National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average global horizontal

  1. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  2. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAAs High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  3. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results

  4. Global and nonglobal parameters of horizontal-branch morphology of globular clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Dotter, A.; Norris, J. E.; Jerjen, H.; Asplund, M. E-mail: amarino@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: jerjen@mso.anu.edu.au; and others

    2014-04-10

    The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is mainly determined by metallicity. However, the fact that GCs with almost the same metallicity exhibit different HB morphologies demonstrates that at least one more parameter is needed to explain the HB morphology. It has been suggested that one of these should be a global parameter that varies from GC to GC and the other a nonglobal parameter that varies within the GC. In this study we provide empirical evidence corroborating this idea. We used the photometric catalogs obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope and analyze the color-magnitude diagrams of 74 GCs. The HB morphology of our sample of GCs has been investigated on the basis of the two new parameters L1 and L2 that measure the distance between the red giant branch and the coolest part of the HB and the color extension of the HB, respectively. We find that L1 correlates with both metallicity and age, whereas L2 most strongly correlates with the mass of the hosting GC. The range of helium abundance among the stars in a GC, characterized by ΔY and associated with the presence of multiple stellar populations, has been estimated in a few GCs to date. In these GCs we find a close relationship among ΔY, GC mass, and L2. We conclude that age and metallicity are the main global parameters, while the range of helium abundance within a GC is the main nonglobal parameter defining the HB morphology of Galactic GCs.

  5. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  6. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  7. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  8. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  9. ARM - Measurement - Horizontal wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHorizontal wind ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Horizontal wind The horizontal wind in terms of either speed and direction, or the zonal (u) and meridional (v) components. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  10. Horizontal Plate Plate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unknown Title: Horizontal Plate Plate GeospatialDataPresentationForm: vector digital data OnlineLinkage:

  11. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permalink EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Analysis, Capabilities, Facilities, Global, Infrastructure Security, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, NISAC, Partnership, Research & Capabilities EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Natural disasters create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in order to minimize injury and loss of life. Simulating such events before they occur can

  12. Horizontal well planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, F.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Interest in horizontal drilling has exploded at a rate well above even the most optimistic projections. Certainly, this technique will not end with the Bakken and Austin Chalk plays. However, future reservoirs will undoubtedly require much more complicated well designs and multi-disciplined technical interaction than has been used so far. The horizontal drilling costs are too high to permit resolving of all the technical issues by trial and error. A multi-disciplinary team approach will be required in order for horizontal drilling to achieve its economic potential.

  13. Horizontal drilling spurs optimism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1991-02-01

    1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

  14. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  15. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rylatt, John A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  17. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  18. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  19. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  20. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Denhan, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Watkins, D. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  1. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  2. Horizontal drilling the Bakken Formation, Williston basin: A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefever, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling is an attractive new approach to exploration and development of the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken Formation in the southwestern part of North Dakota. This drilling technique increases the probability of success, the profit potential, the effective drainage area maximizing recoverable reserves, and the productivity by encountering more natural occurring fractures. The target formation, the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken, consists of three members in an overlapping relationship, a lower organic-rich black shale, a middle siltstone/limestone, and an upper organic-rich black shale. It attains a maximum thickness of 145 ft and thins to a feather edge along its depositional limit. Considered to be a major source rock for the Williston basin, the Bakken is usually overpressured where productive. Overpressuring is attributed to intense hydrocarbon generation. Reservoir properties are poor with core fluid porosities being generally 5% or less and permeabilities ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 md. The presence of natural fractures in the shale are necessary for production. Two types of fractures are associated with Bakken reservoirs: large vertical fractures (of tectonic origin) and microfractures (probably related to hydrocarbon generation). An economic comparison between horizontal and vertical wells show that well completion costs are approximately two times higher (average costs; $1,500,000 for a horizontal to $850,000 for a vertical) with average payout for horizontal wells projected to occur in half the time (1.5 yr instead of 3.4 yr). Projected production and reserves are considered to be 2 to 4 times greater from a horizontal well.

  3. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  4. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  5. Horizontal drilling improves recovery in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhairy, A.A. ); Farid, E.A. )

    1993-09-13

    Both onshore and offshore Abu Dhabi, horizontal wells have increased productivity three to four times more than that from vertical and deviated wells in the same reservoirs. Horizontal drilling technology was first applied in Abu Dhabi in February 1988, and through March 1993, 48 wells have been horizontally drilled. During the 5 years of horizontal drilling, the experience gained by both operating company and service company personnel has contributed to a substantial improvement in drilling rate, and hence, a reduction in drilling costs. The improvements in drilling and completions resulted from the following: The horizontal drilling and completion operations were analyzed daily, and these follow-up analyses helped optimize the planning of subsequent wells. The bits and bottom hole assemblies were continuously analyzed for optimum selections. Steerable drilling assemblies were found very effective in the upper sections of the wells. The paper describes drilling activities onshore and offshore, completion design, and the outlook for future well drilling.

  6. Bakken shale typifies horizontal drilling success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leibman, P.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Given the favorable production response that has been obtained from horizontal drilling in vertical- fractured reservoirs such as the Bakken shale and, more recently, the Austin chalk, industry interest in this technology has mushroomed in the U.S. Indeed, it is difficult to find a good-sized oil company these days that is not involved in a horizontal drilling project or is giving it serious consideration. In response to growing evidence of successful field applications, the realization is dawning on the investment community that horizontal drilling represents a significant technological development with positive implications for both the exploration and production business, and the oilfield services industry.

  7. The local heat transfer mathematical model between vibrated fluidized beds and horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xuejun; Ye, Shichao; Pan, Xiaoheng

    2008-05-15

    A dimensionless mathematical model is proposed to predict the local heat transfer coefficients between vibrated fluidized beds and immersed horizontal tubes, and the effects of the thickness of gas film and the contact time of particle packets are well considered. Experiments using the glass beads (the average diameter bar d{sub p}=1.83mm) were conducted in a two-dimensional vibrated fluidized bed (240 mm x 80 mm). The local heat transfer law between vibrated fluidized bed and horizontal tube surface has been investigated. The results show that the values of theoretical prediction are in good agreement with experimental data, so the model is able to predict the local heat transfer coefficients between vibrated fluidized beds and immersed horizontal tubes reasonably well, and the error is in range of {+-}15%. The results can provide references for future designing and researching on the vibrated fluidized beds with immersed horizontal tubes. (author)

  8. Consorcio Horizonte Asja | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Consorcio Horizonte Asja Place: Brazil Product: Brazil-based joint venture between two subsidiaries of Asja.biz developing a 4.5MW biogas plant....

  9. Estimation of diffuse from measured global solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, W.W. )

    1991-01-01

    A data set of quality controlled radiation observations from stations scattered throughout Australia was formed and further screened to remove residual doubtful observations. It was then divided into groups by solar elevation, and used to find average relationships for each elevation group between relative global radiation (clearness index - the measured global radiation expressed as a proportion of the radiation on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere) and relative diffuse radiation. Clear-cut relationships were found, which were then fitted by polynomial expressions giving the relative diffuse radiation as a function of relative global radiation and solar elevation. When these expressions were used to estimate the diffuse radiation from the global, the results had a slightly smaller spread of errors than those from an earlier technique given by Spencer. It was found that the errors were related to cloud amount, and further relationships were developed giving the errors as functions of global radiation, solar elevation, and the fraction of sky obscured by high cloud and by opaque (low and middle level) cloud. When these relationships were used to adjust the first estimates of diffuse radiation, there was a considerable reduction in the number of large errors.

  10. Successful horizontal completions require an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard, B.; Smejkal, K.; Penberthy, W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    While a perfect well completion may not exist, depleting a hydrocarbon resource at a sustained high rate--without a workover--is the ultimate goal. Unfortunately, many horizontal well completions fail to achieve this due to wellbore damage or loss of reservoir pressure. These conditions manifest themselves in reduced production rates, extended well life and reduced profitability. Standard completion techniques are not always compatible with each other for site specific well applications. The combination of two incompatible technologies or slight changes in a completion procedure may negatively impact productivity. Hence, the most successful horizontal completion results are obtained using a compatible integrated system approach--an approach that carefully combines the best completion tools and processes to deliver an undamaged well completed at the lowest possible cost. After studying the compatibilities of various drill-in fluids, screens, filter cakes and gravel packs, recommended procedures are presented for successfully completing horizontal wells.

  11. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  12. Waterflooding in a system of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Magarshak, T.O.; Shapiro, A.A.

    1995-10-01

    An approximate analytical method for the simulation of waterflooding in a system of horizontal wells is developed. The method is based on an advanced stream-line concept. The essence of this new method is the exact solution for the 3D two-phase flow problem in the system of coordinates linked with the stream lines under the only assumption of the immobility of stream lines. A software based on this approach was developed for IBM-compatible PC. It allows one multivariant comparative studies of immiscible displacement in systems of horizontal, vertical and slant wells. The simulator has been used in order to optimize geometrical parameters of a regular well system and to predict recovery in conditions of Prirazlomnoye offshore oil field.

  13. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  14. A mechanistic determination of horizontal flow regime bound using void wave celerity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The two-phase flow regime boundaries in a horizontal channel has been investigated by using the behavior of the second order void wave celerities. The average two-fluid model has been constituted with closure relations for horizontally stratified and bubbly flows. A vapor phase turbulent stress model for a smooth interface geometry has been included. It is found that the second order waves (i.e., eigenvalues) propagate in opposite direction with almost the same speed when the liquid phase is stationary. Using the well-posedness limit of the two-phase system, the dispersed-stratified flow regime boundary has been modeled. Two-phase Froude number has been theoretically found to be a convenient parameter in quantifying the flow regime boundary as a function of the void fraction. It is found that interaction between void wave celerities become stronger as the two-phase Froude number is reduced. This result should be interpreted as that gravity and the relative velocity are key parameters in determining flow regime boundaries in a horizontal flow. The influence of the vapor phase turbulent stress found to stabilize the flow stratification. This study clearly shows that the average two-fluid model is very effective for a mechanistic determination of horizontal flow regimes if appropriate closure relations are developed.

  15. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  16. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  17. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  18. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S.; Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  19. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  20. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  1. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  2. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  3. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  4. Planning and well evaluations improve horizontal drilling results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovda, S. )

    1994-10-31

    A systematic approach, including better planning and performance evaluation, improved the horizontal drilling efficiency of a multiwell program in the Oseberg field in the North Sea. The horizontal drilling program in the Oseberg field is one of the most comprehensive horizontal drilling programs in the North Sea. The present horizontal drilling program consists of 14 oil producers from the C platform and 18 from the B platform. Total horizontal displacement varies from around 1,500 m to 5,540 m. The lengths of the horizontal section vary from 600 m to 1,500 m. The paper discusses will planning, directional drilling, drilling problems with coal seams and orientation, true vertical depth control, horizontal liner cement, spacer system, cement slurries, job execution, and results.

  5. Hurricanes in an Aquaplanet World: Implications of the Impacts of External Forcing and Model Horizontal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-02

    High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.

  6. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  7. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  8. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  9. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? Our earth's average temperature stays pretty much the same from year to year. Sometimes it gets very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer where you live. And some years may be a little hotter

  10. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of...

  11. MHK ISDB/Instruments/TRDI Workhorse Horizontal ADCP | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Horizontal ADCP < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help Under...

  12. MHK Technologies/Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Turbine ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Primary Organization Golden...

  13. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  14. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  15. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  16. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  17. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. ); Huang, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  18. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B.; Huang, J.

    1996-12-31

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T & N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  19. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  20. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, A.C. )

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  1. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  2. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  3. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  4. Global Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Solutions Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions A-Z Index Berkeley Lab masthead U.S. Department of Energy logo Phone Book Jobs Search BANGLADESH INDIA CHINA DAYA BAY CHINA RUSSIA SIBERIA JAPAN SAMOA HAWAII SOUTH POLE ANTARCTICA NEW MEXICO SOUTH DAKOTA TEXAS GULF OF MEXICO NEW YORK PUERTO RICO AMAZON RAIN FOREST CANARY ISLANDS SWITZERLAND ETHIOPIA

  5. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  6. Horizontal slim-hole drilling with coiled tubing; An operator's experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, A.B. Jr.; Faahel, R.A.; Chaffin, M.G.; Pulis, K.H. )

    1992-10-01

    What is believed to be the first horizontal well drilled with directionally controlled coiled tubing recently was completed in the Austin Chalk formation. an existing well was sidetracked out of 4 1/2-in. casing with a conventional whipstock. an average build rate of 15[degrees]/100 ft was achieved in the curve, and a 1,458-ft vertical section was drilled with 2-in. coiled tubing, downhole mud motors, wireline steering tools, a mechanical downhole orienting tool, and 3 7/8-in. bits. This paper discusses the orienting and directional tools and techniques developed during this operation. It also describes improvements made for the second well.

  7. Rectified motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a horizontally vibrating shallow optical lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azizi, Y.; Valizadeh, A.

    2011-01-15

    We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate, described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, in a horizontally vibrating shallow optical lattice. We study the dynamics of a bright soliton using the collective coordinate approximation. We show that depending on the parameters, amplitude, and frequency of the vibration of the lattice, the phase space of the equation of motion for the soliton center of mass shows multistability. In the frequency locked regions, in which the soliton has a nonzero average velocity determined by the external frequency, the motion is quasiperiodic, and between the locked regions the soliton moves chaotically.

  8. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  9. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  10. Large-Actuator-Number Horizontal Path Correction of Atmospheric Turbulence utilizing an Interferometric Phase Conjugate Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Gavel, D; Tucker, J; Silva, D A; Wilks, S C; Olivier, S S; Olsen, J

    2004-08-25

    An adaptive optical system used to correct horizontal beam propagation paths has been demonstrated. This system utilizes an interferometric wave-front sensor and a large-actuator-number MEMS-based spatial light modulator to correct the aberrations incurred by the beam after propagation along the path. Horizontal path correction presents a severe challenge to adaptive optics systems due to the short atmospheric transverse coherence length and the high degree of scintillation incurred by laser propagation along these paths. Unlike wave-front sensors that detect phase gradients, however, the interferometric wave-front sensor measures the wrapped phase directly. Because the system operates with nearly monochromatic light and uses a segmented spatial light modulator, it does not require that the phase be unwrapped to provide a correction and it also does not require a global reconstruction of the wave-front to determine the phase as required by gradient detecting wave-front sensors. As a result, issues with branch points are eliminated. Because the atmospheric probe beam is mixed with a large amplitude reference beam, it can be made to operate in a photon noise limited regime making its performance relatively unaffected by scintillation. The MEMS-based spatial light modulator in the system contains 1024 pixels and is controlled to speeds in excess of 800 Hz, enabling its use for correction of horizontal path beam propagation. In this article results are shown of both atmospheric characterization with the system and open loop horizontal path correction of a 1.53 micron laser by the system. To date Strehl ratios of greater than 0.5 have been achieved.

  11. A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid Flow In Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Model For The...

  12. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

    2006-06-01

    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  13. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  14. Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

  15. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  16. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  17. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  18. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  19. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  20. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  1. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  2. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  3. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  4. Coiled tubing buckling implication in drilling and completing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses coiled tubing buckling and load transmission when drilling and completing horizontal wells. Comprehensive analyses and new equations are presented to predict buckling of coiled tubing, slack-off weight transmission, actual bit weight or packer load, and maximum horizontal length. Coiled tubing lock-up and yield due to buckling are also discussed. These equations can also be used for other coiled tubing operations, such as coiled tubing workover, coiled tubing well stimulation, and even for conventional joint-connected drill strings. Calculations based on the equations presented are also compared with the previous literature.

  5. Further discussion of productivity of a horizontal well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suprunowicz, R.; Butler, R.M. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is presented as a comment to an earlier paper entitled Productivity of a Horizontal Well' (Nov. 1992, SPE Reservoir Engineering). These authors attempt to refute the original authors conclusions regarding pressure gradients and boundary conditions in horizontal wells. These authors state that the pressure gradient proposed in the original paper which was parallel to the well bore and was required to maintain constant-flux distribution, are large and unrealistic. They also discuss the use of steady-state and pseudo-steady-state flow models and the interpretation of model results to help predict productivity.

  6. Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of transcriptionalregulation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-12-20

    Background: Most bacterial genes were acquired by horizontalgene transfer from other bacteria instead of being inherited bycontinuous vertical descent from an ancient ancestor}. To understand howthe regulation of these {acquired} genes evolved, we examined theevolutionary histories of transcription factors and of regulatoryinteractions from the model bacterium Escherichia coli K12. Results:Although most transcription factors have paralogs, these usually arose byhorizontal gene transfer rather than by duplication within the E. colilineage, as previously believed. In general, most neighbor regulators --regulators that are adjacent to genes that they regulate -- were acquiredby horizontal gene transfer, while most global regulators evolvedvertically within the gamma-Proteobacteria. Neighbor regulators wereoften acquired together with the adjacent operon that they regulate, sothe proximity might be maintained by repeated transfers (like "selfishoperons"). Many of the as-yet-uncharacterized (putative) regulators havealso been acquired together with adjacent genes, so we predict that theseare neighbor regulators as well. When we analyzed the histories ofregulatory interactions, we found that the evolution of regulation byduplication was rare, and surprisingly, many of the regulatoryinteractions that are shared between paralogs result from convergentevolution. Another surprise was that horizontally transferred genes aremore likely than other genes to be regulated by multiple regulators, andmost of this complex regulation probably evolved after the transfer.Conclusions: Our results highlight the rapid evolution of niche-specificgene regulation in bacteria.

  7. An application utilizing horizontal re-entries versus waterflooding for depleting a mid-life Niagaran Reef

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pieters, D.A.; Pearce, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Waterflooding has been the preferred secondary recovery technique for mid-life Michigan Niagaran reefs that were large enough to economically warrant it. Since these pinnacle reefs average 50-550 acres, the success in waterflooding such a limited space has been a hit or miss proposition depending on the pinpoint accuracy in locating injector and producer. This paper presents a case history for the Colfax 25 reef where five horizontal drainholes were positioned across the field in a pattern to access and drain all areas of the reservoir. This particular reef was chosen based on identified incremental reserves, areal extent and on past production history which displayed reservoir characteristics that were favorable for horizontal wells. The application was tremendously successful. Production in all wells doubled as gas oil ratios were significantly reduced. Start-up costs were slightly below those of a conventional water flood and operating costs were substantially lower than would be incurred for a waterflood.

  8. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  9. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  10. Completion Design Considerations for a Horizontal Enhanced Geothermal System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Jeffrey; Eustes, Alfred; Fleckenstein, William; Eker, Erdinc; Baker, Reed; Augustine, Chad

    2015-09-02

    The petroleum industry has had considerable success in recent decades in developing unconventional shale plays using horizontal drilling and multi-zonal isolation and stimulation techniques to fracture tight formations to enable the commercial production of oil and gas. Similar well completions could be used in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to create multiple fractures from horizontal wells. This study assesses whether well completion techniques used in the unconventional shale industry to create multi-stage fractures can be applied to an enhanced geothermal system, with a focus on the completion of the EGS injection well. This study assumes an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) consisting of a central horizontal injection well flanked on each side by horizontal production wells, connected to the injection well by multiple fractures. The focus is on the design and completion of the horizontal well. For the purpose of developing design criteria, a reservoir temperature of 200 degrees C (392 degrees F) and an injection well flow rate of 87,000 barrels per day (160 kg/s), corresponding to production well flow rates of 43,500 barrels per day (80 kg/s) is assumed. The analysis found that 9-5/8 inches 53.5 pounds per foot (ppf) P110 casing string with premium connections meets all design criteria for the horizontal section of injection well. A P110 grade is fairly common and is often used in horizontal sections of shale development wells in petroleum operations. Next, several zonal isolation systems commonly used in the shale gas industry were evaluated. Three techniques were evaluated -- a 'plug and perf' design, a 'sand and perf' design, and a 'packer and port' design. A plug and perf system utilizes a cemented casing throughout the length of the injector wellbore. The sand and perf system is identical to the plug and perf system, but replaces packers with sand placed in the casing after stimulation to screen out the stimulated perforated zones and provide zonal

  11. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  12. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  13. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  14. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  15. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  16. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  17. Laminar mixed convection in a horizontal eccentric annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D. ); Karki, K. )

    1992-01-01

    Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in cylindrical annuli are encountered in various applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical study of laminar mixed convection in horizontal eccentric annuli. Axial flow and heat transfer in a horizontal cylindrical annulus can be influenced by eccentricity of the inner cylinder and the presence of buoyancy forces. A numerical study is presented for the combined forced and free convection for the fully developed flow and heat transfer to eccentric annuli of different eccentricities and radius ratios. The flow field is characterized by large cross-stream secondary currents and significant flow distortion. The Nusselt number increases significantly with the Rayleigh number; the corresponding increase in the friction factor is relatively small. The eccentricity introduces additional nonuniformity of the flow and temperature fields.

  18. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  19. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  20. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  1. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  2. Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diff erent pretreatment chemistry/ residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to temperatures of 150 0 C to 210 0 C * Residence time is varied by changing the speed of the auger that moves the biomass through each tube reactor * Tubes are used individually or in combination to achieve diff erent pretreatment residence times * Smaller tubes made from Hastelloy, an acid-resistant material, are used with

  3. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  4. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  5. Comparison of optically measured and radar-derived horizontal neutral winds. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nighttime thermospheric winds for Sondrestrom, Greenland from 11 nights between 1983 and 1988, have been compared to learn about the O(+)-O collision cross section and the high-latitude atomic oxygen density. The horizontal winds in the magnetic meridian were derived indirectly from incoherent-scatter radar (ISR) measurements on ion velocities antiparallel to the magnetic field and directly from Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) measurements of Doppler shifts of the (6300-A) emission of atomic oxygen. In deriving the radar winds, the O(+)-O collision cross section, was scaled by a factor of f what was varied from 0.5 to 5.1. On the basis of several arguments the altitude of the 6300-A emission was assumed to be 230 km. The best agreement between the ISR and FPI winds was obtained when f was increased substantially, to between 1.7 and 3.4. If the average peak emission altitude were higher, these factors would be larger; if it were lower, they would be somewhat smaller. However, if the average altitude were substantially lower it would have been more difficult to have obtained agreement between the two techniques.

  6. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  7. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  8. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  9. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross ...

  10. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  11. Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal cylinders in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hata, K.; Shiotsu, M.; Takeuchi, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal 7.6 mm diameter test cylinders assembled with the ratio of the distance between each cylinder axis to the cylinder diameter, S/D, of 2 in liquid sodium was studied experimentally and theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients on the cylinder surface due to the same heat inputs ranging from 1.0 X 10{sup 7} to 1.0 x 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 3} were obtained experimentally for various setting angeles, {gamma}, between vertical direction and the plane including both of these cylinder axis over the range of zero to 90{degrees}. Theoretical equations for laminar natural convection heat transfer from the two horizontal cylinders were numerically solved for the same conditions as the experimental ones considering the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties concerned. The average Nusselt numbers, Nu, values on the Nu versus modified Rayleigh number, R{sub f}, graph. The experimental values of Nu for the upper cylinder are about 20% lower than those for the lower cylinder at {gamma} = 0{degrees} for the range of R{sub f} tested here. The value of Nu for the upper cylinder becomes higher and approaches that for the lower cylinder with the increase in {gamma} over range of 0 to 90{degrees}. The values of Nu for the lower cylinder at each {gamma} are almost in agreement with those for a single cylinder. The theoretical values of Nu on two cylinders except those for R{sub f}<4 at {gamma} = 0{degrees} are in agreement with the experimental data at each {gamma} with the deviations less than 15%. Correlations for Nu on the upper and lower cylinders were obtained as functions of S/D and {gamma} based n the theoretical solutions for the S/D ranged over 1.5 to 4.0.

  12. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  13. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  14. Using resistivity to assess Niobrara fracture patterns for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.A.; Bartshe, R.T. )

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on interest in U.S. horizontal drilling which has largely focused on vertically fractured plays such as the Bakken shale and Austin chalk. The Upper Cretaceous Niobrara formation, the chronological equivalent of the Austin chalk, has recently been targeted as a candidate for horizontal drilling in the Denver basin and other areas of the Rocky Mountains. A primary key to success in such plays is to predict the occurrence and distribution of oil bearing fracture systems. Much emphasis is placed on theoretical aspects of fracture origin and prediction. Remote sensing techniques (e.g., seismic, satellite image analysis) have gained wide use in the search for fractured reservoirs. While these methods are important elements of an integrated exploration effort, they lack the benefit of direct detection of open, oil saturated fracture systems. In the areas of the Denver basin in which the Niobrara is oil prone, certain resistivity responses are indicative of the proximity of oil bearing fractures to the well bore. This provides an extremely useful technique in areas of pre-existing well control penetrating the Niobrara section. As such, the Denver basin is an ideal area due to the large number of penetrations to the Lower Cretaceous D and J sandstones that underlie the Niobrara.

  15. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  16. BETR Global - A geographically explicit global-scale multimedia contaminant fate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macleod, M.; Waldow, H. von; Tay, P.; Armitage, J. M.; Wohrnschimmel, H.; Riley, W.; McKone, T. E.; Hungerbuhler, K.

    2011-04-01

    We present two new software implementations of the BETR Global multimedia contaminant fate model. The model uses steady-state or non-steady-state mass-balance calculations to describe the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants using a desktop computer. The global environment is described using a database of long-term average monthly conditions on a 15{sup o} x 15{sup o} grid. We demonstrate BETR Global by modeling the global sources, transport, and removal of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

  17. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  18. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.305 1.167 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.524 1.376 1.601 1.781

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. Finally

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2005–2014), EFF was 9.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 4.4 ± 0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 3.0 ± 0.8 GtC yr-1. For the year 2014 alone, EFF grew to 9.8 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, 0.6 % above 2013, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, albeit at a slower rate compared to the average growth of 2.2 % yr-1 that took place during 2005–2014. Also, for 2014, ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, GATM was 3.9 ± 0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 4.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr-1. GATM was lower in 2014 compared to the past decade (2005–2014), reflecting a larger SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 397.15 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2014. For 2015, preliminary data indicate that the growth in EFF will be near or slightly below zero, with a projection of -0.6 [range of -1.6 to +0.5] %, based on national emissions projections for China and the USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy for the rest of the world. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2015, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 555 ± 55 GtC (2035 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2015, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. Finally, this living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2015).« less

  1. Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Sensitivity to Different Blade...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U inflow angle at blade section relative to plane of rotation + , degrees angular velocity of rotor, rads SW iF T Scaled Wind Farm Technology x time average of...

  2. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  3. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw915web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact ...

  4. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  5. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  6. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  7. Global Home Filesystem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Global Home Filesystem Overview Global home directories (or "global homes") provide a convenient means for a user to have access to dotfiles, source files, input files, configuration files, etc., regardless of the platform the user is logged in to. Quotas, Performance, and Usage Default global home quotas are 40 GB and 1,000,000 inodes. Quota increases in global homes are approved only in extremely unusual circumstances; users are encouraged to use the various scratch,

  8. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  9. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  10. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Global Climate & Energy HomeTag:Global Climate & Energy Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity ...

  11. Sandia Energy - Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Analysis Permalink Gallery Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling project were reported recently in the National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2030...

  12. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  13. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  14. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  15. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  16. Visual inspections of N Reactor horizontal control rod channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodruff, E.M.

    1990-07-01

    This document describes the examination of thirteen horizontal control rod channels during the N Reactor Surveillance Program campaigns of 1987 and 1988. Traverses with miniature video cameras recorded the condition and relative positions of graphite blocks that form channel walls. The major conclusion confirms that no conditions exist that would prevent rod insertion. Where encroachment of broken filler block keys into the channel indicated a potential for rod motion impairment their removal by displacement into gaps between blocks was performed as preventive maintenance. In some locations a chisel was used in clearing keys lodged in gaps between tube blocks. Other observations include counts of safety balls observed in channels, breaks in tube blocks and Tee-bars and separations at Tee-bar junctions that results from axial graphite contraction. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickers, John J.; Grebel, Eva K.; Huxor, Avon P.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we present a new method for selecting blue horizontal branch (BHB) candidates based on color-color photometry. We make use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey z band as a surface gravity indicator and show its value for selecting BHB stars from quasars, white dwarfs, and main-sequence A-type stars. Using the g, r, i, and z bands, we demonstrate that extraction accuracies on a par with more traditional u, g, and r photometric selection methods may be achieved. We also show that the completeness necessary to probe major Galactic structure may be maintained. Our new method allows us to efficiently select BHB stars from photometric sky surveys that do not include a u-band filter such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System.

  18. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-05-18

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 60% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen to about 40%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  19. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir -- East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2006-03-23

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2005 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, despite being limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, has increased an average of 50% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. After decreasing to 20-25% early in the project, nitrogen recycle (produced nitrogen volume divided by injected nitrogen volume) within the pilot area has risen back to about 42%, still far below the 72% prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Seven vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Given similar reservoir conditions of net thickness and gas sweep, vertical wells are performing nearly as well as horizontal wells. Additional vertical well drilling was completed in 2005 following the success of wells drilled from 2002 through 2004.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Liquid-propellant Laser Propulsion with a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Bin; Li Long; Tang Zhiping; Cai Jian

    2010-05-06

    Thrust performance of Liquid-propellant laser propulsion (LLP) is seriously influenced by factors like laser parameters, choice of propellants and ablation materials. For the purpose of studying these influences, series of impulse measuring experiments for various propellants and ablation materials were conducted. The key device is a Horizontal Momentum Measuring Lever, which covers a C{sub m} measuring range from 10{sup 3} Ns/MJ to about 1.6x10{sup 4} Ns/MJ. A Nd:YAG laser was used as the laser source. From the result, it is found that laser energy density plays an important role on LLP efficiency, higher energy density leads to higher C{sub m} and I{sub sp}. Highest C{sub m} of about 10{sup 4} Ns/MJ with the I{sub sp} of 3.57s was achieved by focusing the laser to the average energy density of 8.83x10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. Besides of that, it is also found that when the energy density is certainly high, C{sub m} of LLP increases stably with the increase of the propellant thickness, which gives a potential way to further improve the thrust performance in LLP.

  1. A Horizontal Well Program for the Upper Miocene 26R Pool, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; Kuespert, J.G.; McJannet, G.S.

    1992-07-01

    The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the complex geologic and reservoir characteristics of the 26R Pool, (2) note those characteristics and criteria that would make this Pool ideally suited for horizontal well technology, (3) discuss the evolution of horizontal drilling technology and our corresponding development of knowledge about the 26R Pool, and (4) discuss how our objectives have been achieved by utilizing horizontal wells. (VC)

  2. A Horizontal Well Program for the Upper Miocene 26R Pool, Elk Hills Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A. ); Kuespert, J.G. ); McJannet, G.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The goals of this paper are to (1) summarize the complex geologic and reservoir characteristics of the 26R Pool, (2) note those characteristics and criteria that would make this Pool ideally suited for horizontal well technology, (3) discuss the evolution of horizontal drilling technology and our corresponding development of knowledge about the 26R Pool, and (4) discuss how our objectives have been achieved by utilizing horizontal wells. (VC)

  3. A tropical influence on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S.

    1997-05-15

    A potential influence of tropical sea surface temperature on the global climate response to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} concentration is tested using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The warming is significantly reduced when sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue region between latitudes 2.25{degrees}N and 2.25{degrees}S are held at the control simulation values. Warming of the global mean temperature outside of the cold tongue region is reduced from 2.4{degrees}C in the unconstrained case to 1.9{degrees}C when the sea surface temperature constraint is applied. The decrease in the warming results from a positive net heat flux into the ocean cold tongue region and implicit heat storage in the subsurface ocean, induced by horizontal atmospheric heat fluxes. The reduced surface temperature warming outside of the cold tongue region is due to reduction in the downward longwave radiative flux at the surface, caused in turn by reduced atmospheric temperature and moisture. The global mean surface temperature responds to the heat storage in the ocean as if the global mean radiative forcing due to the doubled CO{sub 2} (approximately 4 W m{sup {minus}2}) was reduced by the value of the global mean heat flux into the ocean. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed high correlation on interannual timescales between the global mean tropospheric temperature and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. The results emphasize the importance of correctly modeling the dynamical processes in the ocean and atmosphere that help determine the sea surface temperature in the equatorial eastern Pacific, in addition to the thermodynamical processes, in projecting global warming. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  5. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  6. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be

  7. GE Global Research Leadership | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About GE Global Research > Leadership Leadership GE Global Research Centers rely on the guidance of visionary leaders with deep technical knowledge on the ground at each of our sites. A photo of Vic Abate Vic Abate Chief Technology Officer GE Global Research As senior vice president and chief technology officer for GE, Vic is responsible for one of the world's largest and most diversified industrial research and technology organizations. Vic leads GE's 50,000 engineers and scientists and G...

  8. GE Global Research Locations | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Locations GE Global Research is innovating around the clock. Select one of our locations to learn more about operations there.GE Global Research is innovating around the clock. Select a location to learn more about our operations. Home > Locations GE Global Research is ALWAYS OPEN Already know about our locations? Experience a special look at a day in our life around the world! See What We're Doing Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Founded: 2015 Employees: 15 Focus Areas: Material Characterization,

  9. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  10. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  11. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  12. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  13. The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; Gettelman, Andrew; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2014-11-05

    We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25°, 1°, and 2° is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations reveals both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.

  14. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 9.45 8.76 10.20 10.63 12.69 15.51 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.88 6.67 7.18 6.65 7.24 7.22

  15. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  16. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  17. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  18. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  19. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Ma 8.75 8.64 9.51 9.91 11.30 15.62 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.19 7.44 8.21 8.12 8.74 10.69

  20. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  1. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 6.78 16.00 17.06 17.83 20.52 22.40 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.70 10.62 10.50 10.29 10.16 10.38

  2. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 0.79 10.94 13.01 16.48 20.53 24.74 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 6.57 7.05 7.42 7.98 8.22 8.53

  3. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  4. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  5. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  6. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  7. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  8. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  9. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  10. Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Liner; Dennis Kerr; Mohan Kelkar

    1998-06-30

    Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance scanner logs through a newly drilled well. By combining the state-of-the-art data with conventional core and log data, we developed a detailed reservoir description based on an integrated approach. After conducting extensive reservoir simulation studies, we evaluated alternate reservoir management strategies to improve the reservoir performance including drilling of a horizontal injection well. We observed that selective completion of many wells followed by an increase in the injection rate was the most feasible option to improve the performance of the Self Unit. This management plan is currently being implemented and the performance is being Stage II of the project will involve selection of part of the same reservoir (Berryhill Unit - Tract 7), development of reservoir description using only conventional data, simulation of flow performance using developed reservoir description, selection of an appropriate reservoir management plan, and implementation of the plan followed by monitoring of reservoir performance. During the summer of 1995, we started implementing the reservoir management plan in the Self Unit. Last quarter, after evaluating each individual well, we decided to install electrical submersible pumps to produce three wells. The other three wells required the use of rod pumps. Production from the field improved significantly once the pumps were installed. Over the last two years, an average daily production has been approximately 40 to 45 bbls/day. Compared to a base line production of 13 bbls/day before the implementation, this is more than a 200% increase in production. determined. We are finalizing the AFE for the overall implementation. This overall implementation will include converting well no 61 into an injector, re-perforating wells M-3A and M-4A, and drilling a deviated production well between 61 and M-3A/M-4A i n east west direction. The total

  11. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-30

    The DOE-sponsored project at the East Binger Unit is an investigation into the benefits of reservoir characterization and horizontal wells in this particular setting of geologic and recovery method. The geologic setting is a tight (average porosity of 7% and average permeability of less than 1 millidarcy) Pennsylvanian-age sandstone at about 10,000 feet, and the recovery method is a miscible nitrogen flood. The projected oil recovery of the East Binger Unit, prior to the initiation of this project, was about 25%. Gravity segregation of nitrogen and crude oil was believed to be the principal cause of the poor sweep efficiency, and it was envisioned that with horizontal producing wells in the lower portion of the reservoir and horizontal injection wells near the top, the process could be converted from a lateral displacement process to a vertical displacement/gravity assisted process. Through the characterization and field development work completed in Budget Periods 1 and 2, Binger Operations, LLC (BOL) has developed a different interpretation of the sweep problem as well as a different approach to improving recovery. The sweep problem is now believed to be one of an areal nature, due to a combination of natural and hydraulic fracturing. Vertical wells have provided a much better economic return than have the horizontal wells. The natural and hydraulic fracturing manifests itself as a direction of higher permeability, and the flood is being converted to a line drive flood aligned with this orientation. Consistent with this concept, horizontal wells have been drilled along the line of the fracture orientation, such that hydraulic fracturing leads to 'longitudinal' fractures, in line with the wellbore. As such, the hydraulically fractured horizontal wells are not significantly different than hydraulically fractured vertical wells - save for the potential for a much longer fracture face. This Topical Report contains data from new wells, plus new and updated production

  12. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  13. Lifting surface performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocurek, D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes how numerical lifting-surface theory is applied to the calculation of a horizontal-axis wind turbine's aerodynamic characteristics and performance. The report also describes how such an application is implemented as a computer program. The method evolved from rotary-wing and helicopter applications and features a detailed, prescribed wake. The wake model extends from a hovering-rotor experimental generalization to include the effect of the windmill brake state on the radial and axial displacement rates of the trailing vortex system. Performance calculations are made by coupling the lifting-surface circulation solution to a blade-element analysis that incorporates two-dimensional airfoil characteristics as functions of angle of attack and Reynolds number. Several analytical stall models are also provided to extend the airfoil characteristics beyond the limits of available data. Although this work focuses on the steady-performance problem, the method includes ways to investigate the effects of wind-shear profile, tower shadow, and off-axis shaft alignment. Correlating the method to measured wind-turbine performance, and comparing it to blade-element momentum theory calculations, validate and highlight the extreme sensitivity of predictions to the quality of early post-stall airfoil behavior.

  14. Horizontal underbalanced drilling of gas wells with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, R.J.; Li, J.; Lupick, G.S.

    1999-03-01

    Coiled tubing drilling technology is gaining popularity and momentum as a significant and reliable method of drilling horizontal underbalanced wells. It is quickly moving into new frontiers. To this point, most efforts in the Western Canadian Basin have been focused towards sweet oil reservoirs in the 900--1300 m true vertical depth (TVD) range, however there is an ever-increasing interest in deeper and gas-producing formations. Significant design challenges on both conventional and coiled tubing drilling operations are imposed when attempting to drill these formations underbalanced. Coiled tubing is an ideal technology for underbalanced drilling due to its absence of drillstring connections resulting in continuous underbalanced capabilities. This also makes it suitable for sour well drilling and live well intervention without the risk of surface releases of reservoir gas. Through the use of pressure deployment procedures it is possible to complete the drilling operation without need to kill the well, thereby maintaining underbalanced conditions right through to the production phase. The use of coiled tubing also provides a means for continuous wireline communication with downhole steering, logging and pressure recording devices.

  15. Horizontally scaling dChache SRM with the Terracotta platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perelmutov, T.; Crawford, M.; Moibenko, A.; Oleynik, G.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The dCache disk caching file system has been chosen by a majority of LHC experiments Tier 1 centers for their data storage needs. It is also deployed at many Tier 2 centers. The Storage Resource Manager (SRM) is a standardized grid storage interface and a single point of remote entry into dCache, and hence is a critical component. SRM must scale to increasing transaction rates and remain resilient against changing usage patterns. The initial implementation of the SRM service in dCache suffered from an inability to support clustered deployment, and its performance was limited by the hardware of a single node. Using the Terracotta platform, we added the ability to horizontally scale the dCache SRM service to run on multiple nodes in a cluster configuration, coupled with network load balancing. This gives site administrators the ability to increase the performance and reliability of SRM service to face the ever-increasing requirements of LHC data handling. In this paper we will describe the previous limitations of the architecture SRM server and how the Terracotta platform allowed us to readily convert single node service into a highly scalable clustered application.

  16. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  17. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  18. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense

  19. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  20. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  1. New design of a guidelineless horizontal tree for deepwater ESP wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olijnik, L.A.; Vigesa, S.; Paula, M.T.R.; Figueiredo, M.W. de; Rutherford, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the new design of a horizontal tree for deepwater installation, as a key piece of equipment for application of a Electrical Submersible Pump in Subsea Wells. The production from subsea wells equipped with ESPs is a reality since October/94 with the first installation in Campos Basin. The horizontal tree adds simplicity to workover operations expected to be two to three times more frequency when compared to natural flow or gas lifted wells. The design and fabrication of the deepwater horizontal tree is a result of a Technological Cooperation Agreement. The design incorporates new solutions, mainly in diverless guidelineless connection of power cables and flowlines using the vertical connection system. The guidelineless horizontal subsea tree is fully prepared to be integrated on the new manifolds being designed for the Brazilian deepwater oilfields. The applications of the horizontal trees in subsea ESP wells reduce intervention cost, increasing economical attractiveness and scenarios for the applications of this new boosting technology.

  2. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  3. Coiled tubing workover saves horizontal well in Lake Maracaibo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizak, K.; Patterson, J.; Suarez, D.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A slotted liner horizontal completion became stuck while being run. Inflatable packers were to be used to isolate the productive interval from a water-bearing, unconsolidated sand in the curved section of this well. While personnel were deciding how to cement the well, the liner was left in the hole with the inflatable packers unset, and the production tubing was run. Coiled tubing was used to log the well, isolate the productive interval, and remove damage to restore well productivity. Personnel considered all possible options, and a thorough decision-making process guided the workover. Because of severe lost-circulation problems, extensive ``what if`` scenarios were made and updated daily for the engineers on location. Service company and oil company personnel worked together to guarantee the job designs were practical and did not exceed the limits of the equipment on location. Computer simulations of all operations were run to allow corrective action to be taken if unusual circumstances arose. All fluids were thoroughly laboratory tested and witnessed by oil company personnel to ensure job success. Problems on the job included lost circulation, locating the exact positions of the packers and water zone, ensuring correct cement placement, removing mud and workover fluids without damaging the squeeze, and bad weather on Lake Maracaibo. Advantages and disadvantages of all the solutions that were considered are included to assist anyone in a similar situation. Post-job oil production has stabilized at 900 BOPD with no water or sand production. Careful job planning and the versatility of coiled tubing saved this well and proved economical with an estimated payout of 33 days, assuming a price of $12 per barrel of oil.

  4. New Global Research Website | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I Want to See... the New Global Research Website Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  5. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2004-2014" "(dollars per peak watt)" "Year","Modules" 2004,2.99 2005,3.19 2006,3.5 2007,3.37 2008,3.49 2009,2.79 2010,1.96 2011,1.59 2012,1.15 2013,0.75 2014,0.87 "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  6. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  7. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  8. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG The Office ...

  9. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global

  10. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 71.92 104.33 107.02 71.92 107.02 -32.8 Canada 71.93 104.32 107.01 71.93 107.01 -32.8 Mexico 66.79 360.25 113.43 66.79 113.43 -41.1 South America Total 64.73 64.18 70.82 64.73 70.82 -8.6 Colombia 64.73 63.86 70.58 64.73 70.58 -8.3 Peru 63.31 86.76 86.19 63.31 86.19 -26.5 Venezuela -

  11. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Canada 181.85 113.11 213.82 181.85 213.82 -15.0 Europe Total 270.94 416.80 770.50 270.94 770.50 -64.8 Austria - 1,788.00 - - - - France - 1,110.35 - - - - Germany, Federal Republic of - - 206.27 - 206.27 - Italy 265.37 300.11 - 265.37 - -

  12. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 62.62 81.09 76.28 62.62 76.28 -17.9 Canada* 87.37 97.37 80.39 87.37 80.39 8.7 Dominican Republic 213.68 - 461.75 213.68 461.75 -53.7 Guatemala - 66.22 359.27 - 359.27 - Honduras 78.02 78.02 54.43 78.02 54.43 43.3 Jamaica 38.10 39.48 45.51 38.10 45.51 -16.3 Mexico 41.25 37.52

  13. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    346 1.209 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.345 1.209 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.117 0.998 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1994-2016 DTW 1.337 1.143 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1994-2016 Rack 1.109 0.995 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1994-2016 Bulk 1.137 0.991 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522

  14. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    790 1.553 1.736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.792 1.554 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.331 1.143 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1994-2016 DTW 1.796 1.471 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1994-2016 Rack 1.221 1.066 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1994-2016 Bulk 1.307 1.074 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619

  15. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  16. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  17. GE Global Research Careers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers The best and brightest minds in science and technology make breakthroughs daily at GE Global Research. Are you ready to join our team? Job Search Location Location Bangalore, India Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Munich, Germany Niskayuna, USA Oklahoma City, USA Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Shanghai, China Tirat Carmel, Israel Keyword Search Jobs » View All Jobs Keep in Touch With GE Global Research Careers Home > Careers Why GE careers_why_GE GE works on things that matter. The best people and the

  18. GE Global Research Contact | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us Looking for more details? Please contact one of these individuals or visit the Newsroom for the latest information. Home > About GE Global Research > Contact Us GE Global Research 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309, USA Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 todd.alhart@ge.com Communications and Public Relations GE Brazil Technology Center Rua Trinta e Seis (Praia dos Coqueiros), s/n, Supl. Ilha do Bom Jesus 840 Ilha do Fundão - Cidade Universitária Rio de Janeiro, RJ - CEP 21941-593

  19. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y.

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  20. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building We're creating infrastructure, refining materials and assembling technologies that accommodate our constantly changing world. Home > Impact > Building Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration In 2013, a partnering initiative between Global Research and GE Capital resulted in dozens of middle market companies... Read More » How Green Is Green? GE's Global Research Center's Ecoassessment Center of Excellence was created to study the impact of GE products and

  1. Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling Arctic Climate Measurements Global ...

  2. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water Security Sandia Team Attends World ...

  3. Moving | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Read More GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In ...

  4. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  5. ARM - Global Experts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  6. ARM - Global Thinkers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  7. ARM - Global Beginners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  8. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  10. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  11. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  13. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  14. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Laura Bauer

  15. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Laura Bauer

  16. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  17. Photonics | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Impact > The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Loucas Tsakalakos, the Photonics lab manager at GE Global Research, introduces photonics and shares the lab's work on innovative ways to use light. You Might Also Like

  18. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  19. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  20. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  1. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  2. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Carbon Capture & Storage, Carbon Storage, Climate, Earth Sciences Research Center, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Global Climate & Energy, News, News & Events, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Security Sandia Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Marianne Walck, Director of Sandia's Geoscience, Climate, and Consequence Effects Center, spoke on "Hydraulic Fracturing: The Role

  3. Moving | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving We're always working on planes, trains and automobiles-and specialized ways to move people and products efficiently and sustainably. Home > Impact > Moving Rail Networks Are Getting Smarter Sources: 2012 GE Annual Report (page 12); Norfolk Southern 2010 sustainability reporter (page 17) North American Freight Railroad... Read More » The GE Store for Technology is Open for Business Welcome to GE Global Research, also known as the GE Store for Technology. Across our global network of

  4. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Crowdsourcing Software Platform Wins Award GE Global Research, the technology development arm of the General Electric Company (NYSE: GE) today announced that it has won a... Read More » GE Unveils High-Tech Superhero, GENIUS MAN Created on earth to inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers, a team of GE

  5. Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI) Place: Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia...

  6. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International ...

  7. Horizontal molecular orientation in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Inoue, M.; Komino, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Ribierre, J. C. E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research , Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395; Japan Science and Technology Agency , ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c and others

    2015-02-09

    Horizontal orientation of the emission transition dipole moments achieved in glassy vapor-deposited organic thin films leads to an enhancement of the light out-coupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, our combined study of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle dependent photoluminescence demonstrates that such a horizontal orientation can be achieved in glassy spin-coated organic films based on a composite blend of a heptafluorene derivative as a dopant and a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl as a host. Solution-processed fluorescent OLEDs with horizontally oriented heptafluorene emitters were then fabricated and emitted deep blue electroluminescence with an external quantum efficiency as high as 5.3%.

  8. The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; et al

    2014-11-05

    We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25°, 1°, and 2° is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations revealsmore » both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.« less

  9. Successful drilling of the first horizontal well in a mature field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marruffo, I.; Achong, C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses how the decision to drill the first horizontal well of a reservoir was taken, based on Production acceleration and the incremental economy of cash flow. The reservoir is located in the Guafita-Norto Field in Western Venezuela, contiguous to the La Yuca-Cano Limon Fields in Colombia. Guafita-Norte has 183 million stb of remaining oil reserves with 26 production wells on electrical submergible pumps. The STOIP of this under saturated reservoir (bubble point pressure is 36 psi) is 160 million stb with an initial GOR of 10 stf/stb, having a permeability between 1.5-12 darcies with a strong water drive, water coning and sanding problems due to fines migration. During 1995, it was decided to drill the first horizontal well in the reservoir based on a 3-D numerical simulation with radial flow (for water coning) and local grid refinement (for horizontal wells) coupled to an economic analysis. The simulation predetermines an initial production rate for a horizontal well 2.5 times greater than for a vertical one, and the incremental cash flow for the horizontal well is 4.5 MM$ larger for the vertical one in four (4) years, with a ROR of 200%. The horizontal well was drilled with oil-based mud to avoid hole collapse, and it was completed open hole with a single screen pack. The well is currently producing between 2000 and 3500 stb/d, clean, on natural flow. This study has clearly shown that the ultimate and decisive parameter to be weighed before undertaking this type of project, is the economic analysis, which must be performed as extensively as the technical analysis.

  10. Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A.; Barker, Clark R.; Keith, H. Dean

    1982-01-01

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

  11. Perihelion Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Perihelion Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Perihelion Global Place: Port Jefferson, New York Zip: 11776 Product: A company focused on the acquisition, development and...

  12. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global ...

  13. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  14. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  15. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  16. Low-drag electrical-contact arrangement for maintaining continuity between horizontally movable members

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R.J.; Gerth, H.L.; Robinson, S.C.

    1981-01-23

    This invention is a low-drag electrical contact arrangement for establishing continuity between upper and lower spaced members which are subject to relative horizontal movement. In one aspect, the invention comprises an electrical commutating arrangement which includes a horizontally disposed linear electrical commutator. A horizontally movable electrically conductive pedestal is positioned below the commutator and defines a clearance therewith. The pedestal is formed with a cavity confronting the commutator. In the cavity is a bead of electrical conductive liquid, the bead being characterized by an upwardly convex meniscus portion which extends across the clearance and contacts the commutator. The surface tension of the bead is sufficient to maintain the bead intact when the commutator and pedestal are displaced horizontally at speeds from zero to at least twelve inches a minute. This arrangement provides a significant advance in highly precise machining processes, such as diamond-turning, where precision is limited by the drag imposed by conventional commutators of the carbon-brush type.

  17. Low-drag electrical contact arrangement for maintaining continuity between horizontally movable members

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, R. Jack; Gerth, Howard L.; Robinson, Samuel C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a low-drag electrical contact arrangement for establishing continuity between upper and lower spaced members which are subject to relative horizontal movement. In one aspect, the invention comprises an electrical commutating arrangement which includes a horizontally disposed linear electrical commutator. A horizontally movable electrically conductive pedestal is positioned below the commutator and defines a clearance therewith. The pedestal is formed with a cavity confronting the commutator. In the cavity is a bead of electrical conductive liquid, the bead being characterized by an upwardly convex meniscus portion which extends across the clearance and contacts the commutator. The surface tension of the bead is sufficient to maintain the bead intact when the commutator and pedestal are displaced horizontally at speeds from zero to at least twelve inches a minute. This arrangement provides a significant advance in highly precise machining processes, such as diamond-turning, where precision is limited by the drag imposed by conventional commutators of the carbon-brush type.

  18. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A novel design for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment.

  19. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  20. Timeline | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Over Time From our earliest days, we've been changing the landscape in commercial science and technology. Explore our inventions' evolution. Home > Global Research Over Time Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Warning: You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser in order to use this

  1. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir--East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Sinner

    2005-09-15

    A significant work program was implemented from 2002 to 2004 in the East Binger Unit (''EBU'') miscible nitrogen injection project in an effort to reduce gas cycling and economically increase ultimate oil recovery. This work included the drilling of new wells, both horizontal and vertical, as well as pattern realignment through producer-to-injector conversions. Monitoring of overall performance of the pilot area continues. Response to the various projects continues to be very favorable. Injection into the pilot area, though limited at times by problems in the Air Separation Unit of the Nitrogen Management Facility, and has increased 70% over levels prior to the project. Meanwhile, gas production and nitrogen content of produced gas have both decreased. Nitrogen recycle within the pilot area is now only about 32%, far below the 72% recycle prior to initiation of the project. Poor areal sweep efficiency appears to be the primary cause of nitrogen cycling. Four vertical and three horizontal wells have been drilled in the pilot area throughout the project, and most have had initial produced gas oil ratios and gas nitrogen contents significantly below the field averages. Additional vertical well drilling is planned due to the success of wells drilled to date.

  2. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  3. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CRF_climatechange Permalink Gallery Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change CRF, Global Climate & Energy, News, News & Events, Transportation Energy Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change By Micheal Padilla Researchers at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility are developing the understanding necessary to build cleaner combustion technologies that will in turn reduce climate impact. Their work

  4. Global decarbonization strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The presentation covers a brief summary of the research activities of the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project (ECS) at IIASA. The overall research focuses on long-term global energy development and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The ultimate goal is to analyze strategies that achieve decarbonization of global energy systems during the next century. The specific activities range from mitigation of GHG emissions to an integrated assessment of climate change. One focal point is the GHG mitigation technology inventory CO{sub 2}DB, which presently covers approximately 1,400 technologies related to energy and the greenhouse effect. Another integral part is the development of global energy and emissions scenarios, an effort involving a number of formal models to assess the implications. A large number of global scenarios for the next century has been developed, that could be grouped into three families. All of them include energy efficiency improvements and some degree of decarbonization in the world. They are based on different economic and technological development trajectories, and their emissions range from very high to a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation will outline the salient characteristics of the three scenario families and provide some regional implications of these alternative futures.

  5. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  6. Study of global daily solar radiation and its relation to sunshine duration in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sadah, F.H.; Ragab, F.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The regression coefficients a and b of Angstrom type correlation for the monthly daily average global solar radiation have been determined. The two constants a and b have been derived for different months during the period 1983-1987. The clearness index (H/H{sub 0}) based on predicted and measured values of global daily solar radiation is presented for different seasons of the year. The study depicts the various astronomical and meteorological parameters affecting the global radiation in Bahrain.

  7. Global Bioenergy Partnership Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Sustainability Technology Manager Kristen Johnson represented the Office at the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) Meetings in Rome, Italy. The event included three meetings, the 7th annual GBEP Working Group on Capacity Building, the 13th annual Task Force on Sustainability to discuss the experiences with the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy, and the 18th annual GBEP Steering Committee to discuss strategies for sustainable bioenergy development and deployment.

  8. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Analysis, Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Systems Analysis, Water Security Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation

  9. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Hospital Management Is Evolving to Reduce Wait Times With hospitals busier than ever and not enough staff to meet the higher demand, going to the hospital can be a series of waiting... Read More » Making High-Value Imaging More Accessible Around the World Advancements in healthcare are creating a paradigm shift in how we

  10. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Invention Factory: How Will We Live Forever? In this episode of Invention Factory - a partnership between GE and Vice - we probe the cutting edge of medical... Read More » Invention Factory: How Will Mind Overcome Matter? In this episode of Invention Factory - a partnership between General Electric and Vice - we explore how