Sample records for average power density

  1. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; /SLAC; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  2. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  3. Minimization of Fractional Power Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimization of Fractional Power Densities. Robert Hardt, Rice University. Abstract: A k dimensional rectifiable current is given by an oriented k dimensional

  4. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  5. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  6. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  7. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  8. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  9. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  10. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    .nguyen@postgrads.unisa.edu.au Albert Guill´en i F`abregas Engineering Department University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK guillen@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 lars.rasmussen@unisa.edu.au Abstract-- Power allocation with peak-to-average power con

  12. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zn Farkas

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  13. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  14. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  15. Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume; Monard, Francois; Triki, Faouzi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a diffusion coefficient in an elliptic equation from knowledge of several power densities. The power density is the product of the diffusion coefficient with the square of the modulus of the gradient of the elliptic solution. The derivation of such internal functionals comes from perturbing the medium of interest by acoustic (plane) waves, which results in small changes in the diffusion coefficient. After appropriate asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density of the equation point-wise inside the domain. Such a setting finds applications in ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography and ultrasound modulated optical tomography. We show that the diffusion coefficient can be uniquely and stably reconstructed from knowledge of a sufficient large number of power densities. Explicit expressions for the reconstruction of the diffusion coefficient are also provided. Such results hold for a large class of boundary...

  16. average power output: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the bucket). For low Carroll, David L. 7 High power multi-output piezoelectric transformers. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Piezoelectric transformers have...

  17. Limits to the power density of very large wind farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Takafumi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple analysis is presented concerning an upper limit of the power density (power per unit land area) of a very large wind farm located at the bottom of a fully developed boundary layer. The analysis suggests that the limit of the power density is about 0.38 times $\\tau_{w0}U_{F0}$, where $\\tau_{w0}$ is the natural shear stress on the ground (that is observed before constructing the wind farm) and $U_{F0}$ is the natural or undisturbed wind speed averaged across the height of the farm to be constructed. Importantly, this implies that the maximum extractable power from such a very large wind farm will not be proportional to the cubic of the wind speed at the farm height, or even the farm height itself, but be proportional to $U_{F0}$.

  18. High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4484/16/4/003 High power density supercapacitors usingproduced very high speci?c power density of about 30 kW kg ?manufacturing of high power density supercapacitors and

  19. High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model, the cooling power densities of the devices can alsothe cooling power densities 224 times. Experimentally, the14 4 OCTOBER 2004 High-power-density spot cooling using bulk

  20. High power density solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O (LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  1. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill ( ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  2. High power density supercapacitors using locally aligned carbon nanotube electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, C S; Yeh, J; Pan, Ning

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power density supercapacitors using locally alignedof high power density supercapacitors and other similarcells [6], and for supercapacitors [718]. As unique energy

  3. Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei M. Beloborodov

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Power density spectra (PDSs) of long gamma-ray bursts provide useful information on GRBs, indicating their self-similar temporal structure. The best power-law PDSs are displayed by the longest bursts (T_90 > 100 s) in which the range of self-similar time scales covers more than 2 decades. Shorter bursts have apparent PDS slopes more strongly affected by statistical fluctuations. The underlying power law can then be reproduced with high accuracy by averaging the PDSs for a large sample of bursts. This power-law has a slope alpha\\approx -5/3 and a sharp break at 1 Hz. The power-law PDS provides a new sensitive tool for studies of gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we calculate the PDSs of bright bursts in separate energy channels. The PDS flattens in the hard channel (h\

  4. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  5. Methods to enhance blanket power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Wessol, D.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this task is to investigate the extent to which the power density in the FED/INTOR breeder blanket test modules can be enhanced by artificial means. Assuming a viable approach can be developed, it will allow advanced reactor blanket modules to be tested on FED/INTOR under representative conditions.

  6. High power density thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noreen, D.L. [R& D Technologies, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States); Du, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D Technologies is developing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology based on the use of porous/fibrous ceramic broadband-type emitter designs that utilize recuperative or regenerative techniques to improve thermal efficiency and power density. This paper describes preliminary estimates of what will be required to accomplish sufficient power density to develop a practical, commercially-viable TPV generator. It addresses the needs for improved, thermal shock-resistant, long-life porous/fibrous ceramic emitters and provides information on the photocell technology required to achieve acceptable power density in broadband-type (with selective filter) TPV systems. TPV combustors/systems operating at a temperature of 1500 {degree}C with a broadband-type emitter is proposed as a viable starting point for cost-effective TPV conversion. Based on current projections for photocell cost, system power densities of 7.5--10 watts per square centimeter of emitter area will be required for TPV to become a commercially viable technology. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  8. Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High SchoolBundles toHiring-TP59.01 C5;44 4

  9. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  10. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  11. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  12. Innovative fuel designs for high power density pressurized water reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Dandong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the ways to lower the cost of nuclear energy is to increase the power density of the reactor core. Features of fuel design that enhance the potential for high power density are derived based on characteristics of ...

  13. Design of annular fuel for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, Paolo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enabling high power density in the core of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) is economically profitable for existing or new reactors. In this work, we examine the potential for increasing the power density in BWR plants by ...

  14. Inverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    asymptotic expansions and (Fourier) transformation, this allow us to construct the power density) provides access to the power density H(x) = (x)|u|2 (x) for all x inside the domain of interestInverse diffusion from knowledge of power densities Guillaume Bal , Eric Bonnetier , Fran

  15. Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit

  16. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  17. ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    . Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis

  18. PSD computations using Welch's method. [Power Spectral Density (PSD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Jr, O M

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Welch's method for computing Power Spectral Densities (PSDs). We first describe the bandpass filter method which uses filtering, squaring, and averaging operations to estimate a PSD. Second, we delineate the relationship of Welch's method to the bandpass filter method. Third, the frequency domain signal-to-noise ratio for a sine wave in white noise is derived. This derivation includes the computation of the noise floor due to quantization noise. The signal-to-noise ratio and noise flood depend on the FFT length and window. Fourth, the variance the Welch's PSD is discussed via chi-square random variables and degrees of freedom. This report contains many examples, figures and tables to illustrate the concepts. 26 refs.

  19. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2002 1535 Error Statistics for Average Power Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Shuangqing

    for Average Power Measurements in Wireless Communication Systems Shuangqing Wei, Student Member, IEEE, and Dennis L. Goeckel, Member, IEEE Abstract--The measurement of the average received power is essential for power control and dynamic channel allocation in wireless communication systems. However, due

  1. Liquid Walls Innovative High Power Density Concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Surface Heat Flux > 2 MW/m2 2. High Power Conversion Efficiency (> 40%) 3. High Availability -Lower rrr = V r J r PV r B r 1P 2P g r + - V r #12;V(initial momentum) g rFluidIn FluidOutBackingWall 2Dsurfaceturbulence Poloidal Pumping + - J r - flowpoloidal direction - Enhancesurfaceheat transferwith2D turbulence

  2. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  3. The design of high power density annular fuel for LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Yi, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel performance models have been developed to assess the performance of internally and externally cooled LWR annular fuel. Such fuel may be operated at 30-50% higher core power density than the current operating LWRs, and ...

  4. An evolutionary fuel assembly design for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evolutionary BWR fuel assembly design was studied as a means to increase the power density of current and future BWR cores. The new assembly concept is based on replacing four traditional assemblies and large water gap ...

  5. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  6. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  7. Thin liquid lithium targets for high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    High charge state High velocity flow ~60 m/s High heat capacity of Li Absorbs power depositedThin liquid lithium targets for high power density applications: heavy ion beam strippers and beta Hilton Malmö City #12;Outline Liquid Lithium Stripper idea for FRIB Brief theory of film stability

  8. Density Power Spectrum of Compressible Hydrodynamic Turbulent Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jongsoo Kim; Dongsu Ryu

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent flows are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments, and understanding density structures and their statistics in turbulent media is of great importance in astrophysics. In this paper, we study the density power spectra, $P_{\\rho}$, of transonic and supersonic turbulent flows through one and three-dimensional simulations of driven, isothermal hydrodynamic turbulence with root-mean-square Mach number in the range of $1 \\la M_{\\rm rms} \\la 10$. From one-dimensional experiments we find that the slope of the density power spectra becomes gradually shallower as the rms Mach number increases. It is because the density distribution transforms from the profile with {\\it discontinuities} having $P_{\\rho} \\propto k^{-2}$ for $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ to the profile with {\\it peaks} having $P_{\\rho} \\propto k^0$ for $M_{\\rm rms} \\gg 1$. We also find that the same trend is carried to three-dimension; that is, the density power spectrum flattens as the Mach number increases. But the density power spectrum of the flow with $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ has the Kolmogorov slope. The flattening is the consequence of the dominant density structures of {\\it filaments} and {\\it sheets}. Observations have claimed different slopes of density power spectra for electron density and cold H I gas in the interstellar medium. We argue that while the Kolmogorov spectrum for electron density reflects the {\\it transonic} turbulence of $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim 1$ in the warm ionized medium, the shallower spectrum of cold H I gas reflects the {\\it supersonic} turbulence of $M_{\\rm rms} \\sim$ a few in the cold neutral medium.

  9. On the Power Spectrum Density of Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motoko Suzuki; Masahiro Morikawa; Izumi Joichi

    2001-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are known to have short-time variability and power-law behavior with the index -1.67 in the power spectrum density. Reanalyzing the expanded data, we have found a) the power-law comes from the global profile of the burst and not from the self-similar shots nor rapid fluctuations in the luminosity profile. b) The power indices vary from burst to burst and the value -1.67 is given simply as the mean value of the distribution; there is no systematic correlation among GRBs to yield the power law.

  10. 1428 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Digital Average Current-Mode Controller for DCDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controls the output power, while an internal (fast) loop controls the current. This paper introduces a digital average current mode controller for dc power supplies in PVD applica- tions. The controller control loop enable opera- tion over wide ranges of output power and voltage. The proposed control

  11. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  12. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the development of high-power density semiconductor devices.Management of High-Power Density Electronics A DissertationManagement of High-Power Density Electronics by Zhong Yan

  13. Non-Invasive Beam Detection in a High-Average Power Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Harris, J. [Colorado State U.; Martinez, J. [Colorado State U.; Milton, S. V. [Colorado State U.; Van Keuren, J. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Steve V. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel [JLAB; Neil, George R. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a free-electron laser (FEL) to work effectively the electron beam quality must meet exceptional standards. In the case of an FEL operating at infrared wavelengths in an amplifier configuration the critical phase space tends to be in the longitudinal direction. Achieving high enough longitudinal phase space density directly from the electron injector system of such an FEL is difficult due to space charge effects, thus one needs to manipulate the longitudinal phase space once the beam energy reaches a sufficiently high value. However, this is fraught with problems. Longitudinal space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation can both disrupt the overall phase space, furthermore, the phase space disruption is exacerbated by the longitudinal phase space manipulation process required to achieve high peak current. To achieve and maintain good FEL performance one needs to investigate the longitudinal emittance and be able to measure it during operation preferably in a non-invasive manner. Using the electro-optical sampling (EOS) method, we plan to measure the bunch longitudinal profile of a high-energy (~120-MeV), high-power (~10kW or more FEL output power) beam.

  14. Constraints on power spectrum of density fluctuations from PBH evaporations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar Bugaev; Peter Klimai

    2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate neutrino and photon energy spectra in extragalactic space from evaporation of primordial black holes, assuming that the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations has a strong bump in the region of small scales. The constraints on the parameters of this bump based on neutrino and photon cosmic background data are obtained.

  15. 1998 Tutorial on Micro Mechatronics and Micro Robotics Powering 3 Dimensional Microrobots: Power Density Limitations \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    is the effective power density of the actuator. As inertia and gravitional forces become less significant for small at the microscale. One scaling law that is helpful for microactuators is the increased break down field

  16. Temperature Power Law of Equilibrium Heavy Particle Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sh. Matsumoto; M. Yoshimura

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A standard calculation of the energy density of heavy stable particles that may pair-annihilate into light particles making up thermal medium is performed to second order of coupling, using the technique of thermal field theory. At very low temperatures a power law of temperature is derived for the energy density of the heavy particle. This is in sharp contrast to the exponentially suppressed contribution estimated from the ideal gas distribution function. The result supports a previous dynamical calculation based on the Hartree approximation, and implies that the relic abundance of dark matter particles is enhanced compared to that based on the Boltzmann equation.

  17. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  18. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  19. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  20. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  1. Protostellar fragmentation in a power-law density distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Burkert; M. Bate; P. Bodenheimer

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrodynamical calculations in three space dimensions of the collapse of an isothermal, rotating 1 M\\sol protostellar cloud are presented. The initial density stratification is a power law with density $\\rho \\propto r^{-p}$, with $p=1$. The case of the singular isothermal sphere ($p=2$) is not considered; however $p=1$ has been shown observationally to be a good representation of the density distribution in molecular cloud cores just before the beginning of collapse. The collapse is studied with two independent numerical methods, an SPH code with 200,000 particles, and a finite-difference code with nested grids which give high spatial resolution in the inner regions. Although previous numerical studies have indicated that such a power-law distribution would not result in fragmentation into a binary system, both codes show, in contrast, that multiple fragmentation does occur in the central regions of the protostar. Thus the process of binary formation by fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the fact that a large fraction of young stars are observed to be in binary or multiple systems.

  2. average power solid-state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: from portions of the atomic bomb project to enable the development of nuclear power for civilian use was begun in February 1943, only a couple of months after...

  3. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con#12;gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  4. An innovative demonstration of high power density in a compact MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.J.; Lineberry, J.T.; Chapman, J.N.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present program was conducted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). It was by its nature a high risk experimental program to demonstrate the feasibility of high power density operation in a laboratory scale combustion driven MHD generator. Maximization of specific energy was not a consideration for the present program, but the results have implications in this regard by virtue of high energy fuel used. The power density is the ratio of the electrical energy output to the internal volume of the generator channel. The MHD process is a volumetric process and the power density is therefore a direct measure of the compactness of the system. Specific energy, is the ratio of the electrical energy output to consumable energy used for its production. The two parameters are conceptually interrelated. To achieve high power density and implied commensurate low system volume and weight, it was necessary to use an energetic fuel. The high energy fuel of choice was a mixture of powdered aluminum and carbon seeded with potassium carbonate and burned with gaseous oxygen. The solid fuel was burned in a hybrid combustion scheme wherein the fuel was cast within a cylindrical combustor in analogy with a solid propellant rocket motor. Experimental data is limited to gross channel output current and voltage, magnetic field strength, fuel and oxidizer flow rates, flow train external temperatures and combustor pressure. Similarly, while instantaneous oxidizer flow rates were measured, only average fuel consumption based on pre and post test component weights and dimensions was possible. 4 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  6. Brain Tissue Depth (mm) LightPowerDensity(mW/mm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Brain Tissue Depth (mm) LightPowerDensity(mW/mm2 ) Power Meter Tissue block Bare Fiber = 12 = 6 with the beveled cannula over CeA. d) Chart indicating estimated light power density seen at various distances from the fiber tip in mouse brain tissue when the light power density seen at the fiber tip was 7 mW (~99 mW/mm2

  7. Power-law tails in probability density functions of molecular cloud column density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunt, Chris

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power-law tails are often seen in probability density functions (PDFs) of molecular cloud column densities, and have been attributed to the effect of gravity. We show that extinction PDFs of a sample of five molecular clouds obtained at a few tenths of a parsec resolution, probing extinctions up to A$_{{\\mathrm{V}}}$ $\\sim$ 10 magnitudes, are very well described by lognormal functions provided that the field selection is tightly constrained to the cold, molecular zone and that noise and foreground contamination are appropriately accounted for. In general, field selections that incorporate warm, diffuse material in addition to the cold, molecular material will display apparent core+tail PDFs. The apparent tail, however, is best understood as the high extinction part of a lognormal PDF arising from the cold, molecular part of the cloud. We also describe the effects of noise and foreground/background contamination on the PDF structure, and show that these can, if not appropriately accounted for, induce spurious ...

  8. The Column Density Distribution of the Lyman-Alpha Forest: A Measure of Small Scale Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui; Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Yu Zhang

    1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption lines in the Lyman-alpha forest can be thought of as peaks in neutral hydrogen density along lines of sight. The column density distribution (the number density of absorption lines as a function of column density) is then a statistic of density peaks, which contains information about the underlying power spectrum. In particular, we show that the slope of the distribution provides a measure of power on scales smaller than those probed by studies of present-day large scale structure.

  9. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  10. The inverse conductivity problem with power densities in dimension n2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franois Monard, Guillaume Bal

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 19, 2012 ... The inverse conductivity problem with power densities in dimension n ? 2. Franois Monard Guillaume Bal. Dept. of Applied Physics and...

  11. Loops and Power Counting in the High Density Effective Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schaefer

    2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the high density effective theory of QCD. We discuss, in particular, the problem of developing a consistent power counting scheme.

  12. High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

  13. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed S. Agamy; Song Chi; Ahmed Elasser; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Yan Jiang; Frank Mueller; Fengfeng Tao

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  14. Power Density Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves: Implications on Theory and Observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heon-Young Chang; Insu Yi

    2001-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the power density spectrum (PDS) of artificial light curves of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We investigate statistical properties of GRB light curves by comparing the reported characteristics in the PDSs of the observed GRBs with those that we model, and discuss implications on interpretations of the PDS analysis results. Results of PDS analysis of observed GRBs suggest that the averaged PDS of GRBs follows a power law over about two decades of frequency with the power law index, -5/3, and the distribution of individual power follows an exponential distribution. Though an attempt to identify the most sensitive physical parameter has been made on the basis of the internal shock model, we demonstrate that conclusions of this kind of approach should be derived with due care. It is indicative that the physical information extracted from the slope can be misleading. We show that the reported slope and the distribution can be reproduced by adjusting the sampling interval in the time domain for a given decaying timescale of individual pulse in a specific form of GRB light curves. In particular, given that the temporal feature is modeled by a two-sided exponential function, the power law behavior with the index of -5/3 and the exponential distribution of the observed PDS is recovered at the 64 ms trigger time scale when the decaying timescale of individual pulse is $\\sim 1$ second, provided that the pulse sharply rises. Another way of using the PDS analysis is an application of the same method to individual long bursts in order to examine a possible evolution of the decaying timescale in a single burst.

  15. Enhanced surfaces lead to increased heat transfer and power density.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) to con- vert DC battery power into a form that can IHTC-14, Washington, DC, USA. Moreno, G., 2010,"Characterization and Development of Advanced Heat

  16. Development of a high power density motor for aircraft propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibua, Imoukhuede Tim Odion

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    are currently powered by heavy gas turbine engines that require fueling. The development of electric motors to replace gas turbines would be a big step towards accomplishing more efficient aircraft propulsion. The primary objective of this research extends...

  17. A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    A Framework to Determine the Probability Density Function for the Output Power of Wind Farms Sairaj to the power output of a wind farm while factoring in the availability of the wind turbines in the farm availability model for the wind turbines, we propose a method to determine the wind-farm power output pdf

  18. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)] [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120 with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 ?s rise time, and 70 ?s fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of 0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  19. Power density spectrum of NGC 5548 and the nature of its variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Czerny; A. Schwarzenberg-Czerny; Z. Loska

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive power density spectra in the optical and X-ray band in the timescale range from several years down to $\\sim $ a day. We suggest that the optical power density spectrum consists of two separate components: long timescale variations and short timescale variations, with the dividing timescale around 100 days. The shape of the short timescale component is similar to X-ray power density spectrum which is consistent with the interpretation of short timescale optical variations being caused by X-ray reprocessing. We show that the observed optical long timescale variability is consistent with thermal pulsations of the accretion disc.

  20. High-Power Density Target Design and Analyses for Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    management ­ Lithium · Excellent conductivity, but low heat capacity compared to other coolants ­ Sodium · Better heat capacity than lithium ­ Mercury · Power generation in coolant limits applicability ­ Lithiumcooled Tungsten Plate Liquid Target Concepts ­ Lead Bismuth Eutectic Workshop on Applications of High

  1. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K. [Laboratory for X-ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, EURATOM Association, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  2. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: a path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    he wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e.,without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully-self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structure in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exists on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators and associated applications.

  3. Electromagnetic Potentials Basis for Energy Density and Power Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. E. Puthoff

    2010-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well understood that various alternatives are available within EM theory for the definitions of energy density, momentum transfer, EM stress-energy tensor, and so forth. Although the various options are all compatible with the basic equations of electrodynamics (e.g., Maxwell's equations, Lorentz force law, gauge invariance), nonetheless certain alternative formulations lend themselves to being seen as preferable to others with regard to the transparency of their application to physical problems of interest. Here we argue for the transparency of an option based on use of the EM potentials alone.

  4. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development of

  5. Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterials Development ofEnergy 1 DOE

  6. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment of HIGH1

  7. High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisianaDepartment of HIGH10

  8. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GIS ... Dataset Activity Stream Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km resolution for Ghana from NREL (Abstract):Raster GIS data, exported as BIL...

  9. Constraining the Power Spectrum Using the Column Density Distribution: a Status Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui

    1997-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the arguments for how the slope of the column density distribution of the Lyman-alpha forest should depend on the matter power spectrum. The latest progress, presented by various groups in this conference and elsewhere, is summarized.

  10. Development of optimized core design and analysis methods for high power density BWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirvan, Koroush

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is vital to its future. Improving the economics of BWRs is the main goal of this work, focusing on designing cores with higher power density, to reduce the BWR ...

  11. Assessment of helical-cruciform fuel rods for high power density LWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conboy, Thomas M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to significantly increase the power density of Light Water Reactors (LWRs), the helical-cruciform (HC) fuel rod assembly has been proposed as an alternative to traditional fuel geometry. The HC assembly is a ...

  12. NEUTRONIC AND THERMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGNS OF ANNULAR FUEL FOR HIGH POWER DENSITY BWRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morra, P.

    As a promising new fuel for high power density light water reactors, the feasibility of using annular fuel for BWR services is explored from both thermal hydraulic and neutronic points of view. Keeping the bundle size ...

  13. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    file, 50 m wind power density for eastern China. (Purpose): To provide information on the wind resource potential in eastern China. Values range from 0 to 3079 Wm2. (Supplemental...

  14. Evaluation of high power density annular fuel application in the Korean OPR-1000 reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Liang, Ph. D.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared to the traditional solid fuel geometry for PWRs, the internally and externally cooled annular fuel offers the potential to increase the core power density while maintaining or increasing safety margins. It is ...

  15. A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bombelli, Paolo; Mueller, Thomas; Herling, Therese W.; Howe, Christopher J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells Paolo Bombelli,1, a) Thomas Muller,2, a) Therese W. Herling,2 Christopher J. Howe,1, b) and Tuomas P. J. Knowles2, c) 1)Department of Biochemistry... that achievable through synthetic materials. Here, we devise a platform to harness the large power densities afforded by miniaturised geometries. To this effect, we have developed a soft-lithography approach for the fabrication of microfluidic biophotovoltaic...

  16. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab] [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond todays state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

  17. The Influence of Isotopic Mass, Edge Magnetic Shear and Input Power on High Density ELMy H-modes in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Influence of Isotopic Mass, Edge Magnetic Shear and Input Power on High Density ELMy H-modes in JET

  18. ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICRF Power-Deposition Profiles, Heating and Confinement of Monster-Sawtooth and Peaked-Density Profile Discharges in JET

  19. LOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    of this research is to design a low power integrated system that can be used in vivo for scanning the electrode. A model created in Python provides input vectors and output comparison for the verification processLOW POWER SCANNER FOR HIGH-DENSITY ELECTRODE ARRAY NEURAL RECORDING A Thesis work submitted

  20. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Chen; Tian, Hui; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  1. The Power Spectrum of Galaxy Density Fluctuations: Current Results and Improved Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael S. Vogeley

    1995-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The power spectrum of density fluctuations measured from galaxy redshift surveys provides important constraints on models for the formation of large-scale structure. I review current results for the 3-D power spectrum and examine the limitations of current measurements and estimation techniques. To span the decade of wavelength between the scales probed by galaxy surveys and COBE, measure the detailed shape of the power spectrum, and accurately examine the dependence of clustering on galaxy species, we require deeper samples with carefully controlled selection criteria and improved techniques for power spectrum estimation. I describe a new method for estimating the power spectrum that optimally treats survey data with arbitrary geometry and sampling.

  2. Effect of electron density profile on power absorption of high frequency electromagnetic waves in plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.

  3. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  4. Method and apparatus for measuring the momentum, energy, power, and power density profile of intense particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gammel, George M. (Merrick, NY); Kugel, Henry W. (Somerset, NJ)

    1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining the power, momentum, energy, and power density profile of high momentum mass flow. Small probe projectiles of appropriate size, shape and composition are propelled through an intense particle beam at equal intervals along an axis perpendicular to the beam direction. Probe projectiles are deflected by collisions with beam particles. The net beam-induced deflection of each projectile is measured after it passes through the intense particle beam into an array of suitable detectors.

  5. High thermal power density heat transfer apparatus providing electrical isolation at high temperature using heat pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J. F.

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to transferring heat from an extremely high temperature source to an electrically isolated lower temperature receiver. The invention is particularly concerned with supplying thermal power to a thermionic converter from a nuclear reactor with electric isolation. Heat from a high temperature heat pipe is transferred through a vacuum or a gap filled with electrically nonconducting gas to a cooler heat pipe. The heat pipe is used to cool the nuclear reactor while the heat pipe is connected thermally and electrically to a thermionic converter. If the receiver requires greater thermal power density, geometries are used with larger heat pipe areas for transmitting and receiving energy than the area for conducting the heat to the thermionic converter. In this way the heat pipe capability for increasing thermal power densities compensates for the comparatively low thermal power densities through the electrically nonconducting gap between the two heat pipes.

  6. E?H mode transition density and power in two types of inductively coupled plasma configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian; Du, Yin-chang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhe; Liu, Yu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Pi; Cao, Jin-xiang, E-mail: jxcao@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    E???H transition power and density were investigated at various argon pressures in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in a cylindrical interlaid chamber. The transition power versus the pressure shows a minimum transition power at 4?Pa (?/?=1) for argon. Then the transition density hardly changes at low pressures (?/??1), but it increases clearly when argon pressure exceeds an appropriate value. In addition, both the transition power and transition density are lower in the re-entrant configuration of ICP compared with that in the cylindrical configuration of ICP. The result may be caused from the decrease of stochastic heating in the re-entrant configuration of ICP. This work is useful to understand E???H mode transition and control the transition points in real plasma processes.

  7. The Space Density of Galaxy Peaks and the Linear Matter Power Spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert A. C. Croft; Enrique Gaztanaga

    1997-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One way of recovering information about the initial conditions of the Universe is by measuring features of the cosmological density field which are preserved during gravitational evolution and galaxy formation. In this paper we study the total number density of peaks in a (galaxy) point distribution smoothed with a filter, evaluating its usefulness as a means of inferring the shape of the initial (matter) power spectrum. We find that in numerical simulations which start from Gaussian initial conditions, the peak density follows well that predicted by the theory of Gaussian density fields, even on scales where the clustering is mildly non-linear. For smaller filter scales, $r \\simlt 4-6 \\hmpc$, we see evidence of merging as the peak density decreases with time. On larger scales, the peak density is independent of time. One might also expect it to be fairly robust with respect to variations in biasing, i.e. the way galaxies trace mass fluctuations. We find that this is the case when we apply various biasing prescriptions to the matter distribution in simulations. If the initial conditions are Gaussian, it is possible to use the peak density measured from the evolved field to reconstruct the shape of the initial power spectrum. We describe a stable method for doing this and apply it to several biased and unbiased non-linear simulations. We are able to recover the slope of the linear matter power spectrum on scales $k \\simlt 0.4 \\hmpc^{-1}$. The reconstruction has the advantage of being independent of the cosmological parameters ($\\Omega$, $\\Lambda$, $H_0$) and of the clustering normalisation ($\\sigma_8$). The peak density and reconstructed power spectrum slope therefore promise to be powerful discriminators between popular cosmological scenarios.

  8. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu, E-mail: shuyu.sun@kaust.edu.sa; Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  9. Method of Fabrication of High Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing ultra-high power density solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The method involves the formation of a multilayer structure cells wherein a buffer layer of doped-ceria is deposited intermediate a zirconia electrolyte and a cobalt iron based electrode using a colloidal spray deposition (CSD) technique. For example, a cobalt iron based cathode composed of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O(LSCF) may be deposited on a zirconia electrolyte via a buffer layer of doped-ceria deposited by the CSD technique. The thus formed SOFC have a power density of 1400 mW/cm.sup.2 at 600.degree. C. and 900 mW/cm.sup.2 at 700.degree. C. which constitutes a 2-3 times increased in power density over conventionally produced SOFCs.

  10. 1998 Tutorial on Micro Mechatronics and Micro Robotics Powering 3 Dimensional Microrobots: Power Density Limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    density of the actuator. As inertia and gravitional forces become less significant for small robots at the micro-scale. One scaling law that is helpful for micro-actuators is the increased break down field

  11. Power spectrum of electron number density perturbations at cosmological recombination epoch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Venhlovska; B. Novosyadlyj

    2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The power spectrum of number density perturbations of free electrons is obtained for the epoch of cosmological recombination of hydrogen. It is shown that amplitude of the electron perturbations power spectrum of scales larger than acoustic horizon exceeds by factor of 17 the amplitude of baryon matter density ones (atoms and ions of hydrogen and helium). In the range of the first and second acoustic peaks such relation is 18, in the range of the third one 16. The dependence of such relations on cosmological parameters is analysed too.

  12. Power Densities Using Different Cathode Catalysts (Pt and CoTMPP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the maximum power achieved using ferricyanide ion as oxidant in the cathode chamber was 50-80% greater than and PTFE) in Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells S H A O A N C H E N G , H O N G L I U , A N D B R U C E catalysts and binders were examined for their effect on power densities in single chamber, air

  13. 2012 Jonathan G. Lange IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    1 2012 Jonathan G. Lange #12;1 IMPROVING LITHIUM-ION BATTERY POWER AND ENERGY DENSITIES USING ABSTRACT Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used as energy storage devices in a variety of applications. The cathode architectures and materials have a large influence on the performance of lithium-ion batteries

  14. Ultralow-power local laser control of the dimer density in alkali-metal vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Pankaj K; Yi, Zhenhuan; Yuan, Luqi; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Welch, George R; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Scully, Marlan O

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow-power diode-laser radiation is employed to induce photodesorption of cesium from a partially transparent thin-film cesium adsorbate on a solid surface. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this photodesorption process enables an accurate local optical control of the density of dimer molecules in alkali-metal vapors.

  15. Abstract--This paper proposes a stochastic wind power model based on an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    of one year from the Nysted offshore wind farm in Denmark. The proposed limited-ARIMA (LARIMA) model be applied to planning of future wind farms in the power system. However, both approaches entail wind speed measurements and an accurate wind farm model, which is usually unavailable. The accurate wind farm model

  16. The number density of quasars as a probe of initial power spectrum on small scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Novosyadlyj; Yu. Chornij

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of the number density of the bright QSOs at different redshifts ($n_{QSO}(z)$) on initial power spectrum is studied. It is assumed that QSO phenomenon is an early short term stage of evolution of massive galaxies with $M\\geq 2\\times 10^{11}h^{-1}M_{\\odot}$. The duration of such QSO stage which is passed through by fraction $\\alpha$ of galaxies is determined by means of minimization of the divergence of the theoretical number density of QSOs at different redshifts for specified initial spectrum from observable one \\cite{sc91}. It is shown that the nearest number densities of QSOs at $0.7\\le z\\le 3.5$ to observable ones are obtained for the tilted CDM model ($\\Omega_{b}=0.1$, $n=0.7$). The QSO stage lasts $\\sim 7\\times 10^{7}/\\alpha$ years and begins soon after the moment of rise of the first counterflow in collisionless component and shock wave in gas. The possibility of the reconstruction of initial power spectrum on small scale on the base of the observable data on number density of QSOs at different $z$ is considered too. Such reconstructed spectrum in comparison with standard CDM has steep reducing of power at $k\\ge 0.5 h Mpc^{-1}$.

  17. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States); Stratton, B. C. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  18. Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

  19. High excitation power photoluminescence studies of ultra-low density GaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnenberg, D.; Graf, A.; Paulava, V.; Heyn, Ch.; Hansen, W. [Institut fr Angewandte Physik und Zentrum fr Mikrostrukturforschung, Universitt Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricate GaAs epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) by filling of self-organized nanoholes in AlGaAs. The QDs are fabricated under optimized process conditions and have ultra-low density in the 10{sup 6} cm{sup ?2} regime. At low excitation power the optical emission of single QDs exhibit sharp excitonic lines, which are attributed to the recombination of excitonic and biexcitonic states. High excitation power measurements reveal surprisingly broad emission lines from at least six QD shell states.

  20. A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bombelli, Paolo; Herling, Therese W; Howe, Christopher J; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biophotovoltaics has emerged as a promising technology for generating renewable energy since it relies on living organisms as inexpensive, self-repairing and readily available catalysts to produce electricity from an abundant resource - sunlight. The efficiency of biophotovoltaic cells, however, has remained significantly lower than that achievable through synthetic materials. Here, we devise a platform to harness the large power densities afforded by miniaturised geometries. To this effect, we have developed a soft-lithography approach for the fabrication of microfluidic biophotovoltaic devices that do not require membranes or mediators. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells were injected and allowed to settle on the anode, permitting the physical proximity between cells and electrode required for mediator-free operation. We demonstrate power densities of above 100 mW/m2 for a chlorophyll concentration of 100 {\\mu}M under white light, a high value for biophotovoltaic devices without extrinsic supply of additional...

  1. Performance Optimization of Battery-Super Capacitor Hybrid System Electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) offer high power density when compared to battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Performance Optimization of Battery-Super Capacitor Hybrid System Electrochemical capacitors a decreased value of power and energy densities for the hybrid system. Figure 1shows the fractional capacity (ultracapacitors) offer high power density when compared to battery systems and also have a relatively large energy

  2. Particle-Number Restoration within the Energy Density Functional formalism: Nonviability of terms depending on noninteger powers of the density matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Duguet; M. Bender; K. Bennaceur; D. Lacroix; T. Lesinski

    2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the origin of pathological behaviors that have been recently identified in particle-number-restoration calculations performed within the nuclear energy density functional framework. A regularization method that removes the problematic terms from the multi-reference energy density functional and which applies (i) to any symmetry restoration- and/or generator-coordinate-method-based configuration mixing calculation and (ii) to energy density functionals depending only on integer powers of the density matrices, was proposed in [D. Lacroix, T. Duguet, M. Bender, arXiv:0809.2041] and implemented for particle-number restoration calculations in [M. Bender, T. Duguet, D. Lacroix, arXiv:0809.2045]. In the present paper, we address the viability of non-integer powers of the density matrices in the nuclear energy density functional. Our discussion builds upon the analysis already carried out in [J. Dobaczewski \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Rev. C \\textbf{76}, 054315 (2007)]. First, we propose to reduce the pathological nature of terms depending on a non-integer power of the density matrices by regularizing the fraction that relates to the integer part of the exponent using the method proposed in [D. Lacroix, T. Duguet, M. Bender, arXiv:0809.2041]. Then, we discuss the spurious features brought about by the remaining fractional power. Finally, we conclude that non-integer powers of the density matrices are not viable and should be avoided in the first place when constructing nuclear energy density functionals that are eventually meant to be used in multi-reference calculations.

  3. Off-center HII regions in power-law density distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Arthur

    2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion of ionization fronts in uniform and spherically symmetric power-law density distributions is a well-studied topic. However, in many situations, such as a star formed at the edge of a molecular cloud core, an offset power-law density distribution would be more appropriate. In this paper a few of the main issues of the formation and expansion of HII regions in such media are outlined and results are presented for the particular cases where the underlying power laws are 1/r^2 and 1/r^3. A simple criterion is developed for determining whether the initial photoionized region will be unbounded, which depends on the power-law exponent and the ratio of the equivalent Stroemgren radius produced by the star in a uniform medium to the stellar offset distance. In the expansion stage, the ionized volumes will eventually become unbounded unless pressure balance with the external medium is reached before the ionization front velocity becomes supersonic with respect to the ionized gas.

  4. Generation of potential/surface density pairs in flat disks Power law distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -M. Hure; D. Pelat; A. Pierens

    2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a simple method to generate potential/surface density pairs in flat axially symmetric finite size disks. Potential/surface density pairs consist of a ``homogeneous'' pair (a closed form expression) corresponding to a uniform disk, and a ``residual'' pair. This residual component is converted into an infinite series of integrals over the radial extent of the disk. For a certain class of surface density distributions (like power laws of the radius), this series is fully analytical. The extraction of the homogeneous pair is equivalent to a convergence acceleration technique, in a matematical sense. In the case of power law distributions, the convergence rate of the residual series is shown to be cubic inside the source. As a consequence, very accurate potential values are obtained by low order truncation of the series. At zero order, relative errors on potential values do not exceed a few percent typically, and scale with the order N of truncation as 1/N**3. This method is superior to the classical multipole expansion whose very slow convergence is often critical for most practical applications.

  5. Power densities for two-step gamma-ray transitions from isomeric states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silviu Olariu; Agata Olariu

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the incident photon power density P_2 for which the two-step induced emission rate from an isomeric nucleus becomes equal to the natural isomeric decay rate. We have analyzed two-step transitions for isomeric nuclei with a half-life greater than 10 min, for which there is an intermediate state of known energy, spin and half-life, for which the intermediate state is connected by a known gamma-ray transition to the isomeric state and to at least another intermediate state, and for which the relative intensities of the transitions to lower states are known. For the isomeric nucleus 166m-Ho, which has a 1200 y isomeric state at 5.98 keV, we have found a value of P_2=6.3 x 10^7 W cm^{-2}, the intermediate state being the 263.8 keV level. We have found power densities P_2 of the order of 10^{10} W cm^{-2} for several other isomeric nuclei.

  6. A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density Zongping Shao1 design challenges and cannot operate with hydrocarbon fuels of higher energy density. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) enable direct use of higher hydrocarbons46 , but have not been seriously con- sidered

  7. Gamma-ray burst prompt emission light curves and power density spectra in the ICMART model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: bozhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately high magnetization parameter ? in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately high ? flow. The runaway growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function of time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  8. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emission Light Curves and Power Density Spectra in the ICMART Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we simulate the prompt emission light curves of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) within the framework of the Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence (ICMART) model. This model applies to GRBs with a moderately-high magnetization parameter $\\sigma$ in the emission region. We show that this model can produce highly variable light curves with both fast and slow components. The rapid variability is caused by many locally Doppler-boosted mini-emitters due to turbulent magnetic reconnection in a moderately-high-$\\sigma$ flow. The run-away growth and subsequent depletion of these mini-emitters as a function time define a broad slow component for each ICMART event. A GRB light curve is usually composed of multiple ICMART events that are fundamentally driven by the erratic GRB central engine activity. Allowing variations of the model parameters, one is able to reproduce a variety of light curves and the power density spectra as observed.

  9. Bayesian semiparametric power spectral density estimation in gravitational wave data analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Matthew C; Christensen, Nelson

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard noise model in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis assumes detector noise is stationary and Gaussian distributed, with a known power spectral density (PSD) that is usually estimated using clean off-source data. Real GW data often depart from these assumptions, and misspecified parametric models of the PSD could result in misleading inferences. We propose a Bayesian semiparametric approach to improve this. We use a nonparametric Bernstein polynomial prior on the PSD, with weights attained via a Dirichlet process distribution, and update this using the Whittle likelihood. Posterior samples are obtained using a Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler. We simultaneously estimate the reconstruction parameters of a rotating core collapse supernova GW burst that has been embedded in simulated Advanced LIGO noise. We also discuss an approach to deal with non-stationary data by breaking longer data streams into smaller and locally stationary components.

  10. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

  11. Minimizing lighting power density in office rooms equipped with Anidolic Daylighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric lighting is responsible for up to one third of an office building's electricity needs. Making daylight more available in office buildings can not only contribute to significant energy savings but also enhance the occupants' performance and wellbeing. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are one type of very effective facade-integrated daylighting systems. All south-facing office rooms within the LESO solar experimental building in Lausanne (Switzerland) are equipped with a given type of ADS. A recent study has shown that these offices' occupants are highly satisfied with their lighting environment. The most energy-efficient south-facing offices have a lighting power density of less than 5W/m{sup 2}. The lighting situation within these ''best practice''-offices has been assessed using the lighting simulation software RELUX Vision. Because this lighting situation is very much appreciated by the occupants, it was used as a starting point for developing even more energy-efficient office lighting designs. Two new lighting designs, leading to lighting power densities of 3.9W/m{sup 2} and 3W/m{sup 2}, respectively, have been suggested and simulated with RELUX Vision. Simulation results have shown that the expected performances of these new systems are comparable to that of the current lighting installation within the ''best practice''-offices or even better. These simulation results have been confirmed during experiments on 20 human subjects in a test office room recently set up within the LESO building. This article gives engineers, architects and light planers valuable information and ideas on how to design energy-efficient and comfortable electric lighting systems in office rooms with abundant access to daylight. (author)

  12. APEX and ALPS, high power density technology programs in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States). Fusion Group; Berk, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Fusion Energy Sciences; Abdou, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Fusion Power Program

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In fiscal year (FY) 1998 two new fusion technology programs were initiated in the US, with the goal of making marked progress in the scientific understanding of technologies and materials required to withstand high plasma heat flux and neutron wall loads. APEX is exploring new and revolutionary concepts that can provide the capability to extract heat efficiently from a system with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the fusion power technology requirements and achieving maximum reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental acceptability. ALPS program is evaluating advanced concepts including liquid surface limiters and divertors on the basis of such factors as their compatibility with fusion plasma, high power density handling capabilities, engineering feasibility, lifetime, safety and R and D requirements. The APEX and ALPS are three-year programs to specify requirements and evaluate criteria for revolutionary approaches in first wall, blanket and high heat flux component applications. Conceptual design and analysis of candidate concepts are being performed with the goal of selecting the most promising first wall, blanket and high heat flux component designs that will provide the technical basis for the initiation of a significant R and D effort beginning in FY2001. These programs are also considering opportunities for international collaborations.

  13. Enhanced modified faraday cup for determination of power density distribution of electron beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved tomographic technique for determining the power distribution of an electron or ion beam using electron beam profile data acquired by an enhanced modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power ion or electron beams. A refractory metal disk with a number of radially extending slits, one slit being about twice the width of the other slits, is placed above a Faraday cup. The electron or ion beam is swept in a circular pattern so that its path crosses each slit in a perpendicular manner, thus acquiring all the data needed for a reconstruction in one circular sweep. The enlarged slit enables orientation of the beam profile with respect to the coordinates of the welding chamber. A second disk having slits therein is positioned below the first slit disk and inside of the Faraday cup and provides a shield to eliminate the majority of secondary electrons and ions from leaving the Faraday cup. Also, a ring is located below the second slit disk to help minimize the amount of secondary electrons and ions from being produced. In addition, a beam trap is located in the Faraday cup to provide even more containment of the electron or ion beam when full beam current is being examined through the center hole of the modified Faraday cup.

  14. Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

  15. Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

    2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

  16. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  17. Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

  18. The need for high density energy storage for wind turbine and solar power has proven to be a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    1 The need for high density energy storage for wind turbine and solar power has proven applications where under-hood temperatures may exceed the 85 C normal rating, where the Y5V and Y5R capacitors (currently ~0.22 F) is also considerable. The resultant devices are anticipated to be the new generation

  19. Ultralow-power local laser control of the dimer density in alkali-metal vapors through photodesorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pankaj K. Jha; Konstantin E. Dorfman; Zhenhuan Yi; Luqi Yuan; Vladimir A. Sautenkov; Yuri V. Rostovtsev; George R. Welch; Aleksei M. Zheltikov; Marlan O. Scully

    2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultralow-power diode-laser radiation is employed to induce photodesorption of cesium from a partially transparent thin-film cesium adsorbate on a solid surface. Using resonant Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that this photodesorption process enables an accurate local optical control of the density of dimer molecules in alkali-metal vapors.

  20. Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical an alternative approach to wind farming that has the potential to concurrently reduce the cost, size-axis wind turbine arrays John O. Dabiria) Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California

  1. Shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave phononic device with high density filling material for ultra-low power sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R., E-mail: bhethana@usf.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.

  2. Proof of the the Riemann hypothesis from the strong density hypothesis via a power sum method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuanyou Cheng; S. Albeverio

    2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Riemann hypothesis is equivalent to the $\\varpi$-form of the prime number theorem as $\\varpi(x) =O(x\\sp{1/2} \\log\\sp{2} x)$, where $\\varpi(x) =\\sum\\sb{n\\le x}\\ \\bigl(\\Lambda(n) -1\\big)$ with the sum running through the set of all natural integers. Let ${\\mathsf Z}(s) = -\\tfrac{\\zeta\\sp{\\prime}(s)}{\\zeta(s)} -\\zeta(s)$. We use the classical integral formula for the Heaviside function in the form of ${\\mathsf H}(x) =\\int\\sb{m -i\\infty} \\sp{m +i\\infty} \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}}{s} \\dd s$ where $m >0$, and ${\\mathsf H}(x)$ is 0 when $\\tfrac{1}{2} 1$. However, we diverge from the literature by applying Cauchy's residue theorem to the function ${\\mathsf Z}(s) \\cdot \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}} {s}$, rather than $-\\tfrac{\\zeta\\sp{\\prime}(s)} {\\zeta(s)} \\cdot \\tfrac{x\\sp{s}}{s}$, so that we may utilize the formula for $\\tfrac{1}{2}1$ of ${\\mathsf Z}(s)$, we use induction to reduce the size of the exponent $\\theta$ in $\\varpi(x) =O(x\\sp{\\theta} \\log\\sp{2} x)$, while we also use induction on $x$ when $\\theta$ is fixed. We prove that the Riemann hypothesis is valid under the assumptions of the explicit strong density hypothesis and the Lindel\\"of hypothesis recently proven, via a result of the implication on the zero free regions from the remainder terms of the prime number theorem by the power sum method of Tur\\'an.

  3. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

  4. VOLUME 81, NUMBER 26 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 DECEMBER 1998 Demonstration of a High Average Power Tabletop Soft X-Ray Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power emitted by this 26.5 eV laser is comparable to that generated at this photon energy in a similar of 7 Hz with an average output energy of 135 mJ pulse by exciting a plasma column in a ceramic fairly opti- mized nonphased matched conditions typically yields a conversion efficiency of about 1026

  5. Wind: wind power density maps at 50m above ground and 1km resolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Ghana. (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential in Ghana. Data and Resources Download MapsZIP Download Maps More...

  6. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 400m...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Sri Lanka (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential within Sri Lanka and selected offshore areas (Supplemental...

  7. Wind: wind power density maps at 50 m above ground and 1km resolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    density for Cuba. (Purpose):HTMLREMOVEDHTMLREMOVEDTo provide information on the wind resource potential in Cuba. Data and Resources Download MapsZIP Download Maps More...

  8. Sensitivity study of the assembly averaged thermal-hydraulic models of the MEKIN computer code in power transients / by Thomas Rodack [and] Lothar Wolf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodack, Thomas

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal-hydraulic (T-H) models and solution schemes employed by the MEKIN computer code have been examined. The effects of T-H input parameters on- predicted fuel temperatures and coolant densities were determined in ...

  9. High-resolution tangential absolute extreme ultraviolet arrays for radiated power density measurements on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kozub, T. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Faust, I. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiated-power-density diagnostic on the equatorial midplane for the NSTX-U tokamak will be upgraded to measure the radial structure of the photon emissivity profile with an improved radial resolution. This diagnostic will enhance the characterization and studies of power balance, impurity transport, and MHD. The layout and response expected of the new system is shown for different plasma conditions and impurity concentrations. The effect of toroidal rotation driving poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities is also addressed.

  10. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  11. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 547 (2005) 663678 Determining axial fuel-rod power-density profiles from in-core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultis, J. Kenneth

    is proposed for determining power-density profiles in nuclear reactor fuel rods from neutron flux measurementsNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 547 (2005) 663­678 Determining axial fuel-rod power-density profiles from in-core neutron flux measurements J. Kenneth Shultis? Department

  12. Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Micro Refrigerators Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris LaBounty, Edward Croke2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Micro Refrigerators Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris Experiments were carried out to determine the cooling power density of SiGe/Si superlattice microcoolers by integrating thin film metal resistor heaters on the cooling surface. By evaluating the maximum cooling

  13. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  14. The wind power probability density forecast problem can be formulated as: forecast the wind power pdf at time step t for each look-ahead time step t+k of a given time-horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    The wind power probability density forecast problem can be formulated as: forecast the wind power ahead) knowing a set of explanatory variables (e.g. numerical weather predictions (NWPs), wind power measured values). Translating this sentence to an equation, we have: where pt+k is the wind power

  15. The Density Perturbation Power Spectrum to Second-Order Corrections in the Slow-Roll Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewan D. Stewart; Jin-Ook Gong

    2001-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We set up a formalism that can be used to calculate the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations produced during inflation up to arbitrary order in the slow-roll expansion, and explicitly calculate the power spectrum and spectral index up to second-order corrections.

  16. LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Anil V. Virkar

    2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

  17. Microwave power spectral density and its effects on exciting electrodeless high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, S.J.; Goss, H.H.; Lapatovich, W.P. [Osram Sylvania Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of a microwave source generating a spectrally dense power spectrum on the operation of an electrodeless high intensity discharge lamp were measured. Spectrally pure sources operating within ISM bands at 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz produce stable capacitively coupled discharges useful for producing flicker-free light for numerous applications. The internal plasma temperature distribution and lamp geometry define acoustic resonance modes within the lamp which can be excited with power sidebands. The operation of lamps with commercially available power sources and custom built generators are discussed. Estimates of the spectral purity required for stable operation are provided.

  18. Density-potential pairs for spherical stellar systems with Sersic light-profiles and (optional) power-law cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balsa Terzic; Alister W. Graham

    2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Popular models for describing the luminosity-density profiles of dynamically hot stellar systems (e.g., Jaffe, Hernquist, Dehnen) were constructed with the desire to match the deprojected form of an R^{1/4} light-profile. Real galaxies, however, are now known to have a range of different light-profile shapes that scale with mass. Consequently, although highly useful, the above models have implicit limitations, and this is illustrated here through their application to a number of real galaxy density profiles. On the other hand, the analytical density profile given by Prugniel & Simien (1997) closely matches the deprojected form of Sersic R^{1/n} light-profiles - including deprojected exponential light-profiles. It is thus applicable for describing bulges in spiral galaxies, dwarf elliptical galaxies, and both ordinary and giant elliptical galaxies. Here we provide simple equations, in terms of elementary and special functions, for the gravitational potential and force associated with this density profile. Furthermore, to match galaxies with partially depleted cores, and better explore the supermassive black hole / galaxy connection, we have added a power-law core to this density profile and derived similar expressions for the potential and force of this hybrid profile. Expressions for the mass and velocity dispersion, assuming isotropy, are also given. These models may also prove appropriate for describing the dark matter distribution in halos formed from LCDM cosmological simulations.

  19. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turin and A. A. Balandin, Electronics Letters 40, 81 (2004).REFERENCES G. E. Moore, Electronics 38 (1965). E. Pop, Nanofor High-power Electronics PCSI-38:38th Conference on the

  20. Correspondence: Email: shinn@jlab.org; Telephone: 757 269 7565; FAX: 757 269 5519 High Average Power Free-Electron Lasers -A New Laser Source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Free-Electron Lasers - A New Laser Source for Materials Processing Michelle D. Shinn Thomas the status of our DOD-funded project to upgrade the FEL to 10 kW in the mid IR. Keywords: Free-electron laser, one type of laser can meet these requirements: a free-electron laser (FEL) using a superconducting

  1. Doped LiFePO? cathodes for high power density lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloking, Jason T. (Jason Thompson), 1979-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olivine LiFePO4 has received much attention recently as a promising storage compound for cathodes in lithium ion batteries. It has an energy density similar to that of LiCoO 2, the current industry standard for cathode ...

  2. Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    capacitors (EDLCs) have evoked wide interest in recent years due to their ability to supply high power of EDLCs is based on the quick formation of a double layer of surface charges and counter materials for EDLCs should have large surface area to accumulate a large amount of charges, and a size

  3. Title: Crack Diagnostics via Fourier Transform: Real and Imaginary Components vs. Power Spectral Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Title: Crack Diagnostics via Fourier Transform: Real and Imaginary Components vs. Power Spectral simultaneously the real and imaginary components of the Fourier transforms as diagnostics features approach consists of using new features based on the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform

  4. Pulse-Density Modulation for RF Applications: The Radio-Frequency Power Amplifier (RF PA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    . This enables complex digital processing and control of RF switching waveforms. Trends in processing speed demonstrates, techniques previously used for audio amplifiers, motor control, and power conversion may now generations of CMOS technology. We implement digital control of the carrier amplitude using pulse

  5. Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us DrewDualLight-Duty2

  6. Tunable sub-20 fs pulses from a 500 kHz OPCPA with 15 W average power based on an all-ytterbium laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puppin, Michele; Prochnow, Oliver; Ahrens, Jan; Binhammer, Thomas; Morgner, Uwe; Krenz, Marcel; Wolf, Martin; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier fully based on Yb lasers at 500 kHz is described. Passive optical-synchronization is achieved between a fiber laser-pumped white-light and a 515 nm pump produced with a 200 W picosecond Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier. An output power up to 19.7 W with long-term stability of 0.3% is demonstrated for wavelength tunable pulses between 680 nm and 900 nm and spectral stability of 0.2%; 16.5 W can be achieved with a bandwidth supporting 5.4 fs pulses. We demonstrate compression of 30 microjoule pulses to sub-20 fs duration with a prism compressor, suitable for high harmonic generation.

  7. MEMS Fuel Cells--Low Temp--High Power Density - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9November 6, In this3,Office of Science

  8. Early structure formation from primordial density fluctuations with a blue-tilted power spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Spergel, David; Yorke, Harold W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While observations of large-scale structure and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong constraints on the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) on scales larger than 10 Mpc, the amplitude of the power spectrum on sub-galactic length scales is much more poorly constrained. We study early structure formation in a cosmological model with a blue-tilted PPS. We assume that the standard scale-invariant PPS is modified at small length scales as $P(k) \\sim k^{m_{\\rm s}}$ with $m_{\\rm s} > 1$. We run a series of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to examine the dependence of the formation epoch and the characteristic mass of primordial stars on the tilt of the PPS. In models with $m_{\\rm s} > 1$, star-forming gas clouds are formed at $z > 100$, when formation of hydrogen molecules is inefficient because the intense CMB radiation destroys chemical intermediates. Without efficient coolant, the gas clouds gravitationally contract while keeping a high temperature. The protostars formed in such ...

  9. Improving the AGR Fuel Testing Power Density Profile Versus Irradiation-Time in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang; David A. Petti; John T. Maki; Misti A. Lillo

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles. Each TRISO-coated fuel particle has its own containment which serves as the principal barrier against radionuclide release under normal operating and accident conditions. These fuel particles, in the form of graphite fuel compacts, are currently undergoing a series of irradiation tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification program. A representive coated fuel particle with an 235U enrichment of 19.8 wt% was used in this analysis. The fuel burnup analysis tool used to perform the neutronics study reported herein, couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. The fuel burnup methodology known as Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) was used to evaluate the AGR experiment assembly and demonstrate compliance with ATR safety requirements. For the AGR graphite fuel compacts, the MCWO-calculated fission power density (FPD) due to neutron fission in 235U is an important design parameter. One of the more important AGR fuel testing requirements is to maintain the peak fuel compact temperature close to 1250C throughout the proposed irradiation campaign of 550 effective full power days (EFPDs). Based on the MCWO-calculated FPD, a fixed gas gap size was designed to allow regulation of the fuel compact temperatures throughout the entire fuel irradiation campaign by filling the gap with a mixture of helium and neon gases. The chosen fixed gas gap can only regulate the peak fuel compact temperature in the desired range during the irradiation test if the ratio of the peak power density to the time-dependent low power density (P/T) at 550 EFPDs is less than 2.5. However, given the near constant neutron flux within the ATR driver core and the depletion of 235U in the graphite fuel compacts versus EFPD, the P/T ratio was calculated to be 5.3, which is unacceptable given the fuel compact temperature control requirement. To flatten the FPD profile versus EFPDs, two proposed options are (a) add fertile (232Th) particles to the fuel compact and (b) add burnable absorber (B4C) to the graphite holder. The effectiveness of these two proposed options to flatten the FPD profile versus EFPDs were investigated and the results are compared in this study.

  10. Generation of primordial cosmological density inhomogeneities with scale invariant power spectrum during the standard radiation dominated expansion of the universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oaknin, David H

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expansion/contraction of a bubble of gas of radius $R_0(t)$ immersed in an incompressible fluid that fills the infinite 3D space around it, $r \\ge R_0(t)$, generates a radial flow, ${\\vec v}(r,t) = \\frac{R^2_0(t)}{r^2}\\ \\dot{R}_0(t) {\\hat r}$, which is set by the velocity of the bubble surface, $\\dot{R}_0(t)$. The kinetic energy that the expanding/contracting bubble pumps, at the expense of its own internal energy, into each unit volume of the flowing incompressible fluid is ${\\it e}(r,t) = \\frac{\\rho_0}{2} |{\\vec v}(r,t)|^2 = \\frac{\\rho_0}{2} \\dot{R}^2_0(t) R^4_0(t) r^{-4}$, where $\\rho_0$ is the mass density of the fluid. This incompressible flow generates equal time energy density (anti)correlations over infinitely long distances. They are imposed by global conservation laws and, therefore, do not violate causality. We notice that energy density inhomogeneities that are (anti)correlated as $f(r) \\sim - r^{-4}$ as $r \\to \\infty$ have scale invariant power spectrum in the range of very small wavenumbers,...

  11. Increasing the power density when using inert matrix fuels to reduce production of transuranics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recktenwald, G.D.; Deinert, M.R. [University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin TX 78715-0162 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing the production of transuranics is a goal of most advanced nuclear fuel cycles. One way to do this is to recycle the transuranics into the same reactors that are currently producing them using an inert matrix fuel. In previous work we have modeled such a reactor where 72%, of the core is comprised of standard enriched uranium fuel pins, with the remaining 28% fuel made from Yttria stabilized zirconium, in which transuranics are loaded. A key feature of this core is that all of the transuranics produced by the uranium fuel assemblies are later burned in inert matrix fuel assemblies. It has been shown that this system can achieve reductions in transuranic waste of more than 86%. The disadvantage of such a system is that the core power rating must be significantly lower than a standard pressurized water reactor. One reason for the lower power is that high burnup of the uranium fuel precludes a critical level of reactivity at the end of the campaign. Increasing the uranium enrichment and changing the pin pitch are two ways to increase burnup while maintaining criticality. In this paper we use MCNPX and a linear reactivity model to quantify the effect of these two parameters on the end of campaign reactivity. Importantly, we show that in the region of our proposed reactor, enrichment increases core reactivity by 0.02 per percent uranium 235 and pin pitch increases reactivity by 0.02 per mm. Reactivity is lost at a rate of 0.005 per MWd/kgIHM uranium burnup. (authors)

  12. Order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern wind farms require significant land resources to separate each wind turbine from the adjacent turbine wakes. These aerodynamic constraints limit the amount of power that can be extracted from a given wind farm footprint. We conducted full-scale field tests of vertical-axis wind turbines in counter-rotating configurations under natural wind conditions. Whereas wind farms consisting of propeller-style turbines produce 2 to 3 watts of power per square meter of land area, these field tests indicate that power densities approaching 100 W m^-2 can be achieved by arranging vertical-axis wind turbines in layouts that enable them to extract energy from adjacent wakes. In addition, we calculated that the global wind resource available to 10-m tall turbines based on the present approach is approximately 225 trillion watts (TW), which significantly exceeds the global wind resource available to 80-m tall, propeller-style wind turbines, approximately 75 TW. This improvement is due to the closer spacing that can be a...

  13. High Current Density, Long Life Cathodes for High Power RF Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research,, Inc.; Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Falce, Lou [Consultant; Schwartzkopf, Steve [Ron Witherspoon, Inc.; Busbaher, Daniel [Semicon Associates

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was tasked with improving the quality and expanding applications for Controlled Porosity Reservoir (CPR) cathodes. Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) initially developed CPR cathodes on a DOE-funded SBIR program to improve cathodes for magnetron injection guns. Subsequent funding was received from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program developed design requirements for implementation of the technology into high current density cathodes for high frequency applications. During Phase I of this program, CCR was awarded the prestigious 2011 R&D100 award for this technology. Subsequently, the technology was presented at numerous technical conferences. A patent was issued for the technology in 2009. These cathodes are now marketed by Semicon Associates, Inc. in Lexington, KY. They are the worlds largest producer of cathodes for vacuum electron devices. During this program, CCR teamed with Semicon Associates, Inc. and Ron Witherspoon, Inc. to improve the fabrication processes and expand applications for the cathodes. Specific fabrications issues included the quality of the wire winding that provides the basic structure and the sintering to bond the wires into a robust, cohesive structure. The program also developed improved techniques for integrating the resulting material into cathodes for electron guns.

  14. CONTROL OF POPULATION DENSITIES SURROUNDING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 5 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, jA.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related Standards for Nuclear Power Plants," by A.V. NeroResponse Planning for Nuclear Power Plants in California,"Densities Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants," by A.V. Nero,

  15. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    constant Fluctuation due to calorimeter cooling system Electra's main oscillator has produced > 400J foil lifetime @ 5 Hz Deflecting laser gas or mist cooling promising Electra progress on Phase I goals Nd:glass Yb:crystals Increased energy storage and efficiency boule slab Gas Vanes Convective cooling

  16. Abstract. --The density matrix formalism is applied to the interpretation of Mossbauer spectra of single crystals of K3Fe(CN) taken with polarized y-radiation to find the average electric hyper-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Abstract. -- The density matrix formalism is applied to the interpretation of Mossbauer spectra Hamiltonian of the Mossbauer nucleus. Experimental results are given for 57 Fe nuclei in the monoclinic$/^)P' \\/ Mossbauer study ofdilute and concentrated K3Fe(CN)6 /

  17. High Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Microcoolers Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris LaBounty, John E. Bowers, Edward Croke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Cooling Power Density of SiGe/Si Superlattice Microcoolers Gehong Zeng, Xiaofeng Fan, Chris La, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 ABSTRACT Fabrication and characterization of SiGe for their potential monolithic integration with Si microelectronics. SiGe is a good thermoelectric material especially

  18. Compact, Low-Profile Power Converters: Highly-Laminated, High-Saturation-Flux-Density, Magnetic Cores for On-Chip Inductors in Power Converter Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: Georgia Tech is creating compact, low-profile power adapters and power bricks using materials and tools adapted from other industries and from grid-scale power applications. Adapters and bricks convert electrical energy into useable power for many types of electronic devices, including laptop computers and mobile phones. These converters are often called wall warts because they are big, bulky, and sometimes cover up an adjacent wall socket that could be used to power another electronic device. The magnetic components traditionally used to make adapters and bricks have reached their limits; they can't be made any smaller without sacrificing performance. Georgia Tech is taking a cue from grid-scale power converters that use iron alloys as magnetic cores. These low-cost alloys can handle more power than other materials, but the iron must be stacked in insulated plates to maximize energy efficiency. In order to create compact, low-profile power adapters and bricks, these stacked iron plates must be extremely thin-only hundreds of nanometers in thickness, in fact. To make plates this thin, Georgia Tech is using manufacturing tools used in microelectromechanics and other small-scale industries.

  19. Low power low-density parity-checking (ldpc) codes decoder design using dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weihuang

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a low-power LDPC decoder design based on speculative scheduling of energy necessary to decode dynamically varying data frame in both block-fading channels and general AWGN channels. A model of a memory-efficient low-power high...

  20. Design of low-power permanent-magnet synchronous motor for use in high-density heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenicek, David P. (David Pierre)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical model for the functionality of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor is developed. Taking as input a specific geometry, it predicts steady-state losses of a design at an average rate of 0.85 seconds per analysis, ...

  1. Designing materials for energy storage with high power and energy density : LiFePO? cathode material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Byoungwoo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LiFePO? has drawn a lot of attention as a cathode material in lithium rechargeable batteries because its structural and thermal stability, its inexpensive cost, and environmental friendliness meet the requirements of power ...

  2. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  3. Critical Parameters for Turbulent Transport in the SOL: Mechanism for the L-H Transition and its impact on the H-mode Power Threshold and Density Limit in ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Critical Parameters for Turbulent Transport in the SOL: Mechanism for the L-H Transition and its impact on the H-mode Power Threshold and Density Limit in ITER

  4. EARLY AFTERGLOWS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS IN A STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH A POWER-LAW DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) has been widely thought to arise from the collapse of a massive star, and it has been suggested that its ambient medium is a homogenous interstellar medium (ISM) or a stellar wind. There are two shocks when an ultra-relativistic fireball that has been ejected during the prompt gamma-ray emission phase sweeps up the circumburst medium: a reverse shock that propagates into the fireball, and a forward shock that propagates into the ambient medium. In this paper, we investigate the temporal evolution of the dynamics and emission of these two shocks in an environment with a general density distribution of n?R {sup k} (where R is the radius) by considering thick-shell and thin-shell cases. A GRB afterglow with one smooth onset peak at early times is understood to result from such external shocks. Thus, we can determine the medium density distribution by fitting the onset peak appearing in the light curve of an early optical afterglow. We apply our model to 19 GRBs and find that their k values are in the range of 0.4-1.4, with a typical value of k ? 1, implying that this environment is neither a homogenous ISM with k = 0 nor a typical stellar wind with k = 2. This shows that the progenitors of these GRBs might have undergone a new mass-loss evolution.

  5. Electron Beam Welding of a Depleted Uranium Alloy to Niobium Using a Calibrated Electron Beam Power Density Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; Terrill, P.E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron beam test welds were made joining flat plates of commercially pure niobium to a uranium-6wt%Nb (binary) alloy. The welding parameters and joint design were specifically developed to minimize mixing of the niobium with the U-6%Nb alloy. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the precise power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines and/or to other facilities.

  6. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  7. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  8. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  9. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  10. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 Accepted: 9 March 2004 Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  11. Minimum Entangling Power is Close to Its Maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianxin Chen; Zhengfeng Ji; David W Kribs; Bei Zeng

    2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a quantum gate $U$ acting on a bipartite quantum system, its maximum (average, minimum) entangling power is the maximum (average, minimum) entanglement generation with respect to certain entanglement measure when the inputs are restricted to be product states. In this paper, we mainly focus on the 'weakest' one, i.e., the minimum entangling power, among all these entangling powers. We show that, by choosing von Neumann entropy of reduced density operator or Schmidt rank as entanglement measure, even the 'weakest' entangling power is generically very close to its maximal possible entanglement generation. In other words, maximum, average and minimum entangling powers are generically close. We then study minimum entangling power with respect to other Lipschitiz-continuous entanglement measures and generalize our results to multipartite quantum systems. As a straightforward application, a random quantum gate will almost surely be an intrinsically fault-tolerant entangling device that will always transform every low-entangled state to near-maximally entangled state.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations of electron density in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Wen, De-Qi; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron density is measured in low-pressure dual-frequency (2/60 MHz) capacitively coupled oxygen discharges by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The dependence of electron density at the discharge center on the high frequency (HF) power, low frequency (LF) power, and gas pressure are investigated in detail. A (1D) particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo method is developed to calculate the time-averaged electron density at the discharge center and the simulation results are compared with the experimental ones, and general agreements are achieved. With increasing HF power, the electron density linearly increases. The electron density exhibits different changes with the LF power at different HF powers. At low HF powers (e.g., 30 W in our experiment), the electron density increases with increasing LF power while the electron density decreases with increasing LF power at relatively high HF powers (e.g., 120 W in our experiment). With increasing gas pressure the electron density first increases rapidly to reach a maximum value and then decreases slowly due to the combined effect of the production process by the ionization and the loss processes including the surface and volume losses.

  13. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    High power and torque densities High power and torque densities Research Topics PMSM / IPMSM Modeling

  14. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Mioduszewski, P.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cuthbertson, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation.

  15. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  16. Sonolytic destruction of methyl tert-butyl ether by ultrasonic irradiation: The role of O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, frequency, and power density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.W.; Hung, H.M.; Lin, A.; Hoffmann, M.R. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.] [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). W.M. Keck Labs.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of ozone as functions of applied frequencies and applied power are investigated. Experiments are performed over the frequency range of 205--1,078 kHz. The higher overall reaction rates are observed at 358 and 618 kHz and then at 205 and 1,078 kHz. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constant, k{sub 0}, for MTBE degradation increases with increasing power density up to 250 W L{sup {minus}1}. A linear dependence of the first-order rate constant, k{sub O{sub 3}}, for the simultaneous degradation of O{sub 3} on power density is also observed. Naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) is shown to have a negligible effect on observed reaction rates.

  17. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the electrical power output to the solar power input), aSolar Energy Calculator using Google Maps 23 Table 1.24: PV System Power Production Average Daily Irradiance (kWh/m2) Instillation Efficiency Labeled Efficiency Output

  18. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  19. average power fel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coverage (fundamental) 3 (5)1 (8) FEL undulators 2012 (?)2009 (2013)Operation start TESLA (upgrade) LCLS (upgrade) X-ray FEL Projects in Preconstruction 12;Status of X-ray...

  20. average power laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 82 Fibre Lasers for Gamma...

  1. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term,...

  2. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  3. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  4. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer implemented method modifies an experimental electron density map. A set of selected known experimental and model electron density maps is provided and standard templates of electron density are created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps by clustering and averaging values of electron density in a spherical region about each point in a grid that defines each selected known experimental and model electron density maps. Histograms are also created from the selected experimental and model electron density maps that relate the value of electron density at the center of each of the spherical regions to a correlation coefficient of a density surrounding each corresponding grid point in each one of the standard templates. The standard templates and the histograms are applied to grid points on the experimental electron density map to form new estimates of electron density at each grid point in the experimental electron density map.

  5. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution. Abstract: A power law regression...

  6. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  7. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  8. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  9. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor History of sales procedures Manufacturer Driven Procedures What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." It should

  10. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  11. Experimental investigation of density behaviors in front of the lower hybrid launcher in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, L.; Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Kong, E. H.; Wei, W.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Wu, Z. G.; Zhu, L.; Ma, W. D.; Tong, Y. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Zhao, L. M.; Hu, H. C.; Liu, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Collaboration: EAST Team

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple Langmuir probe is mounted on the top of the Lower Hybrid (LH) antenna to measure the electron density near the LH grills in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. In this work, the LH power density ranges from 2.3 MWm{sup ?2} to 10.3 MWm{sup ?2} and the rate of puffing gas varies from 1.7 10{sup 20} el/s to 14 10{sup 20} el/s. The relation between the edge density (from 0.3 n{sub e-cutoff} to 20 n{sub e-cutoff}, where n{sub e-cutoff} is the cutoff density, n{sub e-cutoff} = 0.74 10{sup 17} m{sup ?3} for 2.45 GHz lower hybrid current drive) near the LH grill and the LH power reflection coefficients is investigated. The factors, including the gap between the LH grills and the last closed magnetic flux surface, line-averaged density, LH power, edge safety factor, and gas puffing, are analyzed. The experiments show that injection of LH power is beneficial for increasing edge density. Gas puffing is beneficial for increasing grill density but excess gas puffing is unfavorable for coupling and current drive.

  12. Power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moraghan, Anthony; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the power spectra of outflow-driven turbulence through high-resolution three-dimensional isothermal numerical simulations where the turbulence is driven locally in real-space by a simple spherical outflow model. The resulting turbulent flow saturates at an average Mach number of ~2.5 and is analysed through density and velocity power spectra, including an investigation of the evolution of the solenoidal and compressional components. We obtain a shallow density power spectrum with a slope of ~-1.2 attributed to the presence of a network of localised dense filamentary structures formed by strong shock interactions. The total velocity power spectrum slope is found to be ~-2.0, representative of Burgers shock dominated turbulence model. The density weighted velocity power spectrum slope is measured as ~-1.6, slightly less than the expected Kolmogorov scaling value (slope of -5/3) found in previous works. The discrepancy may be caused by the nature of our real space driving model and we suggest ther...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: increasing average wind turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbine power rating Latest Version of the Composite Materials Database Available for Download On December 3, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News & Events,...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Center Blvd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479)-443-5759 Email: marcelo@apei.net Website: www.apei.net High Temperature and High Power Density SiC Power Electronic...

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Research Center Blvd. Fayetteville, AR 72701 Phone: (479)-443-5759 Email: mschupb@apei.net Website: www.apei.net High Power Density Silicon Carbide Power Electronic Converters...

  16. Generation of Gaussian Density Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugo Martel

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes analytical and numerical techniques for the generation of Gaussian density fields, which represent cosmological density perturbations. The mathematical techniques involved in the generation of density harmonics in k-space, the filtering of the density fields, and the normalization of the power spectrum to the measured temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, are presented in details. These techniques are well-known amongst experts, but the current literature lacks a formal description. I hope that this technical report will prove useful to new researchers moving into this field, sparing them the task of reinventing the wheel.

  17. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  18. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  19. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of todays CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  20. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  1. High Energy Density Capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of todays best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

  2. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2014-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, , between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(?(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ?(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Paulings simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, ?, power law expression ? = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M-O bonded interactions for a relatively wide range of M atoms of the periodic table. The power law equation determined for the oxide crystals at ambient conditions is similar to the power law expression = r[1.46/]5.26 determined for the perovskites at pressures as high as 80 GPa, indicating that the intrinsic connection between R(M-O) and ?(rc) that holds at ambient conditions also holds, to a first approximation, at high pressures.

  3. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cheng, Cheng, E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: chengcheng@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  4. Constraining the average fill densities of Mars' lowlands and fluvial erosion of Titan's polar regions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewelde, Yodit

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Other than Earth, Mars and Titan are the only bodies in our Solar System where we have observed widespread fluvial activity. In this thesis I present two approaches for constraining the extent of multiple resurfacing ...

  5. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  6. Dynamic Discrete Power Control in Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shwartz, A.

    We consider an uplink power control problem where each mobile wishes to maximize its throughput (which depends on the transmission powers of all mobiles) but has a constraint on the average power consumption. A finite ...

  7. CONTROL OF POPULATION DENSITIES SURROUNDING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 5 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, jA.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standards for Nuclear Power Plants," by A.V. Nero and Y.C.Planning for Nuclear Power Plants in California," by W.W.S.Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants," by A.V. Nero, C.H.

  8. Power Factor Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    motor power: 117.7 V x 5.1 A = 600 W? = 0.6 kW? NOT the power measured by meter #12;Page 9 PSERC: displacement power factor: angle between voltage and current = 0 degrees pf = cos(0 degrees) = 1.0 true powerPage 1 PSERC Power Factor and Reactive Power Ward Jewell Wichita State University Power Systems

  9. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  10. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  11. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  12. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  13. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  14. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  15. Tweedie Family Densities: Methods of Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    of Queensland, St Lucia, Q 4072, Australia. 2 University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Q 4350, Australia. Tweedie family densities are characterised by power variance functions of the form V[] = p , where p

  16. Analysis of Wind Power Ramping Behavior in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the wind power ramping behavior using 10-minute and hourly average wind power data from ERCOT and presents statistical properties of the large ramp events.

  17. Electron density measurements in a pulse-repetitive microwave discharge in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolic, M.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L. [Department of Physics, Center for Accelerator Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Herring, G. C.; Exton, R. J. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a technique for absolute measurements of electron density in pulse-repetitive microwave discharges in air. The technique is based on the time-resolved absolute intensity of a nitrogen spectral band belonging to the Second Positive System, the kinetic model and the detailed particle balance of the N{sub 2}C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu} = 0) state. This new approach bridges the gap between two existing electron density measurement methods (Langmuir probe and Stark broadening). The electron density is obtained from the time-dependent rate equation for the population of N{sub 2}C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu} = 0) using recorded waveforms of the absolute C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}{yields}B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} (0-0) band intensity, the forward and reflected microwave power density. Measured electron density waveforms using numerical and approximated analytical methods are presented for the case of pulse repetitive planar surface microwave discharge at the aperture of a horn antenna covered with alumina ceramic plate. The discharge was generated in air at 11.8 Torr with a X-band microwave generator using 3.5 {mu}s microwave pulses at peak power of 210 kW. In this case, we were able to time resolve the electron density within a single 3.5 {mu}s pulse. We obtained (9.0 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the peak and (5.0 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} for the pulse-average electron density. The technique presents a convenient, non-intrusive diagnostic method for local, time-defined measurements of electron density in short duration discharges near atmospheric pressures.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha-u charge density Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Florida Collection: Physics 31 Conducting Polymer Nanotubes toward Supercapacitor Ran Liu and Sang Bok Lee* Summary: density, power density values of the...

  19. Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric...

  20. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  1. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  2. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  3. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

  4. THE TURBULENCE POWER SPECTRUM IN OPTICALLY THICK INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 North Charter Street, WI 53711 (United States); Ossenkopf, V.; Stutzki, J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fourier power spectrum is one of the most widely used statistical tools to analyze the nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the interstellar medium. Lazarian and Pogosyan predicted that the spectral slope should saturate to -3 for an optically thick medium and many observations exist in support of their prediction. However, there have not been any numerical studies to date for testing these results. We analyze the spatial power spectrum of MHD simulations with a wide range of sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers, which include radiative transfer effects of the {sup 13}CO transition. We numerically confirm the predictions of Lazarian and Pogosyan that the spectral slope of line intensity maps of an optically thick medium saturates to -3. Furthermore, for very optically thin supersonic CO gas, where the density or CO abundance values are too low to excite emission in all but the densest shock compressed gas, we find that the spectral slope is shallower than expected from the column density. Finally, we find that mixed optically thin/thick CO gas, which has average optical depths on the order of unity, shows mixed behavior: for super-Alfvenic turbulence, the integrated intensity power spectral slopes generally follow the same trend with sonic Mach number as the true column density power spectrum slopes. However, for sub-Alfvenic turbulence the spectral slopes are steeper with values near -3 which are similar to the very optically thick regime.

  5. A gradient system on the quantum information space realizing the averaged learning equation of Hebb type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshio Uwano; Hiromi Yuya

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The averaged learning equation (ALEH) applicable to the principal component analyzer is studied from both quantum information geometry and dynamical system viewpoints. On the quantum information space (QIS), the space of regular density matrices endowed with the quantum SLD-Fisher metric, a gradient system is given as an extension of the ALEH; on the submanifold, consisting of the diagonal matrices, of the QIS, the gradient flow coincides with the ALEH up to a local diffeomorphism.

  6. Further Developments in Orbit Ephemeris Derived Neutral Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Locke, Travis Cole

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    /04/2002. ................................... 91 Figure 4.4 Atmospheric Density Comparison for CHAMP on 04/17/2002. ................................... 92 Figure 4.5 Atmospheric Density Comparison for GRACE on 08/04/2006. .................................... 93 Figure 4.6 Atmospheric... sigma values. .... 88 Table 4.2 Average CC values for CHAMP binned by solar activity level. ..................................... 96 Table 4.3 Average RMS values (10-12 kg/m3) for CHAMP binned by solar activity level.............. 96 Table 4...

  7. Probability density adjoint for sensitivity analysis of the Mean of Chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blonigan, Patrick J., E-mail: blonigan@mit.edu; Wang, Qiqi, E-mail: qiqi@mit.edu

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensitivity analysis, especially adjoint based sensitivity analysis, is a powerful tool for engineering design which allows for the efficient computation of sensitivities with respect to many parameters. However, these methods break down when used to compute sensitivities of long-time averaged quantities in chaotic dynamical systems. This paper presents a new method for sensitivity analysis of ergodic chaotic dynamical systems, the density adjoint method. The method involves solving the governing equations for the system's invariant measure and its adjoint on the system's attractor manifold rather than in phase-space. This new approach is derived for and demonstrated on one-dimensional chaotic maps and the three-dimensional Lorenz system. It is found that the density adjoint computes very finely detailed adjoint distributions and accurate sensitivities, but suffers from large computational costs.

  8. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using model data and templates calculated at a resolution of 2.6 . Owing to this independence of errors, information from the new map can be combined in a simple fashion with information from the original map to create an improved map. An iterative phase-improvement process using this approach and other applications of the image-reconstruction method are described and applied to experimental data at resolutions ranging from 2.4 to 2.8 .

  9. Pair densities in density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Huajie

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact interaction energy of a many-electron system is determined by the electron pair density, which is not well-approximated in standard Kohn-Sham density functional models. Here we study the (complicated but well-defined) exact universal map from density to pair density. We show that many common functionals, including the most basic version of the LDA (Dirac exchange with no correlation contribution), arise from particular approximations of this map. We develop an algorithm to compute the map numerically, and apply it to one-parameter families {a*rho(a*x)} of one-dimensional homogeneous and inhomogeneous single-particle densities. We observe that the pair density develops remarkable multiscale patterns which strongly depend on both the particle number and the "width" 1/a of the single-particle density. The simulation results are confirmed by rigorous asymptotic results in the limiting regimes a>>1 and a<<1. For one-dimensional homogeneous systems, we show that the whole spectrum of patterns is rep...

  10. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  11. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  12. The New York Times headquarters daylighting mockup: Monitored performance of the daylighting control system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W, respectively. Lighting power density at full power levelssavings and average lighting power density savings for astandard deviation Lighting power density at full power:

  13. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  14. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  15. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  16. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  17. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  18. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  19. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  20. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  1. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  2. HYDROGEN STORAGE SOLUTIONS IN SUPPORT OF DOD WARFIGHTER PORTABLE POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    From Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to cell phones our high-tech world, today, is demanding smaller, lighter weight and higher capacity portable power devices. Nowhere has this personal power surge been more evident than in today's U.S Warfighter. The modern Warfighter is estimated to carry from 65 to 95 pounds of supplies in the field with over 30 pounds of this dedicated to portable power devices. These devices include computer displays, infrared sights, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), night vision and a variety of other sensor technologies. Over 80% of the energy needed to power these devices comes from primary (disposable) batteries. It is estimated that a brigade will consume as much as 7 tons of batteries in a 72 hour mission at a cost of $700,000. A recent comprehensive study on the energy needs of the future warrior published by the National Academy of Science in 2004 made a variety of recommendations for average power systems from 20 to 1,000 watts. For lower power systems recommendations included pursuing science and technology initiatives focused on: (1) 300 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) secondary battery technologies; (2) smart hybrids; and (3) fuel cells (with greater than 6 wt% hydrogen storage). Improved secondary (rechargeable) batteries may be the ideal solution for military power systems due to their ease of use and public acceptance. However, a 3X improvement in their specific energy density is not likely anytime soon. Today's Lithium Ion batteries, at about 150 Wh/kg, fall well short of the energy density that is required. Future battery technology may not be the answer since many experts do not predict more than a 2X improvement in Lithium battery systems over the next 10 years. That is why most auto companies have abandoned all electric vehicles in favor of fuel cells and hybrid vehicles. Fuel cells have very high specific energy densities but achieving high energy values will depend on the energy density and the storage method of its fuel. Improved methods of safely and efficiently storing larger amounts of hydrogen will be a key development area for portable fuel cell power systems. Despite their high potential energy, fuel cells exhibit low power densities. That is why many systems today are going hybrid. Hybrid systems typically combine low energy and high power components with high energy and low power components. Typical configurations include capacitors and fuel cells or batteries and fuel cells. If done correctly, a hybrid system often can have both high energy and high power density even higher than any of the individual components.

  3. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili, Lo`eve, Karhunen harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  4. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  5. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  6. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Jos

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  7. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  8. Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Schunck; Jordan D. McDonnell; Jason Sarich; Stefan M. Wild; Dave Higdon

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is the only microscopic, global approach to the structure of atomic nuclei. It is used in numerous applications, from determining the limits of stability to gaining a deep understanding of the formation of elements in the universe or the mechanisms that power stars and reactors. The predictive power of the theory depends on the amount of physics embedded in the energy density functional as well as on efficient ways to determine a small number of free parameters and solve the DFT equations. In this article, we discuss the various sources of uncertainties and errors encountered in DFT and possible methods to quantify these uncertainties in a rigorous manner.

  9. Lower crustal density estimation using the density-slowness relationship: a preliminary study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Gary Wayne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and seismic velocity models were used to estimate the densities of th lower crustal rocks frcm the Wind River Mountains, the Ivrea Zone in Italy, and the average 1~ continental crustal model developed b/ ~istensen and Mconey [1995] . The. densities... by Carlson and Raskin [1984) yields a precision of about 1 percent. 'Ihe objective of this study is to evaluate this approach to estimate the density of the more complex continental crust, which is more variable in composition and affected hy a wider range...

  10. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  11. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  12. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  13. Expansion and Growth of Structure Observables in a Macroscopic Gravity Averaged Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijenayake, Tharake

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of averaging inhomogeneities on expansion and large-scale structure growth observables using the exact and covariant framework of Macroscopic Gravity (MG). It is well-known that applying the Einstein's equations and spatial averaging do not commute and lead to the averaging problem. For the MG formalism applied to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, this gives an extra dynamical term encapsulated as an averaging density parameter denoted $\\Omega_A$. An exact isotropic cosmological solution of MG for the flat FLRW metric is already known in the literature, we derive here an anisotropic exact solution. Using the isotropic solution, we compare the expansion history to current data of distances to supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, CMB last scattering surface, and Hubble constant measurements, and find $-0.05 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.07$ (at the 95% CL). For the flat metric case this reduces to $-0.03 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.05$. We also find that the inclusion of this ter...

  14. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  15. average-power fel driven: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. Wiseman; L. J. Brillson; D. P. Henkel; H. Helvajian; Aerospace Corp; M. J. Kelley 2 TESLA-FEL-2003-02 Longitudinal Space Charge Driven Physics Websites Summary: two bunch...

  16. On the Asymptotic Analysis of Average Interference Power Generated by a Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    was supported by Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. GHz at six locations including the New York City [5

  17. Power dissipation and time-averaged pressure in oscillating flow through a sudden area change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    effects including boundary layer turbu- lence and random motions in separated flows. These losses fixed while varying the third. Evidence is presented that the losses due to oscillatory flow for steady flow are available, few such data exist for oscillatory flow in any geometry, despite the fact

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - average beam power Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radio Network Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 7 Edge Node to Remote Node Topology Optimization in the Summary: by optimally deciding the number radio...

  19. Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

  20. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in four years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment ActivitiesAge Refining Air1,D O E /driverssummer

  1. Generic Average Modeling and Simulation of Discrete Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling of discrete controllers for PWM power conversion systems. The method applies a section be advantageous to have the capability of running AC analysis of digitally controlled power systems on a general the simulation of digitally controlled power conversion systems on general-purpose circuit simulators

  2. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  3. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  4. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  5. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  6. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  7. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  8. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  9. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  10. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  11. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  12. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  13. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  14. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  15. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  16. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  17. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  18. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  19. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5: March 22, 2010 Average

  20. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  1. Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Searight, K.; Clark, K.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration renewable integration studies require solar power data with high spatial and temporal accuracy to quantify the impact of high frequency solar power ramps on the operation of the system. Our previous work concentrated on downscaling solar power from one hour to one minute by simulation. This method used clearness classifications to categorize temporal and spatial variability, and iterative methods to simulate intra-hour clearness variability. We determined that solar power ramp correlations between sites decrease with distance and the duration of the ramp, starting at around 0.6 for 30-minute ramps between sites that are less than 20 km apart. The sub-hour irradiance algorithm we developed has a noise floor that causes the correlations to approach ~0.005. Below one minute, the majority of the correlations of solar power ramps between sites less than 20 km apart are zero, and thus a new method to simulate intra-minute variability is needed. These intra-minute solar power ramps can be simulated using several methods, three of which we evaluate: a cubic spline fit to the one-minute solar power data; projection of the power spectral density toward the higher frequency domain; and average high frequency power spectral density from measured data. Each of these methods either under- or over-estimates the variability of intra-minute solar power ramps. We show that an optimized weighted linear sum of methods, dependent on the classification of temporal variability of the segment of one-minute solar power data, yields time series and ramp distributions similar to measured high-resolution solar irradiance data.

  2. Density-dependent covariant energy density functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 (Greece)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena at and away fromstability line. Isoscalar monopole, isovector dipole and isoscalar quadrupole giant resonances are calculated using fully self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle randomphase approximation, based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubovmodel. The impact of pairing correlations on the fission barriers in heavy and superheavy nuclei is examined. The role of pion in constructing desnity functionals is also investigated.

  3. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power Purchase Agreements PowerPowerCentsDC

  5. A New Partial Sample Average Approximation Method for Chance ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    operational constraints of a mix of power generation units (hydraulic valleys, nuclear plants and classical thermal units - coal, fuel and gas-) for a discrete...

  6. Observation of a new high-? and high-density state of a magnetospheric plasma in RT-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, H.; Yano, Y.; Yoshida, Z.; Nishiura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Kawazura, Y.; Nogami, T.; Yamasaki, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high-? and high-density state is reported for a plasma confined in a laboratory magnetosphere. In order to expand the parameter regime of an electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment, the 8.2?GHz microwave power of the Ring Trap 1 device has been upgraded with the installation of a new waveguide system. The rated input power launched from a klystron was increased from 25 to 50?kW, which enabled the more stable formation of a hot-electron high-? plasma. The diamagnetic signal (the averaged value of four magnetic loops signals) of a plasma reached 5.2 mWb. According to a two-dimensional Grad-Shafranov analysis, the corresponding local ? value is close to 100%.

  7. EV Everywhere: Innovative Battery Research Powering Up Plug-In...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles by 2022. Lowering the cost of batteries and increasing their...

  8. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Ceresoli, Davide [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); CNR-ISTM, Institute of Molecular Sciences and Technologies, Milano (Italy)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of KohnSham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with KohnSham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  9. Oxides having high energy densities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain disclosed embodiments generally relate to oxide materials having relatively high energy and/or power densities. Various aspects of the embodiments are directed to oxide materials having a structure B.sub.i(M.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2, for example, a structure Li.sub.j(Ni.sub.jY.sub.k)O.sub.2 such as Li(Ni.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5)O.sub.2. In this structure, Y represents one or more atoms, each independently selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metals, transition metals, Group 14 elements, Group 15, or Group 16 elements. In some embodiments, such an oxide material may have an O3 crystal structure, and/or a layered structure such that the oxide comprises a plurality of first, repeating atomic planes comprising Li, and a plurality of second, repeating atomic planes comprising Ni and/or Y.

  10. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  11. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  12. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  13. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  14. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  15. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  16. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at 20 using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  17. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  18. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  19. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  20. Magnetic flux noise in q-bits and SQUIDS from primordial density fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Beck

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of the origin of $1/f$ magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDS and q-bits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we show that a significant part of the flux noise in superconducting Josephson devices may have a cosmological origin: As the Earth moves through a surrounding axionic dark matter condensate that has conserved the primordial power spectrum of density fluctuations, spatial fluctuations of the axion misalignment angle generate mirror temporal fluctuations of the superconducting phase difference in the junction. Our theory predicts the existence of flux noise with a power spectrum given by an $1/f^{2-n_s}$ spectrum, where $n_s=0.96$ is the spectral index of the near-scale invariant primordial density fluctuations. For the typical amplitude of this cosmologically generated universal flux noise we theoretically calculate the average value $\\delta \\Phi /\\Phi_0 =3.37 \\cdot 10^{-6}$ at 1Hz. These theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  1. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  2. On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, Xiaoming

    The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here, this wind power input is reexamined using available observations, focusing on the role of the synoptically ...

  3. Coded modulation with Low Density Parity Check codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanaswami, Ravi

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis proposes the design of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes for cases where coded modulation is used. We design these codes by extending the idea of Density Evolution (DE) that has been introduced as a powerful tool to analyze LDPC...

  4. High density matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Stone

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The microscopic composition and properties of matter at super-saturation densities have been the subject of intense investigation for decades. The scarcity of experimental and observational data has lead to the necessary reliance on theoretical models. However, there remains great uncertainty in these models, which, of necessity, have to go beyond the over-simple assumption that high density matter consists only of nucleons and leptons. Heavy strange baryons, mesons and quark matter in different forms and phases have to be included to fulfil basic requirements of fundamental laws of physics. In this review the latest developments in construction of the Equation of State (EoS) of high-density matter at zero and finite temperature assuming different composition of the matter are surveyed. Critical comparison of model EoS with available observational data on neutron stars, including gravitational masses, radii and cooling patterns is presented. The effect of changing rotational frequency on the composition of neutron stars during their lifetime is demonstrated. Compatibility of EoS of high-density, low temperature compact objects and low density, high temperature matter created in heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  5. average genome size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ancestry in the nuclear genomes of plastid underscore the power of comparative genomics and, at the same time, reveal how little we know with certainty 15 An Upper Bound on...

  6. Moments of the Gaussian $?$ Ensembles and the large-$N$ expansion of the densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. S. Witte; P. J. Forrester

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The loop equation formalism is used to compute the $1/N$ expansion of the resolvent for the Gaussian $\\beta$ ensemble up to and including the term at $O(N^{-6})$. This allows the moments of the eigenvalue density to be computed up to and including the 12-th power and the smoothed density to be expanded up to and including the term at $O(N^{-6})$. The latter contain non-integrable singularities at the endpoints of the support --- we show how to nonetheless make sense of the average of a sufficiently smooth linear statistic. At the special couplings $\\beta = 1$, $2$ and $4$ there are characterisations of both the resolvent and the moments which allows for the corresponding expansions to be extended, in some recursive form at least, to arbitrary order. In this regard we give fifth order linear differential equations for the density and resolvent at $\\beta = 1$ and $4$, which complements the known third order linear differential equations for these quantities at $\\beta = 2$.

  7. High-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. Buyuksahin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    the predicted (at RTL) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er- ror of 14.4% is obtainedHigh-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. B¨uy¨uks¸ahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high-level average power esti- mation to include the power due

  8. Density Matrix Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rivas; O. Viyuela; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal noise can destroy topological insulators (TI). However we demonstrate how TIs can be made stable in dissipative systems. To that aim, we introduce the notion of band Liouvillian as the dissipative counterpart of band Hamiltonian, and show a method to evaluate the topological order of its steady state. This is based on a generalization of the Chern number valid for general mixed states (referred to as density matrix Chern value), which witnesses topological order in a system coupled to external noise. Additionally, we study its relation with the electrical conductivity at finite temperature, which is not a topological property. Nonetheless, the density matrix Chern value represents the part of the conductivity which is topological due to the presence of quantum mixed edge states at finite temperature. To make our formalism concrete, we apply these concepts to the two-dimensional Haldane model in the presence of thermal dissipation, but our results hold for arbitrary dimensions and density matrices.

  9. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  10. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  11. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; Lpez, O; Prlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  12. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  13. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  14. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  15. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  16. Energy in density gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vranjes, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

  17. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arizona Governors Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013: ? 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered. ? 797 new participants installed a HAN. ? Survey respondents are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components. ? Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program. ? On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly. ? An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  18. Meson phase space density in heavy ion collisions from interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertsch, G.F. (Department of Physics and Institute for Nuclear Theory, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The interferometric analysis of meson correlations provides a measure of the average phase space density of the mesons in the final state. This quantity is a useful indicator of the statistical properties of the system, and it can be extracted with a minimum of model assumptions. Values obtained from recent measurements are consistent with the thermal value, but do not rule out superradiance effects.

  19. Power Supply Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power Purchase Agreements Power Purchase Agreements

  20. PowerSleep: A Smart Power-Saving Scheme with Sleep for Servers under Response Time Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shengquan

    the cost of the power delivery subsystems and the cooling facility, the electricity cost is significant power consumption by 50100% [14]. Given the fact that average server utilization is only 2030PowerSleep: A Smart Power-Saving Scheme with Sleep for Servers under Response Time Constraint

  1. HighLevel Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    ) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er­ ror of 14.4% is obtained for the averageHigh­Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B ? uy ? uks?ahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high­level average power esti­ mation to include the power due

  2. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  3. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  4. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  5. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  6. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  7. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  8. Optimally focused cold atom systems obtained using density-density correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putra, Andika; Campbell, Daniel L.; Price, Ryan M.; Spielman, I. B. [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); De, Subhadeep [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States) [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant absorption imaging is a common technique for detecting the two-dimensional column density of ultracold atom systems. In many cases, the system's thickness along the imaging direction greatly exceeds the imaging system's depth of field, making the identification of the optimally focused configuration difficult. Here we describe a systematic technique for bringing Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and other cold-atom systems into an optimal focus even when the ratio of the thickness to the depth of field is large: a factor of 8 in this demonstration with a BEC. This technique relies on defocus-induced artifacts in the Fourier-transformed density-density correlation function (the power spectral density, PSD). The spatial frequency at which these artifacts first appear in the PSD is maximized on focus; the focusing process therefore both identifies and maximizes the range of spatial frequencies over which the PSD is uncontaminated by finite-thickness effects.

  9. Effect of bias application to plasma density in weakly magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyuk; Lee, Woohyun; Park, Wanjae; Whang, Ki-Woong [Plasma Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, 599 Kwanak-ro, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Independent control of the ion flux and energy can be achieved in a dual frequency inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. Typically, the plasma density is controlled by the high-frequency antenna radio-frequency (RF) power and the ion energy is controlled by the low-frequency bias RF power. Increasing the bias power has been known to cause a decrease in the plasma density in capacitively coupled discharge systems as well as in ICP systems. However, an applied axial magnetic field was found to sustain or increase the plasma density as bias power is increased. Measurements show higher electron temperatures but lower plasma densities are obtained in ordinary ICP systems than in magnetized ICP systems under the same neutral gas pressure and RF power levels. Explanations for the difference in the behavior of plasma density with increasing bias power are given in terms of the difference in the heating mechanism in ordinary unmagnetized and magnetized ICP systems.

  10. Power-laws and Non-Power-laws in Dark Matter Halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Henriksen

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulated dark matter profiles are often modelled as a `NFW' density profile rather than a single power law. Recently, attention has turned to the rather rigorous power-law behaviour exhibited by the `pseudo phase-space density' of the dark matter halo, which is defined dimensionally in terms of the local density and velocity dispersion of the dark matter particles. The non-power-law behaviour of the density profile is generally taken to exclude simple scale-free, in-fall models; however the power-law behaviour of the `pseudo-density' is a counter indication. We argue in this paper that both behaviours may be at least qualitatively understood in terms of a dynamically evolving self-similarity, rather than the form for self-similar infall that is fixed by cosmological initial conditions. The evolution is likely due to collective relaxation such as that provided by the radial-orbit instability on large scales. We deduce, from a distribution function given by first order coarse-graining, both the NFW-type density profile and the power-law pseudo-density profile. The results are not greatly sensitive to variation about 3 in the power of the velocity dispersion used in the definition of the phase space pseudo-density. We suggest that the power 2 may create the more physical quantity, whose deviations from a power-law are a diagnostic of incomplete relaxation.

  11. Error Analysis of Free Probability Approximations to the Density of States of Disordered Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiahao

    Theoretical studies of localization, anomalous diffusion and ergodicity breaking require solving the electronic structure of disordered systems. We use free probability to approximate the ensemble-averaged density of states ...

  12. High Density Single Crystalline GaN Nanodot Arrays Fabricated Using Template-Assisted Selective Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yadong

    High density, uniform GaN nanodot arrays with controllable size have been synthesized by using template-assisted selective growth. The GaN nanodots with average diameter 40nm, 80nm and 120nm were selectively grown by ...

  13. The nature of the optical---radio correlations for powerful radio galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. N. Tadhunter; R. Morganti; A. Robinson; R. Dickson; M. Villar-Martin; R. A. E. Fosbury

    1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of the optical--radio correlations for powerful radio galaxies is investigated using spectroscopic observations of a complete sample of southern 2Jy radio sources. In line with previous work, we find that significant correlations exist between the luminosities of the [OIII]5007, [OII]3727 and Hbeta emission lines and the radio luminosity. However, our observations are not easily reconciled with the idea that these correlations are caused by the increase in the power of the photoionizing quasar as the jet power increases, with average ISM properties not changing appreciably with redshift or radio power: not only do we find that the scatter in the L_[OIII] vs. L_radio correlation is significantly larger than in L_[OII]} vs. L_radio and L_Hbeta vs. L_radio correlations, but the ionization state deduced from the emission lines does not increase with radio power as predicted by the simple, constant ISM, photionization model. We conclude that: (a) there exists a considerable range in the quasar ionizing luminosity at a given redshift; and (b) that the mean density of the emission line clouds is larger in the high redshift/high power radio sources. The latter density enhancement may either be a consequence of the increased importance of jet-cloud interactions or, alternatively, due to a higher pressure in the confining hot ISM, in the high redshift objects. Deep spectra show that many of the sources in our sample are broad line radio galaxies (BLRG). The fact that the BLRG are observed out the redshift limit of the survey, overlapping in redshift with the quasars, argues against the idea that BLRG are simply the low radio power counterparts of high power, high redshift quasars.

  14. Estimating Continental and Terrestrial Precipitation Averages from Raingauge Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willmott, Cort J.; Robeson, Scott M.; Feddema, Johannes J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation, and in areas with s trong precipitation gradients and stat ion-densi ty gradients . 414 C. J. WILLMOTT, S. M. ROBESON AND J. J. FEDDEMA Sampling the LW climatology at the NCAR station locations suggests that many yearly NCAR station densities.... Higher resolution deployments should coincide with high-frequency (in the spatial domain) precipitation variability. Spatial shifts in the precipitation field with time (on seasonal and interannual time-scales, for example) also should be considered...

  15. Distributions of Fourier modes of cosmological density fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Z.; Bardeen, J.M. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the probability distributions of Fourier modes of cosmological density fields using the central limit theorem is it applies to weighted integrals of random fields. It is shown that if the cosmological principle holds in a certain sense, i.e., the Universe approaches homogeneity and isotropy sufficiently rapidly on very large scales, the one-point distribution of each Fourier mode of the density field is Gaussian whether or not the density field itself is Gaussian. Therefore, one-point distributions of the power spectrum obtained from observational data or from simulations are not a good test of whether the density field is Gaussian.

  16. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  17. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  18. A monochromatic x-ray imaging system for characterizing low-density foams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanier, Nicholas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taccetti, Jose M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamilton, Christopher E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In High Energy Density (HED) laser experiments, targets often require small, low-density, foam components. However, their limited size can preclude single component characterization, forcing one to rely solely on less accurate bulk measurements. We have developed a monochromatic imaging a system to characterize both the density and uniformity of single component low-mass foams. This x-ray assembly is capable of determining line-averaged density variations near the 1% level, and provides statistically identical results to those obtained at the Brookhaven's NSLS. This system has the added benefit of providing two-dimensional density data, allowing an assessment of density uniformity.

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power

  20. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  1. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  2. Materials considerations for a high power-density accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelotti, R.A.; Tennant, R.A.; Bultman, N.K.; Uher, J.L.; Brewton, R.J.; Mayer, A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 100-mA 50-MeV H/sup -/ accelerator is being designed at Los Alamos. The accelerating structures will operate at 425-MHz and will consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to 2-MeV and a drift-tube linac (DTL) from 2 to 50-MeV. Design parameters have been specified to match the maximum operating capabilities of the rf system: 2-ms pulse length and 6% duty factor. The accelerating gradient in the DTL will be 4-MV/m; the maximum electric field will be approximately 1.2 times the Kilpatrick limit. These design parameters are substantially more ambitious than those of the accelerating test stand (ATS). That copper will be used on the rf-structure surfaces is not in question. Concern with residual activation and thermal management forces the investigation of materials other than the traditional carbon- and stainless-steel base materials used at Los Alamos.

  3. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  4. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  5. Modeling and fabrication of high power density microscale thermophotovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Ashish A., 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been renewed interest over the past decade or two in the potential of using thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems for direct conversion of thermal energy into electricity. The invention of TPV systems can be traced ...

  6. Cooling of high-power-density computer components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergles A. E.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work carried out during the first two years of a research program sponsored by IBM Corporation. This study has elucidated a number of the heat-transfer characteristics of several fluorochemicals which ...

  7. High Power Lasers... Another approach to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program #12;4 Electricity Generator Reaction chamber The laser fusion energy drive targets Can lead to an attractive electricity generating power plant Developing Laser Fusion Attributes : Beam uniformity, wavelength, cost, scaling to large systems Technologies for rep

  8. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  9. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  10. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  11. Testing of Supercapacitors: Capacitance, Resistance, and Energy Energy and Power Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing of Supercapacitors: Capacitance, Resistance, andenergy density of supercapacitors ? Statements concerningthe power capability of supercapacitors are particularly

  12. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartmentLast TenPrice of Gasolineand Fuel1978-2014

  13. Average End Use Breakdown: Massachusetts General Hospital Gray Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation WorldofAutotune

  14. assisted high power: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    V. Braun , Jiung Cho, James H. Pikul, William P. King storage Secondary batteries High energy density High power density Lithium ion battery 3D battery electrodes a b s t r a c t...

  15. Gluon density in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, A.L. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica][Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica; Ducati, M.B.G. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Levin, E.M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)][Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk we present our detailed study (theory and numbers) on the shadowing corrections to the gluon structure functions for nuclei. Starting from rather controversial information on the nucleon structure function which is originated by the recent HERA data, we develop the Glauber approach for the gluon density in a nucleus based on Mueller formula and estimate the value of the shadowing corrections in this case. Then we calculate the first corrections to the Glauber approach and show that these corrections are big. Based on this practical observation we suggest the new evolution equation which takes into account the shadowing corrections and solve it. We hope to convince you that the new evolution equation gives a good theoretical tool to treat the shadowing corrections for the gluons density in a nucleus and, therefore, it is able to provide the theoretically reliable initial conditions for the time evolution of the nucleus-nucleus cascade. The initial conditions should be fixed both theoretically and phenomenologically before to attack such complicated problems as the mixture of hard and soft processes in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy or the theoretically reliable approach to hadron or/and parton cascades for high energy nucleus-nucleus interaction. 35 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 2005 International Conference on Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing Optimal Power Control for Multiple Access Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Rong-Rong

    Power Control for Multiple Access Channel with Peak and Average Power Constraints Rong-Rong Chen}I@ece.utah.edu Abstract- In this paper, we study optimal power control for multiple access channel with peak and average and the receiver. We characterize the structures of the optimal power control policy and show that the optimal

  17. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal848 Unlimited Release1/2 HR 1.00 74° 73° 72°

  18. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4:Administration Electric

  19. Dominican Republic - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers69 Federal Register /NATIONALDoes1.1.Summary

  20. Fundamental-measure density functional theory study of the crystal-melt interface of the hard sphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Xueyu

    density functional theory. The equilibrium interfacial density profiles and interfacial free energies were of density profile. We found that the average interfacial free energy is about 0.78, which is in reasonable of the crystal-melt interface is the interfacial free energy. Experimentally, this quantity can be extracted from

  1. Solar thermionic power plant (II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant (SEPP) can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a Thermionic Diode Converter constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is found to be 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. 17 refs.

  2. Power Modeling and Thermal Management Techniques for Manycores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Power Modeling and Thermal Management Techniques for Manycores Rajib Nath Computer Science number of cores in manycore archi- tectures, along with technology scaling, results in high power densities and thermal issues on the die. To explore innovative thermal management techniques

  3. Optimization of the axial power shape in pressurized water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melik, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical and numerical methods have been applied to find the optimum axial power profile in a PWR with respect to uranium utilization. The preferred shape was found to have a large central region of uniform power density, ...

  4. Concept of Powerful Multistage Coaxial Cyclotron for Pulsed and Continuous Beam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumanyan, A R; Guiragossian, Z G T; Akopov, N Z

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of large-radius multistage coaxial cyclotrons having separated orbits is described, to generate proton beams of 120-2000 MeV energy at tens of GW pulsed and hundreds of MW in continuous beam power operation. Accelerated beam losses must be less than 0.1 W/m for the intercepted average beam power linear density. The concept is inherently configured to actively compensate the longitudinal and transverse space charge expansion in beam bunches. These are based on (1) actively varying the bunch acceleration equilibrium phase while maintaining isochronism, independently for each cyclotron turns; (2) independently changing the acceleration voltage for each turn together with orbit corrections that preserve isochronism; (3) independently changing the transverse betatron oscillation tune shift, to assure non-resonant operation. Also, (4) sextupole lenses are included to compensate for chromaticity effects. Moreover, the concept is based on optimum uses of practical successful results so far achieved in bea...

  5. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  6. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  7. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, James D. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular from which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 .mu.m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process.

  8. Density constrained TDHF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oberacker, V E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript we provide an outline of the numerical methods used in implementing the density constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) method and provide a few examples of its application to nuclear fusion. In this approach, dynamic microscopic calculations are carried out on a three-dimensional lattice and there are no adjustable parameters, the only input is the Skyrme effective NN interaction. After a review of the DC-TDHF theory and the numerical methods, we present results for heavy-ion potentials $V(R)$, coordinate-dependent mass parameters $M(R)$, and precompound excitation energies $E^{*}(R)$ for a variety of heavy-ion reactions. Using fusion barrier penetrabilities, we calculate total fusion cross sections $\\sigma(E_\\mathrm{c.m.})$ for reactions between both stable and neutron-rich nuclei. We also determine capture cross sections for hot fusion reactions leading to the formation of superheavy elements.

  9. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMay, J.D.

    1991-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process of producing microcellular foam which comprises the steps of: (a) selecting a multifunctional epoxy oligomer resin; (b) mixing said epoxy resin with a non-reactive diluent to form a resin-diluent mixture; (c) forming a diluent containing cross-linked epoxy gel from said resin-diluent mixture; (d) replacing said diluent with a solvent therefore; (e) replacing said solvent with liquid carbon dioxide; and (f) vaporizing off said liquid carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions, whereby a foam having a density in the range of 35-150 mg/cc and cell diameters less than about 1 [mu]m is produced. Also disclosed are the foams produced by the process. 8 figures.

  10. Nuclear Energy Density Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski; J. Mor; W. Nazarewicz; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; M. V. Stoitsov; S. Wild

    2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set UNEDFpre results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

  11. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Curro, John G. (Placitas, NM); Quintana, Carlos A. (Albuquerque, NM); Russick, Edward M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaw, Montgomery T. (Mansfield Center, CT)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the resultant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Means for subjecting such a solvent to one-dimensional cooling are also provided. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 .mu.m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  12. Low density microcellular foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Curro, J.G.; Quintana, C.A.; Russick, E.M.; Shaw, M.T.

    1985-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Low density, microporous polymer foams are provided by a process which comprises forming a solution of polymer and a suitable solvent followed by rapid cooling of the solution to form a phase-separated system and freeze the phase-separated system. The phase-separated system comprises a polymer phase and a solvent phase, each of which is substantially continuous within the other. The morphology of the polymer phase prior to and subsequent to freezing determine the morphology of the resultant foam. Both isotropic and anisotropic foams can be produced. If isotropic foams are produced, the polymer and solvent are tailored such that the solution spontaneously phase-separates prior to the point at which any component freezes. The morphology of the resultant polymer phase determines the morphology of the reusltant foam and the morphology of the polymer phase is retained by cooling the system at a rate sufficient to freeze one or both components of the system before a change in morphology can occur. Anisotropic foams are produced by forming a solution of polymer and solvent that will not phase separate prior to freezing of one or both components of the solution. In such a process, the solvent typically freezes before phase separation occurs. The morphology of the resultant frozen two-phase system determines the morphology of the resultant foam. The process involves subjecting the solution to essentially one-dimensional cooling. Foams having a density of less than 0.1 g/cc and a uniform cell size of less than 10 ..mu..m and a volume such that the foams have a length greater than 1 cm are provided.

  13. Density matrix of black hole radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasma Alberte; Ram Brustein; Andrei Khmelnitsky; A. J. M. Medved

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hawking's model of black hole evaporation is not unitary and leads to a mixed density matrix for the emitted radiation, while the Page model describes a unitary evaporation process in which the density matrix evolves from an almost thermal state to a pure state. We compare a recently proposed model of semiclassical black hole evaporation to the two established models. In particular, we study the density matrix of the outgoing radiation and determine how the magnitude of the off-diagonal corrections differs for the three frameworks. For Hawking's model, we find power-law corrections to the two-point functions that induce exponentially suppressed corrections to the off-diagonal elements of the full density matrix. This verifies that the Hawking result is correct to all orders in perturbation theory and also allows one to express the full density matrix in terms of the single-particle density matrix. We then consider the semiclassical theory for which the corrections, being non-perturbative from an effective field-theory perspective, are much less suppressed and grow monotonically in time. In this case, the R\\'enyi entropy for the outgoing radiation is shown to grow linearly at early times; but this growth slows down and the entropy eventually starts to decrease at the Page time. In addition to comparing models, we emphasize the distinction between the state of the radiation emitted from a black hole, which is highly quantum, and that of the radiation emitted from a typical classical black body at the same temperature.

  14. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, B.L.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver > 4kW/cm{sup 2} of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources. 13 figs.

  15. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freitas, Barry L. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  16. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  17. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  18. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  19. An Efficient Supply Modulator for Linear Wideband RF Power Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turkson, Richard

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    by ???? ,?? = ???(???? ) +? ?? . ? ??? ????? (2.3) where Pdc(Pout) is the dc power used at Pout and p Pdc is the probability of consuming Power, Pdc, when transmitting Pout. If the dc power consumed by the PA is constant (i.e. independent of the power transmitted) then, Pdc Pout =Pdc... operating conditions then p Pdc =p(Pout) and the average dc power dissipated by the PA becomes ???? ,?? = ???(???? ) +? ?? . ? ???? ????? (2.5) This is what we seek...

  20. Nuclear Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vilhena and Bardo E.J. Bodmann Carbon-#1;? in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environment of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant: Sources of Production, Releases and Dose Estimates #3;?? Jonas Mazeika Impact of radionuclide discharges from Temel?n Nuclear Power... (chapter 5), ? Instrumentation and control (chapter 6), ? Diagnostics (chapter 7), ? Safety evaluation methods (chapters 6, 8, 9 and 10), ? Environment and nuclear power plants (chapters 11 - 15), ? Human factors (chapter 16), ? Software development...

  1. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  2. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  3. Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 Plasma Injector 10 people $3M 1 year #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 8 Density people $3.5M 14 months #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 11 Plasma Compression ExperimentsFusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011

  4. Paper area density measurement from forward transmitted scattered light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method whereby the average paper fiber area density (weight per unit area) can be directly calculated from the intensity of transmitted, scattered light at two different wavelengths, one being a non-absorpted wavelength. Also, the method makes it possible to derive the water percentage per fiber area density from a two-wavelength measurement. In the optical measuring technique optical transmitted intensity, for example, at 2.1 microns cellulose absorption line is measured and compared with another scattered, optical transmitted intensity reference in the nearby spectrum region, such as 1.68 microns, where there is no absorption. From the ratio of these two intensities, one can calculate the scattering absorption coefficient at 2.1 microns. This absorption coefficient at this wavelength is, then, experimentally correlated to the paper fiber area density. The water percentage per fiber area density can be derived from this two-wavelength measurement approach.

  5. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Yu, Dae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kihong [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  6. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  7. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  8. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohn, Andrew J., E-mail: drewlohn@gmail.com; Mickel, Patrick R., E-mail: prmicke@sandia.gov; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  9. Electronic temperatures, densities, and plasma x-ray emission of a 14.5 GHz electron-cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gumberidze, A.; Szabo, C. I.; Indelicato, P.; Isac, J.-M.; Le Bigot, E.-O. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6 Case 74, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Trassinelli, M.; Adrouche, N.; Haranger, F.; Lamour, E.; Merot, J.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Vernhet, D. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a systematic study of the bremsstrahlung emission from the electrons in the plasma of a commercial 14.5 GHz electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. The electronic spectral temperature and the product of ionic and electronic densities of the plasma are measured by analyzing the bremsstrahlung spectra recorded for several rare gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) as a function of the injected power. Within our uncertainty, we find an average temperature of {approx_equal}48 keV above 100 W, with a weak dependency on the injected power and gas composition. Charge state distributions of extracted ion beams have been determined as well, providing a way to disentangle the ionic density from the electronic density. Moreover x-ray emission from highly charged argon ions in the plasma has been observed with a high-resolution mosaic-crystal spectrometer, demonstrating the feasibility for high-precision measurements of transition energies of highly charged ions, in particular, of the magnetic dipole (M1) transition of He-like of argon ions.

  10. RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANNING FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN CALIFORNIA. VOLUME 4 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yen, W.W.S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DENSITIES AROUND CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT. le Iil _. .AROUND CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Miles San OnofreIN CALIFORNIA The California Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

  11. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  12. Rapid model building of ?-sheets in electron-density maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for rapid model building of ?-sheets at moderate resolution is presented. A method for rapidly building ?-sheets into electron-density maps is presented. ?-Strands are identified as tubes of high density adjacent to and nearly parallel to other tubes of density. The alignment and direction of each strand are identified from the pattern of high density corresponding to carbonyl and C{sup ?} atoms along the strand averaged over all repeats present in the strand. The ?-strands obtained are then assembled into a single atomic model of the ?-sheet regions. The method was tested on a set of 42 experimental electron-density maps at resolutions ranging from 1.5 to 3.8 . The ?-sheet regions were nearly completely built in all but two cases, the exceptions being one structure at 2.5 resolution in which a third of the residues in ?-sheets were built and a structure at 3.8 in which under 10% were built. The overall average r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms in the residues built using this method compared with refined models of the structures was 1.5 .

  13. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  14. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Chao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  15. Ternary liquid mixture viscosities and densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, I.C.; Rowley, R.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid mixture viscosities and densities have been measured at 298.15 K and ambient pressure for 20 ternary systems. Twelve ternary compositions, encompassing the entire composition range, have been chosen for each system in an effort to test a newly proposed predictive equation based on local compositions. Viscosities calculated by using the local composition model agreed with the experimental data within an average absolute deviation of 6.4%. No adjustable parameters were used and only binary interactions in the form of NRTL constants were input. The results of these studies indicate that the local composition model predictions are generally as good for multicomponent systems as they are for the corresponding binaries. 24 references, 3 tables.

  16. Classical Phase Space Density for the Relativistic Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanics is considered to arise from an underlying classical structure (``hidden variable theory'', ``sub-quantum mechanics''), where quantum fluctuations follow from a physical noise mechanism. The stability of the hydrogen ground state can then arise from a balance between Lorentz damping and energy absorption from the noise. Since the damping is weak, the ground state phase space density should predominantly be a function of the conserved quantities, energy and angular momentum. A candidate for this phase space density is constructed for ground state of the relativistic hydrogen problem of a spinless particle. The first excited states and their spherical harmonics are also considered in this framework. The analytic expression of the ground state energy can be reproduced, provided averages of certain products are replaced by products of averages. This analysis puts forward that quantum mechanics may arise from an underlying classical level as a slow variable theory, where each new quantum operator relates to a new, well separated time interval.

  17. Modeling of free electronic state density in hydrogenic plasmas based on nearest neighbor approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishikawa, Takeshi, E-mail: nishikawa.takeshi@okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most conventional atomic models in a plasma do not treat the effect of the plasma on the free-electron state density. Using a nearest neighbor approximation, the state densities in hydrogenic plasmas for both bound and free electrons were evaluated and the effect of the plasma on the atomic model (especially for the state density of the free electron) was studied. The model evaluates the electron-state densities using the potential distribution formed by the superposition of the Coulomb potentials of two ions. The potential from one ion perturbs the electronic state density on the other. Using this new model, one can evaluate the free-state density without making any ad-hoc assumptions. The resulting contours of the average ionization degree, given as a function of the plasma temperature and density, are shifted slightly to lower temperatures because of the effect of the increasing free-state density.

  18. Strathclyde powerS ahead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    Strathclyde powerS ahead the future of renewable energy SHARING AND ENHANCING RESEARCH Discover the vision of Principal Professor Jim McDonald THE FUTURE OF ENERGY Strathclyde pioneers renewableEdicinE Snapshot the reSearcher Following a decade of environmental research in her native egypt, nabila saleem

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. Heuser Nuclear,NATIONALof

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. Heuser Nuclear,NATIONALof1,

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. Heuser Nuclear,NATIONALof1,

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. Heuser

  3. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. HeuserJohn Cymbalsky Program

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. HeuserJohn Cymbalsky

  5. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. HeuserJohn5/22/2014 NEW

  6. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. HeuserJohn5/22/2014

  7. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J. HeuserJohn5/22/2014Running

  8. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.Literacy Town Hall What? So

  9. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.Literacy Townfor FY 2016

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.Literacy TownforElectricity

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.Literacy

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.LiteracyMaking the

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrent J.LiteracyMaking theStrategy

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWei Feng, weifeng@lbl.govENERGY:

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWei Feng,

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWei Feng,Photo-Simulated

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWei

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWeiFrequency-independent beam

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWeiFrequency-independent

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWeiFrequency-independentVALUE OF

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60Power PurchaseBrentWeiFrequency-independentVALUE

  2. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  3. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  4. Rapid model building of ?-helices in electron-density maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for rapid model building of ?-helices at moderate resolution is presented. A method for the identification of ?-helices in electron-density maps at low resolution followed by interpretation at moderate to high resolution is presented. Rapid identification is achieved at low resolution, where ?-helices appear as tubes of density. The positioning and direction of the ?-helices is obtained at moderate to high resolution, where the positions of side chains can be seen. The method was tested on a set of 42 experimental electron-density maps at resolutions ranging from 1.5 to 3.8 . An average of 63% of the ?-helical residues in these proteins were built and an average of 76% of the residues built matched helical residues in the refined models of the proteins. The overall average r.m.s.d. between main-chain atoms in the modeled ?-helices and the nearest atom with the same name in the refined models of the proteins was 1.3 .

  5. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham density functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large non-metallic materials and metals at high temperatures.

  6. Nov/15/2006 Power Alternatives for the OTG Power Alternatives for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    ) is measured in kg/m³, R (rotor radius) is in m, and v (wind speed) is in m/s. #12;Nov/15/2006 Power.5)2004.4 (9.8)100 00001 Speed (b) m/s (mph) Wind Power Density (W/m2) Speed (b) m/s (mph) Wind Power Density.2 ft.) · Start-up Wind Speed: 3m/s (6.7 mph) · Rated Wind Speed: 11m/s (24.6 mph) · Rated Power: 1000

  7. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  8. Graphite Fiber Brush Anodes for Increased Power Production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to lack of a need to aerate the water and the high power densities achieved in these systems (5, but power densities with the cathode immersed in water have been low, ranging from maximum values of 45 m, where the cathode is exposed to air on one side and water on the other, appear more practical due

  9. Evaluation of Tweedie exponential dispersion model densities by Fourier inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    and Computing University of Southern Queensland Toowoomba Queensland 4350 Australia Gordon K. Smyth Bioinformatics Division Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Melbourne, Vic 3050, Australia August with power variance functions V () = p for p (0, 1). These distri- butions do not generally have density

  10. MARCH 6, 2007 1 Packet-Based Power Allocation for Forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    the time-averaged utility rate, subject to a constraint on the probability that the total power exceeds examples illustrate the achievable utility rate and power allocation as a function of the packet arrival

  11. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  12. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  13. Cleco Power- Power Miser New Home Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisiana's Cleco Power offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible customers. Cleco Power offers a rate discount for residential customers building homes that meet the Power Miser Program...

  14. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  15. Detecting Density Variations and Nanovoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Longstreth-Spoor, L. [Washington University, St. Louis; Kelton, K. F. [Washington University, St. Louis

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of simulated and experimental data has been used to investigate the size range of nanovoids that can be detected in atom probe tomography data. Simulated atom probe tomography data have revealed that nanovoids as small as 1 nm in diameter can be detected in atom probe tomography data with the use of iso-density surfaces. Iso-density surfaces may be used to quantify the size, morphology and number density of nanovoids and other variations in density in atom probe tomography data. Experimental data from an aluminum-yttrium-iron metallic glass ribbon have revealed the effectiveness of this approach. Combining iso-density surfaces with atom maps also permits the segregation of solute to the nanovoids to be investigated. Field ion microscopy and thin section atom maps have also been used to detect pores and larger voids.

  16. Observation of low magnetic field density peaks in helicon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barada, Kshitish K.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Saxena, Y. C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single density peak has been commonly observed in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges. In this paper, we report the observations of multiple density peaks in low magnetic field (<100 G) helicon discharges produced in the linear helicon plasma device [Barada et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 063501 (2012)]. Experiments are carried out using argon gas with m = +1 right helical antenna operating at 13.56 MHz by varying the magnetic field from 0 G to 100 G. The plasma density varies with varying the magnetic field at constant input power and gas pressure and reaches to its peak value at a magnetic field value of {approx}25 G. Another peak of smaller magnitude in density has been observed near 50 G. Measurement of amplitude and phase of the axial component of the wave using magnetic probes for two magnetic field values corresponding to the observed density peaks indicated the existence of radial modes. Measured parallel wave number together with the estimated perpendicular wave number suggests oblique mode propagation of helicon waves along the resonance cone boundary for these magnetic field values. Further, the observations of larger floating potential fluctuations measured with Langmuir probes at those magnetic field values indicate that near resonance cone boundary; these electrostatic fluctuations take energy from helicon wave and dump power to the plasma causing density peaks.

  17. POWER CHARACTERISTICS OF INDUSTRIAL AIR COMPRESSORS Chris Schmidt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    and with different loads are discussed as case studies. The case studies illustrate how to identify the type, and compressed air leaks from the power signatures. Average operating efficiencies for the case studies

  18. Hybrid power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  19. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtin, Benjamin M., E-mail: bcurtin@ece.ucsb.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bowers, John E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric properties of gate-all-around silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are calculated to determine the potential for significant power factor enhancement. The Boltzmann transport equation and relaxation time approximation are employed to develop an electron transport model used to determine the field-effect mobility, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor for Si NWs with cross-sectional areas between 4?nm??4?nm and 12?nm??12?nm and a range of gate biases. Electrical conductivity for the gated Si NWs was much higher than that of doped Si due to the lack of ionized impurities and correspondingly greater carrier mobility. A significant increase in electrical conductivity with decreasing Si NW cross-sectional area was also observed due to a large increase in the average carrier density. For all Si NWs, the Seebeck coefficient was lower than that of doped bulk Si due to the different energy dependence between ionized impurity and phonon-mediated scattering processes. This decrease was also confirmed with Seebeck coefficient measurements of multigated Si NWs and n-type Si thin-films. Quantum confinement was also found to increase the Seebeck coefficient for <8?nm??8?nm Si NWs and also at high charge densities. A maximum power factor of 6.8??10{sup ?3}?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} was calculated for the 6?nm??6?nm Si NWs with typical Si/SiO{sub 2} interface roughness, which is 23??those obtained experimentally for bulk Si. The power factor was also found to greatly depend on surface roughness, with a root-mean-square roughness of <0.8?nm necessary for power factor enhancement. An increase in ZT may also be possible if a low thermal conductivity can be obtained with minimal surface roughness.

  20. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  1. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  2. Phenomenological Relativistic Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalazissis, G. A.; Kartzikos, S. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Niksic, T.; Paar, N.; Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Ring, P. [Physics Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The framework of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals is applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of beta-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure is explored using the fully consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation based on the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model. Recent applications of energy density functionals with explicit density dependence of the meson-nucleon couplings are presented.

  3. Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch,Jürgen

    Power Factor Compensation (PFC) Power Factor Compensation The power factor (PF) is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power of a system. If the current and voltage are periodic with period , and [ ), then the active power is defined by ( ) ( ) (their inner product

  4. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  5. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  6. Controlling Peak Power During Scan Testing Ranganathan Sankaralingam and Nur A. Touba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Touba, Nur A.

    Controlling Peak Power During Scan Testing Ranganathan Sankaralingam and Nur A. Touba Computer effective in controlling peak power. 1. Introduction The peak power drawn in a single clock cycle during. The average power dissipation during scan testing can be controlled by reducing the scan clock frequency

  7. Global Optimal Routing, Scheduling and Power Control for Multi-hop Wireless Networks with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabatabaee, Vahid

    Global Optimal Routing, Scheduling and Power Control for Multi-hop Wireless Networks scheduling and power control that minimizes the total average transmission power is found. We formulate the optimal routing scheduling and power control. Simulation results show that this methodology is more

  8. Plasma physics and related challenges of millimeter-wave-to-terahertz and high power microwave generationa...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James E.

    confronting "classic" high power microwave HPM generators including long-life bright electron beam sources, high power mmw-to-THz sources are compared and contrasted to those of HPM generation, and future assume long pulse or average power, with exceptions be- tween 1 and 10 GHz for high power microwave HPM

  9. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial Valerie J. Watson, Bruce E. Logan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the power density curve, producing lower power than previously measured for the lower current densities [7Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells Valerie 2010 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Power overshoot Polarization Polarization curves from microbial fuel

  10. Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

    The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

  11. Average Number of Recirculations in SDL Constructions of Optical Priority Queues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    such as power loss when the optical packet travels through the fiber delay lines, crosstalk due to power leakage to severe power loss and/or serious noise accumulation even if it appears at the right place

  12. Characterization of wind power resource in the United States*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of wind power resource in the United States* U. Bhaskar Gunturu and C. Adam Chemistry and Physics Characterization of wind power resource in the United States U. B. Gunturu and C. A, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD) estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar

  13. Full-System Power Analysis and Modeling for Server Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozyrakis, Christos

    Full-System Power Analysis and Modeling for Server Environments Dimitris Economou, Suzanne Rivoire-density computer systems, have created a growing demand for better power management in server environments. Despite consumption trends and developing simple yet accurate models to predict full-system power. We study

  14. Maximum-likelihood density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Structural Biology Group, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A likelihood-based density modification approach is developed that can incorporate expected electron-density information from a wide variety of sources. A likelihood-based approach to density modification is developed that can be applied to a wide variety of cases where some information about the electron density at various points in the unit cell is available. The key to the approach consists of developing likelihood functions that represent the probability that a particular value of electron density is consistent with prior expectations for the electron density at that point in the unit cell. These likelihood functions are then combined with likelihood functions based on experimental observations and with others containing any prior knowledge about structure factors to form a combined likelihood function for each structure factor. A simple and general approach to maximizing the combined likelihood function is developed. It is found that this likelihood-based approach yields greater phase improvement in model and real test cases than either conventional solvent flattening and histogram matching or a recent reciprocal-space solvent-flattening procedure [Terwilliger (1999 ?), Acta Cryst. D55, 18631871].

  15. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION SYSTEMS, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2004 A Framework for Energy and Transient Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    A Framework for Energy and Transient Power Reduction during Behavioral Synthesis Saraju P. Mohanty, Student applications, the mini- mization of energy, average power, peak power, and peak power differential are equally reduction of the energy and transient power during behavioral synthesis. A new metric called "Cycle Power

  16. PARABOLIC TROUGH POWER FOR THE CALIFORNIA COMPETITIVE MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California is about to complete its third year of a deregulated competitive wholesale power market. During the first two years of the competitive market, power prices averaged between 2 and 3/kWh. During 2000, electric supply to California was constrained a number of times causing maximum the price of power to peak over 100/kWh, and the average price of power to quadruple. The power output from solar plants tends to coincide with the high power demand periods in California. This fact had been demonstrated by the solar electric generating stations (SEGS) located in the California Mojave Desert, which operate under specific contracts signed in the 1980s and early 1990s with the local utility. This paper, on the other hand, examines how new parabolic trough solar plants would have faired on the wholesale competitive power market during 1999 and 2000.

  17. Advance Three Phase Power Factor Correction Schemes for Utility Interface of Power Electronic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albader, Mesaad

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of each rectifier employs harmonic injection technique to reduce the low order harmonics. And, the DC output voltage is varied with the load power such that the operation is at the boundary between CCM and DCM to achieve maximum power density tracking...

  18. Power Electronics Technology October 2004 www.powerelectronics.com48 Power Converters for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    Fuel Cells Consideration of power conversion requirements during fuel cell design enables optimization of the energy density, power, size and cost for the complete micro fuel cell system. By Jonathan Systems,Champaign,Ill. M icro fuel cells have made tremendous strides in the past few years. New ma

  19. Density of bunches of native bluebunch wheatgrass and alien crested wheatgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickard, W.H.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The density of bunches of bluebunch wheatgrass in a natural undisturbed stand averaged 3.28 per m/sup 2/ as compared to 2.96 per m/sup 2/ for a nearby stand of crested wheatgrass that was planted 30 years ago. Bunch density was similar in both stands indicating that spacing is a response to an environment deficient in soil water. Bunches of crested wheatgrass on the average weighed 3.5 times more than bunches of bluebunch wheatgrass and they also produced a greater weight of seedheads.

  20. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  2. CSEM WP 132 MARKET POWER IN CALIFORNIA'S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    RFG) gasoline have again exceeded U.S. average prices by much more than the difference in production costs.........................................................................................................28 #12;1 1. Introduction In March 2004, California gasoline prices once again increased rapidlyCSEM WP 132 MARKET POWER IN CALIFORNIA'S GASOLINE MARKET Severin Borenstein, James Bushnell

  3. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AC power that you get from your electric company into the DC power consumed by most electronics, including your computer. We expect our power supplies to be safe, reliable, and...

  4. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind...

  5. Tidal power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, T.J. (Glasgow Univ., Scotland (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the physics of tidal power considering gravitational effects of moon and sun; semidiurnal, diurnal, and mixed tides; and major periodic components that affect the tidal range. Shelving, funneling, reflection, and resonance phenomena that have a significant effect on tidal range are also discussed. The paper then examines tidal energy resource for principal developments estimated from parametric modeling in Europe and worldwide. Basic parameters that govern the design of tidal power schemes in terms of mean tidal range and surface area of the enclosed basin are identified. While energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, requisite sluicing are is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. Sites with large tidal amplitudes are therefore best suited for tidal power developments, whereas sites with low tidal amplitudes have sluicing that may be prohibitive. It is shown that 48% of the European tidal resource is in the United Kingdom, 42% in France and 8% in Ireland, other countries having negligible potential. Worldwide tidal resource is identified. Tidal barrage design and construction using caissons is examined, as are alternative operating modes (single-action generation, outflow generation, flood generation, two-way generation, twin basin generation, pumping, etc), development trends and possibilities, generation cost at the barrage boundary, sensitivity to discount rates, general economics, and markets. Environmental effects, and institutional constraints to the development of tidal barrage schemes are also discussed.

  6. Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegley, H.L.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.

  7. Gas Density and the Volume Schmidt Law for Spiral Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. V. Abramova; A. V. Zasov

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thickness of the equilibrium isothermal gaseous layers and their volume densities \\rho_{gas}(R) in the disc midplane are calculated for 7 spiral galaxies (including our Galaxy) in the frame of self-consistent axisymmetric model. Local velocity dispersions of stellar discs were assumed to be close to marginal values necessary for the discs to be in a stable equilibrium state. Under this condition the stellar discs of at least 5 of 7 galaxies reveal a flaring. Their volume densities decrease with R faster than \\rho_{gas}, and, as a result, the gas dominates by the density at the disc periphery. Comparison of the azimuthally averaged star formation rate SFR with the gas density shows that there is no universal Schmidt law SFR \\rho_{gas}^n, common to all galaxies. Nevertheless, SFR in different galaxies reveals better correlation with the volume gas density than with the column one. Parameter n in the Schmidt law SFR \\rho_{gas}^n, formally calculated by the least square method, lies within 0.8-2.4 range and it's mean value is close to 1.5. Values of n calculated for molecular gas only are characterized by large dispersion, but their mean value is close to 1. Hence the smaller \\rho_{gas} the less is a fraction of gas actively taking part in the process of star formation.

  8. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dvid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  10. A study of the troxler nuclear soil density and moisture gauges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedenwald, Robert Lane

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Be 60 source was used in moisture determinations and a Co source in density measurements. Average deviations of 0. 8 pounds of water per cubic foot of soil were reported for moisture measurements. Density measurements varied by 3 pounds per cubic... foot. It was found that moisture readings may be affected by chemically bound water but for mineral soils, soil type generally has little effect on the calibration of these instruments. Goldberg et al (15) in 1955 constructed a sensitive, r liable...

  11. Wind power and Wind power and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind power and the CDM #12; Wind power and the CDM Emerging practices in developing wind power 2005 Jyoti P. Painuly, Niels-Erik Clausen, Jrgen Fenhann, Sami Kamel and Romeo Pacudan #12; WIND POWER AND THE CDM Emerging practices in developing wind power projects for the Clean Development Mechanism Energy

  12. Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

  13. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers Rahul Urgaonkar, Bhuvan Urgaonkar of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This rep- resents a deviation from the usual average electric utility bill in a data center. Us- ing the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop

  14. Unraveling resistive versus collisional contributions to relativistic electron beam stopping power in cold-solid and in warm-dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vauzour, B. [CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Laboratoire d'Optique Applique, ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Debayle, A. [ETSI Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) [ETSI Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Vaisseau, X.; Hulin, S.; Nicola, Ph.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; D'Humires, E.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Santos, J. J., E-mail: santos.joao@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Baton, S. D.; Yahia, V. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Batani, D. [CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France) [CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), Univ. Bordeaux, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy); Honrubia, J. J. [ETSI Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)] [ETSI Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Beg, F. N.; Chawla, S.; Jarrot, L. C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Benocci, R.; Volpe, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy); and others

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results on laser-driven relativistic electron beam propagation through aluminum samples, which are either solid and cold or compressed and heated by laser-induced shock. A full numerical description of fast electron generation and transport is found to reproduce the experimental absolute K{sub ?} yield and spot size measurements for varying target thicknesses, and to sequentially quantify the collisional and resistive electron stopping powers. The results demonstrate that both stopping mechanisms are enhanced in compressed Al samples and are attributed to the increase in the medium density and resistivity, respectively. For the achieved time- and space-averaged electronic current density, ?j{sub h}??810{sup 10}?A/cm{sup 2} in the samples, the collisional and resistive stopping powers in warm and compressed Al are estimated to be 1.5?keV/?m and 0.8?keV/?m, respectively. By contrast, for cold and solid Al, the corresponding estimated values are 1.1?keV/?m and 0.6?keV/?m. Prospective numerical simulations involving higher j{sub h} show that the resistive stopping power can reach the same level as the collisional one. In addition to the effects of compression, the effect of the transient behavior of the resistivity of Al during relativistic electron beam transport becomes progressively more dominant, and for a significantly high current density, j{sub h}?10{sup 12}?A/cm{sup 2}, cancels the difference in the electron resistive stopping power (or the total stopping power in units of areal density) between solid and compressed samples. Analytical calculations extend the analysis up to j{sub h}=10{sup 14}?A/cm{sup 2} (representative of the full-scale fast ignition scenario of inertial confinement fusion), where a very rapid transition to the Spitzer resistivity regime saturates the resistive stopping power, averaged over the electron beam duration, to values of ?1?keV/?m.

  15. Intercrystalline density on nanocrystalline nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haasz, T.R.; Aust, K.T. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science; Palumbo, G. [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); El-Sherik, A.M.; Erb, U. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering] [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most methods currently available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials result in considerable residual porosity. Studies concerned with the novel structures and properties of these materials are thus compromised by the intrinsically high levels of porosity. As recently shown by Kristic et al., porosity can have a significant effect on fundamental materials properties such as Young`s modulus. One of the most promising techniques for the production of fully dense nanocrystalline materials is electrodeposition. In the present work, the residual porosity and density of nanostructured nickel produced by the electrodeposition method is assessed and discussed in light of the intrinsic intercrystalline density of nickel.

  16. Power Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, F.

    , will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation... will be discussed in detail. Each term in the equation will be considered in English units. Secondly, the use of Mollier diagrams to estimate the enthalphy change between the initial and final conditions will be considered. The last method, specific to steam...

  17. Yakama Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhatY-12 recognized for ...BER/NERSCYakama Power May

  18. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFunding Opportunity fromFusion Links Fusion

  19. Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin [University of Lbeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lbeck (Germany); University of Lbeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lbeck (Germany); Hilgenfeld, Rolf, E-mail: hilgenfeld@biochem.uni-luebeck.de [University of Lbeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lbeck (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, Peoples Republic of (China); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); University of Lbeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lbeck (Germany)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ?), Acta Cryst. D61, 899902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography.

  20. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John (Livermore, CA); Collins, Leland F. (Pleasanton, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA); Micali, James V. (Dublin, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.