Sample records for average levelized costs

  1. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    shown for U.S. Energy Information Administration | Levelized Costs AEO 2012 3 solar, wind, and hydroelectric resources are simple averages of the capacity factor for the...

  3. Year Average Transportation Cost of Coal

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1(MillionExtensionsThousandUnderground Storage VolumeperProved

  4. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  5. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  6. average system cost: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    course that address life cycle costs, particularly the concepts of life cycle assessment (LCA) and design packaging technology, specifically the process of predicting the...

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Levelized Costs AEO 2013 3 greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive technologies like coal-fired power and coal-to-liquids (CTL) plants without carbon control and sequestration (CCS)....

  8. Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  9. Estimating the Economic Cost of Sea-Level Rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Masahiro.

    To improve the estimate of economic costs of future sea-level rise associated with global climate change,

  10. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability.

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomesticDomestic

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomesticDomesticHost and

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomesticDomesticHostFAQs 1

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial U.S.137571 July

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial U.S.137571 July

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial U.S.137571

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April 2015

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April 2015

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April 2015

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April 2015

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April 20151

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April Market4

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3 1

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3 14 1

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3 14 1

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3 14 1

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3 14

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 Oil demand8)Commercial5 1 April3

  2. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009 June 2015PV

  3. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009 June

  4. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OF CONTENTS 1of: )the HanfordPerformedStorageMarch 28,

  5. Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Masahiro, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) In the case of a classical linear sea-level rise of one meter per century, the use of DIVA generally decreases the protection fraction of the coastline, and results in a smaller protection cost because of high ...

  6. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  7. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009

  8. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count the ways. We've13, 2009 June 2015

  9. Levelized cost and levelized avoiced cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal2009Year JanYear Jan60,941,91656Appendix:

  10. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 TableTotal2009Year JanYear Jan60,941,91656Appendix:April

  11. Analyzing the level of service and cost trade-offs in cold chain transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Saiqi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis discusses the tradeoff between transportation cost and the level of service in cold chain transportation. Its purpose is to find the relationship between transportation cost and the level of service in cold ...

  12. Cost uncertainty for different levels of technology maturity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Franklin, A.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is difficult at best to apply a single methodology for estimating cost uncertainties related to technologies of differing maturity. While highly mature technologies may have significant performance and manufacturing cost data available, less well developed technologies may be defined in only conceptual terms. Regardless of the degree of technical maturity, often a cost estimate relating to application of the technology may be required to justify continued funding for development. Yet, a cost estimate without its associated uncertainty lacks the information required to assess the economic risk. For this reason, it is important for the developer to provide some type of uncertainty along with a cost estimate. This study demonstrates how different methodologies for estimating uncertainties can be applied to cost estimates for technologies of different maturities. For a less well developed technology an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate can be based on a sensitivity analysis; whereas, an uncertainty analysis of the cost estimate for a well developed technology can be based on an error propagation technique from classical statistics. It was decided to demonstrate these uncertainty estimation techniques with (1) an investigation of the additional cost of remediation due to beyond baseline, nearly complete, waste heel retrieval from underground storage tanks (USTs) at Hanford; and (2) the cost related to the use of crystalline silico-titanate (CST) rather than the baseline CS100 ion exchange resin for cesium separation from UST waste at Hanford.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O`Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types.

  14. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity criteria, is described in Shonder and Florita (2003) and Shonder and Hughes (2005). To address the first objective of the Level 2 analysis, we first assembled all the necessary information, and then repeated the ESCOs' calculations of reported annual cost savings. Only minor errors were encountered, the most common being the use of incorrect escalation rates to calculate utility prices or O&M savings. Altogether, our corrected calculations of the ESCO's reported cost savings were within 0.6% of the ESCOs' reported cost savings, and errors found were as likely to favor the government as they were the ESCO. To address the second objective, we gathered data on utility use and cost from central databases maintained by the Department of Defense and the General Services Administration, and directly from some of the sites, to determine the prices of natural gas and electricity actually paid at the sites during the periods addressed by the annual reports. We used these data to compare the actual utility costs at the sites to the contract utility prices. For natural gas, as expected, we found that prices had risen much faster than had been anticipated in the contracts. In 17 of the 18 projects for which the comparison was possible, contract gas prices were found to be lower than the average actual prices being paid. We conclude that overall in the program, the estimates of gas prices and gas price escalation rates used in the Super ESPC projects have been conservative. For electricity, it was possible to compare contract prices with the actual (estimated) marginal prices of electricity in 20 projects. In 14 of these projects, the overall contract electricity price was found to be lower than the marginal price of electricity paid to the serving utility. Thus it appears that conservative estimates of electricity prices and escalation rates have been used in the program as well. Finally we calculated the value of the reported energy savings using the prices of utilities actually paid by the sites instead of the contract prices. In 16 of the 22 projects (

  15. Cost Savings and Energy Reduction: Bi-Level Lighting Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackley, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Community Environmental Center implements Bi- Level Lighting fixtures as a component of cost-effective multifamily retrofits. These systems achieve substantial energy savings by automatically reducing lighting levels when common areas are unoccupied...

  16. Production Cost Modeling for High Levels of Photovoltaics Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Milford, J.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this report is to evaluate the likely avoided generation, fuels, and emissions resulting from photovoltaics (PV) deployment in several U.S. locations and identify new tools, methods, and analysis to improve understanding of PV impacts at the grid level.

  17. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise Jochen Hinkela,1st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range- ment and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four

  18. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

  19. Electricity production levelized costs for nuclear, gas and coal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 CleanFOR IMMEDIATEDurable 19

  20. NREL: Energy Analysis - Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNRELPower SystemsDebbieJessica

  1. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter (Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation); R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  2. Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Electrical energy can be generated from renewable resources the annual potential and actual annual production of electrical energy from renewable energy resources. Only

  3. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

  4. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  5. UMTRA Project-Level Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mission of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cost Reduction/Productivity Improvement Program (CR/PIP) is to contribute to the UMTRA Project`s environmental restoration mission by providing the means to achieve and recognize continuous improvements and cost savings. This manual includes program definition, description of UMTRA project organizational responsibilities and interfaces with existing project functions, guidance to contractors, and definition of project-level functions.

  6. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Average Retail Electricity Rates.. 14 Projected RPS Electricity Rate Impacts by RPS Costaverage residential consumer’s monthly electricity bill. Figure 9 presents projected costaverage residential monthly electricity consumption figures from EIA (2004). 95 We converted annual cost

  8. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  9. Nuclear Fuel Recycling - the Value of the Separated Transuranics and the Levelized Cost of Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    We analyze the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for three different fuel cycles: a Once-Through Cycle, in which the spent fuel is sent for disposal after one use in a reactor, a Twice-Through Cycle, in which the spent ...

  10. Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise Masahiro Sugiyama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimating the economic cost of sea-level rise by Masahiro Sugiyama Bachelor of Science in Earth Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology February 2007 ©2007 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights

  11. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

  12. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G. [Waste Management Group, Inc., Peekskill, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases.

  13. Figure-of-merit analysis and cost effectiveness of low-level radioactive waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, N.D.; Falconer, K.L.; McCormack, M.D.; Hootman, H.D.; Thompson, T.K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two studies were performed to assess low-level waste treatment systems that are available commercially for volume reduction and/or solidification. In the first, a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) decision analysis technique was used to evaluate fourteen low-level radioactive waste processing systems on their ability to treat power reactor wastes. The assessment of the various processing systems was accomplished using a five member task force. The systems were judged on eleven major criteria and twenty subcriteria. The system judged superior to all the others was compaction of dry wastes with liquid wastes and sludges being directly incorporated into concrete. This was also the lowest cost system. The controlled air incinerator was judged the preferred incineration process. The Werner-Pfleider bitumen extruder was the preferred liquid waste treatment system. In the second study, the cost economy of volume reduction measured in land disposal dollars was investigated. The greatest cost savings with volume reduction were realized with a BWR using a deep bed condensate polishing system; the least with a PWR with condensate polishing. For both BWR systems and PWRs without condensate cleanup, over 80% of the savings in land disposal dollars resulted from volume reduction of liquid waste streams (concentrated liquids and filter sludge). For a PWR with a condensate polishing system, which had the least cost effective system for volume reduction, about one-third of the savings resulting from incineration of spent resin and compactible trash was offset by the increased expense of casks required for transporting concentrated liquids which have undergone additional volume reduction.

  14. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  15. Effects of pelleting, dietary protein level and unidentified factors on feed cost and the performance of egg type layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karunajeewa, Hector

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND UNIDENTIFIED FACTORS ON FEED COST AND THE PERFORMANCE OF EGG TYPE LAYERS A Thesis by Hector Reruns]eewa Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science August 1961 Ma)or Sub)ect - Poultry Science EPPECTS OP PELLETING, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND DNIDENTIPTED FACTORS ON PEED COST AND THE PERFORNANCE OP BIN' TTPE LAYERS A...

  16. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  17. A SURVEY OF STATE-LEVEL COST ESTIMATES OF RENEWABLES PORTFOLIO STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar TechnologiesRPS costs, per unit of renewable energy generation, rangedFlores-Espino National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  18. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    projections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel priceboth renewable technology costs and avoided fuel costs. Theof future renewable technology cost and performance would

  19. Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides background information about (1) the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of high-voltage transmission lines at typical voltages and line configurations and (2) typical transmission line costs to assist on alternatives in environmental documents. EMF strengths at 0 {+-} 200 ft from centerline were calculated for ac overhead lines, and for 345 and 230-kV ac underground line and for a {+-}450-kV dc overhead line. Compacting and height sensitivity factors were computed for the variation in EMFs when line conductors are moved closer or raised. Estimated costs for the lines are presented and discussed so that the impact of using alternative strategies for reducing EMF strengths and the implications of implementing the strategies can be better appreciated.

  20. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  1. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  2. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, J.W. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation (United States); Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  3. Lessons Learned: Using Low Cost, Uncooled Infrared Cameras for the Rapid Liquid Level Assessment of Chemical UXO and Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Kevin Larry

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the fall of 2001, the U.S. Army used low-cost infrared cameras provided by the INEEL to image 3190 aging ton shipping containers to determine if any contained liquid, possibly trace amounts of hazardous mustard agent. The purpose of the scan was to provide quick, "hands-off" assessment of the water-heater-sized containers before moving them with a crane. If the thermal images indicated a possible liquid level, extra safety precautions would be taken prior to moving the container. The technique of using infrared cameras to determine liquid levels in large storage tanks is well documented, but the application of this technique to ton shipping containers (45 to 1036 liters) and even smaller individual chemical munitions (2 to 4 liters) is unique and presents some interesting challenges. This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.

  4. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States); Shaddoan, W.T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Paducah, KY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  5. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1AResearchStudy of theAAAA A

  6. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impacts We converted other cost metrics to ˘/kWh retail ratePower System Operating Costs: Summary and Perspective onA. Bibliography of RPS Cost Studies Studies listed in

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind Power Capital Cost Assumptions (Base-Case Analysis).27. Wind Power Capital Cost Assumptions (Base-Case Analysis)wind cost assumptions employed in most of the RPS analyses

  8. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data, the highest capital cost estimate in the 2010-2015multiply initial capital cost estimates by up to a factor ofand projected wind capital cost estimates from EPRI/DOE

  9. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Busbar Cost Data 47 Windanalysis. energy (wind, in particular), as well as the costrenewable energy (wind, in particular), as well as the cost

  10. Environmental benefits and cost savings through market-based instruments : an application using state-level data from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Shreekant

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a methodology for estimating potential cost savings from the use of market-based instruments (MBIs) when local emissions and abatement cost data are not available. The paper provides estimates of the ...

  11. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIA’s 2006 forecast for average natural gas prices deliveredsuch as the natural gas price forecast and the presumedNatural Gas Price Forecasts ..

  12. Balancing Cost and Risk by Optimizing the High-Level Waste and Low-Activity Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the currently used melters, the waste loading for nearly all high-level waste (HLW) is limited by crystallization. Above a certain level of waste loading, precipitation, settling, and accumulation of crystalline phases can cause severe processing problems and shorten the melter lifetime. To decrease the cost without putting the vitrification process at an unreasonable risk, several options, such as developing melters that operate above the liquidus temperature of glass, can be considered. Alternatively, if the melter is stirred, either mechanically, by bubbling, or by temperature gradients in induction heating, the melt can contain a substantial fraction of a crystalline phase that would not settle because it would be removed from the melter with glass. In addition, an induction melter can be nearly completely drained. For current melters that operate at a fixed temperature of 1150C, optimized glass formulation within currently accepted constaints has been developed. This approach is based on mathematically formulated relationships between glass properties and glass composition. Finally, re-evaluating the liquidus-temperature constraint, which may be unnecessarily restrictive for some HLWs, has recently been investigated. An attempt is being made to assess the rate of settling of crystalline phases in the melter and evaluate the risk for melter operation. Based on a reliable estimate of such a risk, waste loading could be increased, and a substantial saving can accrue. For low-activity waste (LAW), the waste loading in glass is limited either by the product quality or by segregation of sulfate during melting. The formulation of constraints on LAW glass in terms of relevant properties has not been completed, and no property-composition relationships have been established so far for this type of waste glass.

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wholesale electricity price projections as a model output.in natural gas prices projections over the past severalprojections of renewable technology cost, fossil fuel price

  14. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed wholesale electricity price projections as a modelelectricity bills, and renewable energy certificate (REC) prices. Developing a consistent set of metrics for comparing cost projections

  15. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E.S.; Holter, G.M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents: Reference site details; Waste inventory details; Radiation dose methodology; Environmental surveillance and records maintenance details; Payments needed to finance decommissioning; Site/waste stabilization decommissioning activity details; Waste relocation decommissioning activity details; Cost assessment details; Radiological safety details.

  16. Allocating Costs in Ninth Circuit Predatory Pricing Cases: Marsann Co. v. Brammall, Inc. and its Problematic Progeny, Inglis v. Continental Baking and Thales v. Matsushita

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frech, Ted E; Wazzan, C. Paul

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    treatment of prices above average variable cost, but belowaverage total cost varies greatly. In the Sixth and Ninthto be below Average Total Cost, but above Average Variable

  17. China Camp's race against the tides: Predicting tidal marsh survival through comparison of project sea level rise elevations and sediment accretion rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hannah, Whitney; Kuhn, Marlene

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with 55 inches of sea level rise and continued average marshthe Costs of Adapting to Sea Level Rise: A Case Study of San2009. The Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on the California Coast.

  18. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would stimulate wind technology cost reductions on theprojections of renewable technology costs, fossil fuel priceavailability. Renewable technology cost: Reflects changes to

  19. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Cliff

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Jersey “high technology cost” scenario, which exceedsthan-expected solar technology costs would probably causeAvailability Renew able Technology Cost Fossil Fuel Price

  20. This is a preprint of the following article, which is available from http://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ://mdolab.engin.umich.edu/content/ multidisciplinary-design-optimization-offshore-wind-turbines-minimum-levelized-cost-energy. The published article.A.M. van Kuik. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines for Minimum Levelized Cost of Energy. Renewable Energy (In press), 2014 Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

  1. Levelized Cost Calculations | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.83155 Small Hydropower: 0.83155 Commercial PV: 0.83155 Marine Hydrokinetic: 0.83155 Solar Thermal: 0.83155 Compressed Air Energy Storage: 1 Near Field (or Enhanced...

  2. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  3. Cost of a Ride: The Effects of Densities on Fixed-Guideway Transit Ridership and Capital Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Erick; Cervero, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transit – exceeded capital cost estimates by 40% duringfound that capital costs exceeded estimates by an averagesystems. We estimate the total capital cost, average weekday

  4. Costs of Generating Electrical Energy 1.0 Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , 1992 through 2008 Period Coal [1] Petroleum [2] Natural Gas [3] All Fossil Fuels Receipts (Billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (billion BTU) Average Cost Avg. Sulfur Percent by Weight Receipts (Billion BTUs) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) Average Cost (cents/ 10 6 Btu) ($ per 10 6

  5. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal where needed) to transport LLW from generator sites to NTS.

  6. DOE Average Results

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | DepartmentIOffshore WindEnergy's FY2016Appoints DOE

  7. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91 8.10

  8. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91

  9. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47

  10. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14 11.39

  11. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14

  12. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06

  13. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 Monthly Annual

  14. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662 564

  15. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662

  16. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease3.01 12.33 11.85 10.97

  17. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket Module8.28

  18. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket

  19. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  20. Minimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    consumption, for a total electricity cost of about $4.5 billion [1]. This level of electricity consumptionMinimizing Data Center Cooling and Server Power Costs Ehsan Pakbaznia and Massoud Pedram University an average of 13% power saving for different data center utilization rates compared to a baseline task

  1. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    selections announced today will deploy innovative technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, and advanced control systems in order to...

  2. Startup Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  3. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  4. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  5. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in the Levelized Cost of Energy From U.S. Windreducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore

  6. Costing Summaries for Selected Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Engineering News-Record Construction Cost Index · Consumer Prices Index · Year Index = average of the monthly;Develop Costing Curves for : · Construction · Operation and Maintenance #12;Small Systems · Limited · Construction Costs · O&M Costs · General Design and Operational Information #12;Update The Costs for year 2000

  7. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  8. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  9. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  10. Operating Costs Estimates Cost Indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    to update costs of specific equipment, raw material or labor or CAPEX and OPEX of entire plants Cost Indices

  11. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin goals.

  12. NREL is a na*onal laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. A Survey of State-Level Cost and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Es7mates. Download report: hSp://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14os*/61042.pdf or hSp://emp.lbl.gov/publica*ons/survey

  13. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  14. Steam Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Steam Coal Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 46.96 39.34...

  15. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2283­2300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 ­ Accepted: 9 March 2004 ­ Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  16. Average cost optimal threshold strategies for remote estimation with communication cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Aditya

    - municate these measurements to an aggregator which will use this information for demand response etc

  17. Conservation Cost-Effectiveness Determination Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the levelized cost of the aggregate supply curves, the portfolio model does not evaluate each measure's specific of programming constraints, the levelized costs of conservation used in the portfolio model are not adjusted of its costs. May 2005 E-1 #12;include energy and capacity cost savings, local distribution cost savings

  18. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  19. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  20. SEASONAL AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON LEVELS IN 70 HOUSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Dudney; A. R. Hawthorne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A year-long, mu1 ti pollutant, indoor air qua1 ity study involving 70 occupied houses in four states was completed in 1987. All of the houses included in the study had a partial or complete basement with a concrete slab floor and block walls. On an approximately quarterly schedule, integrating monitors for short-1 i ved radon progeny, N02, HCHO, and H20 were exposed for one week in each house on both the basement and main 1 eve1 s. At the beginning of the study, a pair of alpha track detectors were placed both on top of the refrigerator in the kitchen (or some other sampling site on the main floor) and at a sampling site in the basement. One detector at each sampl ing site was left in place for a year. The other detector at each sampling site was retrieved after about three month's exposure and replaced with another detector for the next quarter. In addition, short-term samples of radon and radon progeny were made at

  1. Turfgrass: Maintenance Costs in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Ethan C.; Allen, W. Wayne; Ferguson, Marvin H.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These regions also have high water costs. The Gulf Coast, where water is a minor item, has an average expenditure only slightly greater than half that in West Texas. Average lawn sizes in these two regions are almost identical. Use of com- post, commercial.... Individuals with grasses other than bermuda and St. Augustine spend on the average about 53 percent TARLE 2. TOTALS OF VARIOUS HOME LAWN MAINTENANCE EXPENDITURES WITHIN REGIONS AND FOR THE STATE1 Number of Maintenance items Region households Commercial...

  2. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  3. On EOQ Cost Models with Arbitrary Purchase and Transportation ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birbil

    2014-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    level is negative. Out of pocket holding costs represent real costs of holding inventory, such as; warehouse rental, handling, insurance and refrigeration costs.

  4. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  5. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  6. December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almgren, Robert F.

    December 17, 2008 Robert Almgren / Encyclopedia of Quantitative Finance Execution Costs 1 Execution Costs Execution costs are the difference in value between an ideal trade and what was actually done. The execution cost of a single completed trade is typically the difference between the final average trade price

  7. Development of the household sample for furnace and boilerlife-cycle cost analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, Jim

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential household space heating energy use comprises close to half of all residential energy consumption. Currently, average space heating use by household is 43.9 Mbtu for a year. An average, however, does not reflect regional variation in heating practices, energy costs, or fuel type. Indeed, a national average does not capture regional or consumer group cost impacts from changing efficiency levels of heating equipment. The US Department of Energy sets energy standards for residential appliances in, what is called, a rulemaking process. The residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking process investigates the costs and benefits of possible updates to the current minimum efficiency regulations. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) selected the sample used in the residential furnace and boiler efficiency rulemaking from publically available data representing United States residences. The sample represents 107 million households in the country. The data sample provides the household energy consumption and energy price inputs to the life-cycle cost analysis segment of the furnace and boiler rulemaking. This paper describes the choice of criteria to select the sample of houses used in the rulemaking process. The process of data extraction is detailed in the appendices and is easily duplicated. The life-cycle cost is calculated in two ways with a household marginal energy price and a national average energy price. The LCC results show that using an national average energy price produces higher LCC savings but does not reflect regional differences in energy price.

  8. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  9. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    comparisons based on levelized cost of energy (LCOE)). AUnserved Energy Levelized cost of energy Loss of loadmetrics like the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost

  10. Contracting with reading costs and renegotiation costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, James R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reading Costs, Competition, and ContractReading Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. EquilibriumUnconscionability A?ect Reading Costs . . . . . . . . . .

  11. The Economic Cost of Instructional Coaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, David Stephen

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , this cost framework is applied to three schools with instructional coaching programs during the 2009-10 school year. The average cost per teacher was found to range from approximately $3,260 to $5,220, while model developers suggest a cost of $2,298 per...

  12. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  13. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space DataEnergyCompressed AirEnergy

  14. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesville EnergyDepartment.Attachment FY2011-40(10 CFR Parts 1021Jungle

  15. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost levelized using 15% per year levelizing factor (3) Energycost levelized using 15% per year levelizing factor (3) Energy

  16. Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98...

  17. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  18. Computational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Suresh

    present results from a detailed energy measurement study of TCP. We focus on the node- level cost have characterized the cost of the primary TCP functions; (3) our node-level energy models canComputational Energy Cost of TCP Bokyung Wang Telecommunications System Division SAMSUNG

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai�¢����i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  20. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...

  1. Costing of Joining Methods -Arc Welding Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    Costing of Joining Methods - Arc Welding Costs ver. 1 ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 1 #12;OverviewOverview · Cost components · Estimation of costsEstimation of costs · Examples ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 2 #12;Cost

  2. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  3. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  5. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  6. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al Juaied, Mohammed (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (US). Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam (Hydrogen Energy International Ltd., Weybridge (GB))

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding transport and storage costs appears to be US$100-150/tCO2 for first-of-a-kind plants and perhaps US$30-50/tCO2 for nth-of-a-kind plants.The estimates for FOAK and NOAK costs appear to be broadly consistent in the light of estimates of the potential for cost reductions with increased experience. Cost reductions are expected from increasing scale, learning on individual components, and technological innovation including improved plant integration. Innovation and integration can both lower costs and increase net output with a given cost base. These factors are expected to reduce abatement costs by approximately 65% by 2030. The range of estimated costs for NOAK plants is within the range of plausible future carbon prices, implying that mature technology would be competitive with conventional fossil fuel plants at prevailing carbon prices.

  7. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  8. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  9. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  10. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FERC Form 1, avoided cost data filed by utilities (in theby weighted-average capital cost data, provided elsewhere indata to compile capital cost data for a large number of U.S.

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in the other schedules of the Form EIA-861. These schedules include Schedule 2C Green Pricing and Schedule 2D Net Metering. It is also possible that, in the future, too...

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment ActivitiesAge Refining Air1, 2015Residential Energy

  13. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  14. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  15. Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    sharing using various data fields (bin, fund, PI, index, etc.) x Create a Bin Generate a bin where cost;3 Cost Sharing Steps Search for & Create a Bin Search Results Display Select AWARD Type the correct data1 Cost Sharing What is Cost Sharing? x Cost sharing is a commitment to use university resources

  16. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  17. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  18. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  19. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  20. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  1. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massarutto, Antonio [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Carli, Alessandro de, E-mail: alessandro.decarli@unibocconi.it [IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Graffi, Matteo [University of Udine, Udine (Italy); IEFE, Bocconi University, Milan (Italy)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  2. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samuel Schenker, “The Costs of Hir- u ing Skilled Workers”,Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andof employee replacement costs, using a panel survey of

  3. Employee Replacement Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dube, Arindrajit; Freeman, Eric; Reich, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employee Replacement Costs Arindrajit Dube, Eric Freeman andproperties of employee replacement costs, using a panel2008. We establish that replacement costs are sub- stantial

  4. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  5. RETI Resource Valuation Methodology Cost of Generation Calculator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) · Cost of equity investment in capital · Cost of financing capital · Taxes, including investmentRETI Resource Valuation Methodology Cost of Generation Calculator The Cost of Generation Calculator determines the levelized cost of generating power over the life of the resource, and is an input

  6. Operating Costs for Trucks David Levinson*, Michael Corbett, Maryam Hashami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Operating Costs for Trucks David Levinson*, Michael Corbett, Maryam Hashami David Levinson Author Abstract This study estimates the operating costs for commercial vehicle operators in Minnesota. A survey of firms that undertake commercial truck road movements was performed. The average operating cost

  7. Resource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost-Effectiveness1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,008 average megawatts of conservation8. The electricity price forecast used for this initial estimResource Portfolio Model's Determination of Conservation's Cost- Effectiveness1 The regional Resource Portfolio Model (RPM) finds large amounts of conservation cost effective. The cost of some

  8. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2007 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2007 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  9. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2009 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2009 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  10. Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa -2008 File A1-20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Crop Production in Iowa - 2008 File A1-20 T he estimated costs of corn, corn sources. They include the annual Iowa Farm Business Asso- ciation record summaries, production and costs the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs for farms in Iowa. Very large or small

  11. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  12. BPA's Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade Later: AreAugust 19,1 BPA5

  13. cost savings

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysisDarby Dietrich5 |0/%2A en6/%2A en2/%2A en

  14. Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian Model, a Two-Dimensional Model and a Three-Dimensional Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V

    2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.

  15. SAMPLE AVERAGE APPROXIMATION METHOD FOR COMPOUND ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 30, 2013 ... bounds from (10) are much sharper than estimates obtained from (11), ..... X a vector of resources allocated at objects i = 1, ..., n to protect them from the .... and cost functions, IE denotes mathematical expectation over ?. ...... [29] H. Markowitz, Mean-Variance Analysis in Portfolio Choice and Capital Markets, ...

  16. Improving the thermal integrity of new single-family detached residential buildings: Documentation for a regional database of capital costs and space conditioning load savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Wodley, C.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the costs and space-conditioning load savings from improving new single-family building shells. It relies on survey data from the National Association of Home-builders (NAHB) to assess current insulation practices for these new buildings, and NAHB cost data (aggregated to the Federal region level) to estimate the costs of improving new single-family buildings beyond current practice. Space-conditioning load savings are estimated using a database of loads for prototype buildings developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, adjusted to reflect population-weighted average weather in each of the ten federal regions and for the nation as a whole.

  17. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  18. The Cost-Effectiveness of Continuous Commissioning® Over the Past Ten Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Wei, G.

    for the data set is $0.51/(ft2a) ($5.52/(m2a)) with an average annual energy cost savings of 14%. The average cost of commissioning is $0.43/(ft2a) ($4.60/(m2a)) resulting in an average simple payback of 1.6 years. Just over half of the measures implemented...

  19. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al-falfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average

  20. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  1. Minimizing the Average Cost of Paging on the Air Interface An Approach Considering Privacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Technology, Computer Science Department IV, D-52056 Aachen, Germany Abstract ­ Location Management of mobile for a mobile user in a cellular network, for efficient location management it is desirable to know the current of Technology, Institute of Theoretical Computer Science, D-01062 Dresden, Germany Aachen University

  2. Decreasing Average Cost and Competition: A New Look at the Addyston Pipe Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittlingmayer, George

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can arise in an industry; once plants in an industry exist, will competition allow them to operate harmoniously? A related problem is whether firms can be induced to enter an industry with competitive pric­ ing. The simplest case to analyze... of electricity, for example—storing output is nearly impossible. Now, while this conclusion concerning the feasibility of competition and the function of market collusion may appear to be out of step with much of economic thinking, the analysis is in fact...

  3. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmit a FreedomResearch

  4. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND DTechnologies |cents per kWh - Without New

  5. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  6. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  7. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  8. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  9. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  10. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  11. Activity Based Costing

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  12. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Cedar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    2001-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    method. Figure 3 is for the top-removal method). In Figures 1 and 2, the upper graph shows the cost for the spray only. The center graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $6 per hour. The bottom graph shows total cost for spray + labor at $12 per... hour. Figure 3 shows the costs for the top-removal method, with labor at $6 per hour in the upper graph and $12 per hour in the lower graph. ? Locate your average cedar density (the average calculated in Step #1) on the lower, horizontal axis (density...

  13. Brush Busters: How to Estimate Costs for Controlling Small Mesquite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ueckert, Darrell; McGinty, Allan

    1999-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , then calculate the average mesquite density for your pasture. Step 2. Use the graphs to estimate cost per acre. ? Find the appropriate figure in this brochure for the Brush Busters method you will use. (Figure 1 estimates costs for the leaf spray method...) on the left side of the chart. Make a mark on the cost axis. This point is an estimate of what your cost per acre should be in $/acre. Example: If you have an average of 100 small mesquite plants per acre, you?re using the Brush Busters leaf spray method...

  14. Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For a particular class of supermodular cost cooperative games that arises from a scheduling ... the costs collectively incurred by a group of cooperating agents.

  15. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  16. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  17. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  18. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  19. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  20. Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection Joseph E. Harrington to cost shocks. During the stationary phase, price responds to cost but is much less sensitive than under of cost shocks. It is also shown that the cartel price path may overshoot its long-run level so that price

  1. Cost Constrained Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    networks considering its system level cost that accounts for the local processing cost of sensing (sample collection and energy calculation at each secondary user) as well as the transmission cost (forwarding energy for various factors that contribute to the cost incurred by spectrum sensing. In this paper, we study energy

  2. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  3. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  4. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report summaries, production and costs data from the Depart- ments of Economics, Agricultural and Biosystems and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs

  5. Cost Estimation Package

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  6. Systems Engineering Cost Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    on project, human capital impact. 7 How to estimate Cost? Difficult to know what we are building early on1 Systems Engineering Lecture 3 Cost Estimation Dr. Joanna Bryson Dr. Leon Watts University of Bath: Contrast approaches for estimating software project cost, and identify the main sources of cost

  7. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  8. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  9. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elec Del Cali: Del Investment Cost Delivery Cost OperatingCost Feedstock Cost Investment Cost Delivery Cost Operatingcosts Annualized investment cost, 1000$/yr Total annualized

  10. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  11. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  12. Economic and Financial Costs of Saving Water and Energy: Preliminary Analysis for Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Juan) – Replacement of Pipeline Units I-7A, I-18, and I-22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturdivant, Allen W.; Rister, M. Edward; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    to the project’s construction cost when evaluating the cost of saving water. The historic average diversion-energy usage level of 201,384 BTU {59.02 kwh} per ac-ft of water diverted (by the District) for calendar years 2002-2006 is used to estimate energy... or longer period is possible, but 49 years is considered reasonable and consistent with engineering expectations (Michalewicz). Sensitivity analyses are utilized to examine the effects of this assumption. Initial Construction Costs: Total initial...

  13. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  14. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 13 February 2006 DoD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    per state in CONUS) average construction costs. In general, the ACF index is developed based of the current Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON of construction costs at that location to the National average as 1, determined from 96 Base Cities (two cities

  15. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Commercial Consumer

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662579

  16. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Industrial Consumer

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease

  17. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResourcesjobsJuly throughR E Q U ESTEM SubscribeRise

  18. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonant Soft X-RayReview/Verify3 JuneReviw

  19. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  20. About Cost Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the university, fee-for-service contracts, as well as establishing CAMD as a cost center. We know that our users are reluctant to see CAMD become a cost center, however...

  1. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  4. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste.

  5. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability distributions of key parameters and employs Monte Carlo sampling to arrive at an island’s cost probability density function (PDF). When comparing two NES to determine delta cost, strongly correlated parameters can be cancelled out so that only the differences in the systems contribute to the relative cost PDFs. For example, one comparative analysis presented in the paper is a single stage LWR-UOX system versus a two-stage LWR-UOX to LWR-MOX system. In this case, the first stage of both systems is the same (but with different fractional energy generation), while the second stage of the UOX to MOX system uses the same type transmuter but the fuel type and feedstock sources are different. In this case, the cost difference between systems is driven by only the fuel cycle differences of the MOX stage.

  6. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  7. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    notes that comparisons of cost data remain difficult becausethese resources into cost data, and a description of themigrations), the cost of processing the data may rise

  8. Technical and cost potential for lightweight, stretched-membrane heliostat technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the background and rationale and describes the development effort of a potentially low-cost, concentrating reflector design. The proposed reflector design is called the stretched-membrane concept. In this concept a reflector film - which can be metal, polymeric, or of a composite construction - is stretched on a hollow torroidal frame that offers a structurally efficient and optically accurate surface. Although the intent is to improve heliostat concentrator cost and performance for solar thermal applications, the collector design approach proposed here may well offer effective cost and performance opportunities for improving photovoltaic and solar daylighting applications as well. Some of the major advantages include a reflector, a support frame, and support structures that can be made extremely lightweight and low in cost because of the effective use of material with high average stress levels in the reflector and support frame; a 75% reduction in the weight of the reflector and support structure (down to the drive attachment) over the second-generation glass-and-metal heliostat concept; a better than 50% cost reduction for the reflector assembly and support structure compared to corresponding elements of the second-generation concept; and, finally, optical accuracies and an annual energy delivery potential close to those attainable with current glass-and-metal heliostats. In this paper results of initial design studies, performance predictions, and analysis are presented, as well as results corresponding to subscale testing. Also included are recommendations for further development and for resolving remaining issues.

  9. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  10. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  11. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  12. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs Annualized Investment Cost, 1000$/yr Total AnnualizedH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/yr) OperatingH2 Fueling Stations Investment Cost Cost ($/kg) Operating

  13. Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wootan, Charley V.; McNeely, John G.

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors Affecting Auction Market Operating Costs Texas Summary and Conclusions T THE TIME THE DATA for this study were collected A there were 178 livestock auctions operating in Texas; 140 were included in this analysis. They ranyed in size... from just over 5,000 animal units per year to alinost 350,000. It has been sl~own that opera- - tional efficiency, measured in terms of average cost per unit marketed, increases directly with firm size and that efficiency gains were most marked...

  14. Variability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Year Outcomes of Observation Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbass, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variability in the initial costs of care across theVariability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Yearis associated with lower costs and comparable level of care

  15. A cost/benefit model for insertion of technological innovation into a total quality management program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, William L

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    justify quality improvement. The results of this study provide process-level engineers with a cost/benefit model template, which can be used to cost justify technological improvement based upon total quality costs....

  16. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  17. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  18. Calculator program optimizes bit weight, rotary speed, reducing drilling cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.A.

    1984-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Bit selection, bit weight, and rotary speed have repeatedly proven to be the most important and commonly overlooked alterable factors which control penetration rate, footage, and overall drilling cost. This is particularly true in offshore operations where drilling costs are highest and the greatest cost savings stand to be achieved through implementation of proven optimization techniques. The myth that bit weights and rotary speeds cannot be optimized in directional holes has hindered the industry from using this virtually cost-free method for reducing drilling cost. The use of optimized bit weights and rotary speeds in conjunction with minimum cost bit programs based on cost per foot analysis of previous bit runs in the area was implemented on a five-well platform in the Grand Isle Block 20 field, offshore Louisiana. Each of the directional wells was drilled substantially faster and cheaper than the discovery well, which was a straight hole. Average reductions in footage cost of 31.3%, based on daily operating cost of $30,000/day, and increase in average daily footage drilled of 45.2% were effected by ''collectively optimizing'' drilling performance. The ''Optimizer'' program is an HP-41CV adaptation of the Bourgoyne and Young drilling model. It was used to calculate the optimum bit weights and rotary speeds based on field drilling tests; historical bit and bearing wear data; and current operating conditions, cost, and constraints.

  19. Low Cost Components: Screening of Advanced Battery Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitsubishi Chemical, and ConocoPhillips Vehicle Technologies Program Barriers Identify lithium-ion battery materials, with enhanced stability, that lower cell-level costs while...

  20. Re-roofing slashes chain's cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-roofing program to install single-ply synthetic rubber coated with hypalon, a white synthetic rubber, will save each Hardee restaurant an average of $25,000 over a 10-year period. The savings will come from reduced air conditioning costs, which will vary by location. The new roof system tolerates temperatures from -40 to over 150/sup 0/F. Reflection from the white surface makes the material more energy efficient than conventional hot asphalt.

  1. Pension costs and liabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Courtney, Harley Macon

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be to charge the cost over the current and subsequent years on the assumption that the cost, even though measured by past services, is incurred in contemplation of present and future 1 services. 1'he development of accounting thought concerning retire...? present liabilities are under- stated and owner's equity is overstated by a corresponding amount. It seems, however, that charging retained earnings with the past service cost does not, represent the true picture. Pension payments based solely on past...

  2. Implementation Shortfall One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has ruled the algorithmic trading world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in the fact that it does not require such cost predictions. VWAP vs. Arrival Price So how does arrival priceImplementation Shortfall ­ One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has year toward using decision price, or implementation shortfall, algorithms. ITG®'s Hitesh Mittal

  3. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    experience - as needed - in project management, scheduling, cost estimatingcost engineering, risk management, as well as subject matter experts (SMEs) with knowledge of...

  4. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  5. IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment Brian Subirana subirana@mit.edu MIT Center for Coordination Science WP #222 July 2003 #12;IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel maintaining existing service levels. "We want you to reduce automation costs by 50% while maintaining equal

  6. Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Generating Station. 4 #12;6/19/2013 3 EVEN MORE SUNNY HEADLINES New solar panels glisten6/19/2013 1 Utility Scale Solar PV Cost Steven SimmonsSteven Simmons Northwest Power Cost Forecast 5. Levelized Costs 1 SOLAR POWER SYSTEM HAS BRIGHT FUTURE 1. Modest environmental impacts

  7. A Walking Model with No Energy Cost M. W. Gomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    on a frictional surface. Can legged transport over level ground be similarly energy-cost free? NatureA Walking Model with No Energy Cost M. W. Gomes Mechanics, Cornell University; now at Mechanical these minor friction losses, is a zero- energy-cost walking mechanism possible? Consider walking mechanisms

  8. Wind Power: How Much, How Soon, and At What Cost?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wind energy and that allow the model to incorporate the costsCost and Electricity Production of High Penetration Levels of Intermittent Electricity in OECD Europe and the USA, Results for Wind Energy."wind energy are projected to be relatively modest. Figure 11 shows the total estimated electric-sector costs

  9. Facility Location with Hierarchical Facility Costs Zoya Svitkina #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tardos, Ă?va

    Facility Location with Hierarchical Facility Costs Zoya Svitkina # â?? Eva Tardos + Abstract We consider the facility location problem with hierarchi­ cal facility costs, and give a (4 installation costs. Shmoys, Swamy and Levi [13] gave an approxi­ mation algorithm for a two­level version

  10. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  11. Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks Lianghui Ding, Feng.wu@angstrom.uu.se Abstract--In this paper, we analyze and evaluate the cost- delay trade off of opportunistic network coding the average power cost and delay, formulate the optimal power-delay trade off, and propose a heuristic

  12. Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Volume 6, Number 1 January 2009 Morgantown's Housing Costs Make It The Most Expensive Place To Live In The State By Amy Higginbotham For the third quarter of 2008, Morgantown's cost of living was found to be 0.7 percent above the national average, according to the ACCRA Cost of Living Survey. While close

  13. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 5 March 2009 DOD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    . In general, the ACF index is developed based on the local construction costs for a market basket of 8 Labor of the current Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON location reflects the relative relationship of construction costs at that location to the National average

  14. PAX Newsletter No 3.2.1, 2 March 2010 DOD AREA COST FACTORS (ACF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to determine the average construction costs for those locations. In general, the ACF index is developed based Army Technical Manual TM 5-800-4, Programming Cost Estimates for Military Construction (MILCON), dated-13 Military Construction Army (MCA) and Army Family Housing (AFH) projects' DD Forms 1391 and budget cost

  15. Estimating the manufacturing cost of purely organic solar cells Joseph Kalowekamo 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    to a levelized cost of electricity (LEC) of between 49˘ and 85˘/kWh. In order to achieve a more competitive COE that into a levelized electricity cost (LEC). We find that there is a great deal of uncertainty about the capital costs., Estimating the manufacturing cost of purely organic solar cells, Sol. Energy (2009), doi:10.1016/j

  16. CHARACTERIZING UNCERTAIN SEA LEVEL RISE PROJECTIONS TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    identifies scenarios where a decision to invest in near-term response to extreme sea level rise passes a cost. Keywords: Sea level rise, robust decision-making, climate change adaptation, cost-benefit analysis PleaseCHARACTERIZING UNCERTAIN SEA LEVEL RISE PROJECTIONS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS

  17. FY 1997 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sellards, J.B.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the end of the cold war, funding for the Environmental Management program increased rapidly as nuclear weapons production facilities were shut down, cleanup responsibilities increased, and facilities were transferred to the cleanup program. As funding for the Environmental Management (EM) program began to level off in response to Administration and Congressional efforts to balance the Federal budget, the program redoubled its efforts to increase efficiency and get more productivity out of every dollar. Cost savings and enhanced performance are an integral pair of Hanford Site operations. FY1997 was the third year of a cost savings program that was initially defined in FY 1995. The definitions and process remained virtually the same as those used in FY 1996.

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  1. WP2 IEA Wind Task 26:The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011b). Development in LCOE for Wind Turbines in Denmark.levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses are shown in Tablethe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore wind energy.

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technology * 2015 projected technology 2 Determine costs for these 3 tech level Fuel Cell System Battery System Storage 2. Determine costs for these 3 tech level systems at 5...

  3. ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    . Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis

  4. Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Joon Ho

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates how indoor daylight environments affect patient Average Length of Stay (ALOS), by evaluating and analyzing daylight levels in patient rooms in comparison to their ALOS. The patient ALOS data were taken at one general hospital...

  5. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  6. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  7. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  8. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  9. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  10. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  11. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  12. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  13. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  14. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  15. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  16. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  17. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  18. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levelized costs; (2) in regions where capacity markets exist, wholesale prices presumably reflect only the value of energy,

  19. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    identify particularly useful cost data and cost models thatcontaining hydrogen cost data for production, storage,Volume Validates cost data with Industry Operating Costs

  20. AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    AGRICULTURAL BMP PLACEMENT FOR COST-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne-EFFECTIVE POLLUTION CONTROL AT THE WATERSHED LEVEL Tamie Lynne Veith Abstract The overall goal of this research was to increase, relative to targeting recommendations, the cost-effectiveness of pollution reduction measures

  1. COST OF SECURITY: FIREWALL FOCUS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.0 - HOISTING30, 2006 16thCOST11-11198

  2. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). Tax Equity Yield (after-power closer to achieving LCOE goals (and at no additionallevelized cost of energy (“LCOE”). 3. Model Descriptions and

  3. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  4. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  5. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  6. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  7. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  8. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments174.37,681.01998$11.15 - 1993

  9. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments174.37,681.01998$11.15 - 1993 1994

  10. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments174.37,681.01998$11.15 - 1993 1994

  11. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments174.37,681.01998$11.15 - 1993 1994

  12. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (MillionAdjustments174.37,681.01998$11.15 - 1993 1994

  13. Cost Estimating Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  14. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  15. Investments of uncertain cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study irreversible investment decisions when projects take time to complete, and are subject to two types of uncertainty over the cost of completion. The first is technical uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty over the amount ...

  16. Standard costs for labor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARD COSTS FOR LABOR A Thesis By MD. NURUL ABSAR KHAN Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texms in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... January 1960 Ma/or Sub)acts Accounting STANOAHD COSTS FOR LABOR ND, NURUL ABSAR KHAN Approved as t style and content bys Chairman of Committee Head of Hepartment January 1960 The author acknowledges his indebtedness to Mr. T. M. Leland, Mr. T. D...

  17. Volume 6, Number 2 June 2009 Cost Of Living: How Does Morgantown Compare In The First Quarter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    of Business and Economic Research percent above national average. The price of electricity, natural gas was balanced by high housing and transportation costs and low utility and miscellaneous good and services ranking it 64th highest of the 309 urban areas. Transportation costs were also above average in Morgantown

  18. Cost Model for Digital Curation: Cost of Digital Migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kejser, Ulla Břgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Monitor Technology functions each consists of two costinfluence, the fewer costs. Monitor Technology depends onCost Critical Activities Monitor community Report on monitoring Monitor technology

  19. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)] [Electric Power Research Institute, 3420 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  20. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arizona Corporation Commission requires electric utilities to conduct a cost/benefit analysis to compare the cost of line extension with the cost of installing a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)...

  1. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  2. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on component level cost data provided by the CaliforniaStates Notes: The Japanese and U.S. cost data are for 2-5systems, while the German cost data are for 3-5 kW systems.

  3. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  4. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  5. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  6. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  7. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  8. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  9. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  10. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  11. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  12. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  13. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  14. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  15. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  16. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  17. OPTIONS - ALLOCATION FUNDS - TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Admin

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... They entail a reduction of transaction costs and improve the investor's economic welfare.

  18. Optimization Online - Sharing Supermodular Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas S. Schulz

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 28, 2007 ... Abstract: We study cooperative games with supermodular costs. We show that supermodular costs arise in a variety of situations: in particular, ...

  19. Preemptive scheduling with position costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In most scheduling models presented in the literature [3, 10], the cost for ... Preemptive scheduling in order to minimize the total position costs also stems.

  20. Price/Cost Proposal Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS PriceCost Proposal: Provide complete, current, and accurate cost or pricing data in accordance with Federal and Department of Energy Acquisition...

  1. Cost-effective Design Options for IsoDAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Adelmann; J. R. Alonso; W. Barletta; R. Barlow; L. Bartoszek; A. Bungau; L. Calabretta; A. Calanna; D. Campo; J. M. Conrad; Z. Djurcic; Y. Kamyshkov; H. Owen; M. H. Shaevitz; I. Shimizu; T. Smidt; J. Spitz; M. Toups; M. Wascko; L. A. Winslow; J. J. Yang

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This whitepaper reviews design options for the IsoDAR electron antineutrino source. IsoDAR is designed to produce $2.6 \\times 10^{22}$ electron antineutrinos per year with an average energy of 6.4 MeV, using isotope decay-at-rest. Aspects which must be balanced for cost-effectiveness include: overall cost; rate and energy distribution of the electron antineutrino flux and backgrounds; low technical risk; compactness; simplicity of underground construction and operation; reliability; value to future neutrino physics programs; and value to industry. We show that the baseline design outlined here is the most cost effective.

  2. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  3. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  4. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MGD)—Weighted Average Total Use Treatment electricity costelectricity cost Units kWh kW kWh kW Source Water (by MGD)—Weighted Averagecosts are for electricity (EPRI, 2002). ? Groundwater systems use an average

  5. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  6. Cost Type Examples Salary costs for staff working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    . Equipment access charges Service contracts, running costs, materials and consumables and staff time

  7. FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs direct costs and facilities and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    FACILITIES AND ADMINISTRATIVE (F&A) COST AND IDC RATES The cost of conducting research consists of two broad types of costs ­ direct costs and facilities and administrative costs (F&A), also known as indirect costs. Direct

  8. Risk management: Reducing brownfield cleanup costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, N.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing environmental protection with economic vitality is crucial to maintaining competitiveness in world markets. One key initiative that has been identified as important to both environmental protection and the economy is the redevelopment of brownfields. Brownfield redevelopment can stimulate local economies that have been devastated by lost jobs and can recycle industrial land use, thereby preserving undeveloped lands. Many existing brownfield sites appear on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priority List (NPL), which designates over 1200 sites and is expected to grow to more than 2000 by the end of the decade. EPA estimates the cost of remediating the sites on the current list will approach $30 billion, with the average cost of remediating a site close to $25 million. Thousands of additional brownfield sites that do not appear on the NPL are listed under state cleanup programs.

  9. TheEffectsofWindandSolarPower InducedCyclingonWear-and-TearCosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and key assumptions, including an average natural gas price of $4.60/MMBtu, significant balancing authority area cooperation, and least-cost economic dispatch and transmission usage. Key

  10. Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in SAM, for direct and indirect costs, such as 0.63 per DC watt for panels. 0.18 for inverters. Are these base on a recent survey, known industry averages, totally random?...

  11. ELECTRIFIED VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS, INFRASTRUCTURE IMPLICATIONS, AND COST COMPARISONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    .S. Long term average U.S. gasoline prices have generally stayed under $3 per gallon, and do not reflect. These include spot fuel shortages in 2005 from Hurricane Katrina, substantial oil and gasoline price spikes prices and EPA standardized test data are used (where available) to increase the accuracy of cost

  12. Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    Optimal Power Cost Management Using Stored Energy in Data Centers Rahul Urgaonkar, Bhuvan Urgaonkar of uninterrupted power supply (UPS) units as energy storage devices. This rep- resents a deviation from the usual average electric utility bill in a data center. Us- ing the technique of Lyapunov optimization, we develop

  13. Optimal habits can develop spontaneously through sensitivity to local cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Dezhe

    --person, animal, or robot--toward optimal- ity (1). RL algorithms have been widely applied in neuroscience, these contin- ued to morph for months, long after session-averaged reward and cost (eye movement distance to characterize neural activity in animals and human subjects, most famously for the dopamine-containing systems

  14. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  15. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Home Rmckeel's

  16. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBGOperable GeneratingWest

  17. OpenEI Community - levelized cost of energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff<div/0 en The Energybegun!

  18. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin Zhongdiantou NewKoreaLaorLeopold Kostal GmbH CoAfrica

  19. NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources

  20. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  1. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  2. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development *

  3. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development 1.Transaction Costs, Information Technology and DevelopmentTransaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

  4. Millions of children have allergies. In fact, in the U.S., allergies cost children an average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    million missed school days each year. Does your child suffer from frequent sneezing, coughing, nasal

  5. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost mo

  6. Allocable costs What are they?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Allocable costs What are they? The A-21 circular definition: a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective (i.e., a specific function, project, sponsored agreement, department, or the like) if the goods or services involved are chargeable or assignable to such cost objective in accordance

  7. The Costs and Revenues of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Costs and Revenues of Transformation to Continuous Cover Forestry Owen Davies & Gary Kerr March 2011 #12;2 | Costs and Revenues of CCF | Owen Davies & Gary Kerr | March 2011 Costs and Revenues of CCF The costs and revenues of transformation to continuous cover forestry: Modelling silvicultural options

  8. Hay Harvesting Costs $$$$$ in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, James T.; Taylor, Wayne D.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hay is an important crop in Ta 1 Harvesting costs constitute the major5 pense of hay production in many M Mg and Wayne D . Taylor INTRODUCTION .................................................... 2 Fixed Costs or Ownership Costs... ............................................. 10 Totarl Cost .............................................................. 10 HAY HARVESTING ALTERNATIVES COMPARED ...................... 11 HOW TO MAKE WISE DECISIONS CONCERNING INVESTMENTS IN MACHINERY...

  9. Construction Cost March 6, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    ...................................................................................................................................... 14 3.3 UMass Historical Cost Trends-- John Mathews, P.E., MPA, UMass Amherst............. 17 4 PartConstruction Cost Symposium March 6, 2007 University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Construction Cost .......................................................... 22 4.3.2 The need for summer construction schedules and the impact on project cost......... 23 4

  10. 2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    2000-01-1556 Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV John W. McKeever, Sujit or voltage level, life cycle costs were calculated based on the components required to execute simulated drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost

  11. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  12. Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    while the German and U.S. cost data are for 3-5 kW systems.B for average annual cost data for each of the 16 PVon an analysis of installed cost data from nearly 37,000

  13. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  14. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  15. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  16. Costs, Savings and Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Donald S.; Stelly, Randall; Parker, Cecil A.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    \\ BULLETIN 904 MAY 1958 .t(. :a ,s - / cwdh\\@ Costs, Savi~gs;.itd Financing Bulk Tanks on Texas Dairy Farms . ?. I I 1 i I I ! ,:ravings in hauling - 10 cents I \\ \\ 1 \\ savings in hauling - 15 cents -----------____--- 'savings... in hauling - 20 cents Annual production, 1,000 pounds Estimated number of years required for savings from a bulk tank to equal additional costs at different levels of production and savings in hauling costs. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMEN'T STATION R. D...

  17. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  18. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue. Budgets remain on the decline, even while the expectations increase. Yet we are confident in our ability to keep our commitments and goals by identifying new efficiencies in the Hanford cleanup program. We will also pursue new contracting arrangements that will allow us to foster greater competition and use more commercial practices while maintaining our commitment to the safety and health of the public, our workers, and the environment.

  19. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  20. Lower Cost Energy Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    the last f1ve years we have saved over $177 m11110n. 0= o u.vncGS AlIOTT DOMUTtC ENERGY COST & SAVINGS 11(000) uxm llOOOO lDXD ""'"lIXlIl ,..,.., 6CIlOll DlOO :om om a L--=.lLol.uLJULl:LJJU11.Lil:Ll..L<.LLLJ..lLo 7374.75'71i771BNlIJ nAIl F...

  1. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  2. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  3. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  4. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  5. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  6. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  7. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  8. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  9. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  10. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  11. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  12. Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Myers, S.D. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

  13. Monitoring System Used to Identify, Track and Allocate Peak Demand Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, W. A.

    leasing space on the site. The most common way to distribute monthly electric costs within a facility when consumption by area or department is available through submetering or other means, is to apply the average cost per KWH from the utility bill...

  14. Department of Energy Geo-Environmental Engineering Spring 2012 Diesel Engine Cost and Quality Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    a cost saving workshop, production line evaluation, and research to save an average of $150 per engine. The team is to also determine ways to generate more cost saving ideas within the company. Approach business and finance major Outcomes The sponsor will save approximately $22 per engine as a result

  15. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    Electric Utility companies charge industrial clients for two things: demand and usage. Depending on type of business and hours operation, demand cost could be very high. Most of the operations scheduling in a plant is achieved considering labor cost...

  16. Electric Demand Cost Versus Labor Cost: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, S.; Jensen, R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ELEcrRIC DEMAND COST Versus LABOR COST: A CASE STUDY Sanjay Agrawal Richard Jensen Assistant Director Director Industrial Assessment Center Department of Engineering Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549 ABSTRAcr Electric Utility companies...

  17. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Billingsley, Megan A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CSE DOE DSM EIA EERS HVAC LCOE MUSH WACC American Councillevelized cost of energy (LCOE), which represents the per-the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), often is applied to

  18. Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

    Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

  19. Trends in Gulf Coast Power Supply, Demand, and Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posey, L. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate' ? Granting industrial rate increases above cost-o" service level ' ? Delays in granting rate increases. For each utility company, we examine past history a assess the regulatory climate to predict the likely effect these issues. Power...

  20. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. (2011). Development in LCOE for Wind Turbines in Denmark.to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations.the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for onshore wind energy

  1. Report on Audit of Architect and Engineering Costs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued the Department-wide Audit of Architect and Engineering Design Costs (DOE/IG-0289) which concluded that the Department`s A/E costs averaged more than twice that of private industry. The primary cause of the higher costs was the lack of Departmental A/E cost standards that would provide measurement criteria for controlling costs. Consistent with our prior Department-wide audit, the purpose of this audit was to determine whether A/E services performed at the Laboratory were economical. Specifically, we determined whether the costs for A/E services at the Laboratory were comparable to the cost standards for A/E services in industry and the State; and, whether A/E costs were reasonable.

  2. Unit decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.; Swanston, R.; Davis, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Janke, R.J. [USDOE Fernald Area Office, OH (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of relationships have been developed for estimating unit decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) costs for a number of building types which may be applied in the absence of other data to obtain rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for D&D activities. The relationships were developed using unit D&D costs for a number of building structure types at the Department of Energy Fernald site. These unit costs into account the level of radioactive contamination as well as the, building size.

  3. Looking at Resource Sharing Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon, Lars; Kress, Nancy

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose – This paper is the result of a small cost study of resource sharing services in 23 North American libraries. Trends that have affected resource sharing costs since the last comprehensive study are discussed. Design/methodology approach...

  4. User cost in oil production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelman, Morris Albert

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The assumption of an initial fixed mineral stock is superfluous and wrong. User cost (resource rent) in mineral production is the present value of expected increases in development cost. It can be measured as the difference ...

  5. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  6. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreachDepartment ofProgram49,PHEV Battery Cost

  7. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  8. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  9. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  10. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  11. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  12. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  13. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  14. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  15. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  17. COSTING INFORMATION IN THE UK NHS: THE (NON-) USE OF COST INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the NHS model of control introduced by the New Labour Government (1997 White Paper). It aims to explore as a control device. Therefore, the micro effect is a decoupling from cost control at the organisational level. The paper adds to our understanding of the nature of the interaction between the macro steering process

  18. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  19. Epistemic levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Daniel (Daniel Louis)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation I defend some controversial "level-bridging" principles in epistemology. In the first chapter, I defend the KK principle-the principle that if one knows that P, then one knows that one knows that P. I ...

  20. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  1. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the current cost of production of 3.5 Rs per kWh. It isthe average cost of production to be 3.50 Rs. per kWh, or $the cost of production significantly at 4.80 Rs. per kWh. As

  2. Hydrogen demand, production, and cost by region to 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Moore, J.; Shadis, W.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering, Inc.

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analysis of potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) demand, production, and cost by region to 2050. The analysis was conducted to (1) address the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) request for regional H{sub 2} cost estimates that will be input to its energy modeling system and (2) identify key regional issues associated with the use of H{sub 2} that need further study. Hydrogen costs may vary substantially by region. Many feedstocks may be used to produce H{sub 2}, and the use of these feedstocks is likely to vary by region. For the same feedstock, regional variation exists in capital and energy costs. Furthermore, delivery costs are likely to vary by region: some regions are more rural than others, and so delivery costs will be higher. However, to date, efforts to comprehensively and consistently estimate future H{sub 2} costs have not yet assessed regional variation in these costs. To develop the regional cost estimates and identify regional issues requiring further study, we developed a H{sub 2} demand scenario (called 'Go Your Own Way' [GYOW]) that reflects fuel cell vehicle (FCV) market success to 2050 and allocated H{sub 2} demand by region and within regions by metropolitan versus non-metropolitan areas. Because we lacked regional resource supply curves to develop our H{sub 2} production estimates, we instead developed regional H{sub 2} production estimates by feedstock by (1) evaluating region-specific resource availability for centralized production of H{sub 2} and (2) estimating the amount of FCV travel in the nonmetropolitan areas of each region that might need to be served by distributed production of H{sub 2}. Using a comprehensive H{sub 2} cost analysis developed by SFA Pacific, Inc., as a starting point, we then developed cost estimates for each H{sub 2} production and delivery method by region and over time (SFA Pacific, Inc. 2002). We assumed technological improvements over time to 2050 and regional variation in energy and capital costs. Although we estimate substantial reductions in H{sub 2} costs over time, our cost estimates are generally higher than the cost goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) hydrogen program. The result of our analysis, in particular, demonstrates that there may be substantial variation in H{sub 2} costs between regions: as much as $2.04/gallon gasoline equivalent (GGE) by the time FCVs make up one-half of all light-vehicle sales in the GYOW scenario (2035-2040) and $1.85/GGE by 2050 (excluding Alaska). Given the assumptions we have made, our analysis also shows that there could be as much as a $4.82/GGE difference in H{sub 2} cost between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas by 2050 (national average). Our national average cost estimate by 2050 is $3.68/GGE, but the average H{sub 2} cost in metropolitan areas in that year is $2.55/GGE and that in non-metropolitan areas is $7.37/GGE. For these estimates, we assume that the use of natural gas to produce H{sub 2} is phased out. This phase-out reflects the desire of DOE's Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (OHFCIT) to eliminate reliance on natural gas for H{sub 2} production. We conducted a sensitivity run in which we allowed natural gas to continue to be used through 2050 for distributed production of H{sub 2} to see what effect changing that assumption had on costs. In effect, natural gas is used for 66% of all distributed production of H{sub 2} in this run. The national average cost is reduced to $3.10/GGE, and the cost in non-metropolitan areas is reduced from $7.37/GGE to $4.90, thereby reducing the difference between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas to $2.35/GGE. Although the cost difference is reduced, it is still substantial. Regional differences are similarly reduced, but they also remain substantial. We also conducted a sensitivity run in which we cut in half our estimate of the cost of distributed production of H{sub 2} from electrolysis (our highest-cost production method). In this run, our national average cost estimate is reduced even further, to

  3. Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

  4. Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix G: MCS Cost-effectiveness for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , cost and savings assumptions used to establish the efficiency level that achieves all electricity and assumptions used to determine whether the regionally cost-effective efficiency levels are economically-1 shows the levels of energy efficiency assumed for new site built and manufactured homes built

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a â��bottom-upâ� costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with DFMA�® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target. In general, tank costs are the largest component of system cost, responsible for at least 30 percent of total system cost, in all but two of the 12 systems. Purchased BOP cost also drives system cost, accounting for 10 to 50 percent of total system cost across the various storage systems. Potential improvements in these cost drivers for all storage systems may come from new manufacturing processes and higher production volumes for BOP components. In addition, advances in the production of storage media may help drive down overall costs for the sodium alanate, SBH, LCH2, MOF, and AX-21 systems.

  6. The Texas Cattle Feeding Industry - Operations, Management, and Costs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, R.A.; Thomas, P.J.; Farris, D.E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per pound of gain. The largest decrease in annual fixed costs per pound of gain occurred as feedlot size increased from less than 1,0.0.0. head capacity to 4,0.0.0. head capacity. Results revealed generally more variability in costs among smaller... almost 1,0.50. lb while heifers averaged about 865 lb. Almost 70.% of the fed steers marketed from Texas feedlots graded U.S. Choice or higher compared to 50% for fed heifers. Fed cattle marketed from Panhandle Plains feedlots were predominantly U...

  7. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  8. Idaho Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Idaho homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Idaho homeowners will save $4,057 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $285 for the 2012 IECC.

  9. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  10. Ohio Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Ohio homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Ohio homeowners will save $5,151 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $330 for the 2012 IECC.

  11. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  13. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  14. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average Price

  15. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average

  16. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AS CAISO CCGT CSP CT DA EUE LCOE LOLP LOLE NERC NREL O&M PHSthe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost of a power

  17. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  18. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kingdom; 2004. [8] Amos W. Costs of storing and transportingcon- nections). Capital costs for this equipment must bein an analysis of station costs. Total station construction

  19. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fueling stations; Cost; Shanghai; Fuel cell vehicles 1.and the delivery cost for fuel cell vehicles, however, itthus hydrogen cost therefore depend on the ?eet of fuel cell

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems in China, particularly for the cost of hydrogenthe capital cost for equipment imported to China. Hydrogenestate costs in Shanghai are among the highest in China. $

  1. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software. g4301-1chp22.pdf -- PDF Document, 190 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration...

  2. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  3. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  4. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  5. Vehicle operating costs: evidence from developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesher, A.; Harrison, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document presents information concerning the relationships between vehicle operating costs and highway conditions derived from four studies performed in Kenya, the Caribbean, Brazil, and India in the 1970s and early 1980s. The levels of transport costs and the amounts by which they are altered when highway conditions change depend on two main factors. The first is the production technology facing firms, in particular, the types and designs of vehicles to which firms have access. The second is the economic environment that firms face, in particular, relative prices of inputs to the production of transportation, such as fuel, tires, labor, and vehicles, and the nature of the transport markets that firms serve. The first part of the book sets out an economic model of firms managing vehicle fleets within which these influences can be examined. The second part of the book reports and interprets the results of the four major research projects which were designed to study the influences on vehicle operating costs. The third part of the book examines total vehicle operating costs.

  6. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  7. average fuel enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWdkg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4...

  8. average daily intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy and nitrogen balance. The amounts of alfalfa eaten and the levels of nitrogen. Daylight ratio effect is evident in one case : long daily daylight increases the proportion of...

  9. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  10. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    production and conversion parameters must be optimized. Lower cost fiber enable CF composite applications. Approach: 1. Complete previous effort by scaling to the CF production...

  11. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  12. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Slattery, Bob S [ORNL; Atkin, Erica [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy's Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 134 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For 133 of the 134 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $95.7 million, total reported cost savings were $96.8 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $92.1 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 96% of the estimated cost savings, projects reported achieving 101% of the estimated cost savings, and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 129 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 5.371 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 5.374 million MMBtu, just over 100% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 129 projects were 10.400 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 10.405 million MMBtu, again, just over 100.0% of the estimated energy savings.

  13. Using inverse-weighting in cost-eectiveness analysis with censored data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Danyu

    Using inverse-weighting in cost-eˇectiveness analysis with censored data AR Willan Program-weighting is used for censored cost and quality of life data. The methods are illustrated in an example using patient-level cost data in addition to effectiveness outcomes in randomized clinical trials. As a result

  14. The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Intangible Costs and Benefits of Computer Investments: Evidence from the Financial Markets Erik for computer capital in firm-level productivity studies. Costly investments in software, training the intangible costs and benefits of computer capital and we present several new empirical results based

  15. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct program costs for detailed audits of 13.5 million square feet of institutional building space in the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program were $0.047/SF. The building area was 63 percent simple (offices, schools, and universities...

  16. JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocioalca, Oana

    JUMP DIFFUSION OPTION WITH TRANSACTION COSTS "non-systematic" risk, inclusive of transaction costs. We compute the total transac- tion costs and the turnover for different options, transaction costs, and revision intervals

  17. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  18. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  19. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  1. An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of F&A Costs What are F&A Costs? Costs involved in conducting sponsored projects are categorized in two ways: direct costs or indirect costs. The federal government refers officially to indirect costs as facilities and administrative (F&A) costs, sometimes simply called "overhead" costs. Direct

  2. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

  3. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  4. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from ENSDF

  6. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from

  7. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2 O

  8. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2 O3

  9. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2 O3Be

  10. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2

  11. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2B

  12. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2BBe

  13. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li from2BBeNe

  14. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4Li

  15. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB from

  16. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromC

  17. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe

  18. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe9

  19. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB fromCNe9C

  20. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiB

  1. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from

  2. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5 H

  3. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5 H6

  4. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from5

  5. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from58 C

  6. Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8, 2000Consumption Survey (CBECS) Data 210 Available in4LiBN from58

  7. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  8. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesvilleAbout » Contact Us ContactPractices in

  9. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilize Available Resources PrintValVaporRunningVehicle

  10. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variable O&M cost of wind and solar is assumed to bethe relative levelized cost of wind and solar supply. OneJ. Swider and C. Weber. The costs of wind’s intermittency in

  11. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CEMS CSP CT DA EIA EPA EUE LCOE LOLP LOLE NERC NREL O&M PHSlevelized cost of energy (LCOE)). A missing part of simplethe levelized cost of energy (LCOE) or the cost of a power

  12. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  13. 5, 14791509, 2008 Staged cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 5, 1479­1509, 2008 Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al Staged cost optimization of urban storm drainage systems based on hydraulic performance in a changing optimization of urban storm drainage systems M. Maharjan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  14. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  17. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  19. Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray A. Berry

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

  20. Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffington, W. M.; Lum, S. K.; Bauer, V. A.; Turner, W. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Audit Costs for the 1986 Texas Energy Cost Containment Program W. M. Heffington, S. K. Lum, V. A. Bauer and W. D. Turner Energy Sys tems Group Mechanical Engineering Department Texas ALM University College Station, TX Direct program costs... Science Park of the University of Texas System Cancer Center is treated as one building as it was bv the audit- ing contractor. General Land Office records differ. by more than a factor of four on an area basi,s (Table 4). Figure 1 is a plot...