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1

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

time than constructing a feasible trajectory. We demonstrate our methods on simulations of autonomous, vehicles, and other cyberphysical systems increases, there is a need for expressive task with respect to some cost function, e.g., time or fuel consumption. Since temporal logic specifications include

Murray, Richard M.

4

Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand Barrels perResidential EnergyG (2005)8 Levelized Costs AEO

6

Estimating the Economic Cost of Sea-Level Rise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change,

Sugiyama, Masahiro.

7

Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal for Electricity, under the Mexican scenario. Javier C. Palacios, Gustavo Alonso, Ramn Ramrez, Armando Gmez, Javier Ortiz, Luis C....

8

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (Thousands Dollars)Addendum

9

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (Thousands

10

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (ThousandsAbout the Oil and

11

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue (ThousandsAbout the Oil

12

E-Print Network 3.0 - average system cost Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Berkeley National Laboratory, High Redshift Supernova Search Collection: Physics ; Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants 3 Project Cost Management King Fahd University...

13

Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability.

Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) In the case of a classical linear sea-level rise of one meter per century, the use of DIVA generally decreases the protection fraction of the coastline, and results in a smaller protection cost because of high ...

Sugiyama, Masahiro, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS Galenthe incremental cost of renewables portfolio standards (RPS)Washington DC have adopted renewables portfolio standards (

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Analyzing the level of service and cost trade-offs in cold chain transportation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis discusses the tradeoff between transportation cost and the level of service in cold chain transportation. Its purpose is to find the relationship between transportation cost and the level of service in cold ...

Liu, Saiqi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Average wage level as a new port performance indicator: A method and illustration of U.S. port counties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Average wage level as a new port performance indicator: A method and illustration of U.S. port Port-related impacts are often presented in terms of quantity, e.g. employment generated in the port, it is assumed people employed in the port would not be employed elsewhere if there was no employment in the port

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

19

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise Masahiro Sugiyama  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise by Masahiro Sugiyama Bachelor of Science in Earth To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change, the thesis generalizes the sea-level rise cost function originally proposed by Fankhauser, and applies

20

Cost uncertainty for different levels of technology maturity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is difficult at best to apply a single methodology for estimating cost uncertainties related to technologies of differing maturity. While highly mature technologies may have significant performance and manufacturing cost data available, less well developed technologies may be defined in only conceptual terms. Regardless of the degree of technical maturity, often a cost estimate relating to application of the technology may be required to justify continued funding for development. Yet, a cost estimate without its associated uncertainty lacks the information required to assess the economic risk. For this reason, it is important for the developer to provide some type of uncertainty along with a cost estimate. This study demonstrates how different methodologies for estimating uncertainties can be applied to cost estimates for technologies of different maturities. For a less well developed technology an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate can be based on a sensitivity analysis; whereas, an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate for a well developed technology can be based on an error propagation technique from classical statistics. It was decided to demonstrate these uncertainty estimation techniques with (1) an investigation of the additional cost of remediation due to beyond baseline, nearly complete, waste heel retrieval from underground storage tanks (USTs) at Hanford; and (2) the cost related to the use of crystalline silico-titanate (CST) rather than the baseline CS100 ion exchange resin for cesium separation from UST waste at Hanford.

DeMuth, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Franklin, A.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied...

Ackley, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity criteria, is described in Shonder and Florita (2003) and Shonder and Hughes (2005). To address the first objective of the Level 2 analysis, we first assembled all the necessary information, and then repeated the ESCOs' calculations of reported annual cost savings. Only minor errors were encountered, the most common being the use of incorrect escalation rates to calculate utility prices or O&M savings. Altogether, our corrected calculations of the ESCO's reported cost savings were within 0.6% of the ESCOs' reported cost savings, and errors found were as likely to favor the government as they were the ESCO. To address the second objective, we gathered data on utility use and cost from central databases maintained by the Department of Defense and the General Services Administration, and directly from some of the sites, to determine the prices of natural gas and electricity actually paid at the sites during the periods addressed by the annual reports. We used these data to compare the actual utility costs at the sites to the contract utility prices. For natural gas, as expected, we found that prices had risen much faster than had been anticipated in the contracts. In 17 of the 18 projects for which the comparison was possible, contract gas prices were found to be lower than the average actual prices being paid. We conclude that overall in the program, the estimates of gas prices and gas price escalation rates used in the Super ESPC projects have been conservative. For electricity, it was possible to compare contract prices with the actual (estimated) marginal prices of electricity in 20 projects. In 14 of these projects, the overall contract electricity price was found to be lower than the marginal price of electricity paid to the serving utility. Thus it appears that conservative estimates of electricity prices and escalation rates have been used in the program as well. Finally we calculated the value of the reported energy savings using the prices of utilities actually paid by the sites instead of the contract prices. In 16 of the 22 projects (

Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise Jochen Hinkela,1st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range- ment and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four

Marzeion, Ben

24

Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

26

Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Electrical energy can be generated from renewable resources the potential to meet the worldwide demand of electricity and they contribute to the total generation

Suo, Zhigang

28

Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project`s environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Nuclear Fuel Recycling - the Value of the Separated Transuranics and the Levelized Cost of Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for three different fuel cycles: a Once-Through Cycle, in which the spent fuel is sent for disposal after one use in a reactor, a Twice-Through Cycle, in which the spent ...

Parsons, John E.

33

Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases.

Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G. [Waste Management Group, Inc., Peekskill, NY (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Domian, H.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States)] [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Madson, A.A. [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)] [Kaiser Engineers California Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Effects of pelleting, dietary protein level and unidentified factors on feed cost and the performance of egg type layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS ON FEED COST AND THE PERFORMANCE OF EGG TYPE LAYERS A Thesis by Hector Reruns]eewa Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science August 1961 Ma)or Sub)ect - Poultry Science EPPECTS OP PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND DNIDENTIPTED FACTORS ON PEED COST AND THE PERFORNANCE OP BIN' TTPE LAYERS A...

Karunajeewa, Hector

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar TechnologiesRPS costs, per unit of renewable energy generation, rangedFlores-Espino National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

Barbose, Galen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Report on waste burial charges. Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at low-level waste burial facilities, Revision 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fourth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991 and 1993, superseding the values given in the May 1993 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1994 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Report on waste burial charges: Escalation of decommissioning waste disposal costs at Low-Level Waste Burial facilities. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the requirements placed upon nuclear power reactor licensees by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is for the licensees to periodically adjust the estimate of the cost of decommissioning their plants, in dollars of the current year, as part of the process to provide reasonable assurance that adequate funds for decommissioning will be available when needed. This report, which is scheduled to be revised periodically, contains the development of a formula for escalating decommissioning cost estimates that is acceptable to the NRC. The sources of information to be used in the escalation formula are identified, and the values developed for the escalation of radioactive waste burial costs, by site and by year, are given. The licensees may use the formula, the coefficients, and the burial escalation factors from this report in their escalation analyses, or they may use an escalation rate at least equal to the escalation approach presented herein. This fifth revision of NUREG-1307 contains revised spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference PWR and the reference BWR and the ratios of disposal costs at the Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina sites for the years 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993, and 1994, superseding the values given in the June 1994 issue of this report. Burial cost surcharges mandated by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) have been incorporated into the revised ratio tables for those years. In addition, spreadsheet results for the disposal costs for the reference reactors and ratios of disposal costs at the two remaining burial sites in Washington and South Carolina for the year 1995 are provided. These latter results do not include any LLRWPAA surcharges, since those provisions of the Act expired at the end of 1992. An example calculation for escalated disposal cost is presented, demonstrating the use of the data contained in this report.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Wyoming (Million Cubic

43

Transmission line capital costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ˇ Types of Costs ˇ Types of Cost Estimates ˇ Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships ˇ Capital Costs (or

Boisvert, Jeff

45

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

penetration (Giebel 2005). Wind integration costs represent2005. Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the Europeanincreases in wind costs; Transmission and integration costs

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data, the highest capital cost estimate in the 2010-2015multiply initial capital cost estimates by up to a factor ofand projected wind capital cost estimates from EPRI/DOE

Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION .............................................................................13 Definition of Levelized Cost ........................................................................................................13 Levelized Cost Components

52

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION............................................................ 3 Definition of Levelized Cost.................................................................................... 3 Levelized Cost Categories

Laughlin, Robert B.

53

Environmental benefits and cost savings through market-based instruments : an application using state-level data from India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper develops a methodology for estimating potential cost savings from the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) when local emissions and abatement cost data are not available. The paper provides estimates of the ...

Gupta, Shreekant

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Elastically averaged precision alignment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important steps in designing a machine is the consideration of the effect of interfaces between components. A badly designed interface can vary from costly difficulties such as additional control or calibration ...

Willoughby, Patrick (Patrick John), 1978-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A COST-EFFECTIVE TWO-LEVEL ADAPTIVE BRANCH PREDICTOR STEVEN, G. B., EGAN, C., SHIM, W. VINTAN, L.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" of Sibiu Hatfield, Hertfordshire, U.K. Seoul, Korea Sibiu-2400, Romania AL10 9AB 139-743 email: G accuracy of between 80 to 95% [1]. More recently, the advent of superscalar processors has given renewed are far more costly on a superscalar processor. This renewed interest in branch prediction led

Vintan, Lucian N.

56

Average Commercial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil and GasThis0.06

57

Average Commercial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil and

58

Average Commercial Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil andCitygate Price

59

Average Residential Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil andCitygate

60

Average Residential Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: Oil

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Average Residential Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: OilCitygate Price

62

Average Residential Price  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion5: OilCitygate Price

63

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

renewable resources and avoided costs. Section 7 summarizes,renewable energy and the avoided cost of conventional fuelsdispatch model of utility avoided cost using reference case-

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

China Camp's race against the tides: Predicting tidal marsh survival through comparison of project sea level rise elevations and sediment accretion rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with 55 inches of sea level rise and continued average marshthe Costs of Adapting to Sea Level Rise: A Case Study of San2009. The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast.

Hannah, Whitney; Kuhn, Marlene

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

NREL is a na*onal laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. A Survey of State-Level Cost and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy, LLC. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Es7mates-funded by EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Office, and the Na*onal Electricity Delivery. Download report: hSp://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14os*/61042.pdf or hSp://emp.lbl.gov/publica*ons/survey-state-level-cost-and-benefit

66

This is a preprint of the following article, which is available from http://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published article.A.M. van Kuik. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines for Minimum Levelized Cost of Energy. Renewable Energy (In press), 2014 Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

Papalambros, Panos

67

Levelized Cost Calculations | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach,October, 2012Lee CountyLearned:

68

Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005. Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy in the Europeanincreases in wind costs; Transmission and integration costs

Chen, Cliff

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Levelized cost-benefit analysis of proposed diagnostics for the Ammunition Transfer Arm of the US Army`s Future Armored Resupply Vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army`s Project Manager, Advanced Field Artillery System/Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (PM-AFAS/FARV) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be applied to the resupply vehicle for the Advanced Field Artillery System. The Engineering Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has proposed adding diagnostics/prognostics systems to four components of the Ammunition Transfer Arm of this vehicle, and a cost-benefit analysis was performed on the diagnostics/prognostics to show the potential savings that may be gained by incorporating these systems onto the vehicle. Possible savings could be in the form of reduced downtime, less unexpected or unnecessary maintenance, fewer regular maintenance checks. and/or tower collateral damage or loss. The diagnostics/prognostics systems are used to (1) help determine component problems, (2) determine the condition of the components, and (3) estimate the remaining life of the monitored components. The four components on the arm that are targeted for diagnostics/prognostics are (1) the electromechanical brakes, (2) the linear actuators, (3) the wheel/roller bearings, and (4) the conveyor drive system. These would be monitored using electrical signature analysis, vibration analysis, or a combination of both. Annual failure rates for the four components were obtained along with specifications for vehicle costs, crews, number of missions, etc. Accident scenarios based on component failures were postulated, and event trees for these scenarios were constructed to estimate the annual loss of the resupply vehicle, crew, arm. or mission aborts. A levelized cost-benefit analysis was then performed to examine the costs of such failures, both with and without some level of failure reduction due to the diagnostics/prognostics systems. Any savings resulting from using diagnostics/prognostics were calculated.

Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Average Commercial Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS98,,,1999,0,0,1e+15,1469,6,01179,"WAT","HY"Tables andA 6 J (Million CubicDecadeBaseper1 A Look

71

Average Residential Price  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS98,,,1999,0,0,1e+15,1469,6,01179,"WAT","HY"Tables andA 6 J (Million CubicDecadeBaseper1 A Look7.56

72

Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transit – exceeded capital cost estimates by 40% duringfound that capital costs exceeded estimates by an averagesystems. We estimate the total capital cost, average weekday

Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and advanced control systems in order to...

74

Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

Rhode Island, University of

76

Startup Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

77

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The Cost of Power Disturbances to Industrial & Digital Economy Companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-4: Average Cost Per Outage by Annual kWh and Duration 2-5 Figure 2-5: Average Cost Per Outage for DE by Data-5: Average Annual Per Establishment Cost of Outages by Annual kWh 3-6 Figure 3-6: Aggregate Annual Cost-4: Average Annual Per Establishment Cost of PQ Problems by Annual kWh 4-4 Figure 4-5: Aggregate Annual Cost

Schrijver, Karel

80

WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy From U.S. Windreducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore

Wiser, Ryan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

T. Buchert

1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

82

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

Boisvert, Jeff

84

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

85

Avoidable waste management costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the levelized cost of the aggregate supply curves, the portfolio model does not evaluate each measure's specific of programming constraints, the levelized costs of conservation used in the portfolio model are not adjusted of its costs. May 2005 E-1 #12;include energy and capacity cost savings, local distribution cost savings

87

SEASONAL AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON LEVELS IN 70 HOUSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A year-long, mu1 ti pollutant, indoor air qua1 ity study involving 70 occupied houses in four states was completed in 1987. All of the houses included in the study had a partial or complete basement with a concrete slab floor and block walls. On an approximately quarterly schedule, integrating monitors for short-1 i ved radon progeny, N02, HCHO, and H20 were exposed for one week in each house on both the basement and main 1 eve1 s. At the beginning of the study, a pair of alpha track detectors were placed both on top of the refrigerator in the kitchen (or some other sampling site on the main floor) and at a sampling site in the basement. One detector at each sampl ing site was left in place for a year. The other detector at each sampling site was retrieved after about three month's exposure and replaced with another detector for the next quarter. In addition, short-term samples of radon and radon progeny were made at

C. S. Dudney; A. R. Hawthorne

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cost Estimator  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A successful candidate in this position will serve as a senior cost and schedule estimator who is responsible for preparing life-cycle cost and schedule estimates and analyses associated with the...

89

Operating Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These regions also have high water costs. The Gulf Coast, where water is a minor item, has an average expenditure only slightly greater than half that in West Texas. Average lawn sizes in these two regions are almost identical. Use of com- post, commercial.... Individuals with grasses other than bermuda and St. Augustine spend on the average about 53 percent TARLE 2. TOTALS OF VARIOUS HOME LAWN MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURES WITHIN REGIONS AND FOR THE STATE1 Number of Maintenance items Region households Commercial...

Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cost analysis guidelines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

Strait, R.S.

1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

Anklam, T

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

comparisons based on levelized cost of energy (LCOE)). AUnserved Energy Levelized cost of energy Loss of loadmetrics like the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The Economic Cost of Instructional Coaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this cost framework is applied to three schools with instructional coaching programs during the 2009-10 school year. The average cost per teacher was found to range from approximately $3,260 to $5,220, while model developers suggest a cost of $2,298 per...

Knight, David Stephen

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost levelized using 15% per year levelizing factor (3) Energycost levelized using 15% per year levelizing factor (3) Energy

Mills, Andrew D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Pricklypear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graph shows total cost for spray plus labor at $6 per hour. The bottom graph shows total cost for spray plus labor at $12 per hour. ? Locate your average plant density (the average calculated in Step #1) on the lower, horizontal axis (density axis... to the vertical axis (cost axis) on the left of the graph. Make a mark on the cost axis. This point is an estimate of what your cost per acre should be in $/acre. Example: If you have an average of 100 pricklypear plants per acre, and your labor cost is $6 per...

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

Effect of different levels of technology upon expected yields, costs, and returns for major crops in Diamante Departamento, Entre Rios province, Argentina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT 0. . DIFFDHE!~ LEVELS OF TFCHNOLOOY UPON EXPECTED YIELDS' COS?S~ AND RETURNS FOH N&2OH CP OPS N DIA:"l i iTE PFEP ART J~~w"'TO ENTRE RIOS PROVINCE, fSQENTINA A Thesis FR', STO OSCAR iJBiRRi", CIM Suh?itted to the Grec?ate Colle... IN DIAMANTE DEPARTAMENTO, ENTRE BIOS PROVINCE~ ARGENTINA A Thesis by EHNESTO OSCAR ALRARRACIN Approved as to style and content by: (Cha1rman oi Committee) / j (Head of Department) . 7 (Member/. (Memb ) (Member) (Member) May 19/0 (Member...

Albarracin, Ernesto Oscar

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present results from a detailed energy measurement study of TCP. We focus on the node- level cost have characterized the cost of the primary TCP functions; (3) our node-level energy models canComputational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang Telecommunications System Division SAMSUNG

Singh, Suresh

102

Sun-Sentinel South Florida consumer costs rising faster than  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sun-Sentinel South Florida consumer costs rising faster than the national average May 18, 2011|By Donna Gehrke-White, Sun Sentinel We are not imagining it: The cost of living has jumped in South Florida

Belogay, Eugene A.

103

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

05-1 ˇ Types of Costs ˇ Types of Cost Estimates ˇ Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships ˇ Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: ˇ Investment allocated

Boisvert, Jeff

104

A Multivariate Moving Average Control Chart for Photovoltaic Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract—For the electrical metrics that describe photovoltaic cell performance are inherently multivariate in nature, use of a univariate, or one variable, statistical process control chart can have important limitations. Development of a comprehensive process control strategy is known to be significantly beneficial to reducing process variability that ultimately drives up the manufacturing cost photovoltaic cells. The multivariate moving average or MMA chart, is applied to the electrical metrics of photovoltaic cells to illustrate the improved sensitivity on process variability this method of control charting offers. The result show the ability of the MMA chart to expand to as any variables as needed, suggests an application with multiple photovoltaic electrical metrics being used in concert to determine the processes state of control. Keywords—The multivariate moving average control chart, Photovoltaic processes control, Multivariate system. I.

Chunchom Pongchavalit

105

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai�¢����i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Realistic costs of carbon capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Estimating Specialty Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

111

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

112

Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor ¡ History of sales procedures ¡ Manufacturer Driven Procedures ¡ What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." ¡ It should

113

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in the other schedules of the Form EIA-861. These schedules include Schedule 2C Green Pricing and Schedule 2D Net Metering. It is also possible that, in the future, too...

114

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 6 31

115

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 6 315

116

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 6

117

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2

118

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 Market

119

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 Market

120

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2 Market

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 2

122

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13

123

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market

124

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market

125

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market

126

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market

127

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market4

128

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market4

129

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market4

130

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market4

131

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market4

132

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13 Market44

133

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 13

134

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 134 1

135

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 134 1

136

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 134 1

137

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICS H.CarbonMarch Value of the verb5 134 1Winter

138

2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011 Mon, Next

139

Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev. 0 MayOE-781RComparingSandiaStorageMarch 28,

140

Employee Replacement Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

Massarutto, Antonio [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Carli, Alessandro de, E-mail: alessandro.decarli@unibocconi.it [IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Graffi, Matteo [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, ``Monthly Power Plant Report.`` These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990.

Not Available

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, Monthly Power Plant Report.'' These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990.

Not Available

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

144

Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

Lee, Taekoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

146

SAMPLE AVERAGE APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR COMPOUND ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 30, 2013 ... bounds from (10) are much sharper than estimates obtained from (11), ..... X a vector of resources allocated at objects i = 1, ..., n to protect them from the .... and cost functions, IE denotes mathematical expectation over ?. ...... [29] H. Markowitz, Mean-Variance Analysis in Portfolio Choice and Capital Markets, ...

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Unit costs of waste management operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ``cradle to grave``) cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics.

Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Operating Costs for Trucks David Levinson*, Michael Corbett, Maryam Hashami  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author Abstract This study estimates the operating costs for commercial vehicle operators in Minnesota, but variable costs change with the level of output. Daniels (1974) divided vehicle operating cost into two different categories, running costs (includes fuel consumption, engine oil consumption, tire costs

Levinson, David M.

150

RETI Resource Valuation Methodology Cost of Generation Calculator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ¡ Cost of equity investment in capital ¡ Cost of financing capital ¡ Taxes, including investmentRETI Resource Valuation Methodology Cost of Generation Calculator The Cost of Generation Calculator determines the levelized cost of generating power over the life of the resource, and is an input

151

Minimizing the Average Cost of Paging on the Air Interface An Approach Considering Privacy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Technology, Computer Science Department IV, D-52056 Aachen, Germany Abstract ­ Location Management of mobile for a mobile user in a cellular network, for efficient location management it is desirable to know the current of Technology, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, D-01062 Dresden, Germany Aachen University

152

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013DepartmentAgenda forThis brochureProcessofcents

153

Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | Department ofHTS Cable ProjectsHistory HistoryEducationHydropower Still

154

Decreasing Average Cost and Competition: A New Look at the Addyston Pipe Case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can arise in an industry; once plants in an industry exist, will competition allow them to operate harmoniously? A related problem is whether firms can be induced to enter an industry with competitive pric­ ing. The simplest case to analyze... of electricity, for example—storing output is nearly impossible. Now, while this conclusion concerning the feasibility of competition and the function of market collusion may appear to be out of step with much of economic thinking, the analysis is in fact...

Bittlingmayer, George

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

Mohanty, Saraju P.

156

Is dark energy an effect of averaging?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

157

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExploration Jump to:FieldProceduresFYID6/OrganizationID8/WebsiteSalinityAverage Jump

158

Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole.

Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems.S. Colton Š GIT 2009 5 #12;LaborLabor Di t ti f ldi¡ Direct time of welding ­ time to produce a length of weld ­ labor rate ­ multiplication gives labor cost per length ¡ Set-up time, etc. ¡ Personal time

Colton, Jonathan S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

Greene, D.L.

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

162

Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California.photovoltaic (PV) systems has increased, so too has the desire to track the installed costPhotovoltaic Power Systems. Figure 13. Comparison of Average Installed Costs (

Barbose, Galen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Daniel Boer

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

164

Activity Based Costing  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Levelized cost and levelized avoiced cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨,43332 Next

166

Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997EnvironmentElectricityrgy81 § ¨,43332 NextApril

167

Fact #835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

5: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation, the average annual...

168

Examples of Cost Estimation Packages  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

169

PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Cedar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

method. Figure 3 is for the top-removal method). In Figures 1 and 2, the upper graph shows the cost for the spray only. The center graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $6 per hour. The bottom graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $12 per... hour. Figure 3 shows the costs for the top-removal method, with labor at $6 per hour in the upper graph and $12 per hour in the lower graph. ? Locate your average cedar density (the average calculated in Step #1) on the lower, horizontal axis (density...

Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

171

Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

172

average atom model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

173

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR) and INDEPENDENT COST ESTIMATE (ICE) Standard Operating...

174

Cost Constrained Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

networks considering its system level cost that accounts for the local processing cost of sensing (sample collection and energy calculation at each secondary user) as well as the transmission cost (forwarding energy for various factors that contribute to the cost incurred by spectrum sensing. In this paper, we study energy

Yener, Aylin

175

Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Contracting with Reading Costs andrents, and the competitive contracting process. Journal ofReiche. Foundation of incomplete contracting in a model of

Brennan, James R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Systems Engineering Cost Estimation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

Bryson, Joanna J.

177

Life Cycle Cost Estimate  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cost Estimation Package  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

179

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

OOTW COST TOOLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Oxygenation cost estimates for Cherokee, Douglas, and Norris reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capital and annual costs associated with reoxygenation of the turbine releases at Cherokee, Douglas and Norris Reservoirs using the small bubble injection technique developed for Ft. Patrick Henry Dam were computed. The weekly average dissolved oxygen (DO) deficits were computed for each reservoir for an average year (based on 16 years of records). The total annual cost of an oxygen supply and injection system for each reservoir is presented. 5 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Fain, T.G.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Analytic framework for TRL-based cost and schedule models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many government agencies have adopted the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale to help improve technology development management under ever increasing cost, schedule, and complexity constraints. Many TRL-based cost and ...

El-Khoury, Bernard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

188

Costin2010US$(billions) A COSTLY ENTERPRISE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that roughly 3% of the country's annual GDP had been Financial model failed in real world David Lindley cites­2010, we originally projected an average cost per flight of about $800 million. The actual cost was about, with projected uncertainties. Thus, our 1992 projection indicates that the performance of large- scale

Colorado at Boulder, University of

189

Environmental Cost Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Cost Analysis David Edge Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission 131 ESL-IE-00-04-21 Proceedings from the Twenty-second National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 2000 Tuas Natural... Resource Conservation CorDDliuion Environmental Cost Analysis Presented By David Edge Determine the Costs c> Input co Output c> Hidden c> Capital (non recurring) Envirormenlal Cost Analy.;is "There has to be a measurable result...

Edge, D.

190

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The...

192

Fact #835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

5: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation,...

193

Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with...

194

Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better...

195

Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste.

NONE

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Cost effective lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen-hours are determined for each lamp system. We find the most important lighting cost component is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial cost of $15.00, is the most cost effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

Morse, O.; Verderber, R.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ESRP 285 Climate Chart Questions: Your Name _______________________________ You saw Figure 1 in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in class. It shows estimates of atmospheric CO2 in black, average earth temperature in red and sea level be much higher than normal every 100,000 yrs #12;5. Figure 1 shows the average earth temperature

Ford, Andrew

199

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Technical and cost potential for lightweight, stretched-membrane heliostat technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the background and rationale and describes the development effort of a potentially low-cost, concentrating reflector design. The proposed reflector design is called the stretched-membrane concept. In this concept a reflector film - which can be metal, polymeric, or of a composite construction - is stretched on a hollow torroidal frame that offers a structurally efficient and optically accurate surface. Although the intent is to improve heliostat concentrator cost and performance for solar thermal applications, the collector design approach proposed here may well offer effective cost and performance opportunities for improving photovoltaic and solar daylighting applications as well. Some of the major advantages include a reflector, a support frame, and support structures that can be made extremely lightweight and low in cost because of the effective use of material with high average stress levels in the reflector and support frame; a 75% reduction in the weight of the reflector and support structure (down to the drive attachment) over the second-generation glass-and-metal heliostat concept; a better than 50% cost reduction for the reflector assembly and support structure compared to corresponding elements of the second-generation concept; and, finally, optical accuracies and an annual energy delivery potential close to those attainable with current glass-and-metal heliostats. In this paper results of initial design studies, performance predictions, and analysis are presented, as well as results corresponding to subscale testing. Also included are recommendations for further development and for resolving remaining issues.

Murphy, L.M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

What is the Economic Cost of Climate Change?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sea Level, California Climate Change Center, Report CEC-500-in the assessment of climate change damages: illustrationThe Economic Cost of Climate Change Impact on California

Hanemann, W. Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Pension costs and liabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

Courtney, Harley Macon

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

LMFBR fuel component costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant portion of the cost of fabricating LMFBR fuels is in the non-fuel components such as fuel pin cladding, fuel assembly ducts and end fittings. The contribution of these to fuel fabrication costs, based on FFTF experience and extrapolated to large LMFBR fuel loadings, is discussed. The extrapolation considers the expected effects of LMFBR development programs in progress on non-fuel component costs.

Epperson, E.M.; Borisch, R.R.; Rice, L.H.

1981-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

Not Available

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

208

Target Cost Management Strategy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

Okano, Hiroshi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

''When Cost Measures Contradict''  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes empirically these two properties of different costs measures as they pertain to assessing the costs of the carbon abatement policies, especially the Kyoto Protocol, under alternative assumptions about implementation.

Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P. M.

2003-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Apportioning Climate Change Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apportioning Climate Change Costs Daniel A. Farber* I. II.ON CLIMATE CHANGE FOUR QUESTIONS ABOUTof how to respond to climate change. Most public attention

Farber, Daniel A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

A Walking Model with No Energy Cost M. W. Gomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a frictional surface. Can legged transport over level ground be similarly energy-cost free? NatureA Walking Model with No Energy Cost M. W. Gomes Mechanics, Cornell University; now at Mechanical these minor friction losses, is a zero- energy-cost walking mechanism possible? Consider walking mechanisms

Ruina, Andy L.

213

Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear Generating Station. 4 #12;6/19/2013 3 EVEN MORE SUNNY HEADLINES New solar panels glisten6/19/2013 1 Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons Northwest Power Cost Forecast 5. Levelized Costs 1 SOLAR POWER SYSTEM HAS BRIGHT FUTURE 1. Modest environmental impacts

214

IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment Brian Subirana subirana@mit.edu MIT Center for Coordination Science WP #222 July 2003 #12;IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel maintaining existing service levels. "We want you to reduce automation costs by 50% while maintaining equal

215

Estimating the manufacturing cost of purely organic solar cells Joseph Kalowekamo 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a levelized cost of electricity (LEC) of between 49˘ and 85˘/kWh. In order to achieve a more competitive COE that into a levelized electricity cost (LEC). We find that there is a great deal of uncertainty about the capital costs., Estimating the manufacturing cost of purely organic solar cells, Sol. Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

217

average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

218

average power high: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

219

LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

220

An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

existing avoided cost methodology and established thefor certain avoided cost methodologies or avoided cost inpu

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study investigates how indoor daylight environments affect patient Average Length of Stay (ALOS), by evaluating and analyzing daylight levels in patient rooms in comparison to their ALOS. The patient ALOS data were taken at one general hospital...

Choi, Joon Ho

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

technology * 2015 projected technology 2 Determine costs for these 3 tech level Fuel Cell System Battery System Storage 2. Determine costs for these 3 tech level systems at 5...

224

SAVING MONEY & TIME (EFFICIENCY) UTILITY COST AVOIDANCE: From FY 2001 through FY2012, the UW Seattle campus has avoided  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVING MONEY & TIME (EFFICIENCY) UTILITY COST AVOIDANCE: From FY 2001 through FY2012, the UW Seattle campus has avoided a cumulative $95.1 million in utility costs through its conservation efforts in disposal costs. These savings are calculated by subtracting the average cost per ton to recycle material

Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

225

Decommissioning Unit Cost Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To Live In The State By Amy Higginbotham For the third quarter of 2008, Morgantown's cost of living was found to be 0.7 percent above the national average, according to the ACCRA Cost of Living Survey. While close

Mohaghegh, Shahab

227

On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

228

The global warming signal is the average of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

Jones, Peter JS

229

averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

230

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL CEC-WS-2R (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Area Weighted Average Calculation Worksheet WS-2R Residential (Page 1 of 1) Site/Time: ____________________ HERS Provider: __________________ 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 This worksheet should

231

Higher-order averaging, formal series and numerical integration II  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems of ordinary differential equations with d 1 non- resonant constant frequencies. Formal series frequency and four resonant fast frequencies. Keywords and sentences: Averaging, high-order averaging, quasi Schumann, 35170 Bruz, France. Email: Philippe.Chartier@inria.fr Konputazio Zientziak eta A. A. Saila

Murua, Ander

232

Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levelized costs; (2) in regions where capacity markets exist, wholesale prices presumably reflect only the value of energy,

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

none,

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

235

Averaged dynamics of ultra-relativisitc charged particles beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, we consider the suitability of using the charged cold fluid model in the description of ultra-relativistic beams. The method that we have used is the following. Firstly, the necessary notions of kinetic theory and differential geometry of second order differential equations are explained. Then an averaging procedure is applied to a connection associated with the Lorentz force equation. The result of this averaging is an affine connection on the space-time manifold. The corresponding geodesic equation defines the averaged Lorentz force equation. We prove that for ultra-relativistic beams described by narrow distribution functions, the solutions of both equations are similar. This fact justifies the replacement of the Lorentz force equation by the simpler {\\it averaged Lorentz force equation}. After this, for each of these models we associate the corresponding kinetic model, which are based on the Vlasov equation and {\\it averaged Vlasov equation} respectively. The averaged Vlasov equation is simpler than the original Vlasov equation. This fact allows us to prove that the differential operation defining the averaged charged cold fluid equation is controlled by the {\\it diameter of the distribution function}, by powers of the {\\it energy of the beam} and by the time of evolution $t$. We show that the Vlasov equation and the averaged Vlasov equation have similar solutions, when the initial conditions are the same. Finally, as an application of the {\\it averaged Lorentz force equation} we re-derive the beam dynamics formalism used in accelerator physics from the Jacobi equation of the averaged Lorentz force equation.

Ricardo Gallego Torromé

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

236

Power Plant Cycling Costs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(say, a trip) and such factors are not fully captured in this dataset. 9. Older combined cycle units were a step change in lower operating costs due to cycling...

237

Estimating Renewable Energy Costs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

238

Cost Estimating Guide  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

239

Investments of uncertain cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Standard costs for labor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Expanding the role of the cost engineer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been many questions about the costs of providing medical services. These questions have resulted in the development of Resource-Based Relative Values Scale (RBRVS) at the national level. Policymakers view RBRVS as a potential tool to pay physicians. The questions, about the cost of operations of HSE-2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revolve around doing routine occupation health physicals for the Laboratory. Generally, these questions are concerned about why the costs appear to be high relative to what private physician suggests the costs should be. There is also an interest in trying to find methods to reduce these costs if possible. Many of the tools developed to help in construction estimating can be applied to estimating medical costs. With the need to perform many thousands of physicals each year the saving of even a few dollars for each exam can quickly add up to a large saving. There are a number of different types of physicals and different levels; based on age, sex, type of work, and years since last physical. The LANL Health Services are housed in a 12,600 square foot building close to the population center of the Laboratory Health Services, produced by a staff of seven physicians and approximately 25 support personnel, include acute medical care, routine surveillance exams, and preventive medicine programs. This paper will consider the routine surveillance exams, which constitute the major activity of the medical staff, in terms of time and dollars expended.

Stutz, R.A.; Shaw, R.F.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Averaging Spacetime: Where do we go from here?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The construction of an averaged theory of gravity based on Einstein's General Relativity is very difficult due to the non-linear nature of the gravitational field equations. This problem is further exacerbated by the difficulty in defining a mathematically precise covariant averaging procedure for tensor fields over differentiable manifolds. Together, these two ideas have been called the averaging problem for General Relativity. In the first part of the talk, an attempt to review some the various approaches to this problem will be given, highlighting strengths, weaknesses, and commonalities between them. In the second part of the talk, an argument will be made, that if one wishes to develop a well-defined averaging procedure, one may choose to parallel transport along geodesics with respect to the Levi-Cevita connection or, use the Weitzenb\\"ock connection and ensure the transportation is independent of path. The talk concludes with some open questions to generate further discussion.

R. J. van den Hoogen

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

244

averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

245

average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

246

Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to issue deterministic forecasts based on numerical weather prediction models. Uncertainty canProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc discretization than is seen in other weather quantities. The prevailing paradigm in weather forecasting

Washington at Seattle, University of

247

Abstract Interpretation for Worst and Average Case Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy usage whilst bounding the average number of requests waiting to be served. PRISM is used phase extracts a control flow graph ­ for some classes of language this may already involve an abstract

Di Pierro, Alessandra

248

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

249

average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

250

areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

251

From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

Linial, Nathan "Nati"

252

average power optical: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

253

Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

255

Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

Nader Haghighipour

1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

256

Evidence of cost growth under cost-plus and fixed-price contracting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As defined by the US Department of Energy (DOE), privatization refers to a shifting of responsibilities for the completion of projects from a cost-plus Management and Operations (M and O) contract, to incentive-based contracts with the private sector. DOE`s new vision is to arrange cleanup work around incentives-based contracts, which are won via competitive bidding. Competition in awarding cleanup contracts can make use of market incentives to lower project costs and reduce slippage time. Fixed-price contracts encourage contractors to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns once the scope of a project has been negotiated. Conversely, cost-plus contracting offers weak incentives for contractors to select cost-minimizing production and management approaches. Because privatization explicitly allocates more risk to the contractor, it forces the government to better define its goals and methods. This study summarizes actual cost experiences with government contracts performed under cost-plus and fixed-price incentive structures at all levels of government. The first section provides some background on the problem of making contractor activity more cost-efficient. Following this are sections on the measurement of performance and the costs of projects, limitations on measurement, and findings of similar studies. The study concludes with appendices discussing the details of the performance measurement methodology and the project data sets used in the study.

Scott, M.J.; Paananaen, O.H.; Redgate, T.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Jaksch, J.A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Roadway Improvement Project Cost Allocation CTS 21st Annual Transportation Research Conference costs #12;Potential Applications ¡ Roadway Project Feasibility Studies ­ Identified potential roadway infrastructure improvement ­ Documentation of estimated project costs ­ Determine property assessments

Minnesota, University of

258

Sunk Costs and Competitive Bidding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUNK COSTS AND COMPETITIVE BIDDING Kenneth R. FrenchRevised: November 1982 SUNK COSTS AND COMPETITIVE BIDDINGl the winning bid be? I f sunk costs do not matter, I f the

French, Kenneth R.; McCormick, Robert E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

260

Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(costs and values of inputs, outputs, and processes, including capital and operating costs) and performance (mass conversion, energy efficiency, and, generally speaking,...

262

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Millions of children have allergies. In fact, in the U.S., allergies cost children an average of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

million missed school days each year. Does your child suffer from frequent sneezing, coughing, nasal

264

NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

Hall, Julian

265

Low Cost, Durable Seal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

Rambaut, Andrew

267

Seasonal Price Change and Commercial Storage Costs of Rice.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for ' rice provides farmers a profit from storing rice in commercial elevators and selling it later rather than at harvest. When the farmer's only alternative is to sell rice on the market, either at harvest or later, he can profit from storage... though partial losses would have occurred in 3 of the 10 years, his average annual gain would have been greater from February than from December and January sales. Based on the 10-year average farm price of rice and 1955 average storage costs, the net...

Moore, Clarence A.; Whitney, Howard S.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Heliostat cost reduction study.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

270

Averaged equations for Josephson junction series arrays with LRC load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the averaged equations describing a series array of Josephson junctions shunted by a parallel inductor-resistor-capacitor load. We assume that the junctions have negligable capacitance ($\\beta = 0$), and derive averaged equations which turn out to be completely tractable: in particular the stability of both in-phase and splay states depends on a single parameter, $\\del$. We find an explicit expression for $\\delta$ in terms of the load parameters and the bias current. We recover (and refine) a common claim found in the technical literature, that the in-phase state is stable for inductive loads and unstable for capacitive loads.

Kurt Wiesenfeld; James W. Swift

1994-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

271

Risk management: Reducing brownfield cleanup costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Balancing environmental protection with economic vitality is crucial to maintaining competitiveness in world markets. One key initiative that has been identified as important to both environmental protection and the economy is the redevelopment of brownfields. Brownfield redevelopment can stimulate local economies that have been devastated by lost jobs and can recycle industrial land use, thereby preserving undeveloped lands. Many existing brownfield sites appear on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priority List (NPL), which designates over 1200 sites and is expected to grow to more than 2000 by the end of the decade. EPA estimates the cost of remediating the sites on the current list will approach $30 billion, with the average cost of remediating a site close to $25 million. Thousands of additional brownfield sites that do not appear on the NPL are listed under state cleanup programs.

Graves, N.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hay is an important crop in Ta 1 Harvesting costs constitute the major5 pense of hay production in many M Mg and Wayne D . Taylor INTRODUCTION .................................................... 2 Fixed Costs or Ownership Costs... ............................................. 10 Totarl Cost .............................................................. 10 HAY HARVESTING ALTERNATIVES COMPARED ...................... 11 HOW TO MAKE WISE DECISIONS CONCERNING INVESTMENTS IN MACHINERY...

Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

274

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 |Presented to the EIA Energy

276

Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach,October, 2012Lee CountyLearned:Energy in US

277

NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte3Informationof Energy Calculator Jump to: navigation, search

278

Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE AprilGrowthERDAEffects

279

levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flatshydro Home Water Powerlaunch Homelegislation Home

280

OpenEI Community - levelized cost of energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/Geothermal < Oklahomast, 2012Coastfred <divmeasureshas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers Rahul Urgaonkar, Bhuvan Urgaonkar of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This rep- resents a deviation from the usual average electric utility bill in a data center. Us- ing the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop

Giles, C. Lee

282

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Bayesian Model Averaging to Calibrate Forecast Ensembles 1 Adrian E. Raftery, Fadoua forecasting often exhibit a spread-skill relationship, but they tend to be underdispersive. This paper of PDFs centered around the individual (possibly bias-corrected) forecasts, where the weights are equal

Washington at Seattle, University of

283

Disk-averaged Spectra & light-curves of Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We are using computer models to explore the observational sensitivity to changes in atmospheric and surface properties, and the detectability of biosignatures, in the globally averaged spectra and light-curves of the Earth. Using AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) data, as input for atmospheric and surface properties, we have generated spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the SMART radiative transfer model, for a variety of conditions, from the UV to the far-IR (beyond the range of current Earth-based satellite data). We have then averaged over the visible disk for a number of different viewing geometries to quantify the sensitivity to surface types and atmospheric features as a function of viewing geometry, and spatial and spectral resolution. These results have been processed with an instrument simulator to improve our understanding of the detectable characteristics of Earth-like planets as viewed by the first generation extrasolar terrestrial planet detection and characterization missions (Terrestrial Planet Finder/Darwin and Life finder). The wavelength range of our results are modelled over are applicable to both the proposed visible coronograph and mid-infrared interferometer TPF architectures. We have validated this model against disk-averaged observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES). This model was also used to analyze Earth-shine data for detectability of planetary characteristics and biosignatures in disk-averaged spectra.

G. Tinetti; V. S. Meadows; D. Crisp; W. Fong; N. Kiang; E. Fishbein; T. Velusamy; E. Bosc; M. Turnbull

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

284

HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

286

Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution; Numerical weather prediction; Skewed distribution; Truncated data; Wind energy. 1. INTRODUCTION- native. Purely statistical methods have been applied to short-range forecasts for wind speed only a fewProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

Raftery, Adrian

287

average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

288

average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

289

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IE 361 Module 15 The Average Run Length Concept Reading: Section 3.5 of Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers Prof. Steve Vardeman and Prof. Max Morris Iowa State University Vardeman Electric set of alarm rules to a control charting scheme? The most e¤ective means known for making

Vardeman, Stephen B.

290

Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\ BULLETIN 904 MAY 1958 .t(. :a ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings... in hauling - 20 cents Annual production, 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D...

Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Geothermal probabilistic cost study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PFM-FC) 5 Light metal hardware Non-acidic membrane Non- platinum catalysts 70% cost savings and above batteries and diesel generators #12;PFM vs. PEM stack- Cost Analysis per kW at 10^3 unit volumes 6 PFM upgraded for stack level fabrication and testing 7 #12;Cellera's AMFC : Hydrogen/Air, 2/2 bar, 80 deg C

296

The Costs of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation with Induced Technological Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-analysis of the costs of mitigating global GHG emissions over the period to 2100, with and without the effects trading allowances at a regional or global level. It reports a wide range of costs with confusing-analyses done by the World Resources Institute for the US economy, 1997, and the IPCC post-SRES models

Watson, Andrew

297

Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Volume 6, Number 2 June 2009 Cost Of Living: How Does Morgantown Compare In The First Quarter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Volume 6, Number 2 June 2009 Cost Of Living: How Does Morgantown Compare In The First Quarter Of 2009? By Amy Higginbotham For the first quarter of 2009, Morgantown's cost of living was average according to the ACCRA Cost of Living Index, which compared prices of sixty specific items in 309 urban

Mohaghegh, Shahab

299

Cost and Area Comparison Per Student of the Public Elementary Schools in Texas based on the Project Delivery Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

student in line with A. N. Reinisch’s findings for CSP contracts in Texas, but not CMR average costs. The two ISD’s who supplied the documents were clearly concerned at cost control and appear to have managed this process. The earlier findings of a cost...

Goyal Rakesh, Sheetal

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

300

Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Measuring the Costs and Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Awardee share: 378,732 - Funding for FY10: 627,151 * Barriers - Ground Source Heat Pumps - Reduce levelized cost of electricity (ton) by 30% by 2016 * Partners - Bob...

302

State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

Baumann, O.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A holographic proof of the averaged null energy condition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The averaged null energy conditions (ANEC) states that, along a complete null curve, the negative energy fluctuations of a quantum field must be balanced by positive energy fluctuations. We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to prove the ANEC for a class of strongly coupled conformal field theories in flat spacetime. A violation of the ANEC in the field theory would lead to acausal propagation of signals in the bulk.

William R. Kelly; Aron C. Wall

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

305

Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

Dima, Germán C., E-mail: gdima@df.uba.ar; Mindlin, Gabriel B. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinámicos, IFIBA y Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 1, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG | Department ofHTS Cable ProjectsHistoryia/802871 IA Blog|INDEPENDENT COST

309

User cost in oil production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Monitoring System Used to Identify, Track and Allocate Peak Demand Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leasing space on the site. The most common way to distribute monthly electric costs within a facility when consumption by area or department is available through submetering or other means, is to apply the average cost per KWH from the utility bill...

Holmes, W. A.

311

Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Check Estimates and Independent Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Cost Effectiveness NW Energy Coalition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Action 8 Cost Effectiveness Manual Kim Drury NW Energy Coalition Context ¡ Inconsistent understanding of cost effectiveness contributed to under performing conservation E.g: individual measures vs Action Plan for Energy Efficiency published a comprehensive guide on cost effectiveness: best practices

314

Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

Ribak, Erez

316

Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Department-wide Audit of Architect and Engineering Design Costs (DOE/IG-0289) which concluded that the Department`s A/E costs averaged more than twice that of private industry. The primary cause of the higher costs was the lack of Departmental A/E cost standards that would provide measurement criteria for controlling costs. Consistent with our prior Department-wide audit, the purpose of this audit was to determine whether A/E services performed at the Laboratory were economical. Specifically, we determined whether the costs for A/E services at the Laboratory were comparable to the cost standards for A/E services in industry and the State; and, whether A/E costs were reasonable.

NONE

1996-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hilbert Space Average Method and adiabatic quantum search  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss some aspects related to the so-called Hilbert space Average Method, as an alternative to describe the dynamics of open quantum systems. First we present a derivation of the method which does not make use of the algebra satisfied by the operators involved in the dynamics, and extend the method to systems subject to a Hamiltonian that changes with time. Next we examine the performance of the adiabatic quantum search algorithm with a particular model for the environment. We relate our results to the criteria discussed in the literature for the validity of the above-mentioned method for similar environments.

A. Perez

2009-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

319

W. R. Johnson An Average-Atom Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

W. R. Johnson An Average-Atom Model h0 - Z r + V (r) a(r) = aa(r) potential: V (r) = (r )/R d - (3) d 1 + exp[( - ¾)/kT ] P 2 (r) norm: Z = R 0 4r 2 (r) dr ­ ND ­ 04/02 1 #12;W. R. Johnson Electron-Fermi contributions to continuum ­ ND ­ 04/02 2 #12;W. R. Johnson Phase shifts: Al - T=10eV 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 electron

Johnson, Walter R.

320

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas in theinPlasticsreduction .HistoricHistorical Average

322

Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c : U.S.Welcome to the1,033 15:b.b. Average

323

Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationReleaseMetallurgical Coal Exports byAverage

324

Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationReleaseMetallurgical Coal ExportsPriceAverage

325

Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationReleaseMetallurgical CoalAverage Price

326

COST SHARING Cost sharing is the portion of total project costs of a sponsored agreement that is not bourn by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 COST SHARING Cost sharing is the portion of total project costs of a sponsored agreement. There are primarily three types of cost sharing that may occur on sponsored projects: Mandatory cost sharing. For example, the National Science Foundation requires mandatory cost sharing for some of its projects. COST

Cui, Yan

327

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix G: MCS Cost-effectiveness for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, cost and savings assumptions used to establish the efficiency level that achieves all electricity and assumptions used to determine whether the regionally cost-effective efficiency levels are economically-1 shows the levels of energy efficiency assumed for new site built and manufactured homes built

328

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

Rabl, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

Marek A. Szalek

2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

332

NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4. Distilled naphtha can be used only to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce

Hall, Julian

333

average daily intake: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy and nitrogen balance. The amounts of alfalfa eaten and the levels of nitrogen. Daylight ratio effect is evident in one case : long daily daylight increases the proportion of...

334

Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a âÂ?Â?bottom-upâÂ? costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMAĂ?ÂŽ software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Hydrogen demand, production, and cost by region to 2050.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) demand, production, and cost by region to 2050. The analysis was conducted to (1) address the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) request for regional H{sub 2} cost estimates that will be input to its energy modeling system and (2) identify key regional issues associated with the use of H{sub 2} that need further study. Hydrogen costs may vary substantially by region. Many feedstocks may be used to produce H{sub 2}, and the use of these feedstocks is likely to vary by region. For the same feedstock, regional variation exists in capital and energy costs. Furthermore, delivery costs are likely to vary by region: some regions are more rural than others, and so delivery costs will be higher. However, to date, efforts to comprehensively and consistently estimate future H{sub 2} costs have not yet assessed regional variation in these costs. To develop the regional cost estimates and identify regional issues requiring further study, we developed a H{sub 2} demand scenario (called 'Go Your Own Way' [GYOW]) that reflects fuel cell vehicle (FCV) market success to 2050 and allocated H{sub 2} demand by region and within regions by metropolitan versus non-metropolitan areas. Because we lacked regional resource supply curves to develop our H{sub 2} production estimates, we instead developed regional H{sub 2} production estimates by feedstock by (1) evaluating region-specific resource availability for centralized production of H{sub 2} and (2) estimating the amount of FCV travel in the nonmetropolitan areas of each region that might need to be served by distributed production of H{sub 2}. Using a comprehensive H{sub 2} cost analysis developed by SFA Pacific, Inc., as a starting point, we then developed cost estimates for each H{sub 2} production and delivery method by region and over time (SFA Pacific, Inc. 2002). We assumed technological improvements over time to 2050 and regional variation in energy and capital costs. Although we estimate substantial reductions in H{sub 2} costs over time, our cost estimates are generally higher than the cost goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) hydrogen program. The result of our analysis, in particular, demonstrates that there may be substantial variation in H{sub 2} costs between regions: as much as $2.04/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) by the time FCVs make up one-half of all light-vehicle sales in the GYOW scenario (2035-2040) and $1.85/GGE by 2050 (excluding Alaska). Given the assumptions we have made, our analysis also shows that there could be as much as a $4.82/GGE difference in H{sub 2} cost between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by 2050 (national average). Our national average cost estimate by 2050 is $3.68/GGE, but the average H{sub 2} cost in metropolitan areas in that year is $2.55/GGE and that in non-metropolitan areas is $7.37/GGE. For these estimates, we assume that the use of natural gas to produce H{sub 2} is phased out. This phase-out reflects the desire of DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT) to eliminate reliance on natural gas for H{sub 2} production. We conducted a sensitivity run in which we allowed natural gas to continue to be used through 2050 for distributed production of H{sub 2} to see what effect changing that assumption had on costs. In effect, natural gas is used for 66% of all distributed production of H{sub 2} in this run. The national average cost is reduced to $3.10/GGE, and the cost in non-metropolitan areas is reduced from $7.37/GGE to $4.90, thereby reducing the difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to $2.35/GGE. Although the cost difference is reduced, it is still substantial. Regional differences are similarly reduced, but they also remain substantial. We also conducted a sensitivity run in which we cut in half our estimate of the cost of distributed production of H{sub 2} from electrolysis (our highest-cost production method). In this run, our national average cost estimate is reduced even further, to

Singh, M.; Moore, J.; Shadis, W.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

The Texas Cattle Feeding Industry - Operations, Management, and Costs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per pound of gain. The largest decrease in annual fixed costs per pound of gain occurred as feedlot size increased from less than 1,0.0.0. head capacity to 4,0.0.0. head capacity. Results revealed generally more variability in costs among smaller... almost 1,0.50. lb while heifers averaged about 865 lb. Almost 70.% of the fed steers marketed from Texas feedlots graded U.S. Choice or higher compared to 50% for fed heifers. Fed cattle marketed from Panhandle Plains feedlots were predominantly U...

Dietrich, R.A.; Thomas, P.J.; Farris, D.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software - DOE Directives, Delegations...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software. g4301-1chp22.pdf -- PDF Document, 190 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration...

339

REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subject An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah Date Januarystate by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid tomethod of calculating avoided costs that has been officially

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fueling stations; Cost; Shanghai; Fuel cell vehicles 1.and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itthus hydrogen cost therefore depend on the ?eet of fuel cell

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Comparison of Australian and US Cost-Benefit Approaches to MEPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Australian Greenhouse Office contracted with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) for LBNL to compare US and Australian approaches to analyzing costs and benefits of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS). This report compares the approaches for three types of products: household refrigerators and freezers, small electric storage water heaters, and commercial/industrial air conditioners. This report presents the findings of similarities and differences between the approaches of the two countries and suggests changes to consider in the approach taken in Australia. The purpose of the Australian program is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while the US program is intended to increase energy efficiency; each program is thus subject to specific constraints. The market and policy contexts are different, with the USA producing most of its own products and conducting pioneering engineering-economic studies to identify maximum energy efficiency levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified. In contrast, Australia imports a large share of its products and adopts MEPS already in place elsewhere. With these differences in circumstances, Australia's analysis approach could be expected to have less analytical detail and still result in MEPS levels that are appropriate for their policy and market context. In practice, the analysis required to meet these different objectives is quite similar. To date, Australia's cost-benefit analysis has served the goals and philosophies of the program well and been highly effective in successfully identifying MEPS that are significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing economic benefits to consumers. In some cases, however, the experience of the USA--using more extensive data sets and more detailed analysis--suggests possible improvements to Australia's cost-benefit analysis. The principal findings of the comparison are: (1) The Technology and Market Assessments are similar; no changes are recommended. (2) The Australian approach to determining the relationship of price to energy efficiency is based on current market, while the US approach uses prospective estimates. Both approaches may benefit from increased retrospective analysis of impacts of MEPS on appliance and equipment prices. Under some circumstances, Australia may wish to consider analyzing two separate components leading to price impacts: (a) changes in manufacturing costs and (b) markups used to convert from manufacturing costs to consumer price. (3) The Life-Cycle Cost methods are similar, but the USA has statistical surveys that permit a more detailed analysis. Australia uses average values, while the US uses full distributions. If data and resources permit, Australia may benefit from greater depth here as well. If implemented, the changes will provide more information about the benefits and costs of the program, in particular identifying who benefits and who bears net costs so that programs can be designed to offset unintended negative consequences, and may assist the government in convincing affected parties of the justification for some MEPS. However, without a detailed and statistically representative national survey, such an approach may not be practical for Australia at this time. (4) The National Benefits and Costs methods are similar prospective estimates of shipments, costs and energy savings, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Additional sensitivity studies could further illustrate the ranges in these estimates. Consideration of lower discount rates could lead to more stringent MEPS in some cases. (5) Both the Australian and US analyses of impacts on industry, competition, and trade ultimately depend upon sufficient consultation with industry experts. While the Australian analysis of financial impacts on manufacturers is less detailed than that of the US, the Australian treatment of impacts on market shares imported from different regions of the world is more detailed. No change is recommended. Implementing these changes would increase the depth o

McMahon, James E.

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

343

Ohio Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Ohio homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Ohio homeowners will save $5,151 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $330 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

346

Idaho Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Idaho homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Idaho homeowners will save $4,057 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $285 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

347

Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Vehicle operating costs: evidence from developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document presents information concerning the relationships between vehicle operating costs and highway conditions derived from four studies performed in Kenya, the Caribbean, Brazil, and India in the 1970s and early 1980s. The levels of transport costs and the amounts by which they are altered when highway conditions change depend on two main factors. The first is the production technology facing firms, in particular, the types and designs of vehicles to which firms have access. The second is the economic environment that firms face, in particular, relative prices of inputs to the production of transportation, such as fuel, tires, labor, and vehicles, and the nature of the transport markets that firms serve. The first part of the book sets out an economic model of firms managing vehicle fleets within which these influences can be examined. The second part of the book reports and interprets the results of the four major research projects which were designed to study the influences on vehicle operating costs. The third part of the book examines total vehicle operating costs.

Chesher, A.; Harrison, R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

production and conversion parameters must be optimized. Lower cost fiber enable CF composite applications. Approach: 1. Complete previous effort by scaling to the CF production...

350

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

performing fiber. (600-750 KSI) Barriers: Addresses the need for higher performance low cost fiber for hydrogen storage tanks and energy management structures of automobiles....

351

HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

A.M. Gandrik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the current cost of production of 3.5 Rs per kWh. It isthe average cost of production to be 3.50 Rs. per kWh, or $the cost of production significantly at 4.80 Rs. per kWh. As

McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

List Decoding in Average-Case Complexity and Pseudorandomness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dealing with a worst-case model of errors. In fact, over large alphabets, such as for Reed-Solomon codes to deterministic polynomial time, i.e., they imply BPP = P. The high level methodology in this construction decoding algorithms for Reed-Solomon codes, to give a small circuit that computes any desired bit

Guruswami, Venkatesan

354

Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets Erik for computer capital in firm-level productivity studies. Costly investments in software, training the intangible costs and benefits of computer capital and we present several new empirical results based

356

Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels that could be achieved if the most energy-efficient and cost-effective end-use technologiesAnalysis Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a , Inęs L of five, lowering barriers to adoption of energy efficient alternatives with higher up-front costs

Michalek, Jeremy J.

357

Project Cost Escalation Standards, document IEAB 2007-2 Page 1 Independent Economic Analysis Board  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and contracting. Inflation and Cost Escalation Principles Inflation refers to an increase in price levels over in the report and guidance is provided for using cost escalators and price indices to improve cost predictions time. Prices paid by fish and wildlife projects for inputs such as labor and materials often increase

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual average daily traffic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data Systems 2000. Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic on the California State... Lockout and Non-Lockout Weekdays Average Daily Traffic Volume (vehday) All Cars Trucks ......

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - average daily traffic Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data Systems 2000. Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic on the California State... Lockout and Non-Lockout Weekdays Average Daily Traffic Volume (vehday) All Cars Trucks...

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - averaged pulsar profiles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: averaged pulsar profiles Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 astroph9911319 Pulsar Astronomy ---2000 and Beyond Summary: with higher than average surface dipole magnetic fields....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - average power ratio Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a wind turbine Summary: of pairs of poles over the average power is also studied. Index Terms-- average wind power, battery... charging, permanent magnet synchronous machine. I....

362

E-Print Network 3.0 - average high energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

g Energy and power are time averaged and normally spatially... averaged g Relate energy (density) to power (intensity) The Energy Source Simulation Method 12;g... ms...

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - average body surface Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

averages. The chemical... to the en- semble averages for pressure and configurational energy are summarized in Table II. Three-body... Three-body interactions in fluids from...

364

Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy's Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 134 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For 133 of the 134 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $95.7 million, total reported cost savings were $96.8 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $92.1 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 96% of the estimated cost savings, projects reported achieving 101% of the estimated cost savings, and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 129 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 5.371 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 5.374 million MMBtu, just over 100% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 129 projects were 10.400 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 10.405 million MMBtu, again, just over 100.0% of the estimated energy savings.

Shonder, John A [ORNL; Slattery, Bob S [ORNL; Atkin, Erica [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

366

Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

Kusek, Stephen M.

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

369

5, 14791509, 2008 Staged cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HESSD 5, 1479­1509, 2008 Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Boyer, Edmond

370

Reactor Cost Analysis Brian James  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactor Cost Analysis Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6-7 November 2007 This presentation specification & optimization ¡ Capital cost estimation ¡ Projected hydrogen $/kg #12;Directed Technologies, Inc/WGS Membrane Reactor OTM/ Water-Splitting ANL With WGS #12;Directed Technologies, Inc. 6-7 November 2007 BILIWG

371

Use of Cost Estimating Relationships  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

372

Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

Ruth, M.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

M Weimar

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

Ray A. Berry

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

On monogamy of non-locality and macroscopic averages: examples and preliminary results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a connection between monogamy of non-locality and a weak macroscopic locality condition: the locality of the average behaviour. These are revealed by our analysis as being two sides of the same coin. Moreover, we exhibit a structural reason for both in the case of Bell-type multipartite scenarios, shedding light on but also generalising the results in the literature [Ramanathan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 060405 (2001); Pawlowski & Brukner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 030403 (2009)]. More specifically, we show that, provided the number of particles in each site is large enough compared to the number of allowed measurement settings, and whatever the microscopic state of the system, the macroscopic average behaviour is local realistic, or equivalently, general multipartite monogamy relations hold. This result relies on a classical mathematical theorem by Vorob'ev [Theory Probab. Appl. 7(2), 147-163 (1962)] about extending compatible families of probability distributions defined on the faces of a simplicial complex – in the language of the sheaf-theoretic framework of Abramsky & Brandenburger [New J. Phys. 13, 113036 (2011)], such families correspond to no-signalling empirical models, and the existence of an extension corresponds to locality or non-contextuality. Since Vorob'ev's theorem depends solely on the structure of the simplicial complex, which encodes the compatibility of the measurements, and not on the specific probability distributions (i.e. the empirical models), our result about monogamy relations and locality of macroscopic averages holds not just for quantum theory, but for any empirical model satisfying the no-signalling condition. In this extended abstract, we illustrate our approach by working out a couple of examples, which convey the intuition behind our analysis while keeping the discussion at an elementary level.

Rui Soares Barbosa

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capacity and Energy Cost of Information in Biological and Silicon Photoreceptors PAMELA ABSHIRE of infor- mation capacity (in bits per second) versus energy cost of infor- mation (in joules per bit levels of abstraction. At the functional level, we ex- amine the operational and task specification

Maryland at College Park, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Model Conservation Standards COST-EFFECTIVENESS AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE MODEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and assumptions used to determine whether the regionally cost-effective efficiency levels are economically-1 shows the levels of energy efficiency assumed for new site built and manufactured homes built for site built homes. Cost for new manufactured home energy efficiency improvements were obtained from

382

Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA’s High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Incentive Rates- At What Cost?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with interruptible services. Instead, I filed "ISB" which was priced slightly above the marginal fuel cost on a time of use basis. Many of the periods of the year the first year that I proposed that rate, the cost of interruptible would have been higher than... forms centers on four issues; cost scope of the topic, so let me describe what I feel based pricing, discrimination, competition between is an incentive rate. My view is likely to strike utilities, and effectiveness. You've already some of you...

Schaeffer, S. C.

384

Sandia National Laboratories: Water Availability, Cost, and Use  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

InterconnectsWater Availability, Cost, and Use Water Availability, Cost, and Use Water Availability, Cost, and Use Water Availability, Cost, and Use Availability, cost, and...

385

A study of design oriented cost estimation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

except for the cost of material, and does not distinguish direct and indirect costs involved in the production. Vernon (1968) describes costs as standard or actual. Standard cost is a predicted cost reflecting what a part or product should cost, while... parts only. Some researchers have used the component cost in making decisions regarding the manufacturing process. Egbelu and others (Egbelu et al. , 1982) describe a model for making decisions about cast parts. They define a relationship associating...

Raman, Ramchand P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

Mills, Evan

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

387

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

At the request of a customer or a potential customer, Colorado electric utilities are required to conduct a cost comparison of a photovoltaic (PV) system to any proposed distribution line extension...

390

Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

391

UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

Dallum, Gregory E

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

Letting The Sun Shine On Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation Of Photovoltaic Cost Trends In California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC COST TRENDS IN CALIFORNIA RyanInvestigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California”,cost of customer-sited, grid-connected solar photovoltaic (

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Cappers, Peter; Margolis, Robert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and simple cycle costs are the result of a comprehensive survey of actual costs from the power plant developers in California who built power plants between 2001 and 2006. The other costs are based on actual in conjunction with the variable cost information of a production cost market simulation model to produce

394

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsored Project Account Cost Transfer Explanation Check-Off List December 2011 The explanations checked below best describe the reasons for why the cost transfers are being made. Costs as to how to allocate the cost, temporarily assigned the cost to an existing account that acted

He, Chuan

395

Changes in Investment and Irrigation Water Costs, Texas High Plains, 1950-54.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* Changes in Investment and Irrigation Water Costs, * Texas High Plains, 1950 - 54 OKLAHOMA I I DEAF SMITH . RANDALL ARM- DONLEI COLLINGS- I , STRONG i i 'I The principal irrigated cotton production area of the High Plains is the shaded... no improvement in irrigation facilities during 1950-54. Additional capital investment on farms making improvements in irrigation-facilities averaged $7,600 in the sandy-land area, $5,664 in the heavy-land area and $6,642 for all farms surveyed. The average cost...

Magee, A. C.; Hughes, William F.

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Development of Decision Support Software to Estimate the Cost of Transporting and Ginning of Seed Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distance to modules (D). ................................... 37 Table 11. Results of ANOVA showing that average distance and %U did not result in a statistically significant change in variable costs per mile at a 95% confidence interval for a module... in variable costs per mile at a 95% confidence interval for a semi-tractor trailer. .......................................... 46 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION, LITERATURE REVIEW, AND OBJECTIVES Texas has experienced a reduction in the total...

Grier, Jordan Lee

2014-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Delaware Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Delaware homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Delaware homeowners will save $10,409 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $616 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Oklahoma Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Oklahoma homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Oklahoma homeowners will save $5,786 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $408 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Massachusetts Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Massachusetts homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Massachusetts homeowners will save $10,848 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $621 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Iowa Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Iowa homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Iowa homeowners will save $7,573 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $454 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

RaisingRivals'FixedCosts Matthew Olczak  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In addition much of the recent Industrial Organisation literature has focused on the importance of sunk costs, whereas this paper considers fixed costs that do not have to be sunk costs. A set of guidelines produced

Feigon, Brooke

404

USA oilgas production cost : recent changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During 1984-1989, oil development investment cost in the USA fell, but only because of lower activity. The whole cost curve shifted unfavorably (leftward). In contrast, natural gas cost substantially decreased, the curve ...

Adelman, Morris Albert

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itfueling stations, cost, Shanghai, fuel cell vehicles 1.0hydrogen cost therefore depend on the fleet of fuel cell

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Designing for cost In an aerospace company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Companies take different approaches, and achieve different degrees of implementation, in designing products for cost. This thesis discusses Target Costing and its application at The Boeing Company. Target Costing is a ...

Hammar, Elizabeth (Elizabeth Deming)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Plant Energy Cost Optimization Program (PECOP) is a Management System designed to reduce operating cost in a continuous operating multi product plant by reviewing all cost factors and selecting plant wide production schedules which are most...

Robinson, A. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. Feedstock CostHydrogen Production Equipment Purifier Storage System Compressor Dispenser Additional Equipment Installation Costshydrogen equipment costs. Meyers [2] provides an in depth analyses of reformer, compressor, and storage equipment costs.

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

 Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) cost study: analysis of first cost tradeoffs in UFAD systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Quality: Total HVAC Cost Trend Table 5. Wall Thermal20. Climate: Total HVAC Cost Trend HVAC Category Cost ($/the total perimeter HVAC cost trend for increased density of

Webster, Tom; Benedek, Corinne; Bauman, Fred

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Determining benefits and costs of improved central air conditioner efficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential-type central air conditioner energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a central air conditioner and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers due to modest increases in efficiency are significant. For an efficiency increase of 20percent over the existing minimum standard (i.e., 12 SEER), 35percent of households with central air conditioners experience significant LCC savings, with an average savings of $453, while 25percent show significant LCC losses, with an average loss of $158 compared to apre-standard LCC average of $5,170. The remainder of the population (40percent) are largely unaffected.

Rosenquist, G.; Levok, A.; Chan, P.; McMahon, J.

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

411

E-Print Network 3.0 - average mass approach Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

averaged. We... see that when the rate of mass injection dominates the mass flux of the wind (i.e. 1) the average... the nature of the interaction of a flow with discrete ......

412

E-Print Network 3.0 - average Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

measured for each prime (e.g. 3.25 for p 11) Average Cycle - The average cycle... the functional graphs for a given prime (e.g. 2.05 for p 11) ... Source: Holden, Joshua...

413

E-Print Network 3.0 - average-power fel driven Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

average power near 2 kW. Other... rate (MHz) 5.6-22.5 Average power (W) 100 E.A. ... Source: Kozak, Victor R. - Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Collection: Fission and...

414

Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Results - Do Not Cite Hydrogen Storage Sodium Alanate Bottom-up BOP Cost DFMA software is used to estimate balance of plant (BOP) component costs based on material,...

415

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pieces of hardware: 1. Hydrogen production equipment (e.g.when evaluating hydrogen production costs. Many analyses inrespect to size and hydrogen production method. These costs

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Driltac (Drilling Time and Cost Evaluation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The users manual for the drill tech model for estimating the costs of geothermal wells. The report indicates lots of technical and cost detail. [DJE-2005

None

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Estimating Specialty Costs - DOE Directives, Delegations, and...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects. g4301-1chp20.pdf -- PDF Document, 56 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

418

Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is...

420

Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

Glatzmaier, G.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

None

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

422

S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

423

Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

425

Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

NONE

1995-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

428

Optical Properties of Plasmas Based on an Average-Atom Walter Johnson, Notre Dame University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical Properties of Plasmas Based on an Average-Atom Model Walter Johnson, Notre Dame University of Plasmas Based on an Average-Atom Model Walter Johnson, Notre Dame University Claude Guet, CEA/DAM Ile de of Plasmas Based on an Average-Atom Model Walter Johnson, Notre Dame University Claude Guet, CEA/DAM Ile de

Johnson, Walter R.

429

Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

Not Available

1993-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phase. We measured the metabolic energy consumption of seven subjects walking on a level treadmill at 1RESEARCH Open Access Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load. In this study, the design and testing of an autonomous leg exoskeleton is presented. The aim of the device

Herr, Hugh

432

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

NONE

1995-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

434

A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil, mechanical, electrical, structural and nuclear disciplines and by performing a Line by Line, WBS element by WBS element review of the Projects' CD-2 baseline package helped the DOE Project Team experience success. The second opinion that PT and C provide by conducting a Pre-EIR review of the Project baseline package and the cost review of the TPC helped the DOE Team pass the CD-2 EIR and reduced the TPC. The Line-by-Line review of the DOE Project identified opportunities to reduce the TPC from $1.1 billion to $740.8 million, thus realizing a saving of approximately $359.2 million, or roughly 32% of the original TPC. This significant cost savings underscores the cost in obtaining the second opinion. This same Line by Line review can be applied to any DOE project in the Energy Management or Weapons complex. In the case of this DOE Project a second opinion was worth the cost. (authors)

Madsen, Drew [Project Time and Cost Inc. (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Market Equilibrium with Transaction Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identical products being sold at different prices in different locations is a common phenomenon. Price differences might occur due to various reasons such as shipping costs, trade restrictions and price discrimination. We give a way to model such scenarios by supplementing the classical Fisher model of a market by introducing {\\em transaction costs}. For every buyer $i$ and every good $j$, there is a transaction cost of $\\cij$; if the price of good $j$ is $p_j$, then the cost to the buyer $i$ {\\em per unit} of $j$ is $p_j + \\cij$. This allows the same good to be sold at different (effective) prices to different buyers. We study questions regarding existence, uniqueness and computability of equilibrium in such a model. Our results can be summarized as such: The convex program of \\cite{Dev09} can be generalized to prove existence and uniqueness of equilibrium. We also provide a combinatorial algorithm that computes $\\epsilon$-approximate equilibrium prices and allocations in $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}(n+\\log{m})mn\\l...

Chakraborty, Sourav; Karande, Chinmay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Pollution prevention cost savings potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

Celeste, J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

SLA-based Optimization of Power and Migration Cost in Cloud Computing Hadi Goudarzi, Mohammad Ghasemazar and Massoud Pedram  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the total energy cost of cloud computing system while meeting the specified client-level SLAs, and infrastructure-independent computing are examples of motivations of such systems. Electrical energy cost the system. These constraints result in a basic trade-off between the total energy cost and client

Pedram, Massoud

439

1/25/2010 Zadok & Sion I/UCRC CDDA organizational workshop 1 Energy and Cost Analysis of Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Now Add Security to Clouds Secure data storage 700+ picocents/bit Private Information Retrieval (PIR, ... Costs: Tech costs, data transfers, security, ... IT people, energy, hardware, space. 1/25/2010 Zadok-costs of security Give users "formula" to choose SLA levels 1/25/2010 Zadok & Sion ­ I/UCRC CDDA organizational

440

Chemical reactor models of optimal digestion efficiency with constant foraging costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical reactor models of optimal digestion efficiency with constant foraging costs J. David Logan-batch reactor or plug flow reactor. Specifically, we determine the residence time that optimizes the average net , Anthony Joern , & William Wolesensky January 24, 2003 Abstract We develop quantitative optimization

Logan, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

Hand, M.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non?turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

Maples, B.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

2004 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 1719, 2004 Monetary Cost and Energy Use Optimization in Divisible Load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, we study the monetary cost and energy opti- mization of a single level tree network by using various is discussed. The mathematical analysis of the monetary cost and energy use in single level tree networks Monetary Cost and Energy Use Optimization in Divisible Load Processing Mequanint A. Moges, Leonardo A

Robertazzi, Thomas G.

445

Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Physical Protection System Upgrades - Optimizing for Performance and Cost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CPA--Cost and Performance Analysis--is an architecture that supports analysis of physical protection systems and upgrade options. ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Security Systems), a tool for evaluating performance of physical protection systems, currently forms the cornerstone for evaluating detection probabilities and delay times of the system. Cost and performance data are offered to the decision-maker at the systems level and to technologists at the path-element level. A new optimization engine has been attached to the CPA methodology to automate analyses of many combinations (portfolios) of technologies. That engine controls a new analysis sequencer that automatically modifies ASSESS PPS files (facility descriptions), automatically invokes ASSESS Outsider analysis and then saves results for post-processing. Users can constrain the search to an upper bound on total cost, to a lower bound on level of performance, or to include specific technologies or technology types. This process has been applied to a set of technology development proposals to identify those portfolios that provide the most improvement in physical security for the lowest cost to install, operate and maintain at a baseline facility.

Bouchard, Ann M.; Hicks, Mary Jane

1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

447

Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

Hogan, William W.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Supplemental report on cost estimates'  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

NONE

1992-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

451

Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Energy Policy 34 (2006) 32183232 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Policy 34 (2006) 3218­3232 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions-reducing improvements in low-carbon energy systems are important sources of uncertainty in future levels of greenhouse-gas emissions. Models that assess the costs of climate change mitigation policy, and energy policy in general

Kammen, Daniel M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in the Presence of Convex Transaction Costs and Market Impact transaction costs. The loss to a portfolio from market impact costs is typically modeled with a convex, transaction costs, market impact costs, rebalanc- ing, conic optimization, convex optimization. 1 #12

Mitchell, John E.

454

Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steel and glass. Pins, glass beads and headers are assembled manually and are put in a carbon tray. Carbon trays are put in furnaces (ovens) which are maintained at a constant temperature between 160Q-2000F and have an exothermic gas environment.... At this time, company registers its peak demand. Company keeps all furnaces on and keep them available for workers in case they will need it for their products. On average, no more than two furnaces will have same temperature and exothermic gas...

Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

455

The Allocative Cost of Price Ceilings: Lessons to be Learned from the U.S. Residential Market for Natural Gas,” Unpublished paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following a Supreme Court decision in 1954, natural gas markets in the U.S. were subject to 35 years of intensive federal regulation. Several studies have measured the deadweight loss from the price ceilings that were imposed during this period. This paper concentrates on an additional component of welfare loss that is rarely discussed. In particular, when there is excess demand for a good such as natural gas for which secondary markets do not exist, an additional welfare loss occurs when the good is not allocated to the buyers who value it the most. We quantify the overall size of this allocative cost, its evolution during the post-war period, and its geographical distribution across states, and we highlight implications of our analysis for the regulation of other markets. Using a household-level, discrete-continuous model of natural gas demand we estimate that the allocative cost averaged $8.1 billion annually in the U.S. residential market for natural gas during 1950-2000, effectively doubling previous estimates of the total welfare losses from natural gas regulation. We find that these allocative costs were borne disproportionately by households in the Northeast, Midwest, and South Atlantic states.

Lucas W. Davis; Lutz Kilian; Jel D; Comments William; James Adams; James R. Hines

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

trucks. Note: Based on production. 2014 production data are preliminary. Fact 851 Dataset Supporting Information Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model...

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - average resonance capture Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

capture Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: average resonance capture Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Individual resonance parameters for...

458

E-Print Network 3.0 - average procedures applied Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

procedures applied Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: average procedures applied Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 On Optimality of the...

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - average cross sections Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E Macroscopic form of Ohm's law R V IRIV Resistance of a cylindrical wire... is the average velocity of the electrons? 1. ... Source: Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta - Department...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - average power diode-pumped Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: average power diode-pumped Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 JOURNALDE PHYSIQUEIV Colloque C4,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

E-Print Network 3.0 - average resonance neutron Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

barns) (Figure 1) covering four average lethargy steps... Verification of Neutron Phenomenology in Lead and Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing in Accelerator... and...

462

E-Print Network 3.0 - average-climate basis non-audited Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and species- Table 2 Average climate variables for domains currently... species or ecosystem services. Climate-dynamic domains provide an objective ... Source: Hoffman,...

463

E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

464

E-Print Network 3.0 - averaging current-mode rectifiers Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 19, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2004 A Comparison of Piezoelectric Transformer Summary: from (15) and (16). Taking into account that at (19) The average output...

465

Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Evaluating cost-reduction alternatives and low-cost sourcing opportunities for aerospace castings and forgings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As companies continue to outsource large portions of their manufacturing, managing costs in the supply chain is increasingly important in reducing overall costs and remaining competitive. Low-cost sourcing has become an ...

Obermoller, Amber J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Alaskan N. Slope focus shifts from wildcats to cutting production costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

North Slope operators are trying to hold the line against declining production with programs hit by lingering uncertainty over crude prices and taxes. The emphasis has shifted from last year's strong exploratory drilling campaign and high hopes fueled by the Kuvlum discovery to focus on more cost-efficient recovery of oil from producing fields. On the exploratory scene, the level of activity was low this past winter on the North Slope. Although Prudhoe Bay remains far out in front as the top producing field in the US, a field decline that began in 1989 continues. Overall, North Slope output declined in the first quarter but at a lower rate than Prudhoe Bay's. During the period, Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, Endicott, Point McIntyre, and Milne Point together produced an average 1.64 million b/d, down 2.4% from last year. Horizontal wells and coiled tubing are an important part of the productivity of the Prudhoe Bay field. The paper discusses this technology, as well as the Gas Handling Expansion No.2 facility. The bright spot in the North Slope is the Point McIntyre field discovered in 1988. The paper gives some background and production figures for this field. Niakuk and Milne Point fields are also highlighted.

Not Available

1994-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

468

Cost effectiveness of sonic drilling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sonic drilling (combination of mechanical vibrations and rotary power) is an innovative environmental technology being developed in cooperation with DOE`s Arid-Site Volatile Organic Compounds Integrated Demonstration at Hanford and the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration at Sandia. This report studies the cost effectiveness of sonic drilling compared with cable-tool and mud rotary drilling. Benefit of sonic drilling is its ability to drill in all types of formations without introducing a circulating medium, thus producing little secondary waste at hazardous sites. Progress has been made in addressing the early problems of failures and downtime.

Masten, D.; Booth, S.R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

1998 Cost and Quality Annual  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3. LightingImports Building7.p e u u8)

470

COST AND QUALITY TABLES 95  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReservesm 3 (D CD ^ Q) r* o' 3 a 3

471

Low Cost Non-Reactive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - Rocky MountainPrepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost

472

Production costs and supply of biomass by U.S. Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Biofuels Feedstock Development Program has attempted to estimate the cost of producing dedicated energy crops for several regions of the United States. Switchgrass and hybrid poplar have been chosen as representative herbaceous and woody crop species for the estimation. A full economic cost accounting approach is used. This means that not only are out-of-pocket cash expenses (e.g. fertilizers, chemicals, seeds, fuel, repairs) estimated, but fixed costs (e.g., overhead, taxes) and the costs of owned resources (e.g., producer`s own labor, equipment depreciation, land values) are also estimated as part of the cost of producing dedicated energy crops. The costs are estimated as enterprise budgets which means that costs of producing energy crops are estimated as separate entities, and not estimated in context of the entire farm management structure. Competitiveness of energy crops with conventional crops vary by region. Breakeven prices are regional averages. Breakeven prices for poplar are higher than for switchgrass in all regions, in large part due to the higher cost of producing poplars.

Walsh, M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

Not Available

1994-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

474

Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this paper is to describe an application of variable speed pumping to level control of an industrial process. Topics include a comparison of the process using control valves with a variable speed system, an energy savings and cost...

Vasel, M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Updating MIT's cost estimation model for shipbuilding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis project will update the MIT ship cost estimation model by combining the two existing models (the Basic Military Training School (BMTS) Cost Model and the MIT Math Model) in order to develop a program that can ...

Smith, Matthew B., Lieutenant, junior grade

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Cost of Offshore Wind Energy Charlene Nalubega  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost of Offshore Wind Energy and Industrial Engineering The focus of my research is to estimate the cost of floating offshore wind turbines water as well as on land based wind farms. The specific offshore wind energy case under consideration

Mountziaris, T. J.

477

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic Renewable Energy Research Renewable Energy inhibit the potential growth of the California photovoltaic market: high installation costs, expenses improvements have been made in recent years on the assembly and deployment of flatplate photovoltaic

478

Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help...

Swanson, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average levelized costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Sunk Costs and Real Options in Antitrust  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sunk costs play a central role in antitrust economics, but are often misunderstood and mismeasured. I will try to clarify some of the conceptual and empirical issues related to sunk costs, and explain their implications ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

482

Cost Principles Webinar for DOE Grant Recipients  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Cost Principles in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) define, by organization type, what kinds of costs are allowable or unallowable for reimbursement...

483

How Much Does That Incinerator Cost?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosecurity on poultry farms includes proper disposal of dead carcasses. In many cases, that means using an incinerator. Calculating the cost of an incinerator means considering long and short-term expenses and the cost of fuel. This publication...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Nash, Catherine; Harman, Wyatte; Padia, Reema

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

484

Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Sustainable Buildings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To help facility managers make sound decisions, FEMP provides guidance and resources on applying life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy and water efficiency investments.

485

A Manager's Approach to Energy Cost Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A major responsibility of management is the control and containment of operating costs. Energy costs are a major portion of the industrial budget. GM has developed a 3 phase approach to energy conservation. Phase I -Administrative Controls...

Spencer, R. J.

486

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory% postconsumer waste #12;i Independent Review Panel Summary Report September 28, 2011 From: Independent Review Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

487

Using Natural Gas Transmission Pipeline Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

future estimates of hydrogen pipelines. Construction Cost (does this mean for hydrogen pipelines? The objective of thisinto the cost of hydrogen pipelines. To this end I will

Parker, Nathan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider the stabilization (self-averaging) and destabilization of the energy of waves propagating in random media transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy

Bal, Guillaume

489

Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

Nei, Masatoshi

490

GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

491

A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

Stone, J. V.

492

Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs. 2004, ITS-Davis:hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen pipeline delivery depends onCosts to Estimate Hydrogen Pipeline Costs. 2004, ITS-Davis:

Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Costs of Generating Electrical Energy 1.0 Overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be divided into two broad areas: ownership or sunk costs and operating or avoidable costs. These costs (sunk) costs Operating (avoidable) costs Interest on bonds Return to stockholders Property taxes

McCalley, James D.

494

The level crossing analysis of German stock market index (DAX) and daily oil price time series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The level crossing analysis of DAX and oil price time series are given. We determine the average frequency of positive-slope crossings, $\

Shayeganfar, F; Peinke, J; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analysis Costs of storing and transporting hydrogen A comprehensive comparison of fuel options for fuel cell vehicles

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

An algorithm for minimization of quantum cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new algorithm for minimization of quantum cost of quantum circuits has been designed. The quantum cost of different quantum circuits of particular interest (eg. circuits for EPR, quantum teleportation, shor code and different quantum arithmetic operations) are computed by using the proposed algorithm. The quantum costs obtained using the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing results and it is found that the algorithm has produced minimum quantum cost in all cases.

Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

497

Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

498

Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Product-level bill of material development process : managing complexity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cisco's current process for developing and maintaining product-level bills of materials (BOMs) has resulted in inconsistencies in BOM structure leading to product launch delays, increased product support costs, and lower ...

Lester, Ryan John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

What does a negawatt really cost?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use data from ten utility conservation programs to calculate the cost per kWh of electricity saved -- the cost of a "negawatthour" -- resulting from these programs. We first compute the life-cycle cost per kWh saved ...

Joskow, Paul L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z