Evaluation in New York  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. J. Leffler recently presented regression equations to estimate average monthly temperatures of Appalachian summits based on the long-term average temperatures on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, and temperature lapse rates as a function of ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

What was the highest U.S. average retail price of regular ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

What was the highest U.S. average retail price of regular gasoline? According to EIA’s weekly survey, the U.S. average retail price of regular ...

328

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: April 18, 1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds on AddThis.com... Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major

329

Smart Interpolation of Annually Averaged Air Temperature in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two “smart” interpolation procedures are presented and assessed with respect to their ability to estimate annual-average air temperatures at unsampled points in space from available station averages. Smart approaches examined here improve upon ...

Cort J. Willmott; Kenji Matsuura

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Impact of Using Different Time-Averaged Inputs for Estimating Sensible Heat Flux of Riparian Vegetation Using Radiometric Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A riparian corridor along the Rio Grande dominated by the Eurasian tamarisk or salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) is being studied to determine water and energy exchange rates using eddy covariance instrumentation mounted on a 12-m tower. The potential of ...

William P. Kustas; John H. Prueger; Lawrence E. Hipps

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Table US14. Average Consumption by Energy End Uses, 2005 Million ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

332

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region" "Northeast",0.5,1030,968,711,524,492,362 "Midwest",1.1,1090,1069,595,400,392,218 "South",3.9,1128,1008,894,423,378,335 "West",1.4,995,867,466,369,322,173 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",3.5,1002,919,684,396,364,271

333

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and States" "South Atlantic",22.2,1944,1687,1596,771,668,633 "Virginia",3,2227,1977,1802,855,759,692 "Georgia",3.5,2304,1983,1906,855,736,707 "Florida",7,1668,1432,1509,690,593,625 "DC, DE, MD, WV",3.4,2218,1831,1440,864,713,561

334

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census Region" "Northeast",12.7,2843,2150,1237,1009,763,439 "Midwest",19.2,2721,2249,1664,1019,842,624 "South",29.7,2232,1945,1843,828,722,684 "West",16.9,2100,1712,1009,725,591,348 "Urban and Rural3"

335

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and States" "New England",5.5,2232,1680,625,903,680,253 "Massachusetts",2.5,2076,1556,676,850,637,277 "CT, ME, NH, RI, VT",3,2360,1781,583,946,714,234 "Mid-Atlantic",15.3,2080,1657,1028,813,647,402

336

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region" "Northeast",7.6,991,897,408,471,426,194 "Midwest",5.6,957,857,518,521,466,282 "South",8.4,924,846,819,462,423,410 "West",6.5,843,606,329,374,269,146 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",26.9,927,803,531,450,390,258

337

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region" "Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",88.1,1857,1546,1148,728,607,450

338

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: May 10, 2010 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership on AddThis.com...

339

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0: May 26, 2008 0: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #520: May 26, 2008 Average Price of a New Car, 1970-2006 on AddThis.com... Fact #520: May 26, 2008

340

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9: June 3, 2002 9: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #219: June 3, 2002 Average Price of a New Car: 1970-2001 on AddThis.com... Fact #219: June 3, 2002

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: March 22, 2: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #312: March 22, 2004 State Average Fuel Prices, 2003 vs. 2004 on AddThis.com...

342

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8: May 21, 2012 8: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles on AddThis.com...

343

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3: November 11, 3: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #803:

344

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

22 22 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is

345

Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC6. Average Consumption for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Million British Thermal Units (Btu) per Household

346

Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Central System 5 Table AC7. Average Expenditures for Air-Conditioning by Equipment Type, 2005 Dollars per Household Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment

347

Table SH9. Average Expenditures for Space Heating by Main Space ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

348

Table AC9. Average Cooled Floorspace by Equipment Type, 2005 Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual degree-days for an appropriate nearby weather station.

349

U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Administration. That's 6 cents less than last summer's average pump price. Cheaper motor fuel reflects lower crude oil prices, which account for about 65 percent of what...

350

Table 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration / Historical Natural Gas Annual 1930 Through 2000 353 35. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U.S. Electric ...

351

Averages of B-Hadron Properties at the End of 2005  

SciTech Connect

This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of at the end of 2005. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays, branching fractions of B decays to final states with open charm, charmonium and no charm, and measurements related to CP asymmetries.

Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Bizjak, I.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Blyth, S.; /CERN; Cavoto, G.; /Rome U.; Chang, P.; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Dingfelder, J.; /SLAC; Eidelman, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Gershon, T.; /WARWICK U.; Godang, R.; /Mississippi U.; Harr, R.; /Wayne State U.; Hocker, A; /CERN; Iijima, T.; /Nagoya U.; Kowalewski, R.; /Victoria U.; Lehner, F.; /Fermilab; Limosani, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Lin, C.-J.; /Fermilab; Long, O.; /UC, Riverside; Luth, V.; /SLAC; Morii, M.; /Harvard U.; Prell, S.; /Iowa State U.; Schneider, O.; /LPHE, Lausanne /Colorado U. /Orsay, LAL /Genoa U. /Hawaii U. /Indiana U. /Rome U. /Karlsruhe U.

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers in Selected States (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet ...

353

Table AP5. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table AP5. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units per Household U.S. Households (millions) Fuels Used

354

Figure 10. U.S. Average Retail Regular Motor Gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Average Retail Regular Motor Gasoline and On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices, January 2013 to Present ... Including Taxes) Title: Weekly Petroleum ...

355

Table AP6. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas LPG Total Refrigerators Other Appliances and Lighting Table AP6. Average Consumption for Home Appliances and Lighting by Fuels Used, 2005

356

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam...

357

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and...

358

Demand Response | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in wholesale markets, and in turn, lead to lower retail rates. Methods of engaging customers in demand response efforts include offering time-based rates such as time-of-use pricing, critical peak pricing, variable peak pricing, real time pricing, and critical peak rebates. It also includes direct load control programs which provide the

359

Managing time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Professionals overwhelmed with information glut can find hope from new insights about time management.

Peter J. Denning

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to 3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

"Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" 9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"-","-----------","-","-----------","-","-","-","RSE" " ","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Transmission","Other","Row"

362

MARD-A moving average rose diagram application for the geosciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

MARD 1.0 is a computer program for generating smoothed rose diagrams by using a moving average, which is designed for use across the wide range of disciplines encompassed within the Earth Sciences. Available in MATLAB^(R), Microsoft^(R) Excel and GNU ... Keywords: Circular statistics, MATLAB®, Microsoft® Excel, Moving average, Rose diagram, Vector mean

Mark A. Munro; Thomas G. Blenkinsop

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The Tidally Averaged Momentum Balance in a Partially and Periodically Stratified Estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of turbulent stresses and mean velocities over an entire spring–neap cycle are used to evaluate the dynamics of tidally averaged flows in a partially stratified estuarine channel. In a depth-averaged sense, the net flow in this ...

Mark T. Stacey; Matthew L. Brennan; Jon R. Burau; Stephen G. Monismith

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Comparing Bayes model averaging and stacking when model approximation error cannot be ignored  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare Bayes Model Averaging, BMA, to a non-Bayes form of model averaging called stacking. In stacking, the weights are no longer posterior probabilities of models; they are obtained by a technique based on cross-validation. When the correct data ...

Bertrand Clarke

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Technique to Reduce Peak Current and Average Power Dissipation in Scan Designs by Limited Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a technique that can efficiently reduce peak and average switching activity during test application is proposed. The proposed method does not require any specific clock tree construction, special scan cells, or scan chain reordering. Test ... Keywords: ATPG, peak current reduction, average power dissipation, scan designs, clock tree construction, special scan cells, scan chain reordering

Seongmoon Wang; Wenlong Wei

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Bayesian decision tree averaging for the probabilistic interpretation of solar flare occurrences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian averaging over Decision Trees (DTs) allows the class posterior probabilities to be estimated, while the DT models are understandable for domain experts. The use of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique of stochastic approximation makes the ... Keywords: Bayesian averaging, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, decision tre, machine learning, solar flare, uncertainty

Vitaly Schetinin; Valentina Zharkova; Sergei Zharkov

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Modeling uncertain variables of the weighted average operation by fuzzy vectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper deals with the fuzzy extension of the weighted average operation. First, we study the convenient ways how uncertain weights and weighted values can be modeled by fuzzy vectors. We show that, in comparison to a tuple of fuzzy numbers that have ... Keywords: Fuzzy probabilities, Fuzzy vector, Fuzzy weighted average, Multiple criteria decision making, Normalized fuzzy weights, Separability of fuzzy vectors

Ond?Ej Pavla?Ka

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A Zonally Averaged, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Paleoclimate Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A zonally averaged ocean model for the thermohaline circulation is coupled to a zonally averaged, one-layer energy balance model of the atmosphere to form a climate model for paleoclimate studies. The emphasis of the coupled model is on the ocean'...

Thomas F. Stocker; Lawrence A. Mysak; Daniel G. Wright

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cylindrical model of transient heat conduction in automotive fuse using conservative averaging method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cylindrical mathematical model of automotive fuse is considered in this paper. Initially, partial differential equations of the transient heat conduction are given to describe heat-up process in the fuse. Conservative averaging method is used to obtain ... Keywords: analytical approximation, automotive fuse, conservative averaging, heat transfer, quasi-linear, transient process

Raimonds Vilums; Hans-Dieter Liess; Andris Buikis; Andis Rudevics

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Management Responsibilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management Responsibilities Management Responsibilities Depleted UF6 Management Responsibilities DOE has responsibility for safe and efficient management of approximately 700,000 metric tons of depleted UF6. Organizational Responsibilities In the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for managing all the depleted uranium that has been generated by the government and has been declared surplus to national defense needs. In addition, as a result of two memoranda of agreement that have been signed between the DOE and USEC, the DOE has assumed management responsibility for approximately 145,000 metric tons of depleted UF6 that has been or will be generated by USEC. Any additional depleted UF6 that USEC generates will be USEC's responsibility to manage. DOE Management Responsibility

371

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

372

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

km for km for Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

373

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

374

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

375

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to

376

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

377

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nepal from NREL Nepal from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Nepal. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

378

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

379

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The

380

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ghana from NREL Ghana from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ghana. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brazil from NREL Brazil from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Brazil. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

382

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GIS data at 10km resolution for GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This

383

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kenya from NREL Kenya from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Kenya. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

384

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka from NREL Sri Lanka from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Sri Lanka (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water

385

Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers  

SciTech Connect

Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Entropic Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics includes several new elements. In this paper we concentrate on one of them: the implications for the theory of time. Entropic time is introduced as a book-keeping device to keep track of the accumulation of changes. One new feature is that, unlike other concepts of time appearing in the so-called fundamental laws of physics, entropic time incorporates a natural distinction between past and future.

Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

387

Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

49031 49031 Varnish cache server Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 40km resolution for China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to

388

UTC Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Security Incident response teams, Cyber Security Incident handling ... is the mandatory standards for nuclear power reactor licensees, 10 CFR ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

389

"Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" 3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,86.6,2522,1970,1310,1812,1475,821,1055,944,554 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,261,336,162,"Q","Q","Q",334,260,"Q"

390

Model Averaging in Risk Management with an Application to Futures Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

symmetric matrix, a0 is an N(N +1)/2× 1 vector, and A0, B0 are N(N +1)/2×N(N +1)/2 matrices of unknown coefficients. It is evident that even such a low-order model already contains a large number of parameters even for moderate values of N which renders... averaging process and the differences in their forecast error variances can have important implications for the shape of the resulting average model in general and the degree of its fat-tailness, in particular. Therefore, it seems likely that averaging...

Pesaran, M Hashem; Schleicher, C; Zaffaroni, P

391

Residential demand response using reinforcement learning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We present a novel energy management system for residential demand response. The algorithm, named CAES, reduces residential energy costs and smooths energy usage. CAES is an online learning application that implicitly estimates the impact of future energy prices and of consumer decisions on long term costs and schedules residential device usage. CAES models both energy prices and residential device usage as Markov, but does not assume knowledge of the structure or transition probabilities of these Markov chains. CAES learns continuously and adapts to individual consumer preferences and pricing modifications over time. In numerical simulations CAES reduced average end-user financial costs from 16 % to 40 % with respect to a price-unaware energy allocation. I.

Marco Levorato; Andrea Goldsmith; Urbashi Mitra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Figure 71. Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles, 1980 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 71. Average fuel economy of new light-duty vehicles, 1980-2040 (miles per gallon, CAFE compliance values) History Reference case

393

Theoretical Assessment of Uncertainty in Regional Averages due to Network Density and Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations are performed over Russia for July and December 2005, 2006, and 2007 to create a “dataset” to assess the impact of network density and design on regional averages. Based on the values at ...

Debasish PaiMazumder; Nicole Mölders

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

395

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

396

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

397

U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

398

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

399

U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

400

On the filtering properties of ensemble averaging for storm-scale precipitation forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean (ENM) of an ensemble of precipitation forecasts is generally more skillful than any of the members as verified against observations. A major reason is that the averaging filters out non-predictable features that the members disagree on. ...

Madalina Surcel; Isztar Zawadzki; M. K. Yau

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower infrastructure by increasing efficiency and reducing environmental impacts at existing facilities. The expanded hydro generation projects have estimated incremental costs of less than 4 cents per kWh on average. The selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and

402

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting documentation for "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant: Modeling Unit 1 Emissions in a Cycling Mode" this memo documents the fact that the observed 24-hour SO2 background concentrations during periods when meteorological conditions produce the highest impacts from Unit 1. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report More Documents & Publications Review of the ENSR Report Titled "Update 1 to: A Dispersion Modeling Analysis of Downwash from Mirant's Potomac River Power Plant"

403

Nonnormal Perturbation Growth of Pure Thermohaline Circulation Using a 2D Zonally Averaged Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Generalized linear stability theory is used to calculate the optimal initial conditions that result in transient amplification of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in a zonally averaged single-basin ocean model. The eigenmodes of the tangent ...

Julie Alexander; Adam H. Monahan

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

"Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

405

Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

areas, determined according to the 30-year average (1971-2000) of the annual heating and cooling degree-days. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year...

406

A Surface Flux Parameterization Based on the Vertically Averaged Turbulence Kinetic Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new bulk transfer formulation for the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture has been developed by using the square root of the vertically averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the atmospheric boundary layer as a velocity ...

Changan Zhang; David A. Randall; Chin-Hoh Moeng; Mark Branson; Kerry A. Moyer; Qing Wang

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

hal-00194169,version1-5Dec2007 Log-average periodogram estimator of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. e-mail: glaura@est.ufmg.br Abstract averaged over epochs. The proposed estimator is theoretically justified and empirical Monte Carlo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

408

Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance Using Satellite-Derived Cloud Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The respective errors caused by the gamma-weighted two-stream approximation and the effective thickness approximation for computing the domain-averaged broadband shortwave irradiance are evaluated using cloud optical thicknesses derived from 1 h ...

Seiji Kato; Fred G. Rose; Thomas P. Charlock

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Averaging on Sampling Strategies for Cloud Amount Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sampling and averaging strategies are as significant an influence upon the resulting cloud climatologies as the resolution of the original cloud archives. An investigation of total cloud amount data, as represented by the U.S. Air Force 3-...

N. A. Hughes; A. Henderson-Sellers

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Average U.S. residential summer 2013 electric bill expected to be ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The average U.S. household electric bill for June through August is expected to total $395, down 2.5% from last summer and the cheapest in four years.

411

The Zonally Averaged Transport Characteristics of the GFDL General Circulation/Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GFDL general circulation/tracer model has been used to generate the transport coefficients required in two-dimensional (zonally averaged) transport formulations. This was done by assuming a flux-gradient relationship and then, given gradient ...

R. A. Plumb; J. D. Mahlman

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Comparison of Daily Averaged Reflection, Transmission, and Absorption for Selected Radiative Flux Transfer Approximations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares accuracy for the daily averaged reflection, transmission, and absorption of solar flux derived from the delta-four-stream approximation and a few selected two-stream approximations. In the chosen variety of two-stream ...

Xun Zhu; Albert Arking

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Parameterizing Grid-Averaged Longwave Fluxes for Inhomogeneous Marine Boundary Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the relative impacts on grid-averaged longwave flux transmittance (emittance) for marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud fields arising from horizontal variability of optical depth ? and cloud sides. First, using fields of Landsat-...

Howard W. Barker; Bruce A. Wielicki

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Development of a Sea Ice Model for Use in Zonally Averaged Energy Balance Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sea ice model for use in zonally averaged energy balance climate models is presented which includes the following processes: surface melting, basal freezing and melting, lateral melting from ice-flee water or growth of new ice in leads, ...

L. D. Danny Harvey

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract):   Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m...

416

Calibrated Surface Temperature Forecasts from the Canadian Ensemble Prediction System Using Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a way of correcting underdispersion in ensemble forecasts. BMA is a standard statistical procedure for combining predictive distributions from different sources. The output of BMA is a ...

Laurence J. Wilson; Stephane Beauregard; Adrian E. Raftery; Richard Verret

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Major Fuels Used 5 (physical units of consumption per household using the fuel as a water heating source) Electricity (kWh) Table WH6. Average Consumption for Water ...

418

A Numerical Diagnostic Model of the Zonally Averaged Circulation in Isentropic Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the linear theory of the isentropic zonally averaged circulation (Gallimore and Johnson, 1981), stable meridional circulations within the circumpolar vortex are forced by larger scale diabatic beating and angular momentum torques. The linear ...

Robert G. Gallimore; Donald R. Johnson

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

4. Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U. S. Consumers ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1972..... 0.19 NA 1.21 0.88 0.45 NA 0.34 1973 ... Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to U. S. Consumers, 1967-2000 (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

420

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY

(Abstract):  Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba

(Purpose):<...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FIFE Surface Climate and Site-Average Dataset 1987–89  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment site-average datasets for near-surface meteorology, soil moisture, and temperature; the surface fluxes of radiation, sensible, and ...

Alan K. Betts; John H. Ball

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Bottom Stress in Wind-Driven Depth-Averaged Coastal Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between depth-averaged velocity and bottom stress for purely wind-driven flows in unstratified coastal waters is examined using a one-dimensional (vertically resolving) current model. Results indicate that conventional drag laws ...

Harry L. Jenter; Ole Secher Madsen

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 21. Annual average spot price for Brent crude oil in three cases, 1990-2040 (2011 dollars per barrel) Reference Low Oil Price

424

A Simplified Method for the Calculation of Diurnally Averaged Photodissociation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions are given for the calculation of the diurnally averaged transmission of solar flux from a series summation involving relatively few terms (10) and readily available mathematical functions. It is shown that these expressions can be ...

Robert E. Boughner

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Bright High Average Power Table-top Soft X-Ray Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have demonstrated the generation of bright soft x-ray laser pulses with record-high average power from compact plasma amplifiers excited by ultrafast solid state lasers. These lasers have numerous applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Luther, Brad [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Curtis, Alden [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Nichols,, Anthony [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Yong [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Alessi, David [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Martz, Dale [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Yin, Liang [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Wang, Shoujun [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Furch, Federico [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Patel, Dinesh [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Marconi, Mario [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Menoni, Carmen [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Merging Seasonal Rainfall Forecasts from Multiple Statistical Models through Bayesian Model Averaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Merging forecasts from multiple models has the potential to combine the strengths of individual models and to better represent forecast uncertainty than the use of a single model. This study develops a Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method for ...

Q. J. Wang; Andrew Schepen; David E. Robertson

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Effects of Subgrid-Scale Parameterizations in a Zonally Averaged Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isopycnal diffusion and an additional transport velocity parameterizing the effect of mesoscale eddies are implemented in the ocean component of a 2.5-dimensional zonally averaged coupled ocean–atmosphere model. The equilibrium states of the ...

Reto Knutti; Thomas F. Stocker; Daniel G. Wright

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

On the Weights for an Ensemble-Averaged 6–10-Day Forecast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme to optimally weight the members of an ensemble of forecasts is discussed in the framework of calculating an as accurate as possible ensemble average. Results show, relative to a single member, a considerably improved 500-mb height ...

H. M. Van Den Dool; L. Rukhovets

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Idealized Annually Averaged Macroturbulent Hadley Circulation in a Shallow-Water Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interaction of midlatitude eddies and the thermally driven Hadley circulation is studied using an idealized shallow-water model on the rotating sphere. The contributions of the annually averaged differential heating, vertical advection of ...

Ori Adam; Nili Harnik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

431

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0...

432

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

433

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

434

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1940's: 4,232 ...

435

U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

436

Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

437

Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

438

Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

439

"Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","(1000","LPG","Coal","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(kWh)","(gallon)","(gallon)","cu ft)","(gallon)","(short ton)","Factors"

440

Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues" " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,,,,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam",,,," ",,,"and","Wood-Related",," ",," "

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" 4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

443

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " "," ",,,"Electricity",,,"Natural Gas",,,"Steam"," ",," " " "," ",,"Electricity","from Sources",,"Natural Gas","from Sources",,"Steam","from Sources"

444

"Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu ft)","(gallons)","(short tons)","Factors"

445

"Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" 2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States"

446

TIMING APPARATUS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The timing device comprises an escapement wheel and pallet, a spring drive to rotate the escapement wheel to a zero position, means to wind the pretensioned spring proportional to the desired signal time, and a cam mechanism to control an electrical signal switch by energizing the switch when the spring has been wound to the desired position, and deenergizing it when it reaches the zero position. This device produces an accurately timed signal variably witain the control of the operator.

Bennett, A.E.; Geisow, J.C.H.

1956-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors, for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate

448

Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for horizontal flat-plate solar collectors for Cuba (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a horizontal flat-plate solar collector, such as a Photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 10 km by 10 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as kilowatt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from the State University of New York's (SUNY) GOES satellite solar model. This model uses information on hourly satellite observed visible irradiance, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total of the normal or beam insolation falling on a tracking concentrator pointed

449

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethiopia from NREL Ethiopia from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for Ethiopia. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the

450

The averaged tensors of the relative energy-momentum and angular momentum in general relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There exist at least a few different kind of averaging of the differences of the energy-momentum and angular momentum in normal coordinates {\\bf NC(P)} which give tensorial quantities. The obtained averaged quantities are equivalent mathematically because they differ only by constant scalar dimensional factors. One of these averaging was used in our papers [1-8] giving the {\\it canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors}. In this paper we present one other averaging of the energy-momentum and angular momentum differences which gives tensorial quantities with proper dimensions of the energy-momentum and angular momentum densities. But these averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors, closely related to the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, {\\it depend on some fundamental length L}. The averaged energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors of the gravitational field obtained in the paper can be applied, like the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, to coordinate independent local (and also global) analysis of this field.

Janusz Garecki

2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly average solar resource for horizontal flat-plate collectors for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented horizontally. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations are used to validate the data where possible. The modeled values are accurate to approximately 10% of a true measured value within the grid cell due to the uncertainties associated with meteorological input to the model. The local cloud cover can vary significantly even within a single grid cell as a result of terrain effects and other microclimate influences. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the modeled estimates increase with distance from reliable measurement sources and with the complexity of the terrain.

452

Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China from NREL China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location. (Supplemental Information): These data provide monthly average and annual average daily total solar resource averaged over surface cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size. The solar resource value is represented as watt-hours per square meter per day for each month. The data were developed from NREL's Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) Model. This model uses information on cloud cover, atmospheric water vapor and trace gases, and the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere to calculate the monthly average daily total insolation (sun and sky) falling on a horizontal surface. Existing ground measurement stations

453

Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

The Quantification of Inflammatory Cellular Responses Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Quantification of Inflammatory Cellular Responses Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). LeeAnn ...

455

Automated Demand Response Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report includes assessments and test results of four end-use technologies, representing products in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, each configured to automatically receive real-time pricing information and critical peak pricing (CPP) demand response (DR) event notifications. Four different vendors were asked to follow the interface requirements set forth in the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) standard that was introduced to the public in 2008 and currently used in two ...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

456

Automated Demand Response Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, which is an update to EPRI Report 1016082, includes assessments and test results of four end-use vendor technologies. These technologies represent products in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors, each configured to automatically receive real-time pricing information and critical peak pricing (CPP) demand response (DR) event notifications. Four different vendors were asked to follow the interface requirements set forth in the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) Communicat...

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility Rate I'm interested in getting a spreadsheet of the most recent EIA average residential utility rates as per the calculation on the http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities page that generates average rates for utilities, for example: Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (utility ID #11208): EIA Average Rates: Residential: 12.6 cents/kWh Commercial: 12.5 cents/kWh Industrial: 10.9 cents/kWh The site references taking revenue divided by sales from the EIA 861 data set (most recent is 2011) but the calculation I get by dividing revenue by sales from their File2_2011.xls spreadsheet is 12.8 cents/kWh. I spot

458

Real time estimation of Bayesian networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For real time evaluation of a Bayesian network when there is not sufficient time to obtain an exact solution, a guaranteed response time, approximate solution is required. It is shown that non traditional methods utilizing estimators based on an archive ...

Robert L. Welch

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

460

Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " 2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.2,357,336,113,188,177,59 "500 to 999",23.8,733,667,308,343,312,144 "1,000 to 1,499",20.8,1157,1086,625,435,409,235 "1,500 to 1,999",15.4,1592,1441,906,595,539,339 "2,000 to 2,499",12.2,2052,1733,1072,765,646,400

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Total Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Fewer than 500",3.1,2.3,403,360,165,366,348,93 "500 to 999",22.2,14.4,763,660,277,730,646,303 "1,000 to 1,499",19.1,5.8,1223,1130,496,1187,1086,696 "1,500 to 1,999",14.4,1,1700,1422,412,1698,1544,1348

462

,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

463

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

464

Analytical expressions for maximum wind turbine average power in a Rayleigh wind regime  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Average or expectation values for annual power of a wind turbine in a Rayleigh wind regime are calculated and plotted as a function of cut-out wind speed. This wind speed is expressed in multiples of the annual average wind speed at the turbine installation site. To provide a common basis for comparison of all real and imagined turbines, the Rayleigh-Betz wind machine is postulated. This machine is an ideal wind machine operating with the ideal Betz power coefficient of 0.593 in a Rayleigh probability wind regime. All other average annual powers are expressed in fractions of that power. Cases considered include: (1) an ideal machine with finite power and finite cutout speed, (2) real machines operating in variable speed mode at their maximum power coefficient, and (3) real machines operating at constant speed.

Carlin, P.W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Is the Average of Expert Tasters ’ Grades a Good Price Predictor? ¤  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preliminary Version This paper takes yet another look at the price/quality relationship studied in Combris, Lecocq and Visser (1997, 2000). The data come from an experimental study that is very similar to the two previous studies. Like in the earlier studies, quality, measured as the average of expert tasters ’ grades, has a small impact on wine prices. Exploiting the fact that the new data are recorded on a relatively …ner level—expert-speci…c grades are observed instead of averages—the paper sheds new light on the price/quality paradox. We …nd a strong correlation between average grades and price when the dispersion of grades is small, i.e. when there is much consensus among experts about the quality of a wine. Wine prices are also strongly correlated with the highest grade assigned. Possible explanations for these …ndings are given.

Sébastien Lecocq Y; Michael Visser Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 5 Data Set (Jan. 2005)10-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 1993) Parameter: Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Created: October 4, 2005 See the NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web site at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/. The source data was downloaded from the SSE website at Data Retrieval: Meteorology and Solar Energy > Global data sets as text files. The tabular data was then converted to the shapefile format.

467

Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" 4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,6.7,1247,1032,"Q",811,788,147 "New England",5.5,1.9,1365,1127,"Q",814,748,107 "Middle Atlantic",15.1,4.8,1182,978,"Q",810,800,159 "Midwest",25.6,4.6,1349,1133,506,895,810,346

468

Joint Responses to Audit Response Requests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

documenting the NRC Staff s conclusions regarding a pre-application audit of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and Duke Energy Carolinas (Duke) combined license (COL) application preparation activities, conducted from July 30- August 3, 2007. Because TVA's Bellefonte COL application and Duke's Lee Nuclear COL application were prepared in close coordination through NuStart and the AP 1000 Design Centered Work Group (DCWG), and because these two COL applications were prepared by the same contractor, the audits were performed essentially simultaneously. The referenced audit report requested that the audit response requests (ARRs) be addressed prior to or as part of the respective COL application submittals. Responses to the ARRs are enclosed. The ARRs in the audit report did not directly impact the content of the COL applications, and the timing of the issuance of the audit report did not facilitate a response prior to the filing of the applications.

Juan Peralta Chief; Tennessee Valley

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

"Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,,"Total United States" ,"RSE Column Factors:",0.7,0.8,1,2.8,1,0.7 20,"Food and Kindred Products",15.789,2.854,6.064,2.697,7.596,1.433,4.5

470

Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

link wholesale and retail real-time prices. 6.0 Referencesdynamic prices such as real-time prices and peak prices andFigure 5. Average Daily Real-Time Prices and Price Duration

Ghatikar, Girish

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

A WWW-based in-class response system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the current network infrastructure and the Internet capabilities, a WWW-based in-class-response system is developed from which the instructor can obtain instant feedback about the student's comprehension level during lecture. Using a Web browser in class as a form of instructor-student interaction, students can improve communication, shorten response time to questions and increase overall learning. Immediate access to the students' response to questions posted in-class will give the instructor a chance to initiate early corrective action and enhance overall teaching performance. One of the concerns resulting from the use of such a system in an in-class setting, however, arises due to the potential problem of server overload. With a classroom size of 50 to 100 students working within the same one to two minute window, there may be Web server performance problems caused by the large number of submissions within such a short time. Observing the unsatisfactory performance of the Web Server during the initial stages of this research, led to the implementation to the proposed solution to overcome this problem. Implementation of the FastCGI interface on the Web Server is used to minimize response time. A comparison between CGI and FastCGI shows the performance improvement which stems from having a configurable number of processes running on the Web Server to serve the concurrent requests. A uniformly distributed scenario for an in-class response setting (e.g., having 100 students accessing the server in a 30 seconds window), would require a service rate from the server of browser's results, having a response time of between 12 and 17 seconds per connection using a fraction of the expected load, leads to the conclusion that the original testbed based on a SPARC I will not be able to sustain the expected load for an in-class setting. A much lower response time and a higher throughput was obtained after installing the CGI programs on a Ultra Sparc 2. The benchmark tests using 84 Webclients showed a throughput of 17 and 194 connections per second using the CGI and FastCGI access method, respectively. The Web browser tests showed an average response time of less than one second per connection using a higher load than the expected 100 requests in a 30 second window. These results leads us to conclude that the Web Server based on the Ultra Sparc 2 will be able to handle the expected in-class load, at the much higher expense of the latter machine.

Gonzalez Barron, Raul

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy,.Summary of Important Terms PETROLEUM PRICES Refiner acquisition cost of crude oil (RAC): The average monthly cost of crude oil to U.S. refiners, including transportation and fees. The composite cost is the weighted average of domestic and imported crude oil costs. Typically, the imported RAC is about $1.50 per barrel below the monthly average spot price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and is within about $0.20 per barrel of the average monthly spot price of Brent crude oil. Unless otherwise stated, the imported RAC is what is referred to in this report as the 'world oil price" or "average crude oil price." 24701

473

Average Outgoing Quality of CSP-C Continuous Sampling Plan under Short  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Average Outgoing Quality of CSP-C Continuous Sampling Plan under Short Run Production Processes S and Technology, Pohang, South Korea ABSTRACT A CSP-C continuous sampling plan is a new single-level continuous number to the CSP-1 plan for the application of continuous production processes. In this new plan

Jun, Chi-Hyuck

474

Rapid Estimation of Column-Averaged CO2 Concentration Using a Correlation Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement of XCO2, the column-averaged mole fraction of CO2, using reflected sunlight in the near-infrared bands of CO2, is strongly influenced by photons that are scattered in the atmosphere because scattering can either decrease or increase ...

Igor Polonsky; D. M. O’Brien

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

An accurate approximation to the average error probability of cooperative diversity in Nakagami-m fading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new approximation to the average symbol error rate of cooperative diversity is derived for independent and non-identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels. The new approximation has the same computational complexity as previous lower bounds ... Keywords: Nakagami, cooperative diversity, fading channels, symbol error rate

Norman C. Beaulieu; Yunfei Chen

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Average crack front velocity during subcritical fracture propagation in a heterogeneous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the free energy, and thus the energy barrier, via numerous competing mech- anisms like stress corrosion speed of crack growth with increasing G; a weak stress- sensitive regime II follows where transportAverage crack front velocity during subcritical fracture propagation in a heterogeneous medium

Ampuero, Jean Paul

477

A stochastic kinematic model of class averaging in single-particle electron microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-particle electron microscopy is an experimental technique that is used to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biological macromolecules and the complexes that they form. In general, image processing techniques and reconstruction ... Keywords: Class average, convolution, image alignment, single-particle electron microscopy

Wooram Park; Charles R Midgett; Dean R Madden; Gregory S Chirikjian

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Hurricane-Generated Depth-Averaged Currents and Sea Surface Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory of the depth-averaged currents and sea surface elevation generated by a moving hurricane in a stratified ocean with flat bottom is presented. Using a scale analysis of the depth-integrated momentum and continuity equations, it is found ...

Isaac Ginis; Georgi Sutyrin

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The University of Texas at Austin Average Cost of Attendance per Academic Year (Fall & Spring)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The University of Texas at Austin Average Cost of Attendance per Academic Year (Fall & Spring) for Texas Resident Undergraduates 2010-2011 - Calculations based on a course load of 15-hours per semester of rules set forth by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board regarding the implementation of Senate

Texas at Austin, University of

480

Physica D 198 (2004) 281308 Diffuse interface modeling of two-phase flows based on averaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA Received 23 April 2004; received in revised form 26 August 2004 and uses an ensemble averaging procedure on an atomic scale to obtain a diffuse interface version forces in the momentum equations for each phase. Based on a superposition of microscopic (atomic

Beckermann, Christoph

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average response time" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Estimates of Area-Averaged Diapycnal Fluxes from Basin-Scale Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of area-averaged diapycnal fluxes for the southern oceans are derived from basin-scale budgets of mass, heat, and salt using a box inverse model. The diapycnal fluxes are found to be significant terms in the isopycnal budgets of mass, ...

Bernadette M. Sloyan; Stephen R. Rintoul

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Uncertainty in a Path-averaged Measurement of the Friction Velocity u*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several electro-optical methods exist for measuring a path-averaged value of the inner scale of turbulence l0. By virtue of Monin–Obukhov similarity, in the atmospheric surface layer such l0 measurements are related to the friction velocity u* or ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Molecular Evolution: Automated Manipulation of Hierarchical Chemical Topology and Its Application to Average Molecular Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple hierarchical data structure (tree) and associated set of algorithms (written in Mathematica) have been developed that permit the direct manipulation of the topology of a molecule while simultaneously maintaining valid chemical valence. Coupled ... Keywords: Mathematica, average chemical structure, chemical topology, genetic algorithm, genetic program, hierarchy, topological descriptor

Robert B. Nachbar

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Merger simulation using average market share: An application to the Optimus-TMN mobile merger case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops a new merger simulation methodology based on the analysis of the performance change of a hypothetical firm with average market share. It applies the methodology to the Optimus-TMN mobile telecom merger case in Portugal, within the ... Keywords: Merger, Telecommunications, Welfare analysis

Corrado Andini; Ricardo Cabral

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily. Instead of throwing throughout campus.These guidelines will help you recycle more and waste less. What's recyclable? · Mixed and plastic-coated papers · Tissue and paper towels · Paper or containers soiled by food or organic waste

Tsien, Roger Y.

486

Application of Bayesian model averaging to measurements of the primordial power spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cosmological parameter uncertainties are often stated assuming a particular model, neglecting the model uncertainty, even when Bayesian model selection is unable to identify a conclusive best model. Bayesian model averaging is a method for assessing parameter uncertainties in situations where there is also uncertainty in the underlying model. We apply model averaging to the estimation of the parameters associated with the primordial power spectra of curvature and tensor perturbations. We use CosmoNest and MultiNest to compute the model evidences and posteriors, using cosmic microwave data from WMAP, ACBAR, BOOMERanG, and CBI, plus large-scale structure data from the SDSS DR7. We find that the model-averaged 95% credible interval for the spectral index using all of the data is 0.940averaging can tighten the credible upper limit, depending on prior assumptions.

Parkinson, David; Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

A Zonally Averaged Ocean Model for the Thermohaline Circulation. Part I: Model Development and Flow Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional latitude–depth ocean model is developed on the basis of the zonally averaged balance equations of mass, momentum, heat, and salt. Its purpose is to investigate the dynamics and variability of the buoyancy-forced thermohaline ...

Daniel G. Wright; Thomas F. Stocker

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

The Roles of Mean Meridional Motions and Large-Scale Eddies in Zonally Averaged Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hierarchy of zonally averaged atmospheric models is used to study the role of mean meridional motions and large-scale eddies in determining the zonal climate. Five models are developed: a radiative-convective equilibrium model (no large-scale ...

Karl E. Taylor

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Exelon response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This letter constitutes the response of Exelon Generation Company, LLC and its operating unit, Exelon Nuclear Partners, to the Department of Energy’s request for comments and information (July 27,...

490

The Summer of 2006: A Milestone in the Ongoing Maturation of Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability Programs Real-Time Price Response (RTPR) Day-Voluntary Capacity Real-Time Price Response Enrolled Load (Date/Time ISO-NE Real-Time Aug 2/5- Price Response 6pm NYISO

Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Engel, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Long-run incremental costs and the pricing of electricity. Part II. [Comparative evaluation of marginal cost pricing and average cost pricing  

SciTech Connect

Total costs have essentially the same cost components whether long-run average costs or long-run incremental costs are used. The variable components, chiefly fuel, may be somewhat different in the new incremental plant compared to the old average plant; where the difference is between nuclear fuel and fossil fuel, its size is substantial. However, given the same kind of plant, the current prices of materials and labor will be essentially the same whether used in the new or the old plant with long-run incremental costs (LRIC) or long-run average costs (LRAC). The lower cost of electricity produced in nuclear plants constructed today, as compared to fossil fuel plants constructed at the same time, is not to be confused with the relation between LRIC and LRAC. LRAC is the average cost of electricity from all existing plants priced at their historical costs, which were generally lower than current costs. These average historical costs per kilowatt are still likely to be lower than the current incremental cost per kilowatt of the newest nuclear plant built at present price levels. LRAC is, therefore, still likely to be lower than LRIC for either fossil or nuclear. Data from the Wisconsin Power and Light Company, the Madison Gas and Electric Company, and Tuscon Gas and Electric Company are examined to study some comparisons. Some pricing principles that vary seasonally for resort hotels are reviewed. (MCW)

Morton, W.A.

1976-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

492

Option Value of Electricity Demand Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Response to Electricity Real Time Prices: Short Run and LongOver-the-counter Real-time Prices Thermal Energy Storage viiare being exposed to real-time prices (RTP) in their default

Sezgen, Osman; Goldman, Charles; Krishnarao, P.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; 3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than NAICS Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Total Utility(b) Local Utility(c) Code(a) Subsector and Industry (kWh) (kWh) (kWh) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (1000 cu ft) (million Btu)

494

Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that based on the position papers provided prior to the meeting, DOE and NRC staff have many areas of agreement and no significant areas of disagreement with respect to the concentration averaging requirements articulated in the respective DOE and NRC requirements. The NRC position paper was based on NUREG-

495

Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down for planned and unplanned maintenance, return to operation. For the year as a whole, the annual average retail gasoline price is forecasted to decline from $3.63 a gallon last year to $3.49 a gallon this year...and then drop to $3.37 per gallon in 2014

496

"2012 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)" Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "New England",15.713593,13.679941,11.83487,6.6759453,14.017926 "Connecticut",17.343298,14.652335,12.672933,9.6930118,15.54464 "Maine",14.658797,11.52742,7.9819499,".",11.812709 "Massachusetts",14.912724,13.841518,12.566635,4.9056852,13.78825 "New Hampshire",16.070168,13.36121,11.83228,".",14.192854 "Rhode Island",14.404061,11.867247,10.676724,8.2796427,12.740867 "Vermont",17.006075,14.316157,9.9796777,".",14.220244

497

Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2012" Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2012" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2012,"AK","Total Electric Industry",17.88,14.93,16.82,0,"NA",16.33 2012,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.4,10.63,6.22,0,"NA",9.18 2012,"AR","Total Electric Industry",9.3,7.71,5.77,11.23,"NA",7.62 2012,"AZ","Total Electric Industry",11.29,9.53,6.53,0,"NA",9.81 2012,"CA","Total Electric Industry",15.34,13.41,10.49,7.17,"NA",13.53

498

Spatially averaged heat flux and convergence measurements at the ARM regional flux experiment  

SciTech Connect

Cloud formation and its relation to climate change is the greatest weakness in current numerical climate models. Surface heat flux in some cases causes clouds to form and in other to dissipate and the differences between these cases are subtle enough to make parameterization difficult in a numerical model. One of the goals of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is to make long term measurements at representative sites to improve radiation and cloud formation parameterization. This paper compares spatially averaged optical measurements of heat flux and convergence with a goal of determining how point measurements of heat fluxes scale up to the larger scale used for climate modeling. It was found that the various optical techniques used in this paper compared well with each other and with independent measurements. These results add confidence that spatially averaging optical techniques can be applied to transform point measurements to the larger scales needed for mesoscale and climate modeling. 10 refs., 6 figs. (MHB)

Porch, W.; Barnes, F.; Buchwald, M.; Clements, W.; Cooper, D.; Hoard, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Doran, C.; Hubbe, J.; Shaw, W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Coulter, R.; Martin, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Kunkel, K. (Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator is derived in a coordinate system that is well suited for the implementation in a numerical code. This differential operator is transformed such that it can commute with the orbit-averaging operation. Thus, in the low-collisionality approximation, a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck evolution equation for the orbit-averaged distribution function in a space of invariants is obtained. This transformation is applied to a collision operator with nonuniform isotropic field particles. Explicit neoclassical collisional transport diffusion and convection coefficients are derived, and analytical expressions are obtained in the thin orbit approximation. To illustrate this formalism and validate our results, the bootstrap current is analytically calculated in the Lorentz limit.

Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

500

Diesel prices decrease for first time in seven weeks  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Diesel prices decrease for first time in seven weeks The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell for the first time in seven weeks to 4.13 a gallon on Monday....