National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average labor productivity

  1. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  2. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  3. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy, is a notice issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document."

  4. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  5. labor day

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en Labor Day Weekend 2015 http:nnsa.energy.govbloglabor-day-weekend-2015

    Labor Day is dedicated to the achievements of American workers and the contributions they made...

  6. Expert systems and the CPI product substitution review: A needs analysis for the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arrowood, L.F.; Tonn, B.E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents recommendations relative to the use of expert systems and machine learning techniques by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to substantially automate product substitution decisions associated with the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Thirteen commercially available, PC-based expert system shells have received in-depth evaluations. Various machine learning techniques were also reviewed. Two recommendations are given: (1) BLS should use the expert system shell LEVEL5 OBJECT and establish a software development methodology for expert systems; and (2) BLS should undertake a small study to evaluate the potential of machine learning techniques to create and maintain the approximately 350 ELI-specific knowledge bases to be used in CPI product substitution review.

  7. Labor Relations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Relations also provides technical assistance to, and coordination of, the Partnership Council and other labor-management forums. Collective Bargaining Agreements BPA AFGE...

  8. Labor Relations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addressing Poor Performance What Happens if an Employee’s Performance is Below the Meets Expectations (ME) level? Any time during the appraisal period an employee demonstrates that he/she is performing below the ME level in at least one critical element, the Rating Official should contact his/her Human Resources Office for guidance and: •If performance is at the Needs Improvement (NI) level; issue the employee a Performance Assistance Plan (PAP); or •If performance is at the Fails to Meet Expectations (FME) level; issue the employee a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP). Department of Energy Headquarters and The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) Collective Bargaining Agreement The National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) is the exclusive representative of bargaining unit employees at the Department of Energy Headquarters offices in the Washington DC metropolitan area. The terms and conditions of this agreement have been negotiated by DOE and NTEU, and prescribe their respective rights and obligations in matters related to conditions of employment. Headquarters 1187 Request For Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Request for Payroll Deduction for Labor Organization Dues (SF-1187) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation. Headquarters 1188 Cancellation Of Payroll Deductions For Labor Organization Dues The Cancellation of Payroll Deductions for Labor Organizations Dues (SF-1188) permits eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to cancel dues allotments. The National Treasury Employees Union, Collective Bargaining Agreement, Article 9 – Dues Withholding This article is for the purpose of permitting eligible employees, who are members of the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU), to authorize voluntary allotments from their compensation.

  9. Labor Relations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Relations Labor Relations The National Labor Relations Act prohibits unfair labor practices, including discrimination in employment to discourage (or encourage) membership in a union, and engaging in bad faith collective bargaining. National Labor Relations Act DOE Training Slides are available below: National Labor Relations Act (2.53 MB) National Labor Relations Act 101 (1.25 MB)

  10. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  11. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  13. Labor and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.; Nelkin, D.

    1980-03-01

    The AFL-CIO is officially pro-nuclear, but tensions within unions are taking issue over ideological differences. The Labor movement, having looked to nuclear power development as an economic necessity to avoid unemployment, has opposed efforts to delay construction or close plants. As many as 42% of union members or relatives of members, however, were found to oppose new power plants, some actively working against specific construction projects. The United Mine Workers and Teamsters actively challenged the nuclear industry while the auto workers have been ambivalent. The differences between union orientation reflects the history of unionism in the US and explains the emergence of social unionism with its emphasis on safety and working conditions as well as economic benefits. Business union orientation trends to prevail during periods of prosperity; social unions during recessions. The labor unions and the environmentalists are examined in this conext and found to be hopeful. 35 references. (DCK)

  14. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  15. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  16. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  17. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  18. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  19. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo may be responsible for large uncertainties in these calculations. Moreover, the tower-based measurements of surface albedo are limited to SGP and NSA sites, and the TCAP...

  20. Unions, LANL sign labor agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unions, LANL sign labor agreements Unions, LANL sign labor agreements The New Mexico Building and Construction Trades Council and Los Alamos National Security LLC, announced the signing of a series of labor agreements that affect nearly 750 construction and maintenance workers. September 21, 2012 Jay Johnson renews the contracts with the Laboratory's union workers. Jay Johnson (left) associate director for maintenance and infrastructure planning, renews the contracts with the Laboratory's union

  1. New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department...

  2. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  3. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  4. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross ...

  5. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  6. Chapter 22 - Labor Standards for Construction | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 - Labor Standards for Construction Chapter 22 - Labor Standards for Construction Chapter 22.1 - Labor Standards More Documents & Publications Department of Energy (DOE)...

  7. Labor Standards Training - Albuquerque Service Center 3-9-16...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards Training - Albuquerque Service Center 3-9-16 Labor Standards Training - Albuquerque Service Center 3-9-16 Labor Standards Training PDF icon Labor Standards Training - ...

  8. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  9. Department of Energy Labor Relations and Standards

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-02-06

    The change would be to remove Chapter I, Labor Relations, and Chapter II Labor Standards from DOE O 350.1 and develop DOE O DOE O 350.3, which will cancel and supersede Chapters I and II in DOE O 350.1. Content of the two chapters will be updated to reflect the Secretarial determination transferring functions for contractor labor relations and labor standards from the Office of Legacy Management to the Office of General Counsel. CRDs for those chapters will also be removed.

  10. Labor Standards Interview Form | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SF 1445.pdf More Documents & Publications Davis Bacon Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) TAP Webinar: Davis-Bacon Act Compliance Labor StandardsWage and Hour Laws...

  11. Management and Program Analyst (Supplemental Labor)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Supplemental Labor Management Office (NSP), Supply Chain Services (NS), Chief Administrative Office (N), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Supplemental...

  12. Utah Labor Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Utah Labor Commission is the regulatory agency responsible for preserving the balance established by the legislature for protecting the health, safety, and economic...

  13. Labor Compliance Advisor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The DOE LCA, the Assistant General Counsel for Labor and Pension Law, is a career civil ... The proposed Federal Acquisition Regulation rule implements the EO requirements to: ...

  14. Labor-Management Relations (LMR) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Labor-Management Relations (LMR) Labor-Management Relations (LMR) About LMR Department of Energy (DOE) Labor Management Relations (LMR), provides direction and oversight of the Departments labor-management relations programs and appraises the effectiveness of DOE labor-management relations throughout the Department. LMR provides guidance and advice to Labor Relations Officers (LROs), managers, and others and provides the statutory function of Agency Head Review (AHR) on collective bargaining,

  15. Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They Need It Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They ...

  16. HQ Employee/Labor Management Relations Division (HC-33) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EmployeeLabor Management Relations Division (HC-33) HQ EmployeeLabor Management Relations Division (HC-33) Functions Provide laboremployee management relations advisory services ...

  17. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #08 DOE Fair Labor Standards Act ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 DOE Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) ExemptNon-Exempt Status Determination POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 08 DOE Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) ExemptNon-Exempt Status ...

  18. Assessing the Labor-Management Relationship

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Labor-Management Relationship This report contains results and analysis of a survey that was issued to labor-management relations (LMR) personnel among all organizations/unions at the U.S. Department of Energy during August 2013. The goal of the survey is to assess the overall perceived effectiveness of LMR programs and to find potential target areas for improvement. The survey is comprised of 19 questions. Of these, 12 are subjective with the multiple choice answers: Strongly Agree, Agree,

  19. Labor management positive change process (LMPCP) at Marissa Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hird, T.; Becker, T.

    1997-12-01

    The authors discuss the {open_quotes}Labor Management Positive Change Process{close_quotes} (LMPCP) and the Marissa Mine. In the 1993 National Bituminous Coal Wage Agreement, there is a provision that allows for the establishment of the UMWA-BCOA labor management positive change process. This process provides the mechanism to deal with change. The major goal of this process is to increase job security, competitiveness, financial stability and opportunity for all employees covered by the agreement. The authors discuss the Marissa story concerning the LMPCP process. The process established some goals for the Marissa Mine. The main and most important goal was that the mine continue beyond the year 2000. They wanted to develop and implement a more cooperative working relationship; a relationship based on honesty, integrity, and mutual trust. They also wanted to utilize employees` responsibilities, skills, and ideas. They wanted to reinforce the shared belief that an ongoing partnership between labor and management is essential to the long-term success and growth of the industry. The results of some of the issues that were addressed include: employment has increased from 281 union employees to 332 employees; production increased from 3.1 million tons to 4.1 million tons; cost per ton was lowered over $5.00 per ton in the last two years; accidents have been reduced by 50 percent; the process has increased sales and helped develop new sales; and they have been able to improve attitudes among employees.

  20. DOE/Labor Leadership Roundtable Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE/Labor Leadership Roundtable Meeting DOE/Labor Leadership Roundtable Meeting Meeting Date: June 27, 2014 Documents Available for Download Meeting Agenda (140.52 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE/Labor Leadership Roundtable Meeting DOE/Labor Leadership Roundtable Meeting DOE Roundtable Meeting with Union Leaders

  1. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  2. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  3. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  4. Labor Relations Building | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Labor Compliance Advisor Labor Compliance Advisor Executive Order 13673 Executive Order 13673 Read more Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws Establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, and recordkeeping requirements. Read more Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Equal Employment Opportunity/Workforce Restructuring Laws Prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of various protected categories including race, sex, age, disability,

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and create U.S. jobs by improving labor productivity in wind turbine blade construction. ... Certain components of wind turbine blades are naturally more suitable to domestic ...

  6. Question/comment: An estimate of the direct productive labor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... QuestionComment: "NETL has determined that this procurement is governed by the EPACT, ... QuestionComment: Will subcontractors be bound by indirect rate ceilings? If so and given ...

  7. Solar Install Mount Production Labor Equipment Simple Balance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    material reduction Self-squaring Prefabrication Factory assembly Structuralmaterial efficiencies Self-stabilityballasting OUTCOMES Patent Project Contact GUOHUI YUAN Other Grid ...

  8. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  9. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  10. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  11. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  12. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  13. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  14. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  15. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  16. Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards/Wage and Hour Laws Labor Standards/Wage and Hour Laws Labor Standards and Wage/Hour laws establish minimum wage, overtime pay, recordkeeping, and minimum leave requirements: 40 U.S.C. chapter 31, subchapter IV, (Davis-Bacon Act) 41 U.S.C. chapter 67, (Service Contract Act) Fair Labor Standards Act Family and Medical Leave Act Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act DOE training on some of these laws are available below: Labor Standards 101 (1.76 MB) Davis-Bacon Act

  17. Acquisition Guide Chapter 22.1 Labor Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chapter 22.1 (September 2012) 1 Labor Standards for Construction and Services Guiding Principles The complexity of the Department's construction program requires a high degree ...

  18. Notification of Employee Rights under the National Labor Relations Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Flash forwards a draft Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) clause, 52.222-40, Notification of Employee Rights under the National Labor Relations Act. Executive Order (EO) 13496, Notification of Employee Rights under Federal Labor Laws, dated January 30,2009, requires contractors and subcontractors to post a notice that informs employees of their rights under Federal labor laws, including the National Labor Relations Act. This Act encourages collective bargaining and protects the exercise by workers of their freedom to associate, to self organize and to designate representatives of their own choosing for the purpose of negotiating the terms and conditions of their employment.

  19. Labor Standards Compliance, Contractor Labor Relations, and Contractor Workforce Restructuring Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-09-29

    To ensure that contractors pursue collective bargaining practices that promote efficiency and economy in contract operations, judicious expenditure of public funds, equitable resolution of disputes, and effective collective bargaining relationships; that contractor relations/human resources specialists achieve consultations with management and operating contractors; and that appropriate labor standards are included in DOE/NNSA contracts and subcontracts. Cancels Chapters I-III of DOE O 350.1 Chg 4. Does not cancel other directives.

  20. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  1. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  2. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  3. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  4. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  5. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  6. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  7. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  8. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BEFORE THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "" SEP-20-2007 08:33 FLRR -SFRO P.01/01 " UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BEFORE THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY U,S:DEPARTMENf OF ENERGY RICHLAND OPERA nONS OFFICE RICHLAND) W ASHlNGTON -Activity CASE NO. SF-RP-90080 -and- ..NAllONAL FEDERATION OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES, LOCAL 181 -Petitioner/Exclusive Represen~tive -and- AMERICAN FEDERATION OF GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, AFL.CIO -Labor Organization AMENDMENT OF CERTIFICATION Pursuant to Section 2422.1 ofllie Regulations of the Federal Labor

  9. Y-12 Administration and Labor Relations building | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Administration and ... Y-12 Administration and Labor Relations building Employees leave the Y-12 Administration and Labor Relations building. Has anything changed much?

  10. Active Labor Unions Interfacing with DOE – June 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This information book provides an overview of what has been learned through the interface with representative labor unions and related stakeholders as well as accomplishments and current efforts to address any identified areas of concern.

  11. Labor Department Offers $500 Million for Clean Energy Job Training

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Labor recently launched five grant competitions, totaling $500 million, to fund projects that prepare workers for green jobs in the energy efficiency and renewable energy industries.

  12. Labor Standards for DOE Management and Operating Contracts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Flash is issued to provide you an Acquisition Letter containing information and guidance regarding application of labor standards at the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) management and operating (M&O) contract facilities.

  13. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  14. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #08 DOE Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) Exempt/Non-Exempt Status Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This memorandum provides guidance on determining an employee's Fair Labor Standards Act status within the Department.

  15. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  16. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  17. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  18. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  19. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  20. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  1. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  2. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  3. Project Labor Agreements- Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-41

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A final rule was published in the Federal Register at 75 Fed. Reg. 19168 on April 13,201 0 implementing Executive Order 13502, which encourages agencies to consider using Project Labor Agreements on Federal construction projects at least $25,000,000 in total cost. A summary is attached for your information.

  4. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  5. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.305 1.167 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.524 1.376 1.601 1.781

  6. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  7. DOE Labor Relations Training and Information Session, November 3-4, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Training Materials | Department of Energy Labor Relations Training and Information Session, November 3-4, 2015 Training Materials DOE Labor Relations Training and Information Session, November 3-4, 2015 Training Materials The Department of Energy held the First Annual DOE Labor Relations Training and Information Session on November 3-4, 2015. The training was held in Washington, DC and was designed for DOE site Human Resources personnel, representatives of DOE's contractor labor unions and

  8. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw915web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact ...

  9. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  10. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  11. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  13. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  14. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Insight, Inc. / Department of Labor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Working with Sandia Global Insight, Inc. / Department of Labor Global Insight, Inc. (GII), was created by combining DRI (formerly Data Resources, Inc.) and WEFA (formerly Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates). Due to copyright/distribution laws being derived from a proprietary service that Sandia pays for, Sandia can no longer provide GII factor information at this website. However, Sandia will continue to supply the DOL and the "combined key

  16. Labor-Management Roundtable Forrestal Building, Washington, DC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Labor-Management Roundtable Forrestal Building, Washington, DC June 27, 2014 10:00 - 11:30 AM (EST) 7E-069 AGENDA Reciprocity Certification Presentation Plaque Presentation by Secretary of Energy Introductory Remarks Ernest J. Moniz, Secretary of Energy Roundtable Remarks/Discussion Union Leadership Closing Remarks Ernest J. Moniz, Secretary of Energy This meeting is about hearing the concerns of the Unions on Safety, Operations, and Communications. Representatives of DOE contractor employees

  17. NEW - DOE O 350.3, Labor Standards Compliance, Contractor Labor Relations, and Contractor Workforce Restructuring Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    To ensure that contractors pursue collective bargaining practices that promote efficiency and economy in contract operations, judicious expenditure of public funds, equitable resolution of disputes, and effective collective bargaining relationships; that contractor relations/human resources specialists achieve consultations with management and operating contractors; and that appropriate labor standards are included in DOE/NNSA contracts and subcontracts. Cancels Chapters I-III of DOE O 350.1 Chg 4. Does not cancel other directives.

  18. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  19. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  20. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  1. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69

  2. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  3. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  4. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  5. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  6. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  7. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  8. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 6.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38

  9. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 0.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53

  10. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  11. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  12. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  13. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  14. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  15. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  16. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  17. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    light trucks. Source: Used vehicles - Ward's Automotive, New cars - Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Underlying Detail Tables, Table 7.2.5S

  18. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Active hurricane season expected to shut-in higher amount of oil and natural gas production An above-normal 2013 hurricane season is expected to cause a median production loss of about 19 million barrels of U.S. crude oil and 46 billion cubic feet of natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's about one-third more than the amount of oil and gas production knocked offline during last year's hurricane season.

  19. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  20. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  1. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense

  2. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  3. HQ Employee/Labor Management Relations Division (HC-33) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Employee/Labor Management Relations Division (HC-33) HQ Employee/Labor Management Relations Division (HC-33) Functions Provide labor/employee management relations advisory services to Headquarters staff, including union negotiations, adverse actions, grievances, and performance management; Represent management in third party situations or union negotiations; Provide work life information, referral and support services to Headquarters employees covering such areas as child care, elder

  4. Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    When They Need It | Department of Energy Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They Need It Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They Need It LaborWorks@NeighborWorks is a nonprofit temporary labor pool formed to assist professional contractors involved with the HEAT Squad during busy periods when they couldn't keep up with demand or hire full-time help. This interview provides background information about

  5. Memorandum of Understanding between the U.S. Department of Labor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) serves to set forth the authorities, responsibilities, and procedures by which the Department of Labor (DOL) and the Department of Energy ...

  6. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014" "(dollars per peak watt)" "Year","Modules" 2004,2.99 2005,3.19 2006,3.5 2007,3.37 2008,3.49 2009,2.79 2010,1.96 2011,1.59 2012,1.15 2013,0.75 2014,0.87 "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  7. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  8. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 71.92 104.33 107.02 71.92 107.02 -32.8 Canada 71.93 104.32 107.01 71.93 107.01 -32.8 Mexico 66.79 360.25 113.43 66.79 113.43 -41.1 South America Total 64.73 64.18 70.82 64.73 70.82 -8.6 Colombia 64.73 63.86 70.58 64.73 70.58 -8.3 Peru 63.31 86.76 86.19 63.31 86.19 -26.5 Venezuela -

  9. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Canada 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Europe Total 270.94 416.80 770.50 270.94 770.50 -64.8 Austria - 1,788.00 - - - - France - 1,110.35 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 206.27 - 206.27 - Italy 265.37 300.11 - 265.37 - -

  10. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 62.62 81.09 76.28 62.62 76.28 -17.9 Canada* 87.37 97.37 80.39 87.37 80.39 8.7 Dominican Republic 213.68 - 461.75 213.68 461.75 -53.7 Guatemala - 66.22 359.27 - 359.27 - Honduras 78.02 78.02 54.43 78.02 54.43 43.3 Jamaica 38.10 39.48 45.51 38.10 45.51 -16.3 Mexico 41.25 37.52

  11. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.345 1.209 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.117 0.998 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1994-2016 DTW 1.337 1.143 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1994-2016 Rack 1.109 0.995 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1994-2016 Bulk 1.137 0.991 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522

  12. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    790 1.553 1.736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.792 1.554 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.331 1.143 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1994-2016 DTW 1.796 1.471 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1994-2016 Rack 1.221 1.066 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1994-2016 Bulk 1.307 1.074 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619

  13. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  14. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  15. Question/comment: An estimate of the direct productive labor hours (DPLH) per l

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Season? | Department of Energy Question of the Week: What Are You Doing to Save Energy this Holiday Season? Question of the Week: What Are You Doing to Save Energy this Holiday Season? December 4, 2008 - 1:31pm Addthis On Tuesday, we gave you some tips to save energy during the holidays. What are you doing to save energy this holiday season? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Question of the Week: What Is Your Main Form of

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This report documents a solid-state lighting (SSL) technology demonstration at the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Headquarters in Washington, DC, in which light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires were substituted for the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires and evaluated for relative light quantity and performance. The demonstration results show energy savings of 52% from the initial conversion of HPS to the LED product. These savings were increased to 88% by using occupancy sensor controls that were ultimately set to reduce power to 10% of high state operation after a time delay of 2.5 minutes. Because of the relatively high cost of the LED luminaires at their time of purchase for this project (2010), the simple payback periods were 6.5 years and 4.9 years for retrofit and new construction scenarios, respectively. Staff at DOL Headquarters reported high satisfaction with the operation of the LED product.

  17. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  20. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  1. Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity May 20, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2011 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The Advanced Manufacturing Initiative (AMI) at DOE's Sandia National Laboratories is working with industry to improve manufacturing processes and create U.S. jobs by improving labor productivity in wind

  2. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  3. Fiscal Year 2013 Department of Energy Annual Occupational Safety and Health Report for Federal Employees to the Secretary of Labor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fiscal Year 2013 Department of Energy Annual Occupational Safety and Health Report for Federal Employees to the Secretary of Labor.

  4. WEDNESDAY: Energy Secretary Chu and Labor Secretary Solis to Discuss Clean

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Jobs in Nevada | Department of Energy Chu and Labor Secretary Solis to Discuss Clean Energy Jobs in Nevada WEDNESDAY: Energy Secretary Chu and Labor Secretary Solis to Discuss Clean Energy Jobs in Nevada June 21, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - On Wednesday, June 22, 2011, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.S. Labor Secretary Hilda L. Solis will host a media conference call to discuss Nevada's progress in developing a clean and renewable energy economy. Secretary Chu

  5. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  6. CNS, labor union donate $15,000 to local March of Dimes | Y-12...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 - 4:07pm At a recent kickoff luncheon, Y-12 Site Manager Bill Tindal (right) and Kimberly Mitchell of the Atomic Trades and Labor Council (left) gave a 15,000 check to Susie...

  7. REGISTER OF WAGE DETERMINATIONS UNDER | U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7) was first posted on www.wdol.gov on 06/25/2013 ************************************************************************************ REGISTER OF WAGE DETERMINATIONS UNDER | U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE SERVICE CONTRACT ACT | EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION By direction of the Secretary of Labor | WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION | WASHINGTON D.C. 20210 | | | | Wage Determination No.: 2005-2574 Diane C. Koplewski Division of | Revision No.: 17 Director Wage Determinations| Date Of Revision:

  8. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  9. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  10. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  11. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  12. Op-Ed by Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building the American Clean Energy Economy | Department of Energy Op-Ed by Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis: Building the American Clean Energy Economy Op-Ed by Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis: Building the American Clean Energy Economy April 22, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis To commemorate Earth Day, the op-ed below on green jobs and energy independence by Secretaries Steven Chu and Hilda Solis ran in the following papers yesterday

  13. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 | Department of Energy 9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising average

  14. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

  15. Weekly Ethanol Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area: U.S. Lower 48 (Crude Oil Production) PADD 1 New England Central Atlantic Lower Atlantic PADD 2 Cushing, Oklahoma (Crude Oil Stocks) PADD 3 PADD 4 PADD 5 Alaska (Crude Oil Production) PADD's 4 & 5 Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 07/22/16 07/29/16 08/05/16 08/12/16 08/19/16 08/26/16 View History Crude Oil Production Domestic Production 8,515 8,460

  16. Davis-Bacon Labor Rates for Weatherization Work in Multifamily Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization Assistance Program Notice 10-04 deals with labor rates (wages) for weatherization work in large multifamily buildings that comply with the Davis-Bacon Act requirements of the 2009 Recovery Act.

  17. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charger Installations - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations fotw#910_web.xlsx (16.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All

  18. Outage project productivity improvement of TVA fossil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picard, H.E.; Seay, C.R. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Competition in the utility industry forces management to look closely at the cost effectiveness of power plant outage projects. At TVA Fossil and Hydro Power, innovative work measurement is proving effective as a project management tool to do more with less. Labor-hours to complete outage work scopes are reduced by some 20 to 30%, not by working harder or sacrificing safety, or quality, but by working and managing smarter. Fossil power plant outages and shutdowns are costly. They are labor-intensive construction projects, often with expanding work scope, and executed on a fast track. Outage work is inherently complex and dynamic, and often unpredictable. Many activities and tasks must be integrated, coordinated and completed safely and efficiently by multiple crafts and work groups. As a result, numerous productivity factors can influence the cost and schedule of outage completion. This provides owners, contractors and labor with unique opportunities for competitive advantage--by making radical changes in how they manage labor-hours and time.

  19. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  20. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " ...

  1. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  2. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In July of 2015, the nationwide average price of diesel was lower than the average price of a regular gallon of gasoline for the first time since June 2009. Both gasoline and diesel prices fluctuate throughout the

  3. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw#915_web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas

  4. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw#835_web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset

  5. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  6. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  7. Interview: LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They Need It

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Focus Series LaborWorks@NeighborWorks Provides Vermont Contractors With Help When They Need It NeighborWorks of Western Vermont (NWWVT), a nonprofit home ownership organization based in Rutland County, Vermont, received $4.5 million in seed funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program to help Vermonters complete home energy efficiency upgrades. NWWVT created the Home Energy Assistance Team (HEAT Squad) in 2010 to make it easy for homeowners to proceed with

  8. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    over year-ago levels and the three-year average (Table 2). * Global surplus crude oil production capacity in July and August 2013 averaged 2.2 million bbld, which is 0.3...

  9. Aggregate Productivity under an Energy-Based Approach

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... China, Chile, and Taiwan grow faster than 3% on average between 1995 and 2000, and Romania and South Africa show relatively quick growth in average productivity from 2001-2006. On the ...

  10. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  11. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  12. Diesel prices continue to increase … U.S. average over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  13. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3 months in 2008, up from 48.4 months six years earlier. New vehicle owners hold onto vehicles about 15 or 16 months longer than used vehicle owners. Average

  14. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Years 2012-2016 | Department of Energy 4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel economy target based on its footprint. A vehicle's footprint is defined as the wheelbase

  15. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Relation to Family Earnings | Department of Energy 8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while median family earnings went from $7,933 to $77,149.

  16. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years fotw#889_web.xlsx (19.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most

  17. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  18. 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy | Department of Energy -03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy 2016-03-11 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy (856.9 KB) More Documents & Publications CX-014551: Categorical Exclusion Determination EA-0819: Finding of No Significant Impact 2016-03-11 Commercial Packaged Boilers_NOPR

  19. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  20. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  1. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2014" "Module value, total shipments (thousand dollars)" "Total Modules ",5425417 "Module average value (dollars per peak watt)" "Total Modules ",0.87 "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  2. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charger Installations | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project and the ChargePoint America project were conducted for the Department of Energy by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2011-2013 the project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations

  4. Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages One of the major problems in the use of heat flow data in a quantitative manner has been the variability of closely spaced measurements. It is suggested that this variability is directly related to hydrothermal circulation in an ''effectively permeable'' oceanic crust. As a consequence, only where this crust is sealed from the seawater by an extensive and

  5. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation

  6. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  7. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  8. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  9. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70≤Z≤92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (ω{sup ¯}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70≤Z≤92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  10. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were mostly driven by increased supply outages (Table 2). Although global surplus crude oil production capacity averaged 2.2 million bbld in November and December, an increase...

  11. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  12. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  13. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  14. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  15. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  16. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  17. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region, at 4.16 a gallon, down a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.68 a gallon, down 1.7

  18. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Prices increased in all regions across the U.S. The highest prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.74 a gallon,

  19. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.02 a gallon. That's down a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, down 1.3 cents.

  20. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.00 a gallon. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a gallon, down 4.9 and 3.9 cents, respectively, from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, down 1.1 cents.

  1. U.S. diesel prices increase … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 2.1 cents.

  2. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 6.55 6.86 8.24 8.99 9.49 10.78 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.76 7.66 7.50 6.80 7.15 7.72

  3. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 10.31 9.45 9.65 9.90 10.91 14.77 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.59 6.58 6.40 6.23 5.99 5.76

  4. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 6.48 6.44 7.16 8.01 11.73 19.29 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.38 6.17 7.03

  5. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  6. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  7. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  8. A Code to Produce Cell Averaged Cross Sections for Fast Critical Assemblies and Fast Power Reactors.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-05-14

    Version 00 SLAROM solves the neutron integral transport equations to determine the flux distribution and spectra in a fast reactor lattice and calculates cell averaged effective cross sections. The code uses multigroup data of the type in DLC-111/JFS that use Bondarenko factors for resonance effects.

  9. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 9.96 9.53 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 9.50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31

  10. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  11. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak ...

  12. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    led by production in Iraq and Saudi Arabia (Table 2, Table 3). Global surplus crude oil production capacity averaged 1.7 million bd in May and June, 0.4 million bd lower...

  13. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    three-year average production total of 4.0 million bbld (Table 1). * Global surplus crude oil production capacity in May and June was 2.4 million bbld, which is 0.3 million bbl...

  14. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  15. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  16. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  17. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (million kWh)",," (Billion BTU)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"

  18. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row"

  19. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  20. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  1. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  2. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  3. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  4. Picosecond Pulse Recirculation for High Average Brightness Thomson Scattering-based Gamma-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenov, V. A.

    2009-06-12

    Pulse recirculation has been successfully demonstrated with the interaction laser system of LLNL's Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray (T-REX) source. The recirculation increased twenty-eight times the intensity of the light coming out of the laser system, demonstrating the capability of increasing the gamma-ray flux emitted by T-REX. The technical approach demonstrated could conceivably increase the average gamma-ray flux output by up to a hundred times.

  5. Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that

  6. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  7. Coherent radar estimates of average high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the average ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. Average Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The average Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.

  8. Coiled tubing helps gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheny, S.L. Jr.

    1980-08-11

    To boost production from its gas fields in Lake Erie, Consumers' Gas Co., Toronto, used a giant reel holding a 33,000-ft coil of 1-in. polypropylene-coated steel tubing to lay about 44 miles of control lines that now service 20 wells 17 miles offshore. As the forward motion of the boat unwound the tubing, the reel rig's hydraulic motor served as a brake to maintain the proper tension. This innovative method of laying the lines eliminated more than 80% of the pipe joints, correspondingly reduced the installation labor time, and improved the system's reliability. The two hydraulic-control lines that were laid actuate the gas-gathering line valves, while a hydrate-control line injects each well with methyl alcohol to inhibit hydrate formation.

  9. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  10. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  11. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  12. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  13. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  14. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  15. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  16. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  18. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  19. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fcc and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.

  20. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  1. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3,405 1980's 3,405 3,316 3,248 3,355 3,518 3,454 3,443 3,351 3,192 3,099 1990's 2,936 2,968 3,031 2,868 2,907 2,886 2,938 3,022 3,136 3,313 2000's 3,299 3,193 2,988 2,855 2,742

  2. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  3. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  4. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  5. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  6. Kubo–Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new formulation of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman–Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman–Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement withmore » ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.« less

  7. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 39,245 37,530 30,909 29,915 24,309 30,956 29,057 30,423 32,071 30,248 1990's 32,144 33,395 35,908 38,067 40,244 40,973 43,050 36,239 36,785 35,384 2000's 36,968 33,840 36,458 34,793 34,645 31,991 33,597 33,561 29,639 29,705 2010's 35,418 36,947 38,159

  10. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 40.85 44.62 71.22 40.85 71.22 -42.6 Canada* 85.43 69.79 74.16 85.43 74.16 15.2 Dominican Republic 213.68 - 461.75 213.68 461.75 -53.7 Guatemala - - 359.27 - 359.27 - Honduras - - 54.43 - 54.43 - Jamaica 38.10 39.48 45.51 38.10 45.51 -16.3 Mexico 28.06 28.52 70.79 28.06

  11. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 91.86 102.82 92.36 91.86 92.36 -0.5 Canada* 88.10 104.16 87.30 88.10 87.30 0.9 Guatemala - 66.22 - - - - Honduras 78.02 78.02 - 78.02 - - Mexico 111.56 110.99 108.37 111.56 108.37 2.9 South America Total 64.83 75.44 96.14 64.83 96.14 -32.6 Argentina - - 100.77 -

  12. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  13. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  14. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  15. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  16. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  17. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  18. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  19. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining. Chapter 1 reviews the status of the literature on labor productivity changes. Chapter 2 is an introduction to current concepts and research on psycho-social factors in productivity, with a survey of experiments in productivity improvement presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 discusses the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production. Chapter 5 presents a clinical study of a coal mining operation, and develops a model of how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face. Implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management are presented in Chapter 6.

  20. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  2. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  3. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  4. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  5. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  6. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  7. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  9. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  10. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  11. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  12. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  13. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  14. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  15. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  17. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  18. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests. The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.

  19. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests.more » The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.« less

  20. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes Products Isotopes Products Isotopes produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole stress-inducible lateral wall and apical ischemia. (http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/image/machac/machaci.htm#f2,3,4) Strontium-82 is supplied to our customers for use in Sr-82/Rb-82 generator technologies. The generators in turn are supplied to

  1. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict themore » reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally

  2. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict the reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally, limitations of

  3. Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Purchased energy remains the third largest manufacturing cost for the forest products industry–despite its extensive use of highly efficient co-generation technology. The industry has worked with...

  4. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  5. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  6. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  7. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  8. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  9. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  10. Economic analysis and assessment of syngas production using a modeling approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hakkwan; Parajuli, Prem B.; Yu, Fei; Columbus, Eugene P.

    2011-08-10

    Economic analysis and modeling are essential and important issues for the development of current feedstock and process technology for bio-gasification. The objective of this study was to develop an economic model and apply to predict the unit cost of syngas production from a micro-scale bio-gasification facility. An economic model was programmed in C++ computer programming language and developed using a parametric cost approach, which included processes to calculate the total capital costs and the total operating costs. The model used measured economic data from the bio-gasification facility at Mississippi State University. The modeling results showed that the unit cost of syngas production was $1.217 for a 60 Nm-3 h-1 capacity bio-gasifier. The operating cost was the major part of the total production cost. The equipment purchase cost and the labor cost were the largest part of the total capital cost and the total operating cost, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that labor costs rank the top as followed by equipment cost, loan life, feedstock cost, interest rate, utility cost, and waste treatment cost. The unit cost of syngas production increased with the increase of all parameters with exception of loan life. The annual cost regarding equipment, labor, feedstock, waste treatment, and utility cost showed a linear relationship with percent changes, while loan life and annual interest rate showed a non-linear relationship. This study provides the useful information for economic analysis and assessment of the syngas production using a modeling approach.

  11. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  12. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  13. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth in global supply, contributing 0.8 million bbld (Table 2). * Global surplus crude oil production capacity averaged 2.2 million bbld in November and December, 0.1 million...

  14. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lower crude oil output from OPEC countries (Tables 2 and 3). * Global surplus crude oil production capacity averaged 1.8 million bbld in July and August, 0.3 million bbld...

  15. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by an average of 0.8 million bbld in September and October 2013. Increased global crude oil production, particularly from Libya and Iraq, in the past two months, at a time when...

  16. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    was more than offset by the decrease in total OPEC output (Table 4). Global surplus crude oil production capacity in September and October 2013 averaged 1.8 million bbld, which...

  17. Nuclear Dependence of Charm Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Engelfried, J.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Ayan, A.S.; Balatz, M.Y.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, Loretta J.; /Michigan U., Flint /Moscow, ITEP

    2009-02-01

    With data taken by SELEX, which accumulated data during the 1996-1997 fixed target run at Fermilab, we study the production of charmed hadrons on copper and carbon targets with {Sigma}{sup -}, p, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +} beams. Parameterizing the production cross section {infinity} A{sup {alpha}}, A being the atomic number, we determine {alpha} for D{sup +}, D{sup 0}, D{sub s}{sup +}, D{sup +}(2010), {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}, and their respective anti-particles, as a function of their transverse momentum p{sub t} and scaled longitudinal momentum x{sub F}. Within our statistics there is no dependence of {alpha} on x{sub F} for any charm species for the interval 0.1 < x{sub F} < 1.0. The average value of {alpha} for charm production by pion beams is {alpha}{sub meson} = 0.850 {+-} 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average {alpha}{sub baryon} = 0.755 {+-} 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ({Sigma}{sup -}, p).

  18. U.S. monthly oil production tops 8 million barrels per day for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monthly crude oil production highest in 26 years with bigger oil flows still to come U.S. crude oil production averaged 8.3 million barrels per day in April....the highest monthly ...

  19. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  20. Petroleum products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book is the first of three volumes devoted to petroleum products and lubricants. This volume begins with standard D 56 and contains all petroleum standards up to D 1947. It contains specifications and test methods for fuels, solvents, burner fuel oils, lubricating oils, cutting oils, lubricating greases, fluids measurement and sampling, liquified petroleum gases, light hydrocarbons, plant spray oils, sulfonates, crude petroleum, petrolatam, and wax.

  1. Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  2. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal, can be converted to produce hydrogen, and the use of carbon capture, utilization, and storage can reduce the carbon footprint of these processes. Hydrogen can also be produced from low carbon and renewable resources, including biomass grown from non-food crops and splitting water using electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric. This diversity of potential

  3. Product separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert A.; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1976-01-20

    A secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present.

  4. Time dependent particle emission from fission products (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Time dependent particle emission from fission products Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time dependent particle emission from fission products Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so

  5. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAAs High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  6. Google's looking smarter about advanced metering than long-laboring utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    In late May, Google announced a partnership with eight utilities in six states in the U.S. plus Canada and India to enable roughly 10 million customers to 'access detailed information on their home energy use.' What is different about the new product is that consumers can view simple graphical displays of their power usage more or less in real time from anywhere there is access to the Internet. That may ultimately turn PowerMeter into a powerful tool to manage electricity consumption on truly large scale and at very low cost.

  7. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results

  8. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 ...

  9. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 ...

  10. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Maryland 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Michigan 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 New Jersey 10.11 9.51

  11. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.74 6.82 7.05 6.94 7.34 7.70 1973-2016 Alabama 9.81 9.70 10.04 10.46 10.45 11.13 1989-2016 Alaska 7.88 7.87 7.87 7.90 8.00 8.41 1989-2016 Arizona 8.93 9.32 9.73 9.07 8.77 8.69 1989-2016 Arkansas 7.16 6.74 7.11 6.85 7.11 7.22 1989-2016 California 7.98 8.43 8.12 7.14 7.29 7.38 1989-2016 Colorado 5.79 5.94 5.91 5.95 6.04 7.88 1989-2016 Connecticut NA 7.26 7.90 9.33 9.82 11.77 1989-2016 Delaware 8.75 8.58 8.79 9.33 10.03 10.87 1989-2016 District of Columbia 9.50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31

  12. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.30 8.39 9.23 9.66 11.64 14.49 1973-2016 Alabama 12.00 11.12 12.01 14.27 16.95 19.07 1989-2016 Alaska 8.91 9.03 9.09 9.63 10.41 12.14 1989-2016 Arizona 11.99 13.82 18.05 16.53 17.44 19.47 1989-2016 Arkansas 9.54 9.06 10.33 10.89 13.73 15.40 1989-2016 California 11.45 11.52 10.60 10.50 11.51 11.37 1989-2016 Colorado 6.06 6.44 6.67 6.82 7.07 12.43 1989-2016 Connecticut 10.32 10.65 11.71 12.85 15.00 19.15 1989-2016 Delaware 10.09 9.71 10.24 11.47 13.44 17.54 1989-2016 District of Columbia 9.96

  13. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 9.30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31 1989-2016 Florida 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38 1989-2016 Georgia 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53 1989-2016 Maryland NA 8.18 8.87 NA NA 9.85 1989-2016 Michigan 6.50 6.64 6.63 6.48 7.23 8.19 1989-2016 New Jersey 7.76 7.66 7.50 6.80 7.15 7.72 1989-2016 New York 6.59 6.58 6.40 6.23 5.99 5.76 1989-2016 Ohio 5.32 5.30 5.31 5.38 6.17 7.03 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69 1989-2016 Virginia 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  14. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    96 9.53 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 1989-2016 Florida 16.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Georgia 10.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Maryland 9.95 9.46 11.04 NA 12.66 16.06 1989-2016 Michigan 7.25 7.58 7.80 7.71 9.56 12.33 1989-2016 New Jersey 6.55 6.86 8.24 8.99 9.49 10.78 1989-2016 New York 10.31 9.45 9.65 9.90 10.91 14.77 1989-2016 Ohio 6.48 6.44 7.16 8.01 11.73 19.29 1989-2016 Pennsylvania 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Virginia 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51

  15. Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xueming

    2010-12-15

    The robust dissipative soliton molecules (DSM's) exhibiting as the quasirectangular spectral profile are investigated numerically and observed experimentally in mode-locked fiber lasers with the large normal path-averaged dispersion and the large net cavity dispersion. These DSM's have an independently evolving phase with a pulse duration T{sub 0} of about 20 ps and a peak-to-peak separation of about 8T{sub 0}. Under laboratory conditions, the proposed laser delivers vibrating DSM's with an oscillating amplitude of less than a percent of peak separation. Numerical simulations show that DSM's are characterized by a spectral modulation pattern with about a 3-dB modulation depth measured as an averaged value. The experimental observations are in excellent agreement with the numerical predictions.

  16. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  17. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  18. Closure of the Averaged Equations for Disperse Two-Phase Flow by Direct Numerical Simulation: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrea Prosperetti

    2006-03-24

    The report briefly describes the activities carried out in the course of the project. A first line of research was the development of systematic closure relations for averaged equations for disperse multiphase flow. A second line was the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of Navier-Stokes flows with many suspended particles. The report also lists the 21 journal articles in which this work is more fully decsribed.

  19. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  20. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  1. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  2. The miners of Windber: Class, ethnicity, and the labor movements in a Pennsylvania coal town, 1890s-1930s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beik, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Immigrant miners, the subject of this community study lived, worked, and struggled in an important bituminous coal town located in central Pennsylvania. Windber, a transposition of Berwind, was founded as a company town in 1897 by the Berwind White Coal Mining Company, a leading coal corporation. Most of the labor force, 4,000 to 5,000 miners, were recent arrivals from southern and eastern Europe. At least 25 different nationalities were represented in the town's population of 10,000. The company established an autocratic type of control in the workplace and the community. It was opposed to unionization by the United Mine Workers and operated an open-shop until the New Deal. The broad struggle of the miners and their families to end this autocratic control and by that get greater control over their lives and work in the nonunion period is the raison d'etre of this study. Sources used include oral histories, census, union files, church records, Slovak fraternal society papers, borough council records, organizers' papers, company employment records, printed documents, and rare newspaper collections. Part One is devoted to a social history of work and community. Topics covered include the company's labor, ethnic, and governing policies; the nature and composition of the social structure; the organization of work; the importance of the family economy; the functioning of immigrant communities within the larger American setting; and the competition for ethnic community leadership. The most important theme concerns the relationship of ethnic city to class formation and working class struggles. Windber's historic example shows that ethnic communities were not homogeneous entities but arenas of class conflict. Part Two is narrative presentation of the major struggle in which Windber mine participated.

  3. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  4. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers.

  5. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production capacity and production million gallons Period Annual Production ... B100 is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  6. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  7. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spinecho, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  8. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  9. ARM - VAP Product - armbestns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Products : ARMBESTNS Measurements The measurements below provided by this product are those considered scientifically relevant. Atmospheric moisture Atmospheric...

  10. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  11. Productivity genefits from new energy technology: A case study of a paint manufacturing company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghunathan, P.; Capehart, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    In many cases, implementing new energy efficiency technologies not only helps facilities reduce their energy costs, but it also creates greater profits by increasing productivity. These added benefits from productivity improvements can sometimes be greater than the energy cost savings, and can result in an attractive overall payback period for implementing the new technology. This paper presents a case study of productivity improvement at a paint manufacturing company as a result of implementing new energy efficiency technology. During an industrial energy assessment, it was noted that the company had experienced frequent failures of motor belts and sheaves on five paint mixers resulting in significant replacement costs and labor costs. In addition, a bigger loss was being suffered due to lost potential profit associated with the frequent work stoppages. The IAC recommendation was to install motor soft starters (also known as motor voltage controllers) on the five mixing machines. Installation of soft starters would have the following benefits: lower energy costs, lower replacement costs for transmission components, lower labor costs, and higher production levels and increased profits. The total annual benefits were estimated at $122,659, of which the benefits from increased productivity were nearly $67,000. The overall simple payback period for installing the soft starters was less than 2 months.

  12. Analytical gradients of the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method with density fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcey, Mickaël G.; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland

    2015-07-28

    An efficient implementation of the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) gradients employing density fitting (DF) is presented. The DF allows a reduction both in scaling and prefactors of the different steps involved. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on a set of molecules ranging up to an iron-Heme b complex which with its 79 atoms and 811 basis functions is to our knowledge the largest SA-CASSCF gradient computed. For smaller systems where the conventional code could still be used as a reference, both the linear response calculation and the gradient formation showed a clear timing reduction and the overall cost of a geometry optimization is typically reduced by more than one order of magnitude while the accuracy loss is negligible.

  13. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenderholt, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    2007-01-08

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k{sup 3}-weighted EXAFS data.

  14. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  15. Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Tasios Melis, UC Berkeley 24-Jan-2011 1 UCB-Melis 2 CO 2 H 2 O Photosynthesis Photons H 2 HC O 2 , Biomass Feedstock and products Process offers a renewable fuels supply and mitigation of climate change. UCB-Melis Average US Solar insolation = 5 kWh m -2 d -1 CA household electricity consumption = 15 kWh d -1 Sunlight 3 UCB-Melis Gains upon improving the carbon reactions of photosynthesis: up to 50% 4 "Six potential routes of increasing

  16. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  17. Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025

  18. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  19. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  20. Grid-based Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid-based Production Grid-based Production PDSF is a Tier 2 site for ALICE and as such has the infrastructure in place to run automated grid-based ALICE production jobs. The main...

  1. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  2. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  3. Labor Standards for Construction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    --------------------------Chapter 23.0 (September 2010) 1 Executive Order 13514 - Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance Reference: FAR 23, 52.223, DEAR 923, 952.223, 970.23, and 970.5223 Overview Executive Order 13514 - Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance continues an increasing awareness of mankind's effect on the Earth's environment. The Executive Order was issued as a follow on to Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal

  4. Labor Standards for Construction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    --------------------------Chapter 43.3 (March 2013) 1 Maintaining Alignment of Project Management with Contract Management for Non-Management and Operating (M&O) Cost Reimbursement Contracts for Capital Asset Projects, Environmental Remediation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, Facility Operations, and Other Major Projects Purpose and Applicability This chapter provides guidance on how Contracting Officers (COs) should manage contract changes, and how COs and Federal Project Directors

  5. Labor Standards for Construction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes; o Chemicals which are combustible liquids, compressed ...

  6. Labor Standards for Construction

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... for all allowable costs up to the cost and funding limits established in the contract. ... - Chapter 4 Forecasting Cost Overruns, Section 4.3 Resolving Potential Cost Overruns. ...

  7. Labor Standards for Construction

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes; o Chemicals which are combustible liquids,...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  9. U.S. crude oil production in July was the highest in more than...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA's new monthly forecast expects average crude oil production next year will climb to 8.2 million barrels per day....about 800,000 barrels per day higher than this year. Drilling ...

  10. ,"Weekly Blender Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per Day)","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per ...

  11. Production | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research & Development Algal Biofuels Production Production PNNL image Algae ... growth rate and high oil content, that make algae attractive to convert into biofuels. ...

  12. J/ψ Production

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA (Dated: October 30, 2006) We study J production at RHIC and LHC energies with both initial production and regener- ation. ...

  13. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  14. Challenge # 1. Feedstock & Production

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Northeast Heating Oil Supply-Demand Balance and Projections: Annual Average 2007-2013 * Northeast is largest regional consumer of heating oil in the U.S. * Northeast is ...

  15. Transmission Losses Product (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov Pricing for Transmission Losses Product Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Power Services offers to sell transmission...

  16. SU-C-207-02: A Method to Estimate the Average Planar Dose From a C-Arm CBCT Acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supanich, MP

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The planar average dose in a C-arm Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition had been estimated in the past by averaging the four peripheral dose measurements in a CTDI phantom and then using the standard 2/3rds peripheral and 1/3 central CTDIw method (hereafter referred to as Dw). The accuracy of this assumption has not been investigated and the purpose of this work is to test the presumed relationship. Methods: Dose measurements were made in the central plane of two consecutively placed 16cm CTDI phantoms using a 0.6cc ionization chamber at each of the 4 peripheral dose bores and in the central dose bore for a C-arm CBCT protocol. The same setup was scanned with a circular cut-out of radiosensitive gafchromic film positioned between the two phantoms to capture the planar dose distribution. Calibration curves for color pixel value after scanning were generated from film strips irradiated at different known dose levels. The planar average dose for red and green pixel values was calculated by summing the dose values in the irradiated circular film cut out. Dw was calculated using the ionization chamber measurements and film dose values at the location of each of the dose bores. Results: The planar average dose using both the red and green pixel color calibration curves were within 10% agreement of the planar average dose estimated using the Dw method of film dose values at the bore locations. Additionally, an average of the planar average doses calculated using the red and green calibration curves differed from the ionization chamber Dw estimate by only 5%. Conclusion: The method of calculating the planar average dose at the central plane of a C-arm CBCT non-360 rotation by calculating Dw from peripheral and central dose bore measurements is a reasonable approach to estimating the planar average dose. Research Grant, Siemens AG.

  17. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  18. Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thorium: Crustal abundance, joint production, and economic availability Recently, interest in thorium's potential use in a nuclear fuel cycle has been renewed. Thorium is more abundant, at least on average, than uranium in the earth's crust and, therefore, could theoretically extend the use of nuclear energy technology beyond the economic

  19. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  20. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  1. En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D. Reuter, M.

    2014-11-15

    The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the

  2. More production buildings and expanded operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groves pointed out in his book was the difficulty getting enough skilled labor. He said, "One of our chief difficulties was s shortage of electrical workers. This became so...

  3. State Energy Production Estimates

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Estimates 1960 Through 2012 2012 Summary Tables Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2012 Alabama 19,455 215,710 9,525 0 Alaska 2,052 351,259...

  4. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Biodiesel production, sales, and stocks million gallons Period B100 production Sales of B100 Sales of B100 included in biodiesel blends Ending stocks of B100 B100 stock change ...

  5. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  6. Energy Efficiency Product Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey Energy Efficiency Product Standards, enacted in 2005, include minimum standards for eight products, which were preempted by the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. Future standards, if...

  7. MECS 2006- Forest Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products (NAICS 321, 322) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  8. Coal production 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-22

    Coal Production 1988 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1989. 5 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  10. Alcorn wells bolster Philippines oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-21

    This paper reports that Alcorn International Inc., Houston, is producing about 16,500 b/d of oil from West Linapacan A field in the South China Sea off the Philippines. The field's current production alone is more than fivefold the Philippines' total average oil flow of 3,000 b/d in 1991. It's part of a string of oil and gas strikes off Palawan Island that has made the region one of the hottest exploration/development plays in the Asia-Pacific theater.

  11. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  12. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  13. U.S. crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per day in December

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    crude oil production expected to top 9 million barrels per day in December U.S. crude oil production is expected to continue to increase through next year, despite the outlook for lower crude oil prices. In its new short-term forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly average oil production is on track to surpass 9 million barrels per day in December for the first time since 1986 and then rise to an average 9.4 million barrels a day next year. Even though that's down about

  14. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  15. Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Kansas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...bioenergyabout-bioenergy-technologies-office-growing-americas-energy-future-replacing-whole acore.orgfilespdfsstatesKansas.pdf (based on 2011 survey by the Bureau of Labor ...

  16. Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Iowa

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...bioenergyabout-bioenergy-technologies-office-growing-americas-energy-future-replacing-whole acore.orgfilespdfsstatesIowa.pdf (based on 2011 survey by the Bureau of Labor ...

  17. Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Tennessee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... on 2011 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) energy.goveerebioenergy...documents420f12078.pdf eia.govenvironmentemissionsstatestateemissions.cfm ...

  18. Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in Ohio

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... on 2011 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) For more information on Ohio biomass ...documents420f12078.pdf eia.govenvironmentemissionsstatestateemissions.cfm For ...

  19. Benefits of Biofuel Production and Use in New Mexico

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... on 2011 survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) For more information on biomass ...documents420f12078.pdf eia.govenvironmentemissionsstatestateemissions.cfm ...

  20. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs of Motor Gasoline Blending Components Net Inputs of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs of All Other Blending Components Net Inputs of Fuel Ethanol Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production - Finished Motor Gasoline (Excl.

  1. Microbial production of epoxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Thomas R.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2003-06-10

    A method for microbial production of epoxides and other oxygenated products is disclosed. The method uses a biocatalyst of methanotrophic bacteria cultured in a biphasic medium containing a major amount of a non-aqueous polar solvent. Regeneration of reducing equivalents is carried out by using endogenous hydrogenase activity together with supplied hydrogen gas. This method is especially effective with gaseous substrates and cofactors that result in liquid products.

  2. Shale Gas Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Production (Billion Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2009 2010 2011 2012...

  3. Procurable Products, Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    printed wiring boards (PWB) using performance and design specifications. Commercial products and services procurement The following items are purchased through Just-In-Time...

  4. Product Efficiency Cases

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    granting an Application for Exception filed by Technical Consumer Products, Inc. (TCP) for relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program:...

  5. substantially reduced production costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  6. probabilistic energy production forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy production forecasts - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary ...

  7. Pion Production Data Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pion Production Data Release This page gives the updated results for three different MINERvA Publications: Cross sections for neutrino and antineutrino induced pion production on hydrocarbon in the few-GeV region using MINERvA hep-ex/1606.07127 and Single neutral pion production by charged current antinu interactions on plastic scintillator at Enu ∼ 4 GeV hep-ex/1503.02107 and Charged Pion Production from CH in a Neutrino Beam hep-ex/1406.6415 Data Ancillary files for this result are available

  8. Forest Products Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wood and paper products meet the everyday needs of consumers and businesses. They provide materials essential for communication, education, packaging, construction, shelter, sanitation, and protection.

  9. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  10. Forest Products (2010 MECS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321, 322) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  11. Microsystem product development.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polosky, Marc A.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2006-04-01

    Over the last decade the successful design and fabrication of complex MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems), optical circuits and ASICs have been demonstrated. Packaging and integration processes have lagged behind MEMS research but are rapidly maturing. As packaging processes evolve, a new challenge presents itself, microsystem product development. Product development entails the maturation of the design and all the processes needed to successfully produce a product. Elements such as tooling design, fixtures, gages, testers, inspection, work instructions, process planning, etc., are often overlooked as MEMS engineers concentrate on design, fabrication and packaging processes. Thorough, up-front planning of product development efforts is crucial to the success of any project.

  12. Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum > Petroleum Survey Forms> Petroleum Survey Forms Tutorial Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe ...

  13. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  14. Sunforce Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Manufacturer and distributor of solar and wind power generation and battery charging products. References: Sunforce Products1 This article is a stub. You can...

  15. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip — delineated on AIP, GTVmip — delineated on MIP and GTVfus — delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals −0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  16. ARM - VAP Product - microbasepiavg

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productsmicrobasemicrobasepiavg Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1095339 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : MICROBASEPIAVG Continuous Baseline Microphysical Retrieval, Profile-averaged Active Dates 1996.11.08 - 2011.03.22 Originating VAP Process Continuous Baseline Microphysical Retrieval : MICROBASE

  17. Table 6.4 Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Natural Gas Well Productivity, 1960-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Natural Gas Well Productivity, 1960-2011 Year Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals From Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Coalbed, and Shale Gas Wells Natural Gas Well Productivity Texas 1 Louisiana 1 Oklahoma Other States 1 Federal Gulf of Mexico 2 Total Onshore Offshore Total Gross With- drawals From Natural Gas Wells 3 Producing Wells 4 Average Productivity Federal State Total Million Cubic Feet Million Cubic Feet Million Cubic Feet Number Cubic Feet per Well 1960 6,964,900

  18. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  19. Comparison of Permian basin giant oil fields with giant oil fields of other U. S. productive areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeberle, F.R. )

    1992-04-01

    Covering over 40 million ac, the Permian basin is the fourth largest of the 28 productive areas containing giant fields. The 56 giant fields in the basin compare with the total of 264 giant oil fields in 27 other productive areas. Cumulative production figures of 18 billion bbl from the giant fields in the Permian basin are the largest cumulative production figures from giant fields in any of the productive areas. An estimated 1.9 billion bbl of remaining reserves in giant fields rank the basin third among these areas and the 19.9 billion bbl total reserves in giant fields in the basin are the largest total reserves in giant fields in any of the productive areas. The 1990 production figures from giant fields place the basin second in production among areas with giant fields. However, converting these figures to by-basin averages for the giant fields places the Permian basin 12th in field size among the areas with giant fields. Based on average reserves per well, the basin ranks 18th. Average 1990 production per giant field place the basin seventh and the average 1990 production per well in giant fields place the Permian basin 14th among the areas with giant fields.

  20. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope {beta} ({identical_to} dlogF{sub {lambda}}/dlog{lambda}; measured at 0.13 {mu}m < {lambda}{sub rest} < 0.28 {mu}m) rises steeply with the median UV luminosity from -1.8 at L {approx} L* to -1.2 (L {approx} 4-5L*). We use population synthesis analyses to derive their average physical properties and find that (1) L{sub UV} and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L {approx} 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L {approx} L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M{sub *} relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at

  1. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  2. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Development Drilling","Mine Production of Uranium ","Uranium Concentrate Production ","Uranium Concentrate Shipments ","Employment " "Year","Drilling (million feet)"," ...

  3. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  4. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New England 6,243,013 630 17.82 112.31 Connecticut 1,459,239 730 19.75 144.10 Maine 706,952 549 15.27 83.91 Massachusetts 2,720,128 615 17.39 106.94 New Hampshire 606,883 619 17.53 ...

  5. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New England 862,269 5,132 14.70 754.43 Connecticut 155,372 6,915 15.55 1,075.18 Maine 91,541 3,627 12.70 460.77 Massachusetts 398,717 5,450 14.68 799.87 New Hampshire 105,840 3,515 ...

  6. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...3,92553.92,8.9475131,8281.2741 "Massachusetts",14896,44536.235,12.740483,5674.1312 "New Hampshire",3342,49098.943,11.929516,5857.2661 "Rhode Island",1884,39240.534,12.862616,5047.3...

  7. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New England 28,017 56,833 11.84 6,730.30 Connecticut 4,648 63,016 12.92 8,138.94 Maine 3,023 92,554 8.95 8,281.27 Massachusetts 14,896 44,536 12.74 5,674.13 New Hampshire 3,342 ...

  8. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,3627.3091,12.702676,460.7653 "Massachusetts",398717,5450.0243,14.676411,799.86795 "New Hampshire",105840,3515.1565,14.339091,504.04148 "Rhode Island",58346,5224.1213,14.560559,760...

  9. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...549.37782,15.272983,83.90638 "Massachusetts",2720128,614.89631,17.390969,106.93643 "New Hampshire",606883,619.35153,17.52928,108.56787 "Rhode Island",438879,582.99041,17.167946,100...

  10. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  11. Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J.; Shahnam, M.

    1995-04-30

    This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.

  12. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-15

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas'kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  13. Simplified subsea production wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1980-10-28

    A simplified subsea production wellhead which permits (1) pumpdown tool operations for routine well maintenance and (2) vertical entry to the wellbore for major workover operations. The wellhead can be lowered by the production pipeline to a wellhead site on the sea floor. The production wellhead includes a diverter spool for releasably attaching to a subsea well. Pumpdown tools can be used with the diverter spool. If vertical entry of the subsea well is required, the diverter spool can be released, raised and moved horizontally to one side of the subsea well, giving vertical entry. After workover operations, the diverter spool is again moved over the subsea well and reattached.

  14. Fundamentals of energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The theory, methods of conversion, and costs of various energy sources, transformations, and production techniques are summarized. Specific attention is given to carbon-based fuels in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms and processes for producing synthetic fuels. Additional details are presented for hydrogen and biomass technologies, as well as nuclear fuel-based electricity production. Renewable energy methods are dealt with in terms of the potentials and current applications of tidal generating stations, hydroelectric installations, solar thermal and electrical energy production, and the development of large wind turbines. Consideration is given to the environmental effects of individual energy technologies, along with associated costs and transportability of the energy produced.

  15. Product Realization Environment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-06-12

    PRE provides a common framework for information flow and product information management based on Common Object Request Brokering Architecture (CORBA). More specific goals for PRE are using the technologies to improve business practices, to decrease product cycle time, and developing tools to rapidly access specialists (e.g. designers, engineers, scientists) expertise both as preserved knowledge and for real time collaboration. The PRE framework will utilize an object based approach (CORBA) to integrate product development with themore » enterprise by providing software integration for business, engineering, and manufacturing practices across organizational boundaries.« less

  16. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  17. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  18. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  19. Power production and ADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2010-03-01

    We describe the power production process in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical systems employing Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 as fuel and examine the demands on the power of the accelerator required.

  20. Bacterial Fermentative Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Melanie Mormile, Missouri University of Science and Technology, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  1. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act, which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt-h...

  2. Offshore Development and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas production in the federal offshore has increased substantially in recent years, gaining more than 400 billion cubic feet between 1993 and 1997 to a level of 5.14 trillion cubic feet.

  3. Forest products technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2006-07-18

    Report highlights DOE Industrial Technology Program co-funded R&D resulting in commercial energy-efficient technologies and emerging technologies helping the forest products industry save energy.

  4. Fruit production of Attalea colenda (Arecaceae) in coastal Ecuador - an alternative oil resource?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    Attalea colenda is a monoecious palm found in pastures in coastal Ecuador. In dry regions, it is a valuable source of oil in self-sufficiency farming or in combination with cattle in pastures. The palm was studied over a gradient of dry to humid environments during two fruiting seasons. Palm growth, production of leaves, inflorescences, and infructescences, number of fruits per infructescence, and seed weight of five populations were evaluated. The individual of average size is 15 m tall, which corresponds to approximately 30-40 years of age. No difference in fruit production was recorded between wet and dry regions of coastal Ecuador. The average production of one hectare of pasture, with 50 palms, was 0.9 t of oil per year. One population that was part of an agroforestry system produced 50% more fruits than the average of all populations in pasture. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  6. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  7. MTBE Production Economics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production Costs 3. Relationship between price of MTBE and Reformulated Gasoline 4. Influence of Natural Gas Prices on the Gasoline Market 5. Regression Results 6. Data Sources 7. End Notes 1. Summary Last year the price of MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) increased dramatically on two occasions (Figure 1) (see Data Sources at end of article.): 1. Between April and June 2000, the price (U.S. Gulf Coast waterborne

  8. Drilling Productivity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drilling Productivity Report Report Background and Methodological Overview August 2014 Updated March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Drilling Productivity Report: Report Background and Methodological Overview i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data,

  9. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Biodiesel Production Report With data for June 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 2016 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Monthly Biodiesel Production Report This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or

  10. PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenks, G.H.; Shapiro, E.M.; Elliott, N.; Cannon, C.V.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a process for the production of tritium by subjecting comminuted solid lithium fluoride containing the lithium isotope of atomic mass number 6 to neutron radiation in a self-sustaining neutronic reactor. The lithium fiuoride is heated to above 450 deg C. in an evacuated vacuum-tight container during radiation. Gaseous radiation products are withdrawn and passed through a palladium barrier to recover tritium. (AEC)

  11. LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LENNOX HEARTH PRODUCTS April 1, 2011 Mr. Daniel Cohen U.S. Department of Energy Assistant General Council for Legislation, Regulation and Energy Efficiency Office of the General Counsel 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 RE: Regulatory Burden RFI Dear Mr. Cohen: Lennox Hearth Products (LHP) is hereby responding to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) request for information - published at 76 Fed. Reg. 6123 (February 3, 2011) - seeking comment and information to assist the DOE in

  12. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  13. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  14. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  15. "Period","Annual Production Capacity",,"Monthly B100 Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel production capacity and production" "million gallons" "Period","Annual ... is the industry designation for pure biodiesel; a biodiesel blend contains both pure ...

  16. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. U.S. uranium mine production and number of mines and sources, 2003-15 Production / Mining method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Underground (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Open Pit (estimated contained thousand pounds U3O8) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In-Situ Leaching (thousand pounds U3O8) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W W Other1 (thousand pounds U3O8) W W W W W W W W W W W W W Total Mine Production (thousand pounds U3O8)

  17. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. uranium industry, 1993-2015 Year Exploration and development surface drilling (million feet) Exploration and development drilling expenditures 1 (million dollars) Mine production of uranium (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate production (million pounds U3O8) Uranium concentrate shipments (million pounds U3O8) Employment (person-years) 1993 1.1 5.7 2.1 3.1 3.4 871 1994 0.7 1.1 2.5 3.4 6.3 980 1995 1.3 2.6 3.5 6.0 5.5 1,107 1996 3.0 7.2 4.7 6.3

  18. State Energy Production Estimates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Production Estimates 1960 Through 2014 2014 Summary Tables U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Production 1 Table P1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, 2014 Alabama 16,377 181,054 9,828 0 Alaska 1,502 345,331 181,175 0 Arizona 8,051 106 56 1,044 Arkansas 94 1,123,678 6,845 0 California 0 252,718 204,269 4,462 Colorado 24,007 1,631,391 95,192 3,133 Connecticut 0 0 0 0 Delaware 0 0 0 0 District of Columbia 0 0 0 0 Florida 0 369 2,227 0 Georgia 0 0 0 2,517

  19. Coal production, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-05

    Coal Production 1987 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. The 1987 coal production and related data presented in this report were obtained from Form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1987. This survey originated at the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior. In 1977, the responsibility for taking the survey was transferred to the EIA under the Department of Energy Organization Act (P.L. 95-91). The data cover 3667 of the 4770 US coal mining operations active in 1987. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 77 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1987. This issue is the 12th annual report published by EIA and continues the series formerly included as a chapter in the Minerals Yearbook published by the Bureau of Mines. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States on January 1, 1988. This is the eighth annual summary on minable coal, pursuant to Section 801 of Public Law 95-620. 18 figs., 105 tabs.

  20. Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 30,319 28,678 30,812 28,059 30,228 30,258 1981-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 641 698 804 725 734

  1. Gas production apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  2. PRODUCTION OF PURIFIED URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burris, L. Jr.; Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-01-26

    A pyrometallurgical method for processing nuclear reactor fuel elements containing uranium and fission products and for reducing uranium compound; to metallic uranium is reported. If the material proccssed is essentially metallic uranium, it is dissolved in zinc, the sulution is cooled to crystallize UZn/sub 9/ , and the UZn/sub 9/ is distilled to obtain uranium free of fission products. If the material processed is a uranium compound, the sollvent is an alloy of zinc and magnesium and the remaining steps are the same.

  3. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Table 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. ...

  4. Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Coal Production Estimation Methodology Step 1 (Estimate total amount of weekly U.S. coal production) U.S. coal production for the current week is estimated using a ratio ...

  5. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmore » than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.« less

  6. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  7. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes ...

  8. Covered Product Categories (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program Energy-Efficient Product Procurement Program and its designated product category list.

  9. Reporting LED Luminaire Product Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    This brochure on LED product performance is an outcome of a joint DOE-NGLIA effort to assure and improve the quality of SSL products.

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Dishwashers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential dishwashers, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category.

  11. Accelerate Energy Productivity 2030 Launch

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy kicked off Accelerate Energy Productivity 2030. This initiative supports President Obama’s goal to double our energy productivity by 2030.

  12. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  13. Coal Combustion Products

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  14. Declines in U.S. monthly oil production expected to continue

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Declines in U.S. monthly oil production expected to continue U.S. monthly oil production continues to decline in response to the drop in oil prices that began almost two years ago. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic oil production averaged 8.7 million barrels per day in May falling below the daily output level of 9 million barrels for the first time since September 2014. May's 250,000 barrel-per-day decrease in oil production would be the

  15. Product Guide Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 49 Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing...

  16. Product Guide Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Crude...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 49 Product Guide Volumes Category Prices Table Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  17. Indexes of Consumption and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and backward-index estimates; that is, the two-way indexed estimate is the weighted average of the estimates obtained by forward and backward indexing, with higher weight...

  18. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Uranium Concentrate Sales by U.S. Producers 3" "Deliveries (thousand pounds U3O8)","W","W","W",3786,3602,3656,2044,2684,2870,3630,4447,4746,3634 "Weighted-Average Price ...

  19. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  20. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  1. Production of MHD fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  2. FEMP Designated Product: Lavatory Faucets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP suspended its product designation and purchasing specification for commercial faucets until further notice.

  3. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  4. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  5. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  6. Joined ceramic product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles W [Kennewick, WA; Brimhall, John L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

    2001-08-21

    According to the present invention, a joined product is at least two ceramic parts, specifically bi-element carbide parts with a bond joint therebetween, wherein the bond joint has a metal silicon phase. The bi-element carbide refers to compounds of MC, M.sub.2 C, M.sub.4 C and combinations thereof, where M is a first element and C is carbon. The metal silicon phase may be a metal silicon carbide ternary phase, or a metal silicide.

  7. Lease Condensate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Authors: Lauren Mayne and John Staub 1 Direct all questions to John Staub, john.staub@eia.gov, (202) 586-6344 Disclaimer: Views not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration Incorporating International Petroleum Reserves and Resource Estimates into Projections of Production U.S. Energy Information Administration June 7, 2011 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not

  8. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 148,450 139,621 157,047 151,450 160,290 156,305 1973-2016

  9. ARM - VAP Product - wsicloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Productswsicloudwsicloud Documentation Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) Citation DOI: 10.5439/1027762 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP Output : WSICLOUD WSI: derived, cloud numbers, area, perimeter, & more Active Dates 1995.09.20 - 2004.01.12 Originating VAP Process Whole Sky Imager Cloud Products : WSICLOUD Measurements The measurements below

  10. Nuclear Facilities Production Facilities

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Facilities Production Facilities Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sand 2011-4582P. ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) The GIF provides test cells for the irradiation of experiments with high-intensity gamma ray sources. The main features

  11. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  12. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  13. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  14. Production Planning Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-04-20

    PRODMOD is an integrated computational tool for performing dynamic simulation and optimization for the entire high level waste complex at the Savannah River Site (SRS) It is being used at SRS for planning purposes so that all waste can be processed efficiently. The computational tool 1) optimizes waste blending sequences, 2) minimizes waste volume production, 3) reduces waste processing time, 4) provides better process control and understanding, and 5) assists strategic planning, scheduling, and costmore » estimation. PRODMOD has been developed using Aspen Technology''s software development package SPEEDUP. PRODMOD models all the key HLW processing operations at SRS: storage and evaporation: saltcake production and dissolution: filtration (dewatering): precipitation: sludge and precipitate washing: glass, grout, and organics production. Innovative approaches have been used in making PRODMOD a very fast computational tool. These innovative approaches are 1) constructing a dynamic problem as a steady state problem 2) mapping between event-space (batch processes) and time-space (dynamic processes) without sacrificing the details in the batch process. The dynamic nature of the problem is constructed in linear form where time dependence is implicit. The linear constructs and mapping algorithms have made it possible to devise a general purpose optimization scheme which couples the optimization driver with the PRODMOD simulator. The optimization scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints.« less

  15. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  16. Product Demonstrations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Product Demonstrations Product Demonstrations The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be selected by the host site or may be suggested for a given installation by the Consortium based on the product's anticipated performance in that installation. In the latter case, products will be evaluated for suitability based on performance relative to other

  17. Class Deviation by General Services Administration (GSA) to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 51.1, Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources, for Time and Material or Labor Hour Procurements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The attached GSA class deviation to FAR Part 51, Contractor Use of Government Supply Sources, dated October 8,2009, permits contracting officers to authorize all GSA contractors, who are performing an order on a time and material (T&M) or labor-hour (LH) basis, to purchase supplies and service from other schedule contractors or process requisitions through the GSA Supply Program. This deviation is effective for five years to October 7,2014, unless otherwise revised or rescinded.

  18. Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products: Umaine Perspective Sustainable Nanomaterials from Forest Products ...

  19. Midwest Biodiesel Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products Jump to: navigation, search Name: Midwest Biodiesel Products Place: Caseyville, Illinois Zip: 62232 Product: Midwest Biodiesel Products, Inc. is an Illinois based...

  20. Malczewski Product Design LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malczewski Product Design LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Malczewski Product Design LLC Place: Neenah, Wisconsin Zip: 54956 Sector: Wind energy Product: Product development...

  1. Renewable Energy Products LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products, LLC Place: Santa Fe Springs, California Zip: 90670 Product: Own and operate a biodiesel production facility in California. References: Renewable Energy Products, LLC1...

  2. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  3. PRODUCTION OF FLUOROCARBONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-06-21

    This patent pertains to a process for recovering fluorocarbons from a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons with partially and completely fluorinated products thereof. It consists of contacting the mxture in the cold with a liquid which is a solvent for the hydrocarbons and which is a nonsolvent for the fluorocarbons, extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the fluorocarbon-containing layer from the solvent-containing layer, and submitting the fluorocarbon layer to fractlonal distillation, to isolate the desired fluorocarbon fraction. Suitable solvents wnich may be used in the process include the lower aliphatic alcohols, and the lower aliphatic ketones.

  4. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 148,450 139,621 157,047 151,450 160,290 156,305 1973-2016

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012

  5. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  6. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    10. Uranium reserve estimates at the end of 2014 and 2015 million pounds U3O8 End of 2014 End of 2015 Forward Cost2 Uranium Reserve Estimates1 by Mine and Property Status, Mining Method, and State(s) $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 154.6 24.3 W 151.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development

  7. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

    1958-04-15

    The production of uranium metal by the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride is described. Massive uranium metal of high purily is produced by reacting uranium tetrafluoride with 2 to 20% stoichiometric excess of magnesium at a temperature sufficient to promote the reaction and then mantaining the reaction mass in a sealed vessel at temperature in the range of 1150 to 2000 d C, under a superatomospheric pressure of magnesium for a period of time sufficient 10 allow separation of liquid uranium and liquid magnesium fluoride into separate layers.

  8. Unions, LANL sign labor agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the contracts with the Laboratory's union workers. To the right of Johnson are Ray Baca of the New Mexico Building and Construction Trades Council and Tim Babicke and Gerard...

  9. Building America Case Study: A Production Builder's Passive House...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * HVAC: 28,000 * Insulation: 11,000 * Framing, insulation, labor: 15,000 * Other ... uses 2 6 @ 24 in. on center advanced framing with a 1-in. fash coat of spray foam on ...

  10. Permian basin gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeberle, F.R.

    1995-06-01

    Of the 242 major gas fields in the Permian basin, 67 are on the Central Basin Platform, 59 are in the Delaware basin, 44 are in the Midland basin, 28 are in the Val Verde basin, 24 are on the Eastern Shelf, 12 are in the Horshoe Atoll and eight are on the Northwest Shelf. Eleven fields have produced over one trillion cubic feet of gas, 61 have produced between 100 billion and one trillion cubic feet of gas and 170 have produced less than 100 billion cubic feet. Highlights of the study show 11% of the gas comes from reservoirs with temperatures over 300 degrees F. and 11% comes from depths between 19,000 and 20,000 feet. Twenty percent of the gas comes from reservoirs with pressures between 1000 and 2000 psi, 22% comes from reservoirs with 20-24% water saturation and 24% comes from reservoirs between 125 and 150 feet thick. Fifty-three reservoirs in the Ellenburger formation have produced 30% of the gas, 33% comes from 88 reservoirs in the Delaware basin and 33% comes from reservoirs with porosities of less than five percent. Forty percent is solution gas and 46% comes from combination traps. Over 50% of the production comes from reservoirs with five millidarcys or less permeability, and 60% of the gas comes from reservoirs in which dolomite is the dominant lithology. Over 50% of the gas production comes from fields discovered before 1957 although 50% of the producing fields were not discovered until 1958.

  11. Production Target Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Olivas, Eric Richard

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  12. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  13. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-05-15

    The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.

  14. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  15. From fluorite to pyrochlore: Characterisation of local and average structure of neodymium zirconate, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Julia L.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2013-09-15

    The structural characterisation of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared via a precursor route was performed using a combination of local and average structure probes (neutron total scattering, X-ray and neutron diffraction). We present the first total scattering and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which provides compelling evidence for the adoption of a disordered fluorite-type structure by Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared by a low-temperature precursor route. Annealing the material at high temperatures leads to a transformation to a pyrochlore-type structure; however, Rietveld refinement using powder neutron diffraction data shows that the oxygen sublattice retains a degree of disorder. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The first total scattering and RMC modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • Demonstration that the synthetic route influences the crystal structure adopted. • Insight into the importance of total scattering in studies of complex superstructures, especially for nano-sized materials.

  16. Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of {Delta}P= 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D= 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

  17. GLASS daytime all-wave net radiation product: Algorithm development and preliminary validation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Ma, Han; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Jia, Kun; Yao, Yunjun; Jia, Aolin

    2016-03-09

    Mapping surface all-wave net radiation (Rn) is critically needed for various applications. Several existing Rn products from numerical models and satellite observations have coarse spatial resolutions and their accuracies may not meet the requirements of land applications. In this study, we develop the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) daytime Rn product at a 5 km spatial resolution. Its algorithm for converting shortwave radiation to all-wave net radiation using the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) model is determined after comparison with three other algorithms. The validation of the GLASS Rn product based on high-quality in situ measurements in the United Statesmore » shows a coefficient of determination value of 0.879, an average root mean square error value of 31.61 Wm-2, and an average bias of 17.59 Wm-2. Furthermore, we also compare our product/algorithm with another satellite product (CERES-SYN) and two reanalysis products (MERRA and JRA55), and find that the accuracy of the much higher spatial resolution GLASS Rn product is satisfactory. The GLASS Rn product from 2000 to the present is operational and freely available to the public.« less

  18. Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Western Hemisphere Oil Products Balance Ramn Espinasa, Ph.D. Lead Specialist July 2014 ... non-commercial purposes. 4 United States Oil Products Balance 5 Energy Matrix - USA 6 ...

  19. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Production Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ...

  20. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 State(s) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ...