Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging
Marek A. Szalek
2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z
The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.
ASC Report No. 45/2012 A Numerical Study of Averaging Error
Melenk, Jens Markus
polynomials of the same polynomial degree as the finite element solution leads to reliability and efficiency], is a widely used method for gauging errors in finite element methods and steering adaptive mesh refinements and M. Tutz A review of stability and error theory for collocation methods applied to linear boundary
Wei, Shuangqing
for power control and dynamic channel allocation in wireless communication systems. However, due of power control algorithms that minimize the average transmitted power required to achieve a desired outage probability for the link is considered. A number of novel power control algorithms based
Even-Parity S_(N) Adjoint Method Including SP_(N) Model Error and Iterative Efficiency
Zhang, Yunhuang
2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
In this Dissertation, we analyze an adjoint-based approach for assessing the model error of SP_(N) equations (low fidelity model) by comparing it against S_(N) equations (high fidelity model). Three model error estimation methods, namely, direct...
de Lijser, Peter
in a thesis or dissertation. 1. Left margin must be set 1.5 inches on every page, including appendices. 2. Use
Quantum Error Correction Workshop on
Grassl, Markus
Error Correction Avoiding Errors: Mathematical Model decomposition of the interaction algebra;Quantum Error Correction Designed Hamiltonians Main idea: "perturb the system to make it more stable" · fast (local) control operations = average Hamiltonian with more symmetry (cf. techniques from NMR
Julien M. E. Fraïsse; Daniel Braun
2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate in detail a recently introduced "coherent averaging scheme" in terms of its usefulness for achieving Heisenberg limited sensitivity in the measurement of different parameters. In the scheme, $N$ quantum probes in a product state interact with a quantum bus. Instead of measuring the probes directly and then averaging as in classical averaging, one measures the quantum bus or the entire system and tries to estimate the parameters from these measurement results. Combining analytical results from perturbation theory and an exactly solvable dephasing model with numerical simulations, we draw a detailed picture of the scaling of the best achievable sensitivity with $N$, the dependence on the initial state, the interaction strength, the part of the system measured, and the parameter under investigation.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of WntSupport Homelessand RenewableSyntheticSystematic Errors of MiniBooNE
Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.
Register file soft error recovery
Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.
Uncertainty quantification and error analysis
Higdon, Dave M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Mark C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klein, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berliner, Mark [OHIO STATE UNIV.; Covey, Curt [LLNL; Ghattas, Omar [UNIV OF TEXAS; Graziani, Carlo [UNIV OF CHICAGO; Seager, Mark [LLNL; Sefcik, Joseph [LLNL; Stark, Philip [UC/BERKELEY; Stewart, James [SNL
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
UQ studies all sources of error and uncertainty, including: systematic and stochastic measurement error; ignorance; limitations of theoretical models; limitations of numerical representations of those models; limitations on the accuracy and reliability of computations, approximations, and algorithms; and human error. A more precise definition for UQ is suggested below.
Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.
2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.
Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of5, 2014 |and Terry M.38 4.23ValidationVariable Average Absolute Percent
Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods
Kallman, Jeffrey S
2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z
In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.
Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site
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Average Temperature Hanford Meteorological Station Real Time Met Data from Around the Site Current HMS Observations Daily HMS Extremes in Met Data Met and Climate Data Summary...
Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J
2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.
Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology
T. Buchert
1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.
Monte Carlo errors with less errors
Ulli Wolff
2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
We explain in detail how to estimate mean values and assess statistical errors for arbitrary functions of elementary observables in Monte Carlo simulations. The method is to estimate and sum the relevant autocorrelation functions, which is argued to produce more certain error estimates than binning techniques and hence to help toward a better exploitation of expensive simulations. An effective integrated autocorrelation time is computed which is suitable to benchmark efficiencies of simulation algorithms with regard to specific observables of interest. A Matlab code is offered for download that implements the method. It can also combine independent runs (replica) allowing to judge their consistency.
Olson, Eric J.
2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus, program product, and method that run an algorithm on a hardware based processor, generate a hardware error as a result of running the algorithm, generate an algorithm output for the algorithm, compare the algorithm output to another output for the algorithm, and detect the hardware error from the comparison. The algorithm is designed to cause the hardware based processor to heat to a degree that increases the likelihood of hardware errors to manifest, and the hardware error is observable in the algorithm output. As such, electronic components may be sufficiently heated and/or sufficiently stressed to create better conditions for generating hardware errors, and the output of the algorithm may be compared at the end of the run to detect a hardware error that occurred anywhere during the run that may otherwise not be detected by traditional methodologies (e.g., due to cooling, insufficient heat and/or stress, etc.).
The 2009 World Average of $?_s$
Siegfried Bethke
2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.
The Frame Potential, on Average
Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom
2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.
4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ACPD 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 Accepted: 9 March 2004 Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt
Reversible (unitary) Ancillary qbits Controlled gates (cX, cZ) #12;Measurement Deterministic Duplication;Decoding use ancillary bits to determine what error occurred #12;Decoding use ancillary bits to determine what error occurred set to 0 if first two bits equal, set to 1 if not #12;Decoding use ancillary bits
Stabilizer Formalism for Operator Quantum Error Correction
Poulin, D
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Operator quantum error correction is a recently developed theory that provides a generalized framework for active error correction and passive error avoiding schemes. In this paper, we describe these codes in the language of the stabilizer formalism of standard quantum error correction theory. This is achieved by adding a "gauge" group to the standard stabilizer definition of a code. Gauge transformations leave the encoded information unchanged; their effect is absorbed by virtual gauge qubits that do not carry useful information. We illustrate the construction by identifying a gauge symmetry in Shor's 9-qubit code that allows us to remove 3 of its 8 stabilizer generators, leading to a simpler decoding procedure without affecting its essential properties. This opens the path to possible improvement of the error threshold of fault tolerant quantum computing. We also derive a modified Hamming bound that applies to all stabilizer codes, including degenerate ones.
Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala
2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major... Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM ERROR CONTROL CODES A Dissertation by SALAH ABDELHAMID AWAD ALY AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY...
Thermodynamics of error correction
Pablo Sartori; Simone Pigolotti
2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and dissipated work of the process. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics, hence its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.
Achronal averaged null energy condition
Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)
2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.
Pump apparatus including deconsolidator
Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew
2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.
A New World Average Value for the Neutron Lifetime
A. P. Serebrov; A. K. Fomin
2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z
The analysis of the data on measurements of the neutron lifetime is presented. A new most accurate result of the measurement of neutron lifetime [Phys. Lett. B 605 (2005) 72] 878.5 +/- 0.8 s differs from the world average value [Phys. Lett. B 667 (2008) 1] 885.7 +/- 0.8 s by 6.5 standard deviations. In this connection the analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of experiments [Phys. Lett. B 483 (2000) 15] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 (1989) 593] is carried out. Systematic errors of about -6 s are found in each of the experiments. The summary table for the neutron lifetime measurements after corrections and additions is given. A new world average value for the neutron lifetime 879.9 +/- 0.9 s is presented.
STATISTICAL MODEL OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: LINEAR ERROR MODEL
Rudnyi, Evgenii B.
to apply. The algorithm to maximize a likelihood function in the case of a non-linear physico - the same variances of errors 3.1. One-way classification 3.2. Linear regression 4. Real case (vaporizationSTATISTICAL MODEL OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: LINEAR ERROR MODEL E.B. Rudnyi Department of Chemistry
Shared dosimetry error in epidemiological dose-response analyses
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo
2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takesmore »up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ??0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the Mayak Worker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.« less
Living Expenses (includes approximately
Maroncelli, Mark
& engineering programs All other programs Graduate: MBA/INFSY at Erie & Harrisburg (12 credits) Business Guarantee 3 (Does not include Dependents Costs4 ) Altoona, Berks, Erie, and Harrisburg 12-Month Estimated
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
Rafael del Rio; Carmen Martinez; Hermann Schulz-Baldes
2008-02-20T23:59:59.000Z
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318Cubic Feet) YearSalesNew2003 Detailed Tables .Errors of Nonobservation Finally,
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706Production% of41.1Diesel prices increase nationally TheCold Fusion Error Unexpected
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: X-rayContract Documents PPPL The files|DisclaimersFeature featured2Cold Fusion Error
Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements
Veilleux, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stanfield, Sean B [CCP; Wachter, Joe [CCP; Ceo, Bob [CCP
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are more realistic and accurate. To do so, measurements of standards and waste drums were performed with High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The data were analyzed for multiplication effects and new estimates of the multiplication error were computed. A concluding section will present alternatives for reducing the number of rejections of TRU waste containers due to neutron multiplication error.
Optimal error estimates for corrected trapezoidal rules
Talvila, Erik
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Corrected trapezoidal rules are proved for $\\int_a^b f(x)\\,dx$ under the assumption that $f"\\in L^p([a,b])$ for some $1\\leq p\\leq\\infty$. Such quadrature rules involve the trapezoidal rule modified by the addition of a term $k[f'(a)-f'(b)]$. The coefficient $k$ in the quadrature formula is found that minimizes the error estimates. It is shown that when $f'$ is merely assumed to be continuous then the optimal rule is the trapezoidal rule itself. In this case error estimates are in terms of the Alexiewicz norm. This includes the case when $f"$ is integrable in the Henstock--Kurzweil sense or as a distribution. All error estimates are shown to be sharp for the given assumptions on $f"$. It is shown how to make these formulas exact for all cubic polynomials $f$. Composite formulas are computed for uniform partitions.
Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...
Lin Xiao
2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...
Sandia National Laboratories: increasing average wind turbine...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
increasing average wind turbine power rating Latest Version of the Composite Materials Database Available for Download On December 3, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News...
ERROR-TOLERANT MULTI-MODAL SENSOR FUSION Farinaz Koushanfar*
Potkonjak, Miodrag
ERROR-TOLERANT MULTI-MODAL SENSOR FUSION Farinaz Koushanfar* , Sasha Slijepcevic , Miodrag is multi-modal sensor fusion, where data from sensors of dif- ferent modalities are combined in order applications, including multi- modal sensor fusion, is to ensure that all of the techniques and tools are error
Averages in vector spaces over finite fields
Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...
MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS
Burger, Martin
MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance
High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications
Krupke, W.F.
1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.
Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns
Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...
Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor
Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should
Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures
Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E1 Canada (Canada)
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.
STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES
CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director
Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains
Jung, Kyomin
Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...
Identification of toroidal field errors in a modified betatron accelerator
Loschialpo, P. (Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)); Marsh, S.J. (SFA Inc., Landover, Maryland 20785 (United States)); Len, L.K.; Smith, T. (FM Technologies Inc., 10529-B Braddock Road, Fairfax, Virginia 22032 (United States)); Kapetanakos, C.A. (Beam Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States))
1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
A newly developed probe, having a 0.05% resolution, has been used to detect errors in the toroidal magnetic field of the NRL modified betatron accelerator. Measurements indicate that the radial field components (errors) are 0.1%--1% of the applied toroidal field. Such errors, in the typically 5 kG toroidal field, can excite resonances which drive the beam to the wall. Two sources of detected field errors are discussed. The first is due to the discrete nature of the 12 single turn coils which generate the toroidal field. Both measurements and computer calculations indicate that its amplitude varies from 0% to 0.2% as a function of radius. Displacement of the outer leg of one of the toroidal field coils by a few millimeters has a significant effect on the amplitude of this field error. Because of uniform toroidal periodicity of these coils this error is a good suspect for causing the excitation of the damaging [ital l]=12 resonance seen in our experiments. The other source of field error is due to the current feed gaps in the vertical magnetic field coils. A magnetic field is induced inside the vertical field coils' conductor in the opposite direction of the applied toroidal field. Fringe fields at the gaps lead to additional field errors which have been measured as large as 1.0%. This source of field error, which exists at five toroidal locations around the modified betatron, can excite several integer resonances, including the [ital l]=12 mode.
Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations
Petr Braun; Fritz Haake
2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.
see Type I decision error see Type II decision error
-1, 12, 22; 4-11; 5-46 to 51; 7-7; 8-1, 2, 15, 16, 22, 24, 27; A-5; N-16 areas 2-5 HSA/scoping 2 INDEX see Type I decision error see Type II decision error 91b material 3-5 Amin area-25; 8-11, 17 area evaluation & HSA 3-11 classification 2-4, 5, 17, 28; 4-11 contaminated 2-3 land
DATA COMPRESSION USING WAVELETS: ERROR ...
1910-90-11T23:59:59.000Z
algorithms that introduce differences between the original and compressed data in ... to choose an error metric that parallels the human visual system, so that image .... signal data along a communications channel, one sends integer codes that ...
The Challenge of Quantum Error Correction.
Fominov, Yakov
in the design of physical bits. #12;What we need Hardware requirements: 1. Many 103-104 / R individual bits (R flip classical error b. Phase error 0exp( ( ) )z i E t dt = - Fluctuates 1. Need hardware error #12;Classical error correction by the software and hardware. , / 2 0 Hardware error correction: Ising
SU-E-T-152: Error Sensitivity and Superiority of a Protocol for 3D IMRT Quality Assurance
Gueorguiev, G [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Cotter, C; Turcotte, J; Sharp, G; Crawford, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Mah'D, M [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To test if the parameters included in our 3D QA protocol with current tolerance levels are able to detect certain errors and show the superiority of 3D QA method over single ion chamber measurements and 2D gamma test by detecting most of the introduced errors. The 3D QA protocol parameters are: TPS and measured average dose difference, 3D gamma test with 3mmDTA/3% test parameters, and structure volume for which the TPS predicted and measured absolute dose difference is greater than 6%. Methods: Two prostate and two thoracic step-and-shoot IMRT patients were investigated. The following errors were introduced to each original treatment plan: energy switched from 6MV to 10MV, linac jaws retracted to 15cmx15cm, 1,2,3 central MLC leaf pairs retracted behind the jaws, single central MLC leaf put in or out of the treatment field, Monitor Units (MU) increased and decreased by 1 and 3%, collimator off by 5 and 15 degrees, detector shifted by 5mm to the left and right, gantry treatment angle off by 5 and 15 degrees. QA was performed on each plan using single ion chamber, 2D ion chamber array for 2D gamma analysis and using IBA's COMPASS system for 3D QA. Results: Out of the three tested QA methods single ion chamber performs the worst not detecting subtle errors. 3D QA proves to be the superior out of the three methods detecting all of introduced errors, except 10MV and 1% MU change, and MLC rotated (those errors were not detected by any QA methods tested). Conclusion: As the way radiation is delivered evolves, so must the QA. We believe a diverse set of 3D statistical parameters applied both to OAR and target plan structures provides the highest level of QA.
Using CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals
Michalak, Anna M.
global data of column- averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) at high spatial resolutions. These dataUsing CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals A. A 2008; published 29 August 2008. [1] Satellite measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry- air mole
,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per...
Stochastic Nash Equilibrium Problems: Sample Average ...
2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
convergence of stationary points of sample average optimization problems, see for .... (c) Finally we model the competition in the electricity spot market as a ...... out to be p(Q, ?), Ci(qi) denotes the total cost for producing qi amount of electricity
Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects
Baumann, O.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of operational concerns that are comprised in various Green Building Certification Systems, including the overall Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, Commissioning, Measurement & Verification, Training, Long-Term Monitoring, etc. It will be discussed how.... An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building...
Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
McInerney, Peter; Adams, Paul; Hadi, Masood Z.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differences from study to study. We have measured the error rates for 6 DNA polymerases commonly used in PCR applications, including 3 polymerases typically used for cloning applications requiring high fidelity. Error ratemore »measurement values reported here were obtained by direct sequencing of cloned PCR products. The strategy employed here allows interrogation of error rate across a very large DNA sequence space, since 94 unique DNA targets were used as templates for PCR cloning. The six enzymes included in the study,Taqpolymerase, AccuPrime-Taq High Fidelity, KOD Hot Start, clonedPfupolymerase, Phusion Hot Start, andPwopolymerase, we find the lowest error rates withPfu, Phusion, andPwopolymerases. Error rates are comparable for these 3 enzymes and are >10x lower than the error rate observed withTaqpolymerase. Mutation spectra are reported, with the 3 high fidelity enzymes displaying broadly similar types of mutations. For these enzymes, transition mutations predominate, with little bias observed for type of transition.« less
Unequal error protection of subband coded bits
Devalla, Badarinath
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Source coded data can be separated into different classes based on their susceptibility to channel errors. Errors in the Important bits cause greater distortion in the reconstructed signal. This thesis presents an Unequal Error Protection scheme...
Unequal error protection of subband coded bits
Devalla, Badarinath
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Source coded data can be separated into different classes based on their susceptibility to channel errors. Errors in the Important bits cause greater distortion in the reconstructed signal. This thesis presents an Unequal Error Protection scheme...
Averaged equilibrium and stability in low-aspect-ratio stellarators
Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The MHD equilibrium and stability calculations or stellarators are complex because of the intrinsic three-dimensional (3-D) character of these configurations. The stellarators expansion simplifies the equilibrium calculation by reducing it to a two-dimensional (2-D) problem. The classical stellarator expansion includes terms up to order epsilon/sup 2/, and the vacuum magnetic field is also included up to this order. For large-aspect-ratio configurations, the results of the stellarator expansion agree well with 3-D numerical equilibrium results. But for low-aspect-ratio configurations, these are significant discrepancies with 3-D equilibrium calculations. The main reason for these discrepancies is the approximation in the vacuum field contributions. This problem can be avoided by applying the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system. In this way, the exact vacuum magnetic field contribution is included and the results agree well with 3-D equilibrium calculations even for low-aspect-ratio configurations. Using the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system also permit the accurate calculation of local stability properties with the Mercier criterion. The main improvement is in the accurate calculation of the geodesic curvature term. In this paper, we discuss the application of the average method in flux coordinates to the calculation of the Mercier criterion for low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Non-Gaussian numerical errors versus mass hierarchy
Y. Meurice; M. B. Oktay
2000-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
We probe the numerical errors made in renormalization group calculations by varying slightly the rescaling factor of the fields and rescaling back in order to get the same (if there were no round-off errors) zero momentum 2-point function (magnetic susceptibility). The actual calculations were performed with Dyson's hierarchical model and a simplified version of it. We compare the distributions of numerical values obtained from a large sample of rescaling factors with the (Gaussian by design) distribution of a random number generator and find significant departures from the Gaussian behavior. In addition, the average value differ (robustly) from the exact answer by a quantity which is of the same order as the standard deviation. We provide a simple model in which the errors made at shorter distance have a larger weight than those made at larger distance. This model explains in part the non-Gaussian features and why the central-limit theorem does not apply.
Robust mixtures in the presence of measurement errors
Jianyong Sun; Ata Kaban; Somak Raychaudhury
2007-09-06T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a mixture-based approach to robust density modeling and outlier detection for experimental multivariate data that includes measurement error information. Our model is designed to infer atypical measurements that are not due to errors, aiming to retrieve potentially interesting peculiar objects. Since exact inference is not possible in this model, we develop a tree-structured variational EM solution. This compares favorably against a fully factorial approximation scheme, approaching the accuracy of a Markov-Chain-EM, while maintaining computational simplicity. We demonstrate the benefits of including measurement errors in the model, in terms of improved outlier detection rates in varying measurement uncertainty conditions. We then use this approach in detecting peculiar quasars from an astrophysical survey, given photometric measurements with errors.
Communication error detection using facial expressions
Wang, Sy Bor, 1976-
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Automatic detection of communication errors in conversational systems typically rely only on acoustic cues. However, perceptual studies have indicated that speakers do exhibit visual communication error cues passively ...
Harmonic Analysis Errors in Calculating Dipole,
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
to reduce the harmonic field calculation errors. A conformal transfor- mation of a multipole magnet into a dipole reduces these errors. Dipole Magnet Calculations A triangular...
Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function
Dunham, Scott
Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet
2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.
ERROR ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE SHOCK INTERACTION PROBLEMS.
LEE,T.MU,Y.ZHAO,M.GLIMM,J.LI,X.YE,K.
2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z
We propose statistical models of uncertainty and error in numerical solutions. To represent errors efficiently in shock physics simulations we propose a composition law. The law allows us to estimate errors in the solutions of composite problems in terms of the errors from simpler ones as discussed in a previous paper. In this paper, we conduct a detailed analysis of the errors. One of our goals is to understand the relative magnitude of the input uncertainty vs. the errors created within the numerical solution. In more detail, we wish to understand the contribution of each wave interaction to the errors observed at the end of the simulation.
Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements
Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.
1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit theNationalto Canada (Million Cubic Feet) Compressedfrom
Iyengar, Srinivasan S.
the precise vibrational signatures that contribute to dynamics in soft-mode hydrogen-bonded systems ReceiVed: June 12, 2007; In Final Form: August 11, 2007 We have introduced a computational methodology of hydrogen-bonded systems and hydrogen transfer extends beyond fundamental chemistry and well into the areas
Jiang, Boyang
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
As the forecasting models become more sophisticated in their physics and possible depictions of the nearshore hydrodynamics, they also become increasingly sensitive to errors in the inputs. These input errors include: mis-specification of the input...
High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System
Messerly, M J
2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.
Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...
Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
stocks, imports and exports. Renewable & Alternative Fuels Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors,...
Kernel Regression in the Presence of Correlated Errors Kernel Regression in the Presence in nonparametric regression is difficult in the presence of correlated errors. There exist a wide variety vector machines for regression. Keywords: nonparametric regression, correlated errors, bandwidth choice
The Average Mass Profile of Galaxy Clusters
R. G. Carlberg; H. K. C. Yee; E. Ellingson; S. L. Morris; R. Abraham; P. Gravel; C. J. Pritchet; T. Smecker-Hane; F. D. A. Hartwick; J. E. Hesser; J. B. Hutchings; J. B. Oke
1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z
The average mass density profile measured in the CNOC cluster survey is well described with the analytic form rho(r)=A/[r(r+a_rho)^2], as advocated on the basis on n-body simulations by Navarro, Frenk & White. The predicted core radii are a_rho=0.20 (in units of the radius where the mean interior density is 200 times the critical density) for an Omega=0.2 open CDM model, or a_rho=0.26 for a flat Omega=0.2 model, with little dependence on other cosmological parameters for simulations normalized to the observed cluster abundance. The dynamically derived local mass-to-light ratio, which has little radial variation, converts the observed light profile to a mass profile. We find that the scale radius of the mass distribution, 0.20<= a_rho <= 0.30 (depending on modeling details, with a 95% confidence range of 0.12-0.50), is completely consistent with the predicted values. Moreover, the profiles and total masses of the clusters as individuals can be acceptably predicted from the cluster RMS line-of-sight velocity dispersion alone. This is strong support of the hierarchical clustering theory for the formation of galaxy clusters in a cool, collisionless, dark matter dominated universe.
APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are
Oregon, University of
for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data
Energy efficiency of error correction for wireless communication
Havinga, Paul J.M.
-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. This includes energy spent in the physical radio transmission and Networking Conference 1999 [7]. #12;ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF ERROR CORRECTION FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONA 2 on the energy of transmission and the energy of redundancy computation. We will show that the computational cost
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (Million CubicRefiners SwitchBenefits Â» Retirement Retirement24 June 20083Reviw
Method and apparatus for detecting timing errors in a system oscillator
Gliebe, Ronald J. (Library, PA); Kramer, William R. (Bethel Park, PA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method of detecting timing errors in a system oscillator for an electronic device, such as a power supply, includes the step of comparing a system oscillator signal with a delayed generated signal and generating a signal representative of the timing error when the system oscillator signal is not identical to the delayed signal. An LED indicates to an operator that a timing error has occurred. A hardware circuit implements the above-identified method.
Countries Gasoline Prices Including Taxes
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
Selected Countries (U.S. dollars per gallon, including taxes) Date Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands UK US 51115 6.15 6.08 6.28 6.83 6.96 6.75 3.06 5415 6.14 6.06...
Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees
Gertman, D.I.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst's understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.
Representing cognitive activities and errors in HRA trees
Gertman, D.I.
1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A graphic representation method is presented herein for adapting an existing technology--human reliability analysis (HRA) event trees, used to support event sequence logic structures and calculations--to include a representation of the underlying cognitive activity and corresponding errors associated with human performance. The analyst is presented with three potential means of representing human activity: the NUREG/CR-1278 HRA event tree approach; the skill-, rule- and knowledge-based paradigm; and the slips, lapses, and mistakes paradigm. The above approaches for representing human activity are integrated in order to produce an enriched HRA event tree -- the cognitive event tree system (COGENT)-- which, in turn, can be used to increase the analyst`s understanding of the basic behavioral mechanisms underlying human error and the representation of that error in probabilistic risk assessment. Issues pertaining to the implementation of COGENT are also discussed.
Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media
Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.
POWER SPECTRAL PARAMETERIZATIONS OF ERROR AS A FUNCTION OF RESOLUTION IN GRIDDED
Kaplan, Alexey
POWER SPECTRAL PARAMETERIZATIONS OF ERROR AS A FUNCTION OF RESOLUTION IN GRIDDED ALTIMETRY MAPS be expressed in terms of the averages over model grid box areas. In reality, however, observations are either differently by the model grid and by the observational system. This difference turns out to be a major
Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...
Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...
70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...
Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...
Averaging top quark results in Run 2 M. Strovink
Strovink, Mark
average (cont'd) The pie chart shows the relative weights of the five input measurements in the world
Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North. (2015) Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North;Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging:1 the case of the North Atlantic jet
Error handling strategies in multiphase inverse modeling
Finsterle, S.; Zhang, Y.
2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Parameter estimation by inverse modeling involves the repeated evaluation of a function of residuals. These residuals represent both errors in the model and errors in the data. In practical applications of inverse modeling of multiphase flow and transport, the error structure of the final residuals often significantly deviates from the statistical assumptions that underlie standard maximum likelihood estimation using the least-squares method. Large random or systematic errors are likely to lead to convergence problems, biased parameter estimates, misleading uncertainty measures, or poor predictive capabilities of the calibrated model. The multiphase inverse modeling code iTOUGH2 supports strategies that identify and mitigate the impact of systematic or non-normal error structures. We discuss these approaches and provide an overview of the error handling features implemented in iTOUGH2.
Estimating IMU heading error from SAR images.
Doerry, Armin Walter
2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Angular orientation errors of the real antenna for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) will manifest as undesired illumination gradients in SAR images. These gradients can be measured, and the pointing error can be calculated. This can be done for single images, but done more robustly using multi-image methods. Several methods are provided in this report. The pointing error can then be fed back to the navigation Kalman filter to correct for problematic heading (yaw) error drift. This can mitigate the need for uncomfortable and undesired IMU alignment maneuvers such as S-turns.
On a fatal error in tachyonic physics
Edward Kapu?cik
2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A fatal error in the famous paper on tachyons by Gerald Feinberg is pointed out. The correct expressions for energy and momentum of tachyons are derived.
Original Article Error Bounds and Metric Subregularity
2014-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
theory of error bounds of extended real-valued functions. Another objective is to ... Another observation is that neighbourhood V in the original definition of metric.
Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions over Multiple Timescales (Presentation)
Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.
2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This presentation presents some statistical analysis of wind power forecast errors and error distributions, with examples using ERCOT data.
Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
On the evaluation of human error probabilities for post-initiating events
Presley, Mary R
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) for the purpose of human reliability assessment (HRA) is very complex. Because of this complexity, the state of the art includes a variety of HRA models, each with its own ...
Probabilistic growth of large entangled states with low error accumulation
Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Simon C Benjamin; Joseph Fitzsimons
2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z
The creation of complex entangled states, resources that enable quantum computation, can be achieved via simple 'probabilistic' operations which are individually likely to fail. However, typical proposals exploiting this idea carry a severe overhead in terms of the accumulation of errors. Here we describe an method that can rapidly generate large entangled states with an error accumulation that depends only logarithmically on the failure probability. We find that the approach may be practical for success rates in the sub-10% range, while ultimately becoming unfeasible at lower rates. The assumptions that we make, including parallelism and high connectivity, are appropriate for real systems including measurement-induced entanglement. This result therefore shows the feasibility for real devices based on such an approach.
Error Mining on Dependency Trees Claire Gardent
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Error Mining on Dependency Trees Claire Gardent CNRS, LORIA, UMR 7503 Vandoeuvre-l`es-Nancy, F-l`es-Nancy, F-54600, France shashi.narayan@loria.fr Abstract In recent years, error mining approaches were propose an algorithm for mining trees and ap- ply it to detect the most likely sources of gen- eration
SEU induced errors observed in microprocessor systems
Asenek, V.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre] [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Surrey Space Centre; Velazco, R.; Rezgui, S.; Cheynet, P. [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France)] [TIMA Lab., Grenoble (France); Ecoffet, R. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse (France)
1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, the authors present software tools for predicting the rate and nature of observable SEU induced errors in microprocessor systems. These tools are built around a commercial microprocessor simulator and are used to analyze real satellite application systems. Results obtained from simulating the nature of SEU induced errors are shown to correlate with ground-based radiation test data.
Remarks on statistical errors in equivalent widths
Klaus Vollmann; Thomas Eversberg
2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
Equivalent width measurements for rapid line variability in atomic spectral lines are degraded by increasing error bars with shorter exposure times. We derive an expression for the error of the line equivalent width $\\sigma(W_\\lambda)$ with respect to pure photon noise statistics and provide a correction value for previous calculations.
Inference for Model Error Allan Seheult
Oakley, Jeremy
Reservoirs, Model Error, Reification, Thermohaline Circulation. 1 Introduction Mathematical models of complex that the uncertainties associated with both calibrating a mathematical model to observations on a physical system specification exercise of model error with the cosmologists, linked to an extensive analysis of model
Nonparametric Regression with Correlated Errors Jean Opsomer
Wang, Yuedong
Nonparametric Regression with Correlated Errors Jean Opsomer Iowa State University Yuedong Wang Nonparametric regression techniques are often sensitive to the presence of correlation in the errors splines and wavelet regression under correlation, both for short-range and long-range dependence
Stabilizer Formalism for Operator Quantum Error Correction
David Poulin
2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
Operator quantum error correction is a recently developed theory that provides a generalized framework for active error correction and passive error avoiding schemes. In this paper, we describe these codes in the stabilizer formalism of standard quantum error correction theory. This is achieved by adding a "gauge" group to the standard stabilizer definition of a code that defines an equivalence class between encoded states. Gauge transformations leave the encoded information unchanged; their effect is absorbed by virtual gauge qubits that do not carry useful information. We illustrate the construction by identifying a gauge symmetry in Shor's 9-qubit code that allows us to remove 4 of its 8 stabilizer generators, leading to a simpler decoding procedure and a wider class of logical operations without affecting its essential properties. This opens the path to possible improvements of the error threshold of fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator
Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)
2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.
A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)
Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.
The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data
Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))
1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.
Error Detection and Error Classification: Failure Awareness in Data Transfer Scheduling
Louisiana State University; Balman, Mehmet; Kosar, Tevfik
2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
Data transfer in distributed environment is prone to frequent failures resulting from back-end system level problems, like connectivity failure which is technically untraceable by users. Error messages are not logged efficiently, and sometimes are not relevant/useful from users point-of-view. Our study explores the possibility of an efficient error detection and reporting system for such environments. Prior knowledge about the environment and awareness of the actual reason behind a failure would enable higher level planners to make better and accurate decisions. It is necessary to have well defined error detection and error reporting methods to increase the usability and serviceability of existing data transfer protocols and data management systems. We investigate the applicability of early error detection and error classification techniques and propose an error reporting framework and a failure-aware data transfer life cycle to improve arrangement of data transfer operations and to enhance decision making of data transfer schedulers.
Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials
Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard
2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.
Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures
Moura, José
Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L
THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
, control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN
Quantum error-correcting codes and devices
Gottesman, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)
2000-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
A method of forming quantum error-correcting codes by first forming a stabilizer for a Hilbert space. A quantum information processing device can be formed to implement such quantum codes.
Organizational Errors: Directions for Future Research
Carroll, John Stephen
The goal of this chapter is to promote research about organizational errors—i.e., the actions of multiple organizational participants that deviate from organizationally specified rules and can potentially result in adverse ...
Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics
D. Rohrlich
2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
Errors and paradoxes in quantum mechanics, entry in the Compendium of Quantum Physics: Concepts, Experiments, History and Philosophy, ed. F. Weinert, K. Hentschel, D. Greenberger and B. Falkenburg (Springer), to appear
Simulating Bosonic Baths with Error Bars
Mischa P. Woods; M. Cramer; M. B. Plenio
2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z
We derive rigorous truncation-error bounds for the spin-boson model and its generalizations to arbitrary quantum systems interacting with bosonic baths. For the numerical simulation of such baths the truncation of both, the number of modes and the local Hilbert-space dimensions is necessary. We derive super-exponential Lieb--Robinson-type bounds on the error when restricting the bath to finitely-many modes and show how the error introduced by truncating the local Hilbert spaces may be efficiently monitored numerically. In this way we give error bounds for approximating the infinite system by a finite-dimensional one. As a consequence, numerical simulations such as the time-evolving density with orthogonal polynomials algorithm (TEDOPA) now allow for the fully certified treatment of the system-environment interaction.
Agility metric sensitivity using linear error theory
Smith, David Matthew
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Aircraft agility metrics have been proposed for use to measure the performance and capability of aircraft onboard while in-flight. The sensitivity of these metrics to various types of errors and uncertainties is not ...
Parameters and error of a theoretical model
Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.
1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a definition for the error of a theoretical model of the type whose parameters are determined from adjustment to experimental data. By applying a standard statistical method, the maximum-likelihoodlmethod, we derive expressions for both the parameters of the theoretical model and its error. We investigate the derived equations by solving them for simulated experimental and theoretical quantities generated by use of random number generators. 2 refs., 4 tabs.
On the Fourier Transform Approach to Quantum Error Control
Hari Dilip Kumar
2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum codes are subspaces of the state space of a quantum system that are used to protect quantum information. Some common classes of quantum codes are stabilizer (or additive) codes, non-stabilizer (or non-additive) codes obtained from stabilizer codes, and Clifford codes. These are analyzed in a framework using the Fourier transform on finite groups, the finite group in question being a subgroup of the quantum error group considered. All the classes of codes that can be obtained in this framework are explored, including codes more general than Clifford codes. The error detection properties of one of these more general classes ("direct sums of translates of Clifford codes") are characterized. Examples codes are constructed, and computer code search results presented and analysed.
Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.
Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.
Quantifying truncation errors in effective field theory
R. J. Furnstahl; N. Klco; D. R. Phillips; S. Wesolowski
2015-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
Bayesian procedures designed to quantify truncation errors in perturbative calculations of quantum chromodynamics observables are adapted to expansions in effective field theory (EFT). In the Bayesian approach, such truncation errors are derived from degree-of-belief (DOB) intervals for EFT predictions. Computation of these intervals requires specification of prior probability distributions ("priors") for the expansion coefficients. By encoding expectations about the naturalness of these coefficients, this framework provides a statistical interpretation of the standard EFT procedure where truncation errors are estimated using the order-by-order convergence of the expansion. It also permits exploration of the ways in which such error bars are, and are not, sensitive to assumptions about EFT-coefficient naturalness. We first demonstrate the calculation of Bayesian probability distributions for the EFT truncation error in some representative examples, and then focus on the application of chiral EFT to neutron-proton scattering. Epelbaum, Krebs, and Mei{\\ss}ner recently articulated explicit rules for estimating truncation errors in such EFT calculations of few-nucleon-system properties. We find that their basic procedure emerges generically from one class of naturalness priors considered, and that all such priors result in consistent quantitative predictions for 68% DOB intervals. We then explore several methods by which the convergence properties of the EFT for a set of observables may be used to check the statistical consistency of the EFT expansion parameter.
Hamlen, Kevin W.
Investigating SANS/CWE Top 25 Programming Errors. 1 Investigating the SANS/CWE Top 25 Programming Errors List Running Title: Investigating SANS/CWE Top 25 Programming Errors. Investigating the SANS;Investigating SANS/CWE Top 25 Programming Errors. 2 Investigating the SANS/CWE Top 25 Programming Errors List
Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average
Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)
2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.
Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II-IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction, seven required a single correction, one required two corrections, and one required three corrections. Mean residual GTV deviation (3D distance) following GTV-based systematic correction (mean {+-} 1 standard deviation 4.8 {+-} 1.5 mm) is significantly lower than for systematic skeletal-based (6.5 {+-} 2.9 mm, p= 0.015), and weekly skeletal-based correction (7.2 {+-} 3.0 mm, p= 0.001), but is not significantly lower than daily skeletal-based correction (5.4 {+-} 2.6 mm, p= 0.34). In two cases, first-day CBCT images reveal tumor changes-one showing tumor growth, the other showing large tumor displacement-that are not readily observed in radiographs. Differences in computed GTV deviations between respiration-correlated and respiration-averaged images are 0.2 {+-} 1.8 mm in the superior-inferior direction and are of similar magnitude in the other directions. Conclusions: An off-line protocol to correct GTV-based systematic error in locally advanced lung tumor cases can be effective at reducing tumor deviations, although the findings need confirmation with larger patient statistics. In some cases, a single cone-beam CT can be useful for assessing tumor changes early in treatment, if more than a few days elapse between simulation and the start of treatment. Tumor deviations measured with respiration-averaged CT and CBCT images are consistent with those measured with respiration-correlated images; the respiration-averaged method is more easily implemented in the clinic.
Error Detection and Recovery for Robot Motion Planning with Uncertainty
Donald, Bruce Randall
1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Robots must plan and execute tasks in the presence of uncertainty. Uncertainty arises from sensing errors, control errors, and uncertainty in the geometry of the environment. The last, which is called model error, has ...
A systems approach to reducing utility billing errors
Ogura, Nori
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Many methods for analyzing the possibility of errors are practiced by organizations who are concerned about safety and error prevention. However, in situations where the error occurrence is random and difficult to track, ...
INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score
Colorado at Boulder, University of
INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform
Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...
Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...
STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL
of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type
Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging
Raftery, Adrian
Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc postprocessing method that creates calibrated predictive probability density functions (PDFs). Probabilistic wind extend BMA to wind speed, taking account of these challenges. This method provides calibrated and sharp
Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Excel file with dataset for Fact 835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis...
On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle
Cronin, Timothy W.
Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...
Error propagation equations for estimating the uncertainty in high-speed wind tunnel test results
Clark, E.L.
1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, and calibration Mach number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-steam Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for five fundamental aerodynamic ratios which relate free-steam test conditions to a reference condition.
Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.
Yang, H; Wang, W; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wang, X; Yu, C [Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Taizhou, Zhejiang (China)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To quantify setup errors by pretreatment kilovolt cone-beam computed tomography(KV-CBCT) scans for middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients. Methods: Fifty-two consecutive middle or distal esophageal carcinoma patients who underwent IMRT were included this study. A planning CT scan using a big-bore CT simulator was performed in the treatment position and was used as the reference scan for image registration with CBCT. CBCT scans(On-Board Imaging v1. 5 system, Varian Medical Systems) were acquired daily during the first treatment week. A total of 260 CBCT scans was assessed with a registration clip box defined around the PTV-thorax in the reference scan based on(nine CBCTs per patient) bony anatomy using Offline Review software v10.0(Varian Medical Systems). The anterior-posterior(AP), left-right(LR), superiorinferior( SI) corrections were recorded. The systematic and random errors were calculated. The CTV-to-PTV margins in each CBCT frequency was based on the Van Herk formula (2.5?+0.7?). Results: The SD of systematic error (?) was 2.0mm, 2.3mm, 3.8mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The average random error (?) was 1.6mm, 2.4mm, 4.1mm in the AP, LR and SI directions, respectively. The CTV-to-PTV safety margin was 6.1mm, 7.5mm, 12.3mm in the AP, LR and SI directions based on van Herk formula. Conclusion: Our data recommend the use of 6 mm, 8mm, and 12 mm for esophageal carcinoma patient setup in AP, LR, SI directions, respectively.
Global Error bounds for systems of convex polynomials over ...
2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is devoted to study the Lipschitzian/Holderian type global error ...... set is not neccessarily compact, we obtain the Hölder global error bound result.
Running jobs error: "inet_arp_address_lookup"
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
jobs error: "inetarpaddresslookup" Resolved: Running jobs error: "inetarpaddresslookup" September 22, 2013 by Helen He (0 Comments) Symptom: After the Hopper August 14...
Mather, Mara
Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS Stereotype threat can reduce older adults, 90089-0191. Phone: 213-740-6772. Email: barbersa@usc.edu #12;STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS 2 Abstract (144 words) Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information
Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems
Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)
2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.
On the Error in QR Integration
Dieci, Luca; Van Vleck, Erik
2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
] . . . [R(t2, t1) +E2][R(t1, t0) +E1]R(t0) , k = 1, 2, . . . , where Q(tk) is the exact Q-factor at tk and the triangular transitions R(tj , tj?1) are also the exact ones. Moreover, the factors Ej , j = 1, . . . , k, are bounded in norm by the local error... committed during integration of the relevant differential equations; see Theorems 3.1 and 3.16.” We will henceforth simply write (2.7) ?Ej? ? ?, j = 1, 2, . . . , and stress that ? is computable, in fact controllable, in terms of local error tolerances...
Recent experiences with error estimation and adaptivity
Haque, Khalid Ansar
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
RECENT EXPERIENCES WITH ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY A Thesis by K HA LID ANSA R I I A & )UE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering RECENT EXPERIENCES WITH ERROR ESTIMATION AND ADAPTIVITY A Thesis by KHALID ANSAR HAQUE Approved as to style and content by: W b4 f. ou Lou (i s T. Strouboulis (Chair of Committee) W. E...
Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs
Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC
2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Matalgah, Mustafa M [ORNL; Bobrek, Miljko [ORNL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Traditional encryption techniques require packet overhead, produce processing time delay, and suffer from severe quality of service deterioration due to fades and interference in wireless channels. These issues reduce the effective transmission data rate (throughput) considerably in wireless communications, where data rate with limited bandwidth is the main constraint. In this paper, performance evaluation analyses are conducted for an integrated signaling-encryption mechanism that is secure and enables improved throughput and probability of bit-error in wireless channels. This mechanism eliminates the drawbacks stated herein by encrypting only a small portion of an entire transmitted frame, while the rest is not subject to traditional encryption but goes through a signaling process (designed transformation) with the plaintext of the portion selected for encryption. We also propose to incorporate error correction coding solely on the small encrypted portion of the data to drastically improve the overall bit-error rate performance while not noticeably increasing the required bit-rate. We focus on validating the signaling-encryption mechanism utilizing Hamming and convolutional error correction coding by conducting an end-to-end system-level simulation-based study. The average probability of bit-error and throughput of the encryption mechanism are evaluated over standard Gaussian and Rayleigh fading-type channels and compared to the ones of the conventional advanced encryption standard (AES).
A self-checking fiber optic dosimeter for monitoring common errors in brachytherapy applications
Yin, Y.; Lambert, J.; Yang, S.; McKenzie, D. R.; Jackson, M.; Suchowerska, N. [Physics School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Physics School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); Physics School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales 2050 (Australia); Physics School, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales 2050 (Australia)
2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Scintillation dosimetry with optical fiber readout [fiber optic dosimetry (FOD)] requires accurate measurement of light intensity. It is therefore vulnerable to loss of calibration if any changes occur in the efficiency of the optical pathway between the scintillator and the light detector. The authors show in this article that common types of errors that arise during clinical use for brachytherapy applications can be quantified using a light emitting diode to stimulate the scintillator, the so-called LED-FOD method, in an integrated and easy-to-use control unit that incorporates a compact peripheral component interconnect extension for instrumentation. Common sources of error include bending and mechanical compression of the fiber optic components and changes in the temperature of the scintillator. The authors show that the method can detect all the common errors studied in this work and that different types of errors can result in different correlations between the LED stimulated signal and the brachytherapy source signal. For a single-type error the LED-FOD can be used easily for system diagnosis and validation with the possibility to correct the dosimeter reading if the correlation between the LED stimulated signal and the brachytherapy source signal can be defined. For more complex errors, resulting from two or more errors occurring simultaneously, the LED-FOD method can also allow the clinician to make a judgment on the reliability of the dosimeter reading. This self-checking method can enhance the clinical robustness of the FOD for achieving accurate dose control.
Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths
California at Davis, University of
APPETIZERS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen tablecloths for the food tables.ucdavis.edu. BUTTERNUT SQUASH & BLACK BEAN ENCHILADAS #12;BUFFETS Prices include compostable serviceware and linen
High average power scaleable thin-disk laser
Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.
Analysis of Solar Two Heliostat Tracking Error Sources
Jones, S.A.; Stone, K.W.
1999-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
This paper explores the geometrical errors that reduce heliostat tracking accuracy at Solar Two. The basic heliostat control architecture is described. Then, the three dominant error sources are described and their effect on heliostat tracking is visually illustrated. The strategy currently used to minimize, but not truly correct, these error sources is also shown. Finally, a novel approach to minimizing error is presented.
High Performance Dense Linear System Solver with Soft Error Resilience
Dongarra, Jack
High Performance Dense Linear System Solver with Soft Error Resilience Peng Du, Piotr Luszczek systems, and in some scientific applications C/R is not applicable for soft error at all due to error) high performance dense linear system solver with soft error resilience. By adopting a mathematical
Distribution of Wind Power Forecasting Errors from Operational Systems (Presentation)
Hodge, B. M.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.
2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This presentation offers new data and statistical analysis of wind power forecasting errors in operational systems.
Lateral boundary errors in regional numerical weather
?umer, Slobodan
Lateral boundary errors in regional numerical weather prediction models Author: Ana Car Advisor weather services for short- range forecasts. These models are covering smaller areas with higher reso Introduction Equations for numerical weather prediction (NWP) are mathematical represen- ation of physical
MEASUREMENT AND CORRECTION OF ULTRASONIC ANEMOMETER ERRORS
Heinemann, Detlev
commonly show systematic errors depending on wind speed due to inaccurate ultrasonic transducer mounting three- dimensional wind speed time series. Results for the variance and power spectra are shown. 1 wind speeds with ultrasonic anemometers: The measu- red flow is distorted by the probe head
Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude
Johnson, Catherine Louise
-averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion
Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications
Murray, Richard M.
Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125
Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...
Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging
Raftery, Adrian
Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN 2011, in final form 26 May 2012) ABSTRACT Probabilistic forecasts of wind vectors are becoming critical as interest grows in wind as a clean and re- newable source of energy, in addition to a wide range of other
The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting
1 The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting Aug 8 & 9, 2006 General Atomics Scientific Inst 16. Optiswitch Technology 17. ESLI Electricity Generator Electricity Generator Reaction (i.e. 5 Hz) "First Light" on Electra Pre-Amplifier (input to main amplifier) 23 J laser output #12
Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging
Washington at Seattle, University of
February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington
The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist
Heller, Eric
/8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription
Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
below. Supporting Information Average Vehicle Footprint, 2008-2010 Model Year Car Light Truck All Light Vehicles 2008 45.4 53.0 49.0 2009 45.2 52.7 48.2 2010 45.2 54.0 48.8...
Makarenkov, Vladimir
- mentaldatarequiresan efficientautomaticroutinefor theselection of hits. Unfortunately, random and systematic errors can
Improving Planck calibration by including frequency-dependent relativistic corrections
Quartin, Miguel
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Planck satellite detectors are calibrated in the 2015 release using the "orbital dipole", which is the time-dependent dipole generated by the Doppler effect due to the motion of the satellite around the Sun. Such an effect has also relativistic time-dependent corrections of relative magnitude 10^(-3), due to coupling with the "solar dipole" (the motion of the Sun compared to the CMB rest frame), which are included in the data calibration by the Planck collaboration. We point out that such corrections are subject to a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. This factor differs from unity especially at the highest frequencies, relevant for the HFI instrument. Since currently Planck calibration errors are dominated by systematics, to the point that polarization data is currently unreliable at large scales, such a correction can in principle be highly relevant for future data releases.
Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)
2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.
An Analysis of Air Passenger Average Trip Lengths and Fare Levels in US Domestic Markets
Huang, Sheng-Chen Alex
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
California at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger AverageCalifornia at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger Average
Quantum Latin squares and unitary error bases
Benjamin Musto; Jamie Vicary
2015-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we introduce quantum Latin squares, combinatorial quantum objects which generalize classical Latin squares, and investigate their applications in quantum computer science. Our main results are on applications to unitary error bases (UEBs), basic structures in quantum information which lie at the heart of procedures such as teleportation, dense coding and error correction. We present a new method for constructing a UEB from a quantum Latin square equipped with extra data. Developing construction techniques for UEBs has been a major activity in quantum computation, with three primary methods proposed: shift-and-multiply, Hadamard, and algebraic. We show that our new approach simultaneously generalizes the shift-and-multiply and Hadamard methods. Furthermore, we explicitly construct a UEB using our technique which we prove cannot be obtained from any of these existing methods.
Gross error detection in process data
Singh, Gurmeet
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, 1991), with many optimum properties, seems to have been untapped by chemical engineers. We first review the background of the Tr test, and present relevant properties of the test. IV. A Hotelling's Generalization of Students t Test One of the most...: Chemical Engineering GROSS ERROR DETECTION IN PROCESS DATA A Thesis by GURMEET SINGH Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair of Committee) Michael Nikoloau (Member Richard B. Gri n (Member) R. W. Flummerfelt (Head...
Average Interpolating Wavelets on Point Clouds and Graphs
Rustamov, Raif M
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a new wavelet transform suitable for analyzing functions on point clouds and graphs. Our construction is based on a generalization of the average interpolating refinement scheme of Donoho. The most important ingredient of the original scheme that needs to be altered is the choice of the interpolant. Here, we define the interpolant as the minimizer of a smoothness functional, namely a generalization of the Laplacian energy, subject to the averaging constraints. In the continuous setting, we derive a formula for the optimal solution in terms of the poly-harmonic Green's function. The form of this solution is used to motivate our construction in the setting of graphs and point clouds. We highlight the empirical convergence of our refinement scheme and the potential applications of the resulting wavelet transform through experiments on a number of data stets.
Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux
Carlton, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blanchard, Sean P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Debardeleben, Nathan A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
As supercomputers continue to get faster and more powerful in the future, they will also have more nodes. If nothing is done, then the amount of memory in supercomputer clusters will soon grow large enough that memory failures will be unmanageable to deal with by manually replacing memory DIMMs. "Improving Memory Error Handling Using Linux" is a process oriented method to solve this problem by using the Linux kernel to disable (offline) faulty memory pages containing bad addresses, preventing them from being used again by a process. The process of offlining memory pages simplifies error handling and results in reducing both hardware and manpower costs required to run Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) clusters. This process will be necessary for the future of supercomputing to allow the development of exascale computers. It will not be feasible without memory error handling to manually replace the number of DIMMs that will fail daily on a machine consisting of 32-128 petabytes of memory. Testing reveals the process of offlining memory pages works and is relatively simple to use. As more and more testing is conducted, the entire process will be automated within the high-performance computing (HPC) monitoring software, Zenoss, at LANL.
Averaging cross section data so we can fit it
Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC
2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
The ^{56}Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).
Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup
Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.
Message passing in fault tolerant quantum error correction
Z. W. E. Evans; A. M. Stephens
2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
Inspired by Knill's scheme for message passing error detection, here we develop a scheme for message passing error correction for the nine-qubit Bacon-Shor code. We show that for two levels of concatenated error correction, where classical information obtained at the first level is used to help interpret the syndrome at the second level, our scheme will correct all cases with four physical errors. This results in a reduction of the logical failure rate relative to conventional error correction by a factor proportional to the reciprocal of the physical error rate.
Gershgorin, B. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Atmosphere and Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Harlim, J. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: jharlim@ncsu.edu; Majda, A.J. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Atmosphere and Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The filtering and predictive skill for turbulent signals is often limited by the lack of information about the true dynamics of the system and by our inability to resolve the assumed dynamics with sufficiently high resolution using the current computing power. The standard approach is to use a simple yet rich family of constant parameters to account for model errors through parameterization. This approach can have significant skill by fitting the parameters to some statistical feature of the true signal; however in the context of real-time prediction, such a strategy performs poorly when intermittent transitions to instability occur. Alternatively, we need a set of dynamic parameters. One strategy for estimating parameters on the fly is a stochastic parameter estimation through partial observations of the true signal. In this paper, we extend our newly developed stochastic parameter estimation strategy, the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF), to filtering sparsely observed spatially extended turbulent systems which exhibit abrupt stability transition from time to time despite a stable average behavior. For our primary numerical example, we consider a turbulent system of externally forced barotropic Rossby waves with instability introduced through intermittent negative damping. We find high filtering skill of SPEKF applied to this toy model even in the case of very sparse observations (with only 15 out of the 105 grid points observed) and with unspecified external forcing and damping. Additive and multiplicative bias corrections are used to learn the unknown features of the true dynamics from observations. We also present a comprehensive study of predictive skill in the one-mode context including the robustness toward variation of stochastic parameters, imperfect initial conditions and finite ensemble effect. Furthermore, the proposed stochastic parameter estimation scheme applied to the same spatially extended Rossby wave system demonstrates high predictive skill, comparable with the skill of the perfect model for a duration of many eddy turnover times especially in the unstable regime.
LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...
Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]
144 DISTILLATE FUEL OIL U.S. TOTAL Dec 12 121.3 142.6 145 MOTOR GASOLINE, TOTAL INCLUDING BLENDING COMPONENTS PADD 1 Jan 1 56.0 61.7 146 MOTOR GASOLINE, TOTAL INCLUDING BLENDING...
Progress in Understanding Error-field Physics in NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas
E. Menard, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.P. Gerhardt, J.-K. Park, S.A. Sabbagh, J.W. Berkery, A. Egan, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B. LeBlanc, Y.Q. Liu, A. Sontag, D. Swanson, H. Yuh, W. Zhu and the NSTX Research Team
2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
The low aspect ratio, low magnetic field, and wide range of plasma beta of NSTX plasmas provide new insight into the origins and effects of magnetic field errors. An extensive array of magnetic sensors has been used to analyze error fields, to measure error field amplification, and to detect resistive wall modes in real time. The measured normalized error-field threshold for the onset of locked modes shows a linear scaling with plasma density, a weak to inverse dependence on toroidal field, and a positive scaling with magnetic shear. These results extrapolate to a favorable error field threshold for ITER. For these low-beta locked-mode plasmas, perturbed equilibrium calculations find that the plasma response must be included to explain the empirically determined optimal correction of NSTX error fields. In high-beta NSTX plasmas exceeding the n=1 no-wall stability limit where the RWM is stabilized by plasma rotation, active suppression of n=1 amplified error fields and the correction of recently discovered intrinsic n=3 error fields have led to sustained high rotation and record durations free of low-frequency core MHD activity. For sustained rotational stabilization of the n=1 RWM, both the rotation threshold and magnitude of the amplification are important. At fixed normalized dissipation, kinetic damping models predict rotation thresholds for RWM stabilization to scale nearly linearly with particle orbit frequency. Studies for NSTX find that orbit frequencies computed in general geometry can deviate significantly from those computed in the high aspect ratio and circular plasma cross-section limit, and these differences can strongly influence the predicted RWM stability. The measured and predicted RWM stability is found to be very sensitive to the E × B rotation profile near the plasma edge, and the measured critical rotation for the RWM is approximately a factor of two higher than predicted by the MARS-F code using the semi-kinetic damping model.
MHK technologies include current energy conversion
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
research leverages decades of experience in engineering and design and analysis (D&A) of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high-performance...
New insights on numerical error in symplectic integration
Hugo Jiménez-Pérez; Jean-Pierre Vilotte; Barbara Romanowicz
2015-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
We implement and investigate the numerical properties of a new family of integrators connecting both variants of the symplectic Euler schemes, and including an alternative to the classical symplectic mid-point scheme, with some additional terms. This family is derived from a new method, introduced in a previous study, for generating symplectic integrators based on the concept of special symplectic manifold. The use of symplectic rotations and a particular type of projection keeps the whole procedure within the symplectic framework. We show that it is possible to define a set of parameters that control the additional terms providing a way of "tuning" these new symplectic schemes. We test the "tuned" symplectic integrators with the perturbed pendulum and we compare its behavior with an explicit scheme for perturbed systems. Remarkably, for the given examples, the error in the energy integral can be reduced considerably. There is a natural geometrical explanation, sketched at the end of this paper. This is the subject of a parallel article where a finer analysis is performed. Numerical results obtained in this paper open a new point of view on symplectic integrators and Hamiltonian error.
Human error contribution to nuclear materials-handling events
Sutton, Bradley (Bradley Jordan)
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis analyzes a sample of 15 fuel-handling events from the past ten years at commercial nuclear reactors with significant human error contributions in order to detail the contribution of human error to fuel-handling ...
Evolved Error Management Biases in the Attribution of Anger
Galperin, Andrew
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
von Hippel, W. , Poore, J. C. , Buss, D. M. , et al. (under27, 733-763. Haselton, M. G. , & Buss, D. M. (2000). Error27, 733-763. Haselton, M. G. , & Buss, D. M. (2000). Error
Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362 334 318 706 802 1979-2013October 3,Percent of (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content1,079: Coala. Average
U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010 2011Average Sales Price of CoalYear2009 20102.022 2.346 2.308
"2013 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010 2011Average8a. AppliancesFile 1:4. Total First Use
"2013 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010 2011Average8a. AppliancesFile 1:4. Total First
"2013 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010 2011Average8a. AppliancesFile 1:4. Total FirstResidential"
,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS National FuelYancey County, NorthDiesel3, 2013TWO Washington,4 Average SquareSelected National
Efficient Semiparametric Estimators for Biological, Genetic, and Measurement Error Applications
Garcia, Tanya
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
to the models considered in Tsiatis and Ma (2004), our model is less stringent because it allows an unspecified model error distribution and unspecified covariate distribution, not just the latter. With an unspecified model error distribution, the RMM... with measurement error is a very different problem compared to the model considered in Tsiatis and Ma (2004), where the model error distribution has a known parametric form. Consequently, the semiparamet- ric treatment here is also drastically different. Our...
Franklin Trouble Shooting and Error Messages
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article) |govInstrumentsmfrirt DocumentationSitesWeather6Environmental1 |MAgnEt forFirstFourth FridayTrouble Shooting and Error
Error Analysis in Nuclear Density Functional Theory
Nicolas Schunck; Jordan D. McDonnell; Jason Sarich; Stefan M. Wild; Dave Higdon
2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z
Nuclear density functional theory (DFT) is the only microscopic, global approach to the structure of atomic nuclei. It is used in numerous applications, from determining the limits of stability to gaining a deep understanding of the formation of elements in the universe or the mechanisms that power stars and reactors. The predictive power of the theory depends on the amount of physics embedded in the energy density functional as well as on efficient ways to determine a small number of free parameters and solve the DFT equations. In this article, we discuss the various sources of uncertainties and errors encountered in DFT and possible methods to quantify these uncertainties in a rigorous manner.
ERROR MODELS FOR LIGHT SENSORS BY STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SENSOR MEASUREMENTS
Potkonjak, Miodrag
silicon solar cell that converts light impulses directly into electrical charges that can easily-based systems including calibration, sensor fusion and power management. We developed a system of statistical the standard procedure is to use error models to enable calibration, in a variant of our approach, we use
ERROR-TOLERANT MULTI-MODAL SENSOR FUSION (SHORT PAPER) Farinaz Koushanfar*
ERROR-TOLERANT MULTI-MODAL SENSOR FUSION (SHORT PAPER) Farinaz Koushanfar* , Sasha Slijepcevic ESN tasks is multi-modal sensor fusion, where data from sensors of dif- ferent modalities are combined ESN applications, including multi- modal sensor fusion, is to ensure that all of the techniques
A Taxonomy of Number Entry Error Sarah Wiseman
Subramanian, Sriram
A Taxonomy of Number Entry Error Sarah Wiseman UCLIC MPEB, Malet Place London, WC1E 7JE sarah and the subsequent process of creating a taxonomy of errors from the information gathered. A total of 345 errors were. These codes are then organised into a taxonomy similar to that of Zhang et al (2004). We show how
Susceptibility of Commodity Systems and Software to Memory Soft Errors
Riska, Alma
Susceptibility of Commodity Systems and Software to Memory Soft Errors Alan Messer, Member, IEEE Abstract--It is widely understood that most system downtime is acounted for by programming errors transient errors in computer system hardware due to external factors, such as cosmic rays. This work
Predictors of Threat and Error Management: Identification of Core
Predictors of Threat and Error Management: Identification of Core Nontechnical Skills In normal flight operations, crews are faced with a variety of external threats and commit a range of errors of these threats and errors therefore forms an essential element of enhancing performance and minimizing risk
Bolstered Error Estimation Ulisses Braga-Neto a,c
Braga-Neto, Ulisses
the bolstered error estimators proposed in this paper, as part of a larger library for classification and error of the data. It has a direct geometric interpretation and can be easily applied to any classification rule as smoothed error estimation. In some important cases, such as a linear classification rule with a Gaussian
Error rate and power dissipation in nano-logic devices
Kim, Jong Un
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Current-controlled logic and single electron logic processors have been investigated with respect to thermal-induced bit error. A maximal error rate for both logic processors is regarded as one bit-error/year/chip. A maximal clock frequency...
Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime
Eleni-Alexandra Kontou
2015-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a quantum inequality on a geodesic in a spacetime with small curvature, working to first order in the Ricci tensor and its derivatives. The last step is to derive a bound for the null-projected quantum inequality on a general timelike path. Finally we use that result to prove achronal ANEC in spacetimes with small curvature.
Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime
Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a qu...
Sessions include: Beginning Farmer and Rancher
Watson, Craig A.
Sessions include: Beginning Farmer and Rancher New Markets and Regulations Food Safety Good Bug, Bad Bug ID Horticulture Hydroponics Livestock and Pastured Poultry Mushrooms Organic Live animal exhibits Saturday evening social, and Local foods Florida Small Farms and Alternative
Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials
Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji
2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.
Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials
Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji
2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.
High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host
Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.
2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.
Polian, Ilia
of soft errors in modern microprocessors has been reported to never lead to a system failure. Any techniques are enhanced by a methodology to handle soft errors on address bits. Furthermore, we demonstrate]. Consequently, many state-of-the art systems provide soft error detection and correction capabilities [Hass 89
Technological Advancements and Error Rates in Radiation Therapy Delivery
Margalit, Danielle N., E-mail: dmargalit@partners.org [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui; Catalano, Paul J.; Heckman, Kenneth; Vivenzio, Todd; Nissen, Kristopher; Wolfsberger, Luciant D.; Cormack, Robert A.; Mauch, Peter; Ng, Andrea K. [Harvard Cancer Consortium and Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)
2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Technological advances in radiation therapy (RT) delivery have the potential to reduce errors via increased automation and built-in quality assurance (QA) safeguards, yet may also introduce new types of errors. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is an increasingly used technology that is more technically complex than three-dimensional (3D)-conformal RT and conventional RT. We determined the rate of reported errors in RT delivery among IMRT and 3D/conventional RT treatments and characterized the errors associated with the respective techniques to improve existing QA processes. Methods and Materials: All errors in external beam RT delivery were prospectively recorded via a nonpunitive error-reporting system at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Errors are defined as any unplanned deviation from the intended RT treatment and are reviewed during monthly departmental quality improvement meetings. We analyzed all reported errors since the routine use of IMRT in our department, from January 2004 to July 2009. Fisher's exact test was used to determine the association between treatment technique (IMRT vs. 3D/conventional) and specific error types. Effect estimates were computed using logistic regression. Results: There were 155 errors in RT delivery among 241,546 fractions (0.06%), and none were clinically significant. IMRT was commonly associated with errors in machine parameters (nine of 19 errors) and data entry and interpretation (six of 19 errors). IMRT was associated with a lower rate of reported errors compared with 3D/conventional RT (0.03% vs. 0.07%, p = 0.001) and specifically fewer accessory errors (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.78) and setup errors (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.79). Conclusions: The rate of errors in RT delivery is low. The types of errors differ significantly between IMRT and 3D/conventional RT, suggesting that QA processes must be uniquely adapted for each technique. There was a lower error rate with IMRT compared with 3D/conventional RT, highlighting the need for sustained vigilance against errors common to more traditional treatment techniques.
Locked modes and magnetic field errors in MST
Almagri, A.F.; Assadi, S.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Kerst, D.W.
1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the MST reversed field pinch magnetic oscillations become stationary (locked) in the lab frame as a result of a process involving interactions between the modes, sawteeth, and field errors. Several helical modes become phase locked to each other to form a rotating localized disturbance, the disturbance locks to an impulsive field error generated at a sawtooth crash, the error fields grow monotonically after locking (perhaps due to an unstable interaction between the modes and field error), and over the tens of milliseconds of growth confinement degrades and the discharge eventually terminates. Field error control has been partially successful in eliminating locking.
Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds
Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.
1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.
Average vertical and zonal F region plasma drifts over Jicamarca
Fejer, B.G.; Gonzalez, S.A. (Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); de Paula, E.R. (Inst. de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Sao Paulo (Brazil) Utah State Univ., Logan (United States)); Woodman, R.F. (Inst. Geofisico del Peru, Lima (Peru))
1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The seasonal averages of the equatorial F region vertical and zonal plasma drifts are determined using extensive incoherent scatter radar observations from Jicamarca during 1968-1988. The late afternoon and nighttime vertical and zonal drifts are strongly dependent on the 10.7-cm solar flux. The authors show that the evening prereversal enhancement of vertical drifts increases linearly with solar flux during equinox but tends to saturate for large fluxes during southern hemisphere winter. They examine in detail, for the first time, the seasonal variation of the zonal plasma drifts and their dependence on solar flux and magnetic activity. The seasonal effects on the zonal drifts are most pronounced in the midnight-morning sector. The nighttime eastward drifts increase with solar flux for all seasons but decrease slightly with magnetic activity. The daytime westward drifts are essentially independent of season, solar cycle, and magnetic activity.
Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)
Analysis of Errors in a Special Perturbations Satellite Orbit Propagator
Beckerman, M.; Jones, J.P.
1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
We performed an analysis of error densities for the Special Perturbations orbit propagator using data for 29 satellites in orbits of interest to Space Shuttle and International Space Station collision avoidance. We find that the along-track errors predominate. These errors increase monotonically over each 36-hour prediction interval. The predicted positions in the along-track direction progressively either leap ahead of or lag behind the actual positions. Unlike the along-track errors the radial and cross-track errors oscillate about their nearly zero mean values. As the number of observations per fit interval decline the along-track prediction errors, and amplitudes of the radial and cross-track errors, increase.
In Search of a Taxonomy for Classifying Qualitative Spreadsheet Errors
Przasnyski, Zbigniew; Seal, Kala Chand
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Most organizations use large and complex spreadsheets that are embedded in their mission-critical processes and are used for decision-making purposes. Identification of the various types of errors that can be present in these spreadsheets is, therefore, an important control that organizations can use to govern their spreadsheets. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy for categorizing qualitative errors in spreadsheet models that offers a framework for evaluating the readiness of a spreadsheet model before it is released for use by others in the organization. The classification was developed based on types of qualitative errors identified in the literature and errors committed by end-users in developing a spreadsheet model for Panko's (1996) "Wall problem". Closer inspection of the errors reveals four logical groupings of the errors creating four categories of qualitative errors. The usability and limitations of the proposed taxonomy and areas for future extension are discussed.
Integrating human related errors with technical errors to determine causes behind offshore accidents
Aamodt, Agnar
errors were embedded as an integral part of the oil well drilling opera- tion. To reduce the number assessment of the failure. The method is based on a knowledge model of the oil-well drilling process. All of non-productive time (NPT) during oil-well drilling. NPT exhibits a much lower declining trend than
Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included
Not Available
1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.
Quantum Error Correction with magnetic molecules
José J. Baldoví; Salvador Cardona-Serra; Juan M. Clemente-Juan; Luis Escalera-Moreno; Alejandro Gaita-Ariño; Guillermo Mínguez Espallargas
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum algorithms often assume independent spin qubits to produce trivial $|\\uparrow\\rangle=|0\\rangle$, $|\\downarrow\\rangle=|1\\rangle$ mappings. This can be unrealistic in many solid-state implementations with sizeable magnetic interactions. Here we show that the lower part of the spectrum of a molecule containing three exchange-coupled metal ions with $S=1/2$ and $I=1/2$ is equivalent to nine electron-nuclear qubits. We derive the relation between spin states and qubit states in reasonable parameter ranges for the rare earth $^{159}$Tb$^{3+}$ and for the transition metal Cu$^{2+}$, and study the possibility to implement Shor's Quantum Error Correction code on such a molecule. We also discuss recently developed molecular systems that could be adequate from an experimental point of view.
Output error identification of hydrogenerator conduit dynamics
Vogt, M.A.; Wozniak, L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Whittemore, T.R. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (USA))
1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two output error model reference adaptive identifiers are considered for estimating the parameters in a reduced order gate position to pressure model for the hydrogenerator. This information may later be useful in an adaptive controller. Gradient and sensitivity functions identifiers are discussed for the hydroelectric application and connections are made between their structural differences and relative performance. Simulations are presented to support the conclusion that the latter algorithm is more robust, having better disturbance rejection and less plant model mismatch sensitivity. For identification from recorded plant data from step gate inputs, the other algorithm even fails to converge. A method for checking the estimated parameters is developed by relating the coefficients in the reduced order model to head, an externally measurable parameter.
Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors
Pryor, Jeff M [ORNL] [ORNL; Walker, William C [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.
Communication in automation, including networking and wireless
Antsaklis, Panos
Communication in automation, including networking and wireless Nicholas Kottenstette and Panos J and networking in automation is given. Digital communication fundamentals are reviewed and networked control are presented. 1 Introduction 1.1 Why communication is necessary in automated systems Automated systems use
Electrochemical cell including ribbed electrode substrates
Breault, R.D.; Goller, G.J.; Roethlein, R.J.; Sprecher, G.C.
1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
An electrochemical cell including an electrolyte retaining matrix layer located between and in contact with cooperating anode and cathode electrodes is disclosed herein. Each of the electrodes is comprised of a ribbed (or grooved) substrate including a gas porous body as its main component and a catalyst layer located between the substrate and one side of the electrolyte retaining matrix layer. Each substrate body includes a ribbed section for receiving reactant gas and lengthwise side portions on opposite sides of the ribbed section. Each of the side portions includes a channel extending along its entire length from one surface thereof (e.g., its outer surface) to but stopping short of an opposite surface (e.g., its inner surface) so as to provide a web directly between the channel and the opposite surface. Each of the channels is filled with a gas impervious substance and each of the webs is impregnated with a gas impervious substance so as to provide a gas impervious seal along the entire length of each side portion of each substrate and between the opposite faces thereof (e.g., across the entire thickness thereof).
Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable
Namboodiri, Vinod
Energy Consumption of Personal Computing Including Portable Communication Devices Pavel Somavat1 consumption, questions are being asked about the energy contribution of computing equipment. Al- though studies have documented the share of energy consumption by this type of equipment over the years, research
Huang, Weidong
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Surface slope error of concentrator is one of the main factors to influence the performance of the solar concentrated collectors which cause deviation of reflected ray and reduce the intercepted radiation. This paper presents the general equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error from slope error through geometry optics, applying the equation to calculate the standard deviation of reflected ray error for 5 kinds of solar concentrated reflector, provide typical results. The results indicate that the slope error is transferred to the reflected ray in more than 2 folds when the incidence angle is more than 0. The equation for reflected ray error is generally fit for all reflection surfaces, and can also be applied to control the error in designing an abaxial optical system.
Ramanujam, J. "Ram"
- and a is the average number of transitions per clock phase heuristic for peak and average power cycle at the gate
Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.
2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.
Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.
2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.
Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom
Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)
2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.
High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers
Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.
1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Subterranean barriers including at least one weld
Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.
2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.
Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil
Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.
Power generation method including membrane separation
Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.
Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included
Not Available
1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)
A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach
Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)
LONG TERM AVERAGE CONTROL OF A LOCAL TIME PROCESS
Stockbridge, Richard H.
is obtained from a oneÂdegreeÂofÂfreedom shock absorber system with dry friction in which y = x 1 (t force, including the dry friction term, and Â¨ e is the random input of the system due to the road
Deterministic treatment of model error in geophysical data assimilation
Carrassi, Alberto
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This chapter describes a novel approach for the treatment of model error in geophysical data assimilation. In this method, model error is treated as a deterministic process fully correlated in time. This allows for the derivation of the evolution equations for the relevant moments of the model error statistics required in data assimilation procedures, along with an approximation suitable for application to large numerical models typical of environmental science. In this contribution we first derive the equations for the model error dynamics in the general case, and then for the particular situation of parametric error. We show how this deterministic description of the model error can be incorporated in sequential and variational data assimilation procedures. A numerical comparison with standard methods is given using low-order dynamical systems, prototypes of atmospheric circulation, and a realistic soil model. The deterministic approach proves to be very competitive with only minor additional computational c...
Error models in quantum computation: an application of model selection
Lucia Schwarz; Steven van Enk
2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
Threshold theorems for fault-tolerant quantum computing assume that errors are of certain types. But how would one detect whether errors of the "wrong" type occur in one's experiment, especially if one does not even know what type of error to look for? The problem is that for many qubits a full state description is impossible to analyze, and a full process description is even more impossible to analyze. As a result, one simply cannot detect all types of errors. Here we show through a quantum state estimation example (on up to 25 qubits) how to attack this problem using model selection. We use, in particular, the Akaike Information Criterion. The example indicates that the number of measurements that one has to perform before noticing errors of the wrong type scales polynomially both with the number of qubits and with the error size.
A two reservoir model of quantum error correction
James P. Clemens; Julio Gea-Banacloche
2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a two reservoir model of quantum error correction with a hot bath causing errors in the qubits and a cold bath cooling the ancilla qubits to a fiducial state. We consider error correction protocols both with and without measurement of the ancilla state. The error correction acts as a kind of refrigeration process to maintain the data qubits in a low entropy state by periodically moving the entropy to the ancilla qubits and then to the cold reservoir. We quantify the performance of the error correction as a function of the reservoir temperatures and cooling rate by means of the fidelity and the residual entropy of the data qubits. We also make a comparison with the continuous quantum error correction model of Sarovar and Milburn [Phys. Rev. A 72 012306].
Trial application of a technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)
Bley, D.C. [Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., Oakton, VA (United States); Cooper, S.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Reston, VA (United States); Parry, G.W. [NUS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)] [and others
1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
The new method for HRA, ATHEANA, has been developed based on a study of the operating history of serious accidents and an understanding of the reasons why people make errors. Previous publications associated with the project have dealt with the theoretical framework under which errors occur and the retrospective analysis of operational events. This is the first attempt to use ATHEANA in a prospective way, to select and evaluate human errors within the PSA context.
Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes
Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.
Multiverse rate equation including bubble collisions
Michael P. Salem
2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z
The volume fractions of vacua in an eternally inflating multiverse are described by a coarse-grain rate equation, which accounts for volume expansion and vacuum transitions via bubble formation. We generalize the rate equation to account for bubble collisions, including the possibility of classical transitions. Classical transitions can modify the details of the hierarchical structure among the volume fractions, with potential implications for the staggering and Boltzmann-brain issues. Whether or not our vacuum is likely to have been established by a classical transition depends on the detailed relationships among transition rates in the landscape.
Cosmic Ray Spectral Deformation Caused by Energy Determination Errors
Per Carlson; Conny Wannemark
2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
Using simulation methods, distortion effects on energy spectra caused by errors in the energy determination have been investigated. For cosmic ray proton spectra, falling steeply with kinetic energy E as E-2.7, significant effects appear. When magnetic spectrometers are used to determine the energy, the relative error increases linearly with the energy and distortions with a sinusoidal form appear starting at an energy that depends significantly on the error distribution but at an energy lower than that corresponding to the Maximum Detectable Rigidity of the spectrometer. The effect should be taken into consideration when comparing data from different experiments, often having different error distributions.
Error estimates for the Euler discretization of an optimal control ...
Joseph FrÃ©dÃ©ric Bonnans
2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 10, 2014 ... Abstract: We study the error introduced in the solution of an optimal control problem with first order state constraints, for which the trajectories ...
On Error Estimates of the Penalty Method for Unsteady Navier ...
Nov 26, 2002 ... http://WWW.jstor.org/about/terms.html. ... However, the best error estimates available to the author's knowledge" ... AMS subject classi?cations.
New Fractional Error Bounds for Polynomial Systems with ...
2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
techniques are largely based on variational analysis and generalized differentiation, ...... Example 3.10 (failure of global error bounds for polynomial systems).
High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers
Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.
Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter
Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.
Optical panel system including stackable waveguides
DeSanto, Leonard (Dunkirk, MD); Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)
2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.
U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of5, 2014 | Release Date:Production Capacity of OperableSales Type: Sales
Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps
Lane, William H.
2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.
Kinematic Error Correction for Minimally Invasive Surgical Robots
in two likely sources of kinematic error: port displacement and instrument shaft flexion. For a quasi. To reach the surgical site near the chest wall, the instrument shaft applies significant torque to the port, and the instrument shaft to bend. These kinematic errors impair positioning of the robot and cause deviations from
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 223 A Geometric Approach to Error
Richardson, David
may not even exist. For this reason we investigate error detection and recovery (EDR) strategies. We may not even exist. For this reason we investigate error detection and recovery (EDR ) strategies. We and implementational questions remain. The second contribution is a formal, geometric approach to EDR. While EDR
Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models
Bai, Zhaojun
gradient method or Generalized Minimum RESidual (GMRES) method, is how to choose the residual tolerance for integrated groundwater models, which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using
Numerical Construction of Likelihood Distributions and the Propagation of Errors
J. Swain; L. Taylor
1997-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
The standard method for the propagation of errors, based on a Taylor series expansion, is approximate and frequently inadequate for realistic problems. A simple and generic technique is described in which the likelihood is constructed numerically, thereby greatly facilitating the propagation of errors.
Mining API Error-Handling Specifications from Source Code
Xie, Tao
Mining API Error-Handling Specifications from Source Code Mithun Acharya and Tao Xie Department it difficult to mine error-handling specifications through manual inspection of source code. In this paper, we, without any user in- put. In our framework, we adapt a trace generation technique to distinguish
Calibration and Error in Placental Molecular Clocks: A Conservative
Hadly, Elizabeth
Calibration and Error in Placental Molecular Clocks: A Conservative Approach Using for calibrating both mitogenomic and nucleogenomic placental timescales. We applied these reestimates to the most calibration error may inflate the power of the molecular clock when testing the time of ordinal
Error detection through consistency checking Peng Gong* Lan Mu#
Silver, Whendee
Error detection through consistency checking Peng Gong* Lan Mu# *Center for Assessment & Monitoring Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3110 gong@nature.berkeley.edu mulan, accessibility, and timeliness as recorded in the lineage data (Chen and Gong, 1998). Spatial error refers
Mutual information, bit error rate and security in Wójcik's scheme
Zhanjun Zhang
2004-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the correct calculations of the mutual information of the whole transmission, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) are presented. Mistakes of the general conclusions relative to the mutual information, the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and the security in W\\'{o}jcik's paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 90}, 157901(2003)] have been pointed out.
Kernel Regression with Correlated Errors K. De Brabanter
Kernel Regression with Correlated Errors K. De Brabanter , J. De Brabanter , , J.A.K. Suykens B: It is a well-known problem that obtaining a correct bandwidth in nonparametric regression is difficult support vector machines for regression. Keywords: nonparametric regression, correlated errors, short
Ridge Regression Estimation Approach to Measurement Error Model
Shalabh
Ridge Regression Estimation Approach to Measurement Error Model A.K.Md. Ehsanes Saleh Carleton of the regression parameters is ill conditioned. We consider the Hoerl and Kennard type (1970) ridge regression (RR) modifications of the five quasi- empirical Bayes estimators of the regression parameters of a measurement error
Solving LWE problem with bounded errors in polynomial time
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Solving LWE problem with bounded errors in polynomial time Jintai Ding1,2 Southern Chinese call the learning with bounded errors (LWBE) problems, we can solve it with complexity O(nD ). Keywords, this problem corresponds to the learning parity with noise (LPN) problem. There are several ways to solve
Error Control of Iterative Linear Solvers for Integrated Groundwater Models
Dixon, Matthew; Brush, Charles; Chung, Francis; Dogrul, Emin; Kadir, Tariq
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An open problem that arises when using modern iterative linear solvers, such as the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) method or Generalized Minimum RESidual method (GMRES) is how to choose the residual tolerance in the linear solver to be consistent with the tolerance on the solution error. This problem is especially acute for integrated groundwater models which are implicitly coupled to another model, such as surface water models, and resolve both multiple scales of flow and temporal interaction terms, giving rise to linear systems with variable scaling. This article uses the theory of 'forward error bound estimation' to show how rescaling the linear system affects the correspondence between the residual error in the preconditioned linear system and the solution error. Using examples of linear systems from models developed using the USGS GSFLOW package and the California State Department of Water Resources' Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), we observe that this error bound guides the choice of a prac...
Grid-scale Fluctuations and Forecast Error in Wind Power
Bel, G; Toots, M; Bandi, M M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The fluctuations in wind power entering an electrical grid (Irish grid) were analyzed and found to exhibit correlated fluctuations with a self-similar structure, a signature of large-scale correlations in atmospheric turbulence. The statistical structure of temporal correlations for fluctuations in generated and forecast time series was used to quantify two types of forecast error: a timescale error ($e_{\\tau}$) that quantifies the deviations between the high frequency components of the forecast and the generated time series, and a scaling error ($e_{\\zeta}$) that quantifies the degree to which the models fail to predict temporal correlations in the fluctuations of the generated power. With no $a$ $priori$ knowledge of the forecast models, we suggest a simple memory kernel that reduces both the timescale error ($e_{\\tau}$) and the scaling error ($e_{\\zeta}$).
An Efficient Approach towards Mitigating Soft Errors Risks
Sadi, Muhammad Sheikh; Uddin, Md Nazim; Jürjens, Jan
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Smaller feature size, higher clock frequency and lower power consumption are of core concerns of today's nano-technology, which has been resulted by continuous downscaling of CMOS technologies. The resultant 'device shrinking' reduces the soft error tolerance of the VLSI circuits, as very little energy is needed to change their states. Safety critical systems are very sensitive to soft errors. A bit flip due to soft error can change the value of critical variable and consequently the system control flow can completely be changed which leads to system failure. To minimize soft error risks, a novel methodology is proposed to detect and recover from soft errors considering only 'critical code blocks' and 'critical variables' rather than considering all variables and/or blocks in the whole program. The proposed method shortens space and time overhead in comparison to existing dominant approaches.
Grid-scale Fluctuations and Forecast Error in Wind Power
G. Bel; C. P. Connaughton; M. Toots; M. M. Bandi
2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
The fluctuations in wind power entering an electrical grid (Irish grid) were analyzed and found to exhibit correlated fluctuations with a self-similar structure, a signature of large-scale correlations in atmospheric turbulence. The statistical structure of temporal correlations for fluctuations in generated and forecast time series was used to quantify two types of forecast error: a timescale error ($e_{\\tau}$) that quantifies the deviations between the high frequency components of the forecast and the generated time series, and a scaling error ($e_{\\zeta}$) that quantifies the degree to which the models fail to predict temporal correlations in the fluctuations of the generated power. With no $a$ $priori$ knowledge of the forecast models, we suggest a simple memory kernel that reduces both the timescale error ($e_{\\tau}$) and the scaling error ($e_{\\zeta}$).
Antonio Enea Romano
2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.
Romano, A E
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.
ARECIBO MULTI-FREQUENCY TIME-ALIGNED PULSAR AVERAGE-PROFILE AND POLARIZATION DATABASE
Hankins, Timothy H. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rankin, Joanna M. [Physics Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05401 (United States)], E-mail: thankins@nrao.edu, E-mail: Joanna.Rankin@uvm.edu
2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present Arecibo time-aligned, total intensity profiles for 46 pulsars over an unusually wide range of radio frequencies and multi-frequency, polarization-angle density diagrams, and/or polarization profiles for 57 pulsars at some or all of the frequencies 50, 111/130, 430, and 1400 MHz. The frequency-dependent dispersion delay has been removed in order to align the profiles for study of their spectral evolution, and wherever possible the profiles of each pulsar are displayed on the same longitude scale. Most of the pulsars within Arecibo's declination range that are sufficiently bright for such spectral or single pulse analysis are included in this survey. The calibrated single pulse sequences and average profiles are available by web download for further study.
Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells
Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana
2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.
Fu, Weihua, E-mail: fuw@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yang, Yong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yue, Ning J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Heron, Dwight E.; Saiful Huq, M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this work is to investigate the dosimetric influence of the residual rotational setup errors on head and neck carcinoma (HNC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with routine 3 translational setup corrections and the adequacy of this routine correction. A total of 66 kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image sets were acquired on the first day of treatment and weekly thereafter for 10 patients with HNC and were registered with the corresponding planning CT images, using 2 3-dimensional (3D) rigid registration methods. Method 1 determines the translational setup errors only, and method 2 determines 6-degree (6D) setup errors, i.e., both rotational and translational setup errors. The 6D setup errors determined by method 2 were simulated in the treatment planning system and were then corrected using the corresponding translational data determined by method 1. For each patient, dose distributions for 6 to 7 fractions with various setup uncertainties were generated, and a plan sum was created to determine the total dose distribution through an entire course and was compared with the original treatment plan. The average rotational setup errors were 0.7°± 1.0°, 0.1°±1.9°, and 0.3°±0.7° around left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) axes, respectively. With translational corrections determined by method 1 alone, the dose deviation could be large from fraction to fraction. For a certain fraction, the decrease in prescription dose coverage (V{sub p}) and the dose that covers 95% of target volume (D{sub 95}) could be up to 15.8% and 13.2% for planning target volume (PTV), and the decrease in V{sub p} and the dose that covers 98% of target volume (D{sub 98}) could be up to 9.8% and 5.5% for the clinical target volume (CTV). However, for the entire treatment course, for PTV, the plan sum showed that the average V{sub p} was decreased by 4.2% and D{sub 95} was decreased by 1.2 Gy for the first phase of IMRT with a prescription dose of 50 Gy. For CTV, the plan sum showed that the average V{sub p} was decreased by 0.8% and D{sub 98}, relative to prescription dose, was not decreased. Among these 10 patients, the plan sum showed that the dose to 1-cm{sup 3} spinal cord (D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}) increased no more than 1 Gy for 7 patients and more than 2 Gy for 2 patients. The average increase in D{sub 1cm{sup 3}} was 1.2 Gy. The study shows that, with translational setup error correction, the overall CTV V{sub p} has a minor decrease with a 5-mm margin from CTV to PTV. For the spinal cord, a noticeable dose increase was observed for some patients. So to decide whether the routine clinical translational setup error correction is adequate for this HNC IMRT technique, the dosimetric influence of rotational setup errors should be evaluated carefully from case to case when organs at risk are in close proximity to the target.
Doolan, P [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Dias, M [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Dipartamento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria - DEIB, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Collins Fekete, C [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique et Centre de recherche sur le cancer, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Seco, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The procedure for proton treatment planning involves the conversion of the patient's X-ray CT from Hounsfield units into relative stopping powers (RSP), using a stoichiometric calibration curve (Schneider 1996). In clinical practice a 3.5% margin is added to account for the range uncertainty introduced by this process and other errors. RSPs for real tissues are calculated using composition data and the Bethe-Bloch formula (ICRU 1993). The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact that systematic errors in the stoichiometric calibration have on the proton range. Methods: Seven tissue inserts of the Gammex 467 phantom were imaged using our CT scanner. Their known chemical compositions (Watanabe 1999) were then used to calculate the theoretical RSPs, using the same formula as would be used for human tissues in the stoichiometric procedure. The actual RSPs of these inserts were measured using a Bragg peak shift measurement in the proton beam at our institution. Results: The theoretical calculation of the RSP was lower than the measured RSP values, by a mean/max error of - 1.5/-3.6%. For all seven inserts the theoretical approach underestimated the RSP, with errors variable across the range of Hounsfield units. Systematic errors for lung (average of two inserts), adipose and cortical bone were - 3.0/-2.1/-0.5%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a systematic underestimation caused by the theoretical calculation of RSP; a crucial step in the stoichiometric calibration procedure. As such, we propose that proton calibration curves should be based on measured RSPs. Investigations will be made to see if the same systematic errors exist for biological tissues. The impact of these differences on the range of proton beams, for phantoms and patient scenarios, will be investigated. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (UK) and Ion Beam Applications (Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium)
Polikar, Robi
Model comparison for automatic characterization and classification of average ERPs using visual December 2008 Keywords: EEG ERP Attention P300 N200 Oddball Pattern recognition Linear discriminant responses from averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) along with identifying appropriate features
Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...
Measuring worst-case errors in a robot workcell
Simon, R.W.; Brost, R.C.; Kholwadwala, D.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center
1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Errors in model parameters, sensing, and control are inevitably present in real robot systems. These errors must be considered in order to automatically plan robust solutions to many manipulation tasks. Lozano-Perez, Mason, and Taylor proposed a formal method for synthesizing robust actions in the presence of uncertainty; this method has been extended by several subsequent researchers. All of these results presume the existence of worst-case error bounds that describe the maximum possible deviation between the robot`s model of the world and reality. This paper examines the problem of measuring these error bounds for a real robot workcell. These measurements are difficult, because of the desire to completely contain all possible deviations while avoiding bounds that are overly conservative. The authors present a detailed description of a series of experiments that characterize and quantify the possible errors in visual sensing and motion control for a robot workcell equipped with standard industrial robot hardware. In addition to providing a means for measuring these specific errors, these experiments shed light on the general problem of measuring worst-case errors.
Logical Error Rate Scaling of the Toric Code
Fern H. E. Watson; Sean D. Barrett
2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
To date, a great deal of attention has focused on characterizing the performance of quantum error correcting codes via their thresholds, the maximum correctable physical error rate for a given noise model and decoding strategy. Practical quantum computers will necessarily operate below these thresholds meaning that other performance indicators become important. In this work we consider the scaling of the logical error rate of the toric code and demonstrate how, in turn, this may be used to calculate a key performance indicator. We use a perfect matching decoding algorithm to find the scaling of the logical error rate and find two distinct operating regimes. The first regime admits a universal scaling analysis due to a mapping to a statistical physics model. The second regime characterizes the behavior in the limit of small physical error rate and can be understood by counting the error configurations leading to the failure of the decoder. We present a conjecture for the ranges of validity of these two regimes and use them to quantify the overhead -- the total number of physical qubits required to perform error correction.
Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.
2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function ofmore »state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.« less
Balancing aggregation and smoothing errors in inverse models
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Turner, A. J.; Jacob, D. J.
2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Inverse models use observations of a system (observation vector) to quantify the variables driving that system (state vector) by statistical optimization. When the observation vector is large, such as with satellite data, selecting a suitable dimension for the state vector is a challenge. A state vector that is too large cannot be effectively constrained by the observations, leading to smoothing error. However, reducing the dimension of the state vector leads to aggregation error as prior relationships between state vector elements are imposed rather than optimized. Here we present a method for quantifying aggregation and smoothing errors as a function ofmore »state vector dimension, so that a suitable dimension can be selected by minimizing the combined error. Reducing the state vector within the aggregation error constraints can have the added advantage of enabling analytical solution to the inverse problem with full error characterization. We compare three methods for reducing the dimension of the state vector from its native resolution: (1) merging adjacent elements (grid coarsening), (2) clustering with principal component analysis (PCA), and (3) applying a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) with Gaussian pdfs as state vector elements on which the native-resolution state vector elements are projected using radial basis functions (RBFs). The GMM method leads to somewhat lower aggregation error than the other methods, but more importantly it retains resolution of major local features in the state vector while smoothing weak and broad features.« less
Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint
Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.
2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.
Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison; Preprint
Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Sillanpaa, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Scharff, R.; Soder, L.; Larsen, X. G.; Giebel, G.; Flynn, D.; Dobschinski, J.
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Wind power forecasting is expected to be an important enabler for greater penetration of wind power into electricity systems. Because no wind forecasting system is perfect, a thorough understanding of the errors that do occur can be critical to system operation functions, such as the setting of operating reserve levels. This paper provides an international comparison of the distribution of wind power forecasting errors from operational systems, based on real forecast data. The paper concludes with an assessment of similarities and differences between the errors observed in different locations.
Average cost optimal threshold strategies for remote estimation with communication cost
Mahajan, Aditya
Average cost optimal threshold strategies for remote estimation with communication cost Jhelum, then the estimator must estimate the Markov process using its past observations. We study the average cost problem and the optimal thresholds as a function of communication cost. The average cost problem is investigated
INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION
Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.
2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.
Thermal Hydraulic Simulations, Error Estimation and Parameter
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of WntSupportB 18B()The FiveRevisedThe vision of aTheos J.ArgonneThermal
Forward Error Correction and Functional Programming
Bull, Tristan Michael
2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
de ned which provide an interface to Fabric. A subset of these are included below: inStdLogic :: String -> Fabric (Seq Bool) inStdLogicVector :: (Size x) => String -> Fabric (Seq (Unsigned x)) outStdLogic :: String -> Seq Bool -> Fabric () outStd...LogicVector :: (Size x) => String -> Seq (Unsigned x) -> Fabric () inStdLogic and inStdLogicVector each name an input, while outStdLogic and outStdLogicVector each name an output and return a Fabric. This interface can be used to build a Fabric for the counter example...
Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability
Harold Blackman; Oren Hester
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.
Servo control booster system for minimizing following error
Wise, William L. (Mountain View, CA)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A closed-loop feedback-controlled servo system is disclosed which reduces command-to-response error to the system's position feedback resolution least increment, .DELTA.S.sub.R, on a continuous real-time basis for all operating speeds. The servo system employs a second position feedback control loop on a by exception basis, when the command-to-response error .gtoreq..DELTA.S.sub.R, to produce precise position correction signals. When the command-to-response error is less than .DELTA.S.sub.R, control automatically reverts to conventional control means as the second position feedback control loop is disconnected, becoming transparent to conventional servo control means. By operating the second unique position feedback control loop used herein at the appropriate clocking rate, command-to-response error may be reduced to the position feedback resolution least increment. The present system may be utilized in combination with a tachometer loop for increased stability.
Sensitivity of OFDM Systems to Synchronization Errors and Spatial Diversity
Zhou, Yi
2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
jitter cause inter-carrier interference. The overall system performance in terms of symbol error rate is limited by the inter-carrier interference. For a reliable information reception, compensatory measures must be taken. The second part...
Universally Valid Error-Disturbance Relations in Continuous Measurements
Atsushi Nishizawa; Yanbei Chen
2015-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
In quantum physics, measurement error and disturbance were first naively thought to be simply constrained by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Later, more rigorous analysis showed that the error and disturbance satisfy more subtle inequalities. Several versions of universally valid error-disturbance relations (EDR) have already been obtained and experimentally verified in the regimes where naive applications of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation failed. However, these EDRs were formulated for discrete measurements. In this paper, we consider continuous measurement processes and obtain new EDR inequalities in the Fourier space: in terms of the power spectra of the system and probe variables. By applying our EDRs to a linear optomechanical system, we confirm that a tradeoff relation between error and disturbance leads to the existence of an optimal strength of the disturbance in a joint measurement. Interestingly, even with this optimal case, the inequality of the new EDR is not saturated because of doublely existing standard quantum limits in the inequality.
Predicting Intentional Tax Error Using Open Source Literature and Data
for each PUMS respondent (or agent), in certain line item/taxpayer categories, allowing us to construct dis-Likelihood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5 Results of Meta-Analysis 12 6 Intentional Error in Line Items/Taxpayer Categories 13 6
Diagnosing multiplicative error by lensing magnification of type Ia supernovae
Zhang, Pengjie
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Weak lensing causes spatially coherent fluctuations in flux of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This lensing magnification allows for weak lensing measurement independent of cosmic shear. It is free of shape measurement errors associated with cosmic shear and can therefore be used to diagnose and calibrate multiplicative error. Although this lensing magnification is difficult to measure accurately in auto correlation, its cross correlation with cosmic shear and galaxy distribution in overlapping area can be measured to significantly higher accuracy. Therefore these cross correlations can put useful constraint on multiplicative error, and the obtained constraint is free of cosmic variance in weak lensing field. We present two methods implementing this idea and estimate their performances. We find that, with $\\sim 1$ million SNe Ia that can be achieved by the proposed D2k survey with the LSST telescope (Zhan et al. 2008), multiplicative error of $\\sim 0.5\\%$ for source galaxies at $z_s\\sim 1$ can be detected and la...
Inflated applicants: Attribution errors in performance evaluation by professionals
Swift, Samuel; Moore, Don; Sharek, Zachariah; Gino, Francesca
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
performance among applicants from each ‘‘type’’ of school.and interview performance. Each school provided multi-yearschool, PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org July 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 7 | e69258 Attribution Errors in Performance
Removing Systematic Errors from Rotating Shadowband Pyranometer Data Frank Vignola
Oregon, University of
of the pyranometer to briefly shade the pyranometer once a minute. Direct hori- zontal irradiance is calculated used in programs evaluating the performance of photovoltaic systems, and systematic errors in the data
Honest Confidence Intervals for the Error Variance in Stepwise Regression
Stine, Robert A.
Honest Confidence Intervals for the Error Variance in Stepwise Regression Dean P. Foster and Robert alternatives are used. These simpler algorithms (e.g., forward or backward stepwise regression) obtain
Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions over Multiple Timescales: Preprint
Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.
2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we examine the shape of the persistence model error distribution for ten different wind plants in the ERCOT system over multiple timescales. Comparisons are made between the experimental distribution shape and that of the normal distribution.
A Taxonomy to Enable Error Recovery and Correction in Software Vilas Sridharan
Kaeli, David R.
A Taxonomy to Enable Error Recovery and Correction in Software Vilas Sridharan ECE Department years, reliability research has largely used the following taxonomy of errors: Undetected Errors Errors (CE). While this taxonomy is suitable to characterize hardware error detection and correction
TESLA-FEL 2009-07 Errors in Reconstruction of Difference Orbit
Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Standard Least Squares Solution 2 3 Error Emittance and Error Twiss Parameters as the position of the reconstruction point changes, we will introduce error Twiss parameters and invariant error in the point of interest has to be achieved by matching error Twiss parameters in this point to the desired
Suboptimal quantum-error-correcting procedure based on semidefinite programming
Naoki Yamamoto; Shinji Hara; Koji Tsumura
2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we consider a simplified error-correcting problem: for a fixed encoding process, to find a cascade connected quantum channel such that the worst fidelity between the input and the output becomes maximum. With the use of the one-to-one parametrization of quantum channels, a procedure finding a suboptimal error-correcting channel based on a semidefinite programming is proposed. The effectiveness of our method is verified by an example of the bit-flip channel decoding.
Mesoscale predictability and background error convariance estimation through ensemble forecasting
Ham, Joy L
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
MESOSCALE PREDICTABILITY AND BACKGROUND ERROR COVARIANCE ESTIMATION THROUGH ENSEMBLE FORECASTING A Thesis by JOY L. HAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences MESOSCALE PREDICTABILITY AND BACKGROUND ERROR COVARIANCE ESTIMATION THROUGH ENSEMBLE FORECASTING A Thesis by JOY L. HAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...
Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error
Doerry, Armin W. (Albuquerque, NM); Jordan, Jay D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Theodore J. (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.
Fault-Tolerant Thresholds for Encoded Ancillae with Homogeneous Errors
Bryan Eastin
2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z
I describe a procedure for calculating thresholds for quantum computation as a function of error model given the availability of ancillae prepared in logical states with independent, identically distributed errors. The thresholds are determined via a simple counting argument performed on a single qubit of an infinitely large CSS code. I give concrete examples of thresholds thus achievable for both Steane and Knill style fault-tolerant implementations and investigate their relation to threshold estimates in the literature.
Mesoscale predictability and background error convariance estimation through ensemble forecasting
Ham, Joy L
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
MESOSCALE PREDICTABILITY AND BACKGROUND ERROR COVARIANCE ESTIMATION THROUGH ENSEMBLE FORECASTING A Thesis by JOY L. HAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2002 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences MESOSCALE PREDICTABILITY AND BACKGROUND ERROR COVARIANCE ESTIMATION THROUGH ENSEMBLE FORECASTING A Thesis by JOY L. HAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...
Coding Techniques for Error Correction and Rewriting in Flash Memories
Mohammed, Shoeb Ahmed
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
CODING TECHNIQUES FOR ERROR CORRECTION AND REWRITING IN FLASH MEMORIES A Thesis by SHOEB AHMED MOHAMMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering CODING TECHNIQUES FOR ERROR CORRECTION AND REWRITING IN FLASH MEMORIES A Thesis by SHOEB AHMED MOHAMMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...
A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes
A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes 2006 Abstract Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE of which include ``tall tower'' instrumentation), one grassland site, and one agricultural site, to conduct
Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit
Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.
1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.
Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit
Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.
Test models for improving filtering with model errors through stochastic parameter estimation
Gershgorin, B. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Atmosphere and Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Harlim, J. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: jharlim@ncsu.edu; Majda, A.J. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Atmosphere and Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States)
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The filtering skill for turbulent signals from nature is often limited by model errors created by utilizing an imperfect model for filtering. Updating the parameters in the imperfect model through stochastic parameter estimation is one way to increase filtering skill and model performance. Here a suite of stringent test models for filtering with stochastic parameter estimation is developed based on the Stochastic Parameterization Extended Kalman Filter (SPEKF). These new SPEKF-algorithms systematically correct both multiplicative and additive biases and involve exact formulas for propagating the mean and covariance including the parameters in the test model. A comprehensive study is presented of robust parameter regimes for increasing filtering skill through stochastic parameter estimation for turbulent signals as the observation time and observation noise are varied and even when the forcing is incorrectly specified. The results here provide useful guidelines for filtering turbulent signals in more complex systems with significant model errors.
Compiler-Assisted Detection of Transient Memory Errors
Tavarageri, Sanket; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy
2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
The probability of bit flips in hardware memory systems is projected to increase significantly as memory systems continue to scale in size and complexity. Effective hardware-based error detection and correction requires that the complete data path, involving all parts of the memory system, be protected with sufficient redundancy. First, this may be costly to employ on commodity computing platforms and second, even on high-end systems, protection against multi-bit errors may be lacking. Therefore, augmenting hardware error detection schemes with software techniques is of consider- able interest. In this paper, we consider software-level mechanisms to comprehensively detect transient memory faults. We develop novel compile-time algorithms to instrument application programs with checksum computation codes so as to detect memory errors. Unlike prior approaches that employ checksums on computational and architectural state, our scheme verifies every data access and works by tracking variables as they are produced and consumed. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed comprehensive error detection solution is viable as a completely software-only scheme. We also demonstrate that with limited hardware support, overheads of error detection can be further reduced.
"RSE Table E2.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table E2.1;"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010Electric Sales, Revenue, and AverageE2.1. Relative Standard Errors
EFFECT OF MANUFACTURING ERRORS ON FIELD QUALITY OF DIPOLE MAGNETS FOR THE SSC
Meuser, R.B.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in Fig. 2. Table 2. Manufacturing Error Mode Groups13-16, 1985 EFFECT OF MANUFACTURING ERRORS ON FIELD QUALITYMag Note-27 EFFECT OF MANUFACTURING ERRORS ON FIELO QUALITY
A new and efficient error resilient entropy code for image and video compression
Min, Jungki
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Image and video compression standards such as JPEG, MPEG, H.263 are severely sensitive to errors. Among typical error propagation mechanisms in video compression schemes, loss of block synchronization causes the worst result. Even one bit error...
Bayesian Semiparametric Density Deconvolution and Regression in the Presence of Measurement Errors
Sarkar, Abhra
2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
Although the literature on measurement error problems is quite extensive, solutions to even the most fundamental measurement error problems like density deconvolution and regression with errors-in-covariates are available ...
Clark, E.L.
1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Error propagation equations, based on the Taylor series model, are derived for the nondimensional ratios and coefficients most often encountered in high-speed wind tunnel testing. These include pressure ratio and coefficient, static force and moment coefficients, dynamic stability coefficients, calibration Mach number and Reynolds number. The error equations contain partial derivatives, denoted as sensitivity coefficients, which define the influence of free-stream Mach number, M{infinity}, on various aerodynamic ratios. To facilitate use of the error equations, sensitivity coefficients are derived and evaluated for nine fundamental aerodynamic ratios, most of which relate free-stream test conditions (pressure, temperature, density or velocity) to a reference condition. Tables of the ratios, R, absolute sensitivity coefficients, {partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}, and relative sensitivity coefficients, (M{infinity}/R) ({partial_derivative}R/{partial_derivative}M{infinity}), are provided as functions of M{infinity}.
V-228: RealPlayer Buffer Overflow and Memory Corruption Error...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
a memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code on the target system. IMPACT: Access control error SOLUTION: vendor recommends upgrading to version 16.0.3.51 Addthis...
Wind Power Forecasting Error Frequency Analyses for Operational Power System Studies: Preprint
Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M.
2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The examination of wind power forecasting errors is crucial for optimal unit commitment and economic dispatch of power systems with significant wind power penetrations. This scheduling process includes both renewable and nonrenewable generators, and the incorporation of wind power forecasts will become increasingly important as wind fleets constitute a larger portion of generation portfolios. This research considers the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study database of wind power forecasts and numerical actualizations. This database comprises more than 30,000 locations spread over the western United States, with a total wind power capacity of 960 GW. Error analyses for individual sites and for specific balancing areas are performed using the database, quantifying the fit to theoretical distributions through goodness-of-fit metrics. Insights into wind-power forecasting error distributions are established for various levels of temporal and spatial resolution, contrasts made among the frequency distribution alternatives, and recommendations put forth for harnessing the results. Empirical data are used to produce more realistic site-level forecasts than previously employed, such that higher resolution operational studies are possible. This research feeds into a larger work of renewable integration through the links wind power forecasting has with various operational issues, such as stochastic unit commitment and flexible reserve level determination.
Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging
Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.
2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z
One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.
Reducing Collective Quantum State Rotation Errors with Reversible Dephasing
Kevin C. Cox; Matthew A. Norcia; Joshua M. Weiner; Justin G. Bohnet; James K. Thompson
2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21 dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of $2.1 \\times 10^5$ laser cooled and trapped $^{87}$Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.
Meta learning of bounds on the Bayes classifier error
Moon, Kevin R; Hero, Alfred O
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Meta learning uses information from base learners (e.g. classifiers or estimators) as well as information about the learning problem to improve upon the performance of a single base learner. For example, the Bayes error rate of a given feature space, if known, can be used to aid in choosing a classifier, as well as in feature selection and model selection for the base classifiers and the meta classifier. Recent work in the field of f-divergence functional estimation has led to the development of simple and rapidly converging estimators that can be used to estimate various bounds on the Bayes error. We estimate multiple bounds on the Bayes error using an estimator that applies meta learning to slowly converging plug-in estimators to obtain the parametric convergence rate. We compare the estimated bounds empirically on simulated data and then estimate the tighter bounds on features extracted from an image patch analysis of sunspot continuum and magnetogram images.
Characterization of quantum dynamics using quantum error correction
S. Omkar; R. Srikanth; S. Banerjee
2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
Characterizing noisy quantum processes is important to quantum computation and communication (QCC), since quantum systems are generally open. To date, all methods of characterization of quantum dynamics (CQD), typically implemented by quantum process tomography, are \\textit{off-line}, i.e., QCC and CQD are not concurrent, as they require distinct state preparations. Here we introduce a method, "quantum error correction based characterization of dynamics", in which the initial state is any element from the code space of a quantum error correcting code that can protect the state from arbitrary errors acting on the subsystem subjected to the unknown dynamics. The statistics of stabilizer measurements, with possible unitary pre-processing operations, are used to characterize the noise, while the observed syndrome can be used to correct the noisy state. Our method requires at most $2(4^n-1)$ configurations to characterize arbitrary noise acting on $n$ qubits.
Factorization of correspondence and camera error for unconstrained dense correspondence applications
Knoblauch, D; Hess-Flores, M; Duchaineau, M; Kuester, F
2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
A correspondence and camera error analysis for dense correspondence applications such as structure from motion is introduced. This provides error introspection, opening up the possibility of adaptively and progressively applying more expensive correspondence and camera parameter estimation methods to reduce these errors. The presented algorithm evaluates the given correspondences and camera parameters based on an error generated through simple triangulation. This triangulation is based on the given dense, non-epipolar constraint, correspondences and estimated camera parameters. This provides an error map without requiring any information about the perfect solution or making assumptions about the scene. The resulting error is a combination of correspondence and camera parameter errors. An simple, fast low/high pass filter error factorization is introduced, allowing for the separation of correspondence error and camera error. Further analysis of the resulting error maps is applied to allow efficient iterative improvement of correspondences and cameras.
Henry L. Haselgrove; Peter P. Rohde
2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent study [Rohde et al., quant-ph/0603130 (2006)] of several quantum error correcting protocols designed for tolerance against qubit loss, it was shown that these protocols have the undesirable effect of magnifying the effects of depolarization noise. This raises the question of which general properties of quantum error-correcting codes might explain such an apparent trade-off between tolerance to located and unlocated error types. We extend the counting argument behind the well-known quantum Hamming bound to derive a bound on the weights of combinations of located and unlocated errors which are correctable by nondegenerate quantum codes. Numerical results show that the bound gives an excellent prediction to which combinations of unlocated and located errors can be corrected with high probability by certain large degenerate codes. The numerical results are explained partly by showing that the generalized bound, like the original, is closely connected to the information-theoretic quantity the quantum coherent information. However, we also show that as a measure of the exact performance of quantum codes, our generalized Hamming bound is provably far from tight.
Peak, Derek
Are you getting an error message in UniFi Plus? (suggestion...check the auto-hint line!) In most cases, Unifi Plus does not prominently display error messages; instead, the error message and processing messages Keyboard shortcuts Instructions for accessing other blocks, windows or forms from
Comment on "Optimum Quantum Error Recovery using Semidefinite Programming"
M. Reimpell; R. F. Werner; K. Audenaert
2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
In a recent paper ([1]=quant-ph/0606035) it is shown how the optimal recovery operation in an error correction scheme can be considered as a semidefinite program. As a possible future improvement it is noted that still better error correction might be obtained by optimizing the encoding as well. In this note we present the result of such an improvement, specifically for the four-bit correction of an amplitude damping channel considered in [1]. We get a strict improvement for almost all values of the damping parameter. The method (and the computer code) is taken from our earlier study of such correction schemes (quant-ph/0307138).
Error estimates and specification parameters for functional renormalization
Schnoerr, David [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Boettcher, Igor, E-mail: I.Boettcher@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pawlowski, Jan M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany) [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Wetterich, Christof [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a strategy for estimating the error of truncated functional flow equations. While the basic functional renormalization group equation is exact, approximated solutions by means of truncations do not only depend on the choice of the retained information, but also on the precise definition of the truncation. Therefore, results depend on specification parameters that can be used to quantify the error of a given truncation. We demonstrate this for the BCS–BEC crossover in ultracold atoms. Within a simple truncation the precise definition of the frequency dependence of the truncated propagator affects the results, indicating a shortcoming of the choice of a frequency independent cutoff function.
Correctable noise of Quantum Error Correcting Codes under adaptive concatenation
Jesse Fern
2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the transformation of noise under a quantum error correcting code (QECC) concatenated repeatedly with itself, by analyzing the effects of a quantum channel after each level of concatenation using recovery operators that are optimally adapted to use error syndrome information from the previous levels of the code. We use the Shannon entropy of these channels to estimate the thresholds of correctable noise for QECCs and find considerable improvements under this adaptive concatenation. Similar methods could be used to increase quantum fault tolerant thresholds.
Error-prevention scheme with two pairs of qubits
Chu, Shih-I; Yang, Chui-Ping; Han, Siyuan
2002-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
Ei jue ie j&5ue je i& , e iP$0,1% @6#!. The expressions for HS and HSB are as follows: HS5e0~s I z 1s II z !, *Email address: cpyang@floquet.chem.ku.edu †Email address: sichu@ku.edu ‡ Email address: han@ku.eduError-prevention scheme Chui-Ping Yang.... The sche two pairs of qubits and through error-prevention proc through a decoherence-free subspace for collective p pairs; leakage out of the encoding space due to amp addition, how to construct decoherence-free states for n discussed. DOI: 10.1103/Phys...
Laser Phase Errors in Seeded Free Electron Lasers
Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC
2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z
Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention as a method for producing transform-limited pulses in the soft x-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality and impede production of transform-limited pulses. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.
Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer
Reiterer, Harald
the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average
Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages
Poli, Riccardo
Reaction-time binning: A simple method for increasing the resolving power of ERP averages RICCARDO-locked, response-locked, and ERP-locked averaging are effective methods for reducing artifacts in ERP analysis. However, they suffer from a magnifying-glass effect: they increase the resolution of specific ERPs
Boyer, Edmond
trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming
Surface-based display of volume-averaged cerebellar imaging data Jrn Diedrichsen & Ewa Zotow
Diedrichsen, Jörn
Surface-based display of volume-averaged cerebellar imaging data Jörn Diedrichsen & Ewa Zotow representation of the cerebellum as a visualization tool for volume-averaged cerebellar data. Volume-based) Data projected onto a surface- based representation based on a single anatomy [2] displays single
Pipeline for the Creation of Surface-based Averaged Brain Atlases
Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie
Pipeline for the Creation of Surface-based Averaged Brain Atlases Anja Kuß Hans-Christian Hege from different image modalities and experiments. In this paper we describe a standardized pipeline of individuals. The pipeline consists of the major steps imaging and preprocessing, segmentation, averaging
Cao, Wenwu
Allowed mesoscopic point group symmetries in domain average engineering of perovskite ferroelectric average engineering in proper ferroelectric systems arising from the cubic Pm3¯m symmetry perovskite4 Both solid solution systems have a perovskite structure. Poling along one of the pseudocubic axes
DISTRIBUTED POSE AVERAGING IN CAMERA NETWORKS VIA CONSENSUS ON SE(3) Roberto Tron, Rene Vidal
DISTRIBUTED POSE AVERAGING IN CAMERA NETWORKS VIA CONSENSUS ON SE(3) Roberto Tron, Ren´e Vidal distributed algorithms for esti- mating the average pose of an object viewed by a localized network of camera networks; pose estimation; consensus; optimization on manifolds. 1. INTRODUCTION Recent hardware
Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data
Middleton, Stuart E.
1 Ordinary kriging for on-demand average wind interpolation of in-situ wind sensor data Zlatko comes from wind in-situ observation stations in an area approximately 200km by 125km. We provide on-demand average wind interpolation maps. These spatial estimates can then be compared with the results of other
Soft Error Modeling and Protection for Sequential Elements Hossein Asadi and Mehdi B. Tahoori
on system-level soft error rate. The number of clock cycles required for an error in a bistable to be propagated to system outputs is used to measure the vulnerability of bistables to soft errors. 1 Introduction, soft errors become the main reliability concern during lifetime operation of digital systems. Soft
Low-Cost Hardening of Image Processing Applications Against Soft Errors Ilia Polian1,2
Polian, Ilia
, and their hardening against soft errors becomes an issue. We propose a methodology to identify soft errors as uncritical based on their impact on the system's functionality. We call a soft error uncritical if its impact are imperceivable for the human user of the system. We focus on soft errors in the motion esti- mation subsystem
Distinguishing congestion and error losses: an ECN/ELN based scheme
Kamakshisundaram, Raguram
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
error rates, like wireless links, packets are lost more due to error than due to congestion. But TCP does not differentiate between error and congestion losses and hence reduces the sending rate for losses due to error also, which unnecessarily reduces...
Error Exponent for Discrete Memoryless Multiple-Access Channels
Anastasopoulos, Achilleas
Error Exponent for Discrete Memoryless Multiple-Access Channels by Ali Nazari A dissertation Bayraktar Associate Professor Jussi Keppo #12;c Ali Nazari 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;To my parents. ii Becky Turanski, Nancy Goings, Michele Feldkamp, Ann Pace, Karen Liska and Beth Lawson for efficiently
Optimal Estimation from Relative Measurements: Error Scaling (Extended Abstract)
Hespanha, João Pedro
"relative" measurement between xu and xv is available: uv = xu - xv + u,v Rk , (u, v) E V × V, (1) whereOptimal Estimation from Relative Measurements: Error Scaling (Extended Abstract) Prabir Barooah Jo~ao P. Hespanha I. ESTIMATION FROM RELATIVE MEASUREMENTS We consider the problem of estimating a number
On the error estimates for the rotational pressure-correction ...
2004-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 19, 2003 ... that may be viewed as a predictor-corrector strategy aiming at .... Since for projection methods the treatment of the nonlinear term does not ... In practice, the nonlin- .... One derives immediately from the standard PDE theory that .... Let us first write the equations that control the time increments of the errors.
Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications
Polz, Martin
Automatic Error Elimination by Horizontal Code Transfer across Multiple Applications Stelios CSAIL, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract We present Code Phage (CP), a system for automatically transferring. To the best of our knowledge, CP is the first system to automatically transfer code across multiple
Error Bounds from Extra Precise Iterative Refinement James Demmel
Li, Xiaoye Sherry
now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5 Cooperative Agreement No. ACI-9619020; NSF Grant Nos. ACI-9813362 and CCF-0444486; the DOE Grant Nos. DE-FG03
Control del Error para la Multirresoluci on Quincunx a la
Amat, Sergio
multirresoluci#19;on discreta no lineal de Harten. En los algoritmos de multirresoluci#19;on se transforma una obtiene ^ f L la cual debera de estar cerca de #22; f L . Por lo tanto, los algoritmos no deben de ser inestables. En este estudio, introduciremos algoritmos de control del error y de la estabilidad. Se obtendr
Urban Water Demand with Periodic Error Correction David R. Bell
Griffin, Ronald
them. Econometric estimates of residential demand for water abound (Dalhuisen et al. 2003Urban Water Demand with Periodic Error Correction by David R. Bell and Ronald C. Griffin February, Department of Agricultural Economics, Texas A&M University. #12;Abstract Monthly demand for publicly supplied
Error Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic
of technical devices that rely on multiscale processes, such as fuel cells or batteries. As the solutionError Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic Homogenization Problems optimization of elliptic multiscale problems with macroscopic optimization functionals and microscopic material
ADJOINT AND DEFECT ERROR BOUNDING AND CORRECTION FOR FUNCTIONAL ESTIMATES
Pierce, Niles A.
and Michael B. Giles Applied & Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology Computing to handle flows with shocks; numerical experiments confirm 4th order error estimates for a pressure integral of shocked quasi-1D Euler flow. Numerical results also demonstrate 4th order accuracy for the drag
RESIDUAL TYPE A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATES FOR ELLIPTIC OBSTACLE PROBLEMS
Nochetto, Ricardo H.
to double obstacle problems are briefly discussed. Key words. a posteriori error estimates, residual Science Foundation under the grant No.19771080 and China National Key Project ``Large Scale Scientific\\Gamma satisfies / Å¸ 0 on @ and K is the convex set of admissible displacements K := fv 2 H 1 0(\\Omega\\Gamma : v
Selected CRC Polynomials Can Correct Errors and Thus Reduce Retransmission
Mache, Jens
sensor networks, minimizing communication is crucial to improve energy consumption and thus lifetime Correction, Reliability, Network Protocol, Low Power Comsumption I. INTRODUCTION Error detection using Cyclic of retransmitting the whole packet - improves energy consumption and thus lifetime of wireless sensor networks
A Spline Algorithm for Modeling Cutting Errors Turning Centers
Gilsinn, David E.
. Bandy Automated Production Technology Division National Institute of Standards and Technology 100 Bureau are made up of features with profiles defined by arcs and lines. An error model for turned parts must take. In the case where there is a requirement of tangency between two features, such as a line tangent to an arc
Time reversal in thermoacoustic tomography - an error estimate
Hristova, Yulia
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The time reversal method in thermoacoustic tomography is used for approximating the initial pressure inside a biological object using measurements of the pressure wave made outside the object. This article presents error estimates for the time reversal method in the cases of variable, non-trapping sound speeds.
IPASS: Error Tolerant NMR Backbone Resonance Assignment by Linear Programming
Waterloo, University of
IPASS: Error Tolerant NMR Backbone Resonance Assignment by Linear Programming Babak Alipanahi1 automatically picked peaks. IPASS is proposed as a novel integer linear programming (ILP) based assignment assignment method. Although a variety of assignment approaches have been developed, none works well on noisy
Research Article Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation
-age clinical outcomes. Many atypical speech sound errors in preschoolers may be indicative of weak phonological Outcomes in Children With Histories of Speech Sound Disorders Jonathan L. Preston,a,b Margaret Hull disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method
Edinburgh Research Explorer Prevalence and Causes of Prescribing Errors
Hall, Christopher
of Prescribing Errors: The PRescribing Outcomes for Trainee Doctors Engaged in Clinical Training (PROTECT) Study: The PRescribing Outcomes for Trainee Doctors Engaged in Clinical Training (PROTECT) Study Cristi´n Ryan1 , Sarah Kingdom, 7 Health Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 8 Clinical Pharmacology
Development of an Expert System for Classification of Medical Errors
Kopec, Danny
in the United States. There has been considerable speculation that these figures are either overestimated published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) indicated that between 44,000 and 98,000 unnecessary deaths per in hospitals in the IOM report, what is of importance is that the number of deaths caused by such errors
Error field and magnetic diagnostic modeling for W7-X
Lazerson, Sam A. [PPPL; Gates, David A. [PPPL; NEILSON, GEORGE H. [PPPL; OTTE, M.; Bozhenkov, S.; Pedersen, T. S.; GEIGER, J.; LORE, J.
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The prediction, detection, and compensation of error fields for the W7-X device will play a key role in achieving a high beta (? = 5%), steady state (30 minute pulse) operating regime utilizing the island divertor system [1]. Additionally, detection and control of the equilibrium magnetic structure in the scrape-off layer will be necessary in the long-pulse campaign as bootstrapcurrent evolution may result in poor edge magnetic structure [2]. An SVD analysis of the magnetic diagnostics set indicates an ability to measure the toroidal current and stored energy, while profile variations go undetected in the magnetic diagnostics. An additional set of magnetic diagnostics is proposed which improves the ability to constrain the equilibrium current and pressure profiles. However, even with the ability to accurately measure equilibrium parameters, the presence of error fields can modify both the plasma response and diverter magnetic field structures in unfavorable ways. Vacuum flux surface mapping experiments allow for direct measurement of these modifications to magnetic structure. The ability to conduct such an experiment is a unique feature of stellarators. The trim coils may then be used to forward model the effect of an applied n = 1 error field. This allows the determination of lower limits for the detection of error field amplitude and phase using flux surface mapping. *Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.
Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration
Braslavsky, Julio H.
Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration K. Lau, J. H in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration. A specific sub-problem of interest in this area geological surveys, dia- mond drilling, and airborne mineral exploration. Our interest here is with ground
Improving STT-MRAM Density Through Multibit Error Correction
Sapatnekar, Sachin
. Traditional methods enhance robustness at the cost of area/energy by using larger cell sizes to improve the thermal stability of the MTJ cells. This paper employs multibit error correction with DRAM to the read operation) through TX. A key attribute of an MTJ is the notion of thermal stability. Fig. 2
Error Minimization Methods in Biproportional Apportionment Federica Ricca Andrea Scozzari
Serafini, Paolo
as an alternative to the classical axiomatic approach introduced by Balinski and Demange in 1989. We provide and in the statistical literature. A milestone theoretical setting was given by Balinski and Demange in 1989 [5, 6 a class of methods for Biproportional Apportionment characterized by an "error minimization" approach
DISCRIMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF UXO USING MAGNETOMETRY: INVERSION AND ERROR
Sambridge, Malcolm
DISCRIMINATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF UXO USING MAGNETOMETRY: INVERSION AND ERROR ANALYSIS USING for the different solutions didn't even overlap. Introduction A discrimination and classification strategy ambiguity and possible remanent magnetization the recovered dipole moment is compared to a library
Flexible Error Protection for Energy Efficient Reliable Architectures Timothy Miller
Xuan, Dong
Flexible Error Protection for Energy Efficient Reliable Architectures Timothy Miller , Nagarjuna and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University {millerti,teodores}@cse.ohio-state.edu, nagarjun. To deal with these com- peting trends, energy-efficient solutions are needed to deal with reli- ability
Designing Automation to Reduce Operator Errors Nancy G. Leveson
Leveson, Nancy
Designing Automation to Reduce Operator Errors Nancy G. Leveson Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Everett Palmer NASA Ames Research Center Introduction Advanced automation has been of moderelated problems [SW95]. After studying accidents and incidents in the new, highly automated
Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering
Kreinovich, Vladik
Fast Error Estimates For Indirect Measurements: Applications To Pavement Engineering Carlos that is difficult to measure directly (e.g., lifetime of a pavement, efficiency of an engine, etc). To estimate y computation time. As an example of this methodology, we give pavement lifetime estimates. This work
Data aware, Low cost Error correction for Wireless Sensor Networks
California at San Diego, University of
Data aware, Low cost Error correction for Wireless Sensor Networks Shoubhik Mukhopadhyay, Debashis challenges in adoption and deployment of wireless networked sensing applications is ensuring reliable sensor of such applications. A wireless sensor network is inherently vulnerable to different sources of unreliability
Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos Nuclear Arms Control R&D Consortium includes Los Alamos A consortium led by the University of Michigan that includes LANL as...
GRADUATE STUDIES IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM INCLUDING
Reif, Rafael
materials industry, in building construction and industrialized buildings, as well as practice buildings; and new housing construction costs represent about eight percent of the annual GNP. The average to the construction of new buildings, to the retrofit or rehabilitation of existing buildings and to the efficient
Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.
Investigations into the Nature of Halogen Bonding Including Symmetry...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
into the Nature of Halogen Bonding Including Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory Analyses. Investigations into the Nature of Halogen Bonding Including Symmetry Adapted...
Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts Document describes...
Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Demonstration of a 50% Thermal Efficient Diesel Engine - Including HTCD Program Overview Presentation given...
The multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM): Error analysis and applications
Foo, Jasmine; Wan Xiaoliang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, 182 George Street, Box F, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Karniadakis, George Em [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, 182 George Street, Box F, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)], E-mail: gk@dam.brown.edu
2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
Stochastic spectral methods are numerical techniques for approximating solutions to partial differential equations with random parameters. In this work, we present and examine the multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM), which is a generalized form of the probabilistic collocation method. In the ME-PCM, the parametric space is discretized and a collocation/cubature grid is prescribed on each element. Both full and sparse tensor product grids based on Gauss and Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules are considered. We prove analytically and observe in numerical tests that as the parameter space mesh is refined, the convergence rate of the solution depends on the quadrature rule of each element only through its degree of exactness. In addition, the L{sup 2} error of the tensor product interpolant is examined and an adaptivity algorithm is provided. Numerical examples demonstrating adaptive ME-PCM are shown, including low-regularity problems and long-time integration. We test the ME-PCM on two-dimensional Navier-Stokes examples and a stochastic diffusion problem with various random input distributions and up to 50 dimensions. While the convergence rate of ME-PCM deteriorates in 50 dimensions, the error in the mean and variance is two orders of magnitude lower than the error obtained with the Monte Carlo method using only a small number of samples (e.g., 100). The computational cost of ME-PCM is found to be favorable when compared to the cost of other methods including stochastic Galerkin, Monte Carlo and quasi-random sequence methods.
Results of a nuclear power plant Application of a new technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)
Forester, J.A.; Whitehead, D.W.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Thompson, C.M.
1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new method to analyze human errors has been demonstrated at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. This was the first application of the new method referred to as A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA). The main goals of the demonstration were to test the ATHEANA process as described in the frame-of-reference manual and the implementation guideline, test a training package developed for the method, test the hypothesis that plant operators and trainers have significant insight into the error-forcing-contexts (EFCs) that can make unsafe actions (UAs) more likely, and to identify ways to improve the method and its documentation. A set of criteria to evaluate the {open_quotes}success{close_quotes} of the ATHEANA method as used in the demonstration was identified. A human reliability analysis (HRA) team was formed that consisted of an expert in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) with some background in HRA (not ATHEANA) and four personnel from the nuclear power plant. Personnel from the plant included two individuals from their PRA staff and two individuals from their training staff. Both individuals from training are currently licensed operators and one of them was a senior reactor operator {open_quotes}on shift{close_quotes} until a few months before the demonstration. The demonstration was conducted over a 5 month period and was observed by members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s ATHEANA development team, who also served as consultants to the HRA team when necessary. Example results of the demonstration to date, including identified human failure events (HFEs), UAs, and EFCs are discussed. Also addressed is how simulator exercises are used in the ATHEANA demonstration project.
Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields
Lutz W. Osterbrink
2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.
Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy
Chen, Wei; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a method to include robustness into a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios. The optimization method is based on a linear...
On the Theory of Average Case Complexity Shai Ben-Davidy
Goldreich, Oded
appeared in Journal of Computer and system Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 2, April 1992, pp. 193{219. I've corrected some errors which I found while scanning, but did not proofread this version. O.G., 1997 Science Foundation (BSF), Jerusalem, Israel. xPartially supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering
runtime error message: "readControlMsg: System returned error Connection
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5(Million Cubic Feet) Oregon (Including Vehicle Fuel) (MillionStructural Basis of5,:,, , ., ..., at the XlthImages ofrfry AmesComparisons of2rshouk
Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions
Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans
2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...
Dealing with uncertainty in estimating average annual flood damage for ungaged watersheds
Toneatti, Silvana Victoria
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Average annual damage (AAD) is a key central component of the hydrologic, hydraulic, and economic information developed in the evaluation of flood damage reduction plans. AAD or the expected value of annual damage, in dollars, is a...
AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS
Magyar, Akos
AVERAGES ALONG POLYNOMIAL SEQUENCES IN DISCRETE NILPOTENT GROUPS: SINGULAR RADON TRANSFORMS can consider discrete maximal Radon transforms, which have applications to pointwise ergodic theo- rems, and discrete singular Radon transforms. In this paper we prove L2 boundedness of discrete
System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study
Berndt, Ernst R.
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...
Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model
Thompson, Starley Lee
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...
Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado
Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.
1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.
Hoppers, Kevin Paul
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
OPTIMIZING DETECTOR PLACEMENT FOR ISOLATED INTERSECTIONS BASED ON MINIMIZING AVERAGE DELAY AND NUMBER OF STOPS A Thesis by KEVIN PAUL HOPPERS Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas AerM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Civil Engineering OPTIMIZING DETECTOR PLACEMENT FOR ISOLATED INTERSECTIONS BASED ON MINIMIZING AVERAGE DELAY AND NUMBER OF STOPS A Thesis by KEVIN PAUL HOPPERS Submitted to Texas...
Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei
O. P. Sushkov
1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z
Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.
Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model
Thompson, Starley Lee
1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...
Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar
2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.
Mohanty, Saraju P.
power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill (£¥¤§¦¨¦© ¡ ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn
Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510
Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)
Method and system for reducing errors in vehicle weighing systems
Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Abercrombie, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)
2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z
A method and system (10, 23) for determining vehicle weight to a precision of <0.1%, uses a plurality of weight sensing elements (23), a computer (10) for reading in weighing data for a vehicle (25) and produces a dataset representing the total weight of a vehicle via programming (40-53) that is executable by the computer (10) for (a) providing a plurality of mode parameters that characterize each oscillatory mode in the data due to movement of the vehicle during weighing, (b) by determining the oscillatory mode at which there is a minimum error in the weighing data; (c) processing the weighing data to remove that dynamical oscillation from the weighing data; and (d) repeating steps (a)-(c) until the error in the set of weighing data is <0.1% in the vehicle weight.
MPI Runtime Error Detection with MUST: Advances in Deadlock Detection
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Hilbrich, Tobias; Protze, Joachim; Schulz, Martin; de Supinski, Bronis R.; Müller, Matthias S.
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The widely used Message Passing Interface (MPI) is complex and rich. As a result, application developers require automated tools to avoid and to detect MPI programming errors. We present the Marmot Umpire Scalable Tool (MUST) that detects such errors with significantly increased scalability. We present improvements to our graph-based deadlock detection approach for MPI, which cover future MPI extensions. Our enhancements also check complex MPI constructs that no previous graph-based detection approach handled correctly. Finally, we present optimizations for the processing of MPI operations that reduce runtime deadlock detection overheads. Existing approaches often require (p) analysis time per MPI operation,more »forpprocesses. We empirically observe that our improvements lead to sub-linear or better analysis time per operation for a wide range of real world applications.« less
Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint
Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.
On the efficiency of nondegenerate quantum error correction codes for Pauli channels
Gunnar Bjork; Jonas Almlof; Isabel Sainz
2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
We examine the efficiency of pure, nondegenerate quantum-error correction-codes for Pauli channels. Specifically, we investigate if correction of multiple errors in a block is more efficient than using a code that only corrects one error per block. Block coding with multiple-error correction cannot increase the efficiency when the qubit error-probability is below a certain value and the code size fixed. More surprisingly, existing multiple-error correction codes with a code length equal or less than 256 qubits have lower efficiency than the optimal single-error correcting codes for any value of the qubit error-probability. We also investigate how efficient various proposed nondegenerate single-error correcting codes are compared to the limit set by the code redundancy and by the necessary conditions for hypothetically existing nondegenerate codes. We find that existing codes are close to optimal.
Scaling behavior of discretization errors in renormalization and improvement constants
Bhattacharya, T; Lee, W; Sharpe, S R; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R.
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Non-perturbative results for improvement and renormalization constants needed for on-shell and off-shell O(a) improvement of bilinear operators composed of Wilson fermions are presented. The calculations have been done in the quenched approximation at beta=6.0, 6.2 and 6.4. To quantify residual discretization errors we compare our data with results from other non-perturbative calculations and with one-loop perturbation theory.
Error message recording and reporting in the SLC control system
Spencer, N.; Bogart, J.; Phinney, N.; Thompson, K.
1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Error or information messages that are signaled by control software either in the VAX host computer or the local microprocessor clusters are handled by a dedicated VAX process (PARANOIA). Messages are recorded on disk for further analysis and displayed at the appropriate console. Another VAX process (ERRLOG) can be used to sort, list and histogram various categories of messages. The functions performed by these processes and the algorithms used are discussed.
Runtime Detection of C-Style Errors in UPC Code
Pirkelbauer, P; Liao, C; Panas, T; Quinlan, D
2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
Unified Parallel C (UPC) extends the C programming language (ISO C 99) with explicit parallel programming support for the partitioned global address space (PGAS), which provides a global memory space with localized partitions to each thread. Like its ancestor C, UPC is a low-level language that emphasizes code efficiency over safety. The absence of dynamic (and static) safety checks allows programmer oversights and software flaws that can be hard to spot. In this paper, we present an extension of a dynamic analysis tool, ROSE-Code Instrumentation and Runtime Monitor (ROSECIRM), for UPC to help programmers find C-style errors involving the global address space. Built on top of the ROSE source-to-source compiler infrastructure, the tool instruments source files with code that monitors operations and keeps track of changes to the system state. The resulting code is linked to a runtime monitor that observes the program execution and finds software defects. We describe the extensions to ROSE-CIRM that were necessary to support UPC. We discuss complications that arise from parallel code and our solutions. We test ROSE-CIRM against a runtime error detection test suite, and present performance results obtained from running error-free codes. ROSE-CIRM is released as part of the ROSE compiler under a BSD-style open source license.
Example Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services as Part of an ESPC Investment-Grade Audit Example Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work to Include Services as Part of an ESPC...
SU-E-T-51: Bayesian Network Models for Radiotherapy Error Detection
Kalet, A; Phillips, M; Gennari, J [UniversityWashington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To develop a probabilistic model of radiotherapy plans using Bayesian networks that will detect potential errors in radiation delivery. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with medical physicists and other domain experts were employed to generate a set of layered nodes and arcs forming a Bayesian Network (BN) which encapsulates relevant radiotherapy concepts and their associated interdependencies. Concepts in the final network were limited to those whose parameters are represented in the institutional database at a level significant enough to develop mathematical distributions. The concept-relation knowledge base was constructed using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and translated into Hugin Expert Bayes Network files via the the RHugin package in the R statistical programming language. A subset of de-identified data derived from a Mosaiq relational database representing 1937 unique prescription cases was processed and pre-screened for errors and then used by the Hugin implementation of the Estimation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for machine learning all parameter distributions. Individual networks were generated for each of several commonly treated anatomic regions identified by ICD-9 neoplasm categories including lung, brain, lymphoma, and female breast. Results: The resulting Bayesian networks represent a large part of the probabilistic knowledge inherent in treatment planning. By populating the networks entirely with data captured from a clinical oncology information management system over the course of several years of normal practice, we were able to create accurate probability tables with no additional time spent by experts or clinicians. These probabilistic descriptions of the treatment planning allow one to check if a treatment plan is within the normal scope of practice, given some initial set of clinical evidence and thereby detect for potential outliers to be flagged for further investigation. Conclusion: The networks developed here support the use of probabilistic models into clinical chart checking for improved detection of potential errors in RT plans.
Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)
2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
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Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V
2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.
Meyer, Jeff, E-mail: jmeye3@utsouthwestern.ed [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Bluett, Jaques; Amos, Richard [University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Conventional proton therapy with passively scattered beams is used to treat a number of tumor sites, including prostate cancer. Spot scanning proton therapy is a treatment delivery means that improves conformal coverage of the clinical target volume (CTV). Placement of individual spots within a target is dependent on traversed tissue density. Errors in patient alignment perturb dose distributions. Moreover, there is a need for a rational planning approach that can mitigate the dosimetric effect of random alignment errors. We propose a treatment planning approach and then analyze the consequences of various simulated alignment errors on prostate treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten control patients with localized prostate cancer underwent treatment planning for spot scanning proton therapy. After delineation of the clinical target volume, a scanning target volume (STV) was created to guide dose coverage. Errors in patient alignment in two axes (rotational and yaw) as well as translational errors in the anteroposterior direction were then simulated, and dose to the CTV and normal tissues were reanalyzed. Results: Coverage of the CTV remained high even in the setting of extreme rotational and yaw misalignments. Changes in the rectum and bladder V45 and V70 were similarly minimal, except in the case of translational errors, where, as a result of opposed lateral beam arrangements, much larger dosimetric perturbations were observed. Conclusions: The concept of the STV as applied to spot scanning radiation therapy and as presented in this report leads to robust coverage of the CTV even in the setting of extreme patient misalignments.
Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay
Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims
2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.
Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions
Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.
Cappelli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniversitario Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepiellis, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Wronikowska, M. W. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Poznan School of Social Sciences (Poland)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)
Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.
HEALTH POLICY AND SYSTEMS Nurses' Practice Environments, Error Interception Practices,
Xie, Minge
7,000 inpatient deaths per year in the United States (US). On average, a U.S. hospital patient of Nursing, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 2 Associate Professor, University, Rutgers College of Nursing, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 4 Professor
"2013 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
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"Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010Electric Sales, Revenue, and AverageE2.1.0. Total4. Total Average
"Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View NewUS NationalStocks 2009 2010Electric Sales, Revenue, and AverageE2.1.0. Total4. Total Average.
Note on an integral expression for the average lifetime of the bound state in 2D
Thorsten Prustel; Martin Meier-Schellersheim
2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z
Recently, an exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for a pair of spherical interacting particles in two dimensions subject to a backreaction boundary condition was used to derive an exact expression for the average lifetime of the bound state. Here, we show that the corresponding divergent integral may be considered as the formal limit of a Stieltjes transform. Upon analytically calculating the Stieltjes transform one can obtain an exact expression for the finite part of the divergent integral and hence for the average lifetime.
V-109: Google Chrome WebKit Type Confusion Error Lets Remote...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
9: Google Chrome WebKit Type Confusion Error Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-109: Google Chrome WebKit Type Confusion Error Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...
T-545: RealPlayer Heap Corruption Error in 'vidplin.dll' Lets...
T-545: RealPlayer Heap Corruption Error in 'vidplin.dll' Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code T-545: RealPlayer Heap Corruption Error in 'vidplin.dll' Lets Remote Users Execute...
Recompile if your codes run into MPICH error after the maintenance...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Recompile if your codes run into MPICH errors after the maintenance on 6252014 Recompile if your codes run into MPICH error after the maintenance on 6252014 June 27, 2014 (0...
Design techniques for graph-based error-correcting codes and their applications
Lan, Ching Fu
2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z
-correcting (channel) coding. The main idea of error-correcting codes is to add redundancy to the information to be transmitted so that the receiver can explore the correlation between transmitted information and redundancy and correct or detect errors caused...
Simulations of error in quantum adiabatic computations of random 2-SAT instances
Gill, Jay S. (Jay Singh)
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents a series of simulations of quantum computations using the adiabatic algorithm. The goal is to explore the effect of error, using a perturbative approach that models 1-local errors to the Hamiltonian ...
T-719:Apache mod_proxy_ajp HTTP Processing Error Lets Remote Users Deny Service
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
A remote user can cause the backend server to remain in an error state until the retry timeout expires.
McReynolds, W.L. (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA (US)); Badley, D.E. (N.W. Power Pool, Coordinating Office, Portland, OR (US))
1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes an automatic generation control (AGC) system that simultaneously reduces time error and accumulated inadvertent interchange energy in interconnected power system. This method is automatic time error and accumulated inadvertent interchange reduction (AIIR). With this method control areas help correct the system time error when doing so also tends to correct accumulated inadvertent interchange. Thus in one step accumulated inadvertent interchange and system time error are corrected.
U-182: Microsoft Windows Includes Some Invalid Certificates
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The operating system includes some invalid intermediate certificates. The vulnerability is due to the certificate authorities and not the operating system itself.
Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen...
Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case Study) (Webinar) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems...
Including Retro-Commissioning in Federal Energy Savings Performance...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
11.2 Retro-Cx in Federal ESPCs Including Retro-Commissioning In Federal Energy Saving Performance Contracts Retro-commissioning generally reduces operating and maintenance costs,...
Energy Department Expands Gas Gouging Reporting System to Include...
Washington, DC - Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman announced today that the Department of Energy has expanded its gas gouging reporting system to include a toll-free telephone...
Optimum decoding of TCM in the presence of phase errors
Han, Jae Choong
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
discussed. Our approach is to assume that intersymbol interference has been effectively removed by the equalizer while the phase tracking scheme has partially removed the phase jitter, in which case the output of the equalizer will have a slowly varying.... The DAL [I] used the decision at the output ol' the Viterbi decoder to demodulate the local c&arrier. The performance degradation of coded 8-PSK when disturbed by recovered carrier phase error and jitter is investigatecl in i'Gi, in which simulation...
Effects of color coding on keying time and errors
Wooldridge, Brenda Gail
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
were to determine the effects if any oi' color coding upon the error rate and location time of special func- tion keys on a computer keyboard. An ACT-YA CRT keyboard interfaced with a Kromemco microcomputer was used. There were 84 high schoool... to comnunicate with more and more computer-like devices. The most common computer/human interface is the terminal, consisting of a display screen, and keyboard. The format and layout on the display screen of computer-generated information is generally...
The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization
R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink
2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.
Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations
Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.
An error correcting procedure for imperfect supervised, nonparametric classification
Ferrell, Dennis Ray
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
ON INFORMATION THEORY . is active) . I'or simplicity in writing, Pr(B=B. ) will be ab- j breviated by Pr(B. ), and f(x/B=B ) will be abbreviated by j f (x/B. ) . The basic problem is, upon observing x, to determine j which class is active. If complete... to be B , r (x), is r (x) ( L Pr(B /x) i=1 The conditional probability of error can be minimized over j by assigning to a measurement x, the label value B such that minimizes r (x) . The rule which will do this is Bayes rule, b*. The resulting...
Trade-off of lossless source coding error exponents Cheng Chang Anant Sahai
Sahai, Anant
Trade-off of lossless source coding error exponents Cheng Chang Anant Sahai HP Labs, Palo Alto EECS, UC Berkeley ISIT 2008 Chang (HP Labs), Sahai ( UC Berkeley) Error Exponents trade-off ISIT 2008 1 (HP Labs), Sahai ( UC Berkeley) Error Exponents trade-off ISIT 2008 2 / 14 #12;Stabilizing an unstable
A Memory Soft Error Measurement on Production Systems Xin Li Kai Shen Michael C. Huang
Shen, Kai
A Memory Soft Error Measurement on Production Systems Xin Li Kai Shen Michael C. Huang University and dealing with these soft (or transient) errors is impor- tant for system reliability. Several earlier for memory soft error measurement on production systems where performance impact on existing running ap
A Memory Soft Error Measurement on Production Systems # Xin Li Kai Shen Michael C. Huang
Shen, Kai
A Memory Soft Error Measurement on Production Systems # Xin Li Kai Shen Michael C. Huang University and dealing with these soft (or transient) errors is impor tant for system reliability. Several earlier for memory soft error measurement on production systems where performance impact on existing running ap
Matt Duckham Page 1 Implementing an object-oriented error sensitive GIS
Duckham, Matt
Matt Duckham Page 1 Implementing an object-oriented error sensitive GIS Matt Duckham Department in the handling of uncertainty within GIS, the production of what has been described as an error sensitive GIS of opportunities, but also impediments to the implemen- tation of such an error sensitive GIS. An important barrier
Digication Error Message:"Your username is already in use by another account."
Barrash, Warren
Digication Error Message:"Your username is already in use by another account." You may need you have one). If you receive the error message below, here's how to log into your Digication account. (For example, if the error message appeared when using your employee account, switch to your employee
Repeated quantum error correction on a continuously encoded qubit by real-time feedback
Julia Cramer; Norbert Kalb; M. Adriaan Rol; Bas Hensen; Machiel S. Blok; Matthew Markham; Daniel J. Twitchen; Ronald Hanson; Tim H. Taminiau
2015-08-06T23:59:59.000Z
Reliable quantum information processing in the face of errors is a major fundamental and technological challenge. Quantum error correction protects quantum states by encoding a logical quantum bit (qubit) in multiple physical qubits, so that errors can be detected without affecting the encoded state. To be compatible with universal fault-tolerant computations, it is essential that the states remain encoded at all times and that errors are actively corrected. Here we demonstrate such active error correction on a continuously protected qubit using a diamond quantum processor. We encode a logical qubit in three long-lived nuclear spins, repeatedly detect phase errors by non-destructive measurements using an ancilla electron spin, and apply corrections on the encoded state by real-time feedback. The actively error-corrected qubit is robust against errors and multiple rounds of error correction prevent errors from accumulating. Moreover, by correcting phase errors naturally induced by the environment, we demonstrate that encoded quantum superposition states are preserved beyond the dephasing time of the best physical qubit used in the encoding. These results establish a powerful platform for the fundamental investigation of error correction under different types of noise and mark an important step towards fault-tolerant quantum information processing.
Edit: Study -APP Save | Exit | Hide/Show Errors | Print... | Jump To
Biederman, Irving
Edit: Study - APP Save | Exit | Hide/Show Errors | Print... | Jump To: 01. Project Guidance Save | Exit | Hide/Show Errors | Print... | Jump To: 01. Project IdentificationStarDev/ResourceAdministration/Project/ProjectEditor?Project=com... 1 #12;Edit: Study - APP- Save | Exit | Hide/Show Errors | Print... | Jump To: 02. Study
Non-Concurrent Error Detection and Correction in Fault-Tolerant Discrete-Time LTI
Hadjicostis, Christoforos
Non-Concurrent Error Detection and Correction in Fault-Tolerant Discrete-Time LTI Dynamic Systems encoded form and allow error detection and correction to be performed through concurrent parity checks (i that allows parity checks to capture the evolution of errors in the system and, based on non-concurrent parity
Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences
Dominici, Francesca
1 Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences S in time-series studies 1 11/11/99 Keywords: measurement error, air pollution, time series, exposure of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting
In-Line-Test of Variability and Bit-Error-Rate of HfOx-Based Resistive Memory
Ji, B L; Ye, Q; Gausepohl, S; Deora, S; Veksler, D; Vivekanand, S; Chong, H; Stamper, H; Burroughs, T; Johnson, C; Smalley, M; Bennett, S; Kaushik, V; Piccirillo, J; Rodgers, M; Passaro, M; Liehr, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Spatial and temporal variability of HfOx-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) are investigated for manufacturing and product designs. Manufacturing variability is characterized at different levels including lots, wafers, and chips. Bit-error-rate (BER) is proposed as a holistic parameter for the write cycle resistance statistics. Using the electrical in-line-test cycle data, a method is developed to derive BERs as functions of the design margin, to provide guidance for technology evaluation and product design. The proposed BER calculation can also be used in the off-line bench test and build-in-self-test (BIST) for adaptive error correction and for the other types of random access memories.
ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS
Ramanujam, J. "Ram"
. Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis
High Average Power Operation of a Scraper-Outcoupled Free-Electron Laser
Michelle D. Shinn; Chris Behre; Stephen Vincent Benson; Michael Bevins; Don Bullard; James Coleman; L. Dillon-Townes; Tom Elliott; Joe Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Shukui Zhang
2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the design, construction, and operation of a high average power free-electron laser using scraper outcoupling. Using the FEL in this all-reflective configuration, we achieved approximately 2 kW of stable output at 10 um. Measurements of gain, loss, and output mode will be compared with our models.
Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial
Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit
Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence
Haran, Murali
Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections
A structural analysis of vehicle design responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy
Michalek, Jeremy J.
A structural analysis of vehicle design responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy policy Ching-Shin Norman Shiau a , Jeremy J. Michalek a,b,*, Chris T. Hendrickson c a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA b Department of Engineering
A Structural Analysis of Vehicle Design Responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy
Michalek, Jeremy J.
09-0588 A Structural Analysis of Vehicle Design Responses to Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy-Shin (Norman) Shiau Mechanical Engineering Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 author) Mechanical Engineering Engineering and Public Policy Carnegie Mellon University Scaife Hall 323
Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.
, in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic dragAveraged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R 2009; published 26 March 2010 We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model
Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion
A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak
1994-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.
Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for
Tradacete, Pedro
Seminario de Estadística e Investigación Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for cycle solution concepts, called web values, are introduced axiomatically, each one with respect to some specific recursive algorithms to calculate them. Additionally the efficiency and stability of web values are studied
ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89)
Toohey, Darin W.
ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89) Interaction of atmospheric and efflorescence equate to a change in state from solid to liquid as the relative humidity (RH) changes. RH can change due to an increase in the mixing ratio of water vapor (equating to more collisions of water
Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints
Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert
Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints Khoa D. Nguyen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 dangkhoa@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes
Average Consensus in the Presence of Delays in Directed Graph Topologies
Hadjicostis, Christoforos
@kth.se. #12;directed interconnection topology (digraph). The objective of a consensus problem is to have all values that the nodes initially posses (initial values). When the agents (asymptotically) reach agreement shown in [4] that, under a fixed interconnection topology, average consensus can be reached
Averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups: singular Radon transforms
Ionescu, Alexandru D; Wainger, Stephen
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We consider a class of operators defined by taking averages along polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups. In this paper we prove $L^2$ boundedness of discrete singular Radon transforms along general polynomial sequences in discrete nilpotent groups of step 2.
Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel
Boyer, Edmond
genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem
ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL
Bal, Guillaume
ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy initial energy distributions. We show that wave energy is not stable, and instead scintillation is created
Efficient computation of robust average in wireless sensor networks using compressive sensing
New South Wales, University of
compressive sensing. Instead of sending a block of sensor readings to the data fusion centre, each sensor of the projections (which we will refer to as the compressed data) to the data fusion centre. At the data fusion of the robust average of the original sensor readings. This means that the data fusion centre will only need
Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems
Ghoniem, Nasr M.
Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program
Digital Sliding Mode Pulsed Current Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes
Lehman, Brad
for LED applications, such as, traditional business and home lighting, decorative lighting, signal lighting, and sign lighting [5 7]. One of the main requirements of the white LED driver IC is itsDigital Sliding Mode Pulsed Current Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes
WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA M In geophysics, a homomorphic system is used to modelize the convolution of an emitted wavelet (source) with the impulse response of the earth into the sum of the log spectra of the wavelet and the earth's response
Averaging out Inhomogeneous Newtonian Cosmologies: I. Fluid Mechanics and the Navier-Stokes Equation
Roustam Zalaletdinov
2002-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
The basic concepts and equations of classical fluid mechanics are presented in the form necessary for the formulation of Newtonian cosmology and for derivation and analysis of a system of the averaged Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations. A special attention is paid to the analytic formulation of the definitions and equations of moving fluids and to their physical content.
Self-guided enhanced sampling methods for thermodynamic averages Ioan Andricioaeia)
Dinner, Aaron
such systems have energetic and entropic barriers that are higher than the thermal energy at tempera- turesSelf-guided enhanced sampling methods for thermodynamic averages Ioan Andricioaeia) Department 2002; accepted 22 October 2002 In the self-guided molecular dynamics SGMD simulation method
Averaged dynamics of two-phase media in a vibration field Arthur V. Straubea
Straube, Arthur V.
to astronomic scales. Vibration is a mechanical oscillatory process with an amplitude that is small compared of the system is much larger than the period of the oscillation. Vibration mechanics has been studied for a longAveraged dynamics of two-phase media in a vibration field Arthur V. Straubea Department of Physics
Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter [Advanced Energy Systems, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, FI-02015 HUT (Finland)
2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)
C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald
2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.
POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT
Weston, Ken
POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading. 11. Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch, 7th ed., Chap. 14. Introduction Polymers Polymers are a special in this experiment, or may be of different types. Polymers are very important in biological systems. For example
Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Averaging method for nonlinear laminar
Lautrup, Benny
Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Averaging method for nonlinear laminar Copenhagen Ã?, Denmark (Received October 10, 2002) We study laminar Ekman boundary layers in rotating systems method to describe laminar and turbulent boundary layers in rotating fluids. They used a self
Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements
Hansen, René Rydhof
of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie
Asymptotic scaling corrections in QCD with Wilson fermions from the 3-loop average plaquette
B. Alles; A. Feo; H. Panagopoulos
1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the 3-loop perturbative expansion of the average plaquette in lattice QCD with N_f massive Wilson fermions and gauge group SU(N). The corrections to asymptotic scaling in the corresponding energy scheme are also evaluated. We have also improved the accuracy of the already known pure gluonic results at 2 and 3 loops.
Summer Conference Participant Registration Fee: $200 Includes the following
Tullos, Desiree
Summer Conference Participant Registration Fee: $200 Includes the following: Lodging for Wednesday on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday Brunch on Saturday Summer Conference T-shirt Class materials Congress Only only (although they are encouraged to attend the entire conference). This fee includes the following
Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary
Not Available
1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)
PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including
PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints" Carlos Murillo-562-3966. #12;Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints Carlos Murillo S anchez Robert a new algorithm for unit commitment that employs a Lagrange relaxation technique with a new augmentation
Articles which include chevron film cooling holes, and related processes
Bunker, Ronald Scott; Lacy, Benjamin Paul
2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z
An article is described, including an inner surface which can be exposed to a first fluid; an inlet; and an outer surface spaced from the inner surface, which can be exposed to a hotter second fluid. The article further includes at least one row or other pattern of passage holes. Each passage hole includes an inlet bore extending through the substrate from the inlet at the inner surface to a passage hole-exit proximate to the outer surface, with the inlet bore terminating in a chevron outlet adjacent the hole-exit. The chevron outlet includes a pair of wing troughs having a common surface region between them. The common surface region includes a valley which is adjacent the hole-exit; and a plateau adjacent the valley. The article can be an airfoil. Related methods for preparing the passage holes are also described.
Aperiodic dynamical decoupling sequences in presence of pulse errors
Zhi-Hui Wang; V. V. Dobrovitski
2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
Dynamical decoupling (DD) is a promising tool for preserving the quantum states of qubits. However, small imperfections in the control pulses can seriously affect the fidelity of decoupling, and qualitatively change the evolution of the controlled system at long times. Using both analytical and numerical tools, we theoretically investigate the effect of the pulse errors accumulation for two aperiodic DD sequences, the Uhrig's DD UDD) protocol [G. S. Uhrig, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 98}, 100504 (2007)], and the Quadratic DD (QDD) protocol [J. R. West, B. H. Fong and D. A. Lidar, Phys. Rev. Lett {\\bf 104}, 130501 (2010)]. We consider the implementation of these sequences using the electron spins of phosphorus donors in silicon, where DD sequences are applied to suppress dephasing of the donor spins. The dependence of the decoupling fidelity on different initial states of the spins is the focus of our study. We investigate in detail the initial drop in the DD fidelity, and its long-term saturation. We also demonstrate that by applying the control pulses along different directions, the performance of QDD protocols can be noticeably improved, and explain the reason of such an improvement. Our results can be useful for future implementations of the aperiodic decoupling protocols, and for better understanding of the impact of errors on quantum control of spins.
Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, David M.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.
2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
New determination of the D0!K?!+!0 and D0!K?!+!+!? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences
GREAT3 results - I. Systematic errors in shear estimation and the impact of real galaxy morphology
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rowe, Barnaby; Armstrong, Robert; Bard, Deborah; Bertin, Emmanuel; Bosch, James; Boutigny, Dominique; Courbin, Frederic; Dawson, William A.; Donnarumma, Annamaria; et al
2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
The study present first results from the third GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing (GREAT3) challenge, the third in a sequence of challenges for testing methods of inferring weak gravitational lensing shear distortions from simulated galaxy images. GREAT3 was divided into experiments to test three specific questions, and included simulated space- and ground-based data with constant or cosmologically varying shear fields. The simplest (control) experiment included parametric galaxies with a realistic distribution of signal-to-noise, size, and ellipticity, and a complex point spread function (PSF). The other experiments tested the additional impact of realistic galaxy morphology, multiple exposure imaging, and the uncertainty aboutmore »a spatially varying PSF; the last two questions will be explored in Paper II. The 24 participating teams competed to estimate lensing shears to within systematic error tolerances for upcoming Stage-IV dark energy surveys, making 1525 submissions overall. GREAT3 saw considerable variety and innovation in the types of methods applied. Several teams now meet or exceed the targets in many of the tests conducted (to within the statistical errors). We conclude that the presence of realistic galaxy morphology in simulations changes shear calibration biases by ~1 per cent for a wide range of methods. Other effects such as truncation biases due to finite galaxy postage stamps, and the impact of galaxy type as measured by the Sérsic index, are quantified for the first time. Our results generalize previous studies regarding sensitivities to galaxy size and signal-to-noise, and to PSF properties such as seeing and defocus. Almost all methods’ results support the simple model in which additive shear biases depend linearly on PSF ellipticity.« less
New Hampshire, University of
slice whole wheat toast with 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er 1/2 large banana 2 slices whole wheat toast with 4 tsp 1 small fresh apple, sliced 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er 2 graham crackers 1 Tbsp. peanut bu er *Menu item
Luo, Wei, E-mail: wei.luo@uky.edu; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as ?, ?, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F{sub n} was 1.75/1.18. F{sub r} of 1.1 has been applied to gynecological cancer implants with expected acute reactions and outcomes as expected based on extensive experience with permanent implants. The calculation also gave the average Cs-131 dose of 126 Gy converted from the I-125 dose of 144 Gy for prostate implants. Conclusions: Inclusion of an allowance for resensitization led to significant dose corrections for Cs-131 permanent implants, and should be applied to prescription dose calculation. The adjustment of the Cs-131 prescription doses with resensitization correction for gynecological permanent implants was consistent with clinical experience and observations. However, the Cs-131 prescription doses converted from other implant doses can be further adjusted based on new experimental results, clinical observations, and clinical outcomes.
Fossen, Haakon
Errors, 3rd printing ·Page 3, Fig 1.2 has an error in the stratigraphic key: "Tertiary" should "-amplitude" to "-wavelength". ·Page 231, 6th and 3rd last lines of the page: Add "Figure" in front of 19.5a ..." and 3rd line: "three principal axes" (not two). #12;
Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development
Chen, Tsuhan
Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach Including Marcellus Shale Gas Development A Report Stedman (Natural Resources), Jeff Tester (Sustainable Energy Institute and Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering) W. VA #12;Energy Transitions: A Systems Approach August 2011 version Page 2 Energy
Including costs of supply chain risk in strategic sourcing decisions
Jain, Avani
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Cost evaluations do not always include the costs associated with risks when organizations make strategic sourcing decisions. This research was conducted to establish and quantify the impact of risks and risk-related costs ...
Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel
Biomass Potentials from California Forest and Shrublands Including Fuel Reduction Potentials.1 Biomass Components For Energy Production...............................12 3.2 Forest Inventories................................................................. 17 3.5 Rotation Calculations and Annualization of Biomass Potentials......... 27 3.6 Energy
Title 16 USC 818 Public Lands Included in Project - Reservation...
of Lands From Entry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Title 16 USC 818 Public Lands Included in Project...
Unitarity bounds in the Higgs model including triplet fields...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
the Higgs model including triplet fields with custodial symmetry We study bounds on Higgs-boson masses from perturbative unitarity in the Georgi-Machacek model, whose Higgs sector...
Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission
Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.
2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.
Dynamic properties of subgrade soils, including environmental effects
Edris, Earl Victor
1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOILS, INCLUDING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS A Thesis by EARL VICTOR EDRIS, JR. I Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AlIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Civil Engineering DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SUBGRADE SOILS, INCLUDING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS A Thesis by EARL VICTOR EDRIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairm of Committ Head of Departm t M mber Member...
Limited Personal Use of Government Office Equipment including Information Technology
Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]
2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The Order establishes requirements and assigns responsibilities for employees' limited personal use of Government resources (office equipment and other resources including information technology) within DOE, including NNSA. The Order is required to provide guidance on appropriate and inappropriate uses of Government resources. This Order was certified 04/23/2009 as accurate and continues to be relevant and appropriate for use by the Department. Certified 4-23-09. No cancellation.
Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability
Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof
2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z
We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.
Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications
Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)
2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
A guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator is derived in a coordinate system that is well suited for the implementation in a numerical code. This differential operator is transformed such that it can commute with the orbit-averaging operation. Thus, in the low-collisionality approximation, a three-dimensional Fokker-Planck evolution equation for the orbit-averaged distribution function in a space of invariants is obtained. This transformation is applied to a collision operator with nonuniform isotropic field particles. Explicit neoclassical collisional transport diffusion and convection coefficients are derived, and analytical expressions are obtained in the thin orbit approximation. To illustrate this formalism and validate our results, the bootstrap current is analytically calculated in the Lorentz limit.
Hou, Zhangshuan; Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.
2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z
Given the multi-scale variability and uncertainty of wind generation and forecast errors, it is a natural choice to use time-frequency representation (TFR) as a view of the corresponding time series represented over both time and frequency. Here we use wavelet transform (WT) to expand the signal in terms of wavelet functions which are localized in both time and frequency. Each WT component is more stationary and has consistent auto-correlation pattern. We combined wavelet analyses with time series forecast approaches such as ARIMA, and tested the approach at three different wind farms located far away from each other. The prediction capability is satisfactory -- the day-ahead prediction of errors match the original error values very well, including the patterns. The observations are well located within the predictive intervals. Integrating our wavelet-ARIMA (‘stochastic’) model with the weather forecast model (‘deterministic’) will improve our ability significantly to predict wind power generation and reduce predictive uncertainty.
Sellers, D.
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance By: David Sellers, Senior Engineer, Portland Energy Conservation Inc, Portland, Oregon ABSTRACT This paper discusses using basic... by contacting the author at: Dsellers@peci.org www.peci.org Phone: - 503-248-4636 extension 224 Mailing address through August 3, 2001 Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 921 SW Washington Street Suite 312 Portland, Oregon 97205 Mailing address after August 3...
Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on GoogleTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions,6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption,2 Average
Yoshio Uwano; Hiromi Yuya
2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
The averaged learning equation (ALEH) applicable to the principal component analyzer is studied from both quantum information geometry and dynamical system viewpoints. On the quantum information space (QIS), the space of regular density matrices endowed with the quantum SLD-Fisher metric, a gradient system is given as an extension of the ALEH; on the submanifold, consisting of the diagonal matrices, of the QIS, the gradient flow coincides with the ALEH up to a local diffeomorphism.
Coordinated joint motion control system with position error correction
Danko, George (Reno, NV)
2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed are an articulated hydraulic machine supporting, control system and control method for same. The articulated hydraulic machine has an end effector for performing useful work. The control system is capable of controlling the end effector for automated movement along a preselected trajectory. The control system has a position error correction system to correct discrepancies between an actual end effector trajectory and a desired end effector trajectory. The correction system can employ one or more absolute position signals provided by one or more acceleration sensors supported by one or more movable machine elements. Good trajectory positioning and repeatability can be obtained. A two-joystick controller system is enabled, which can in some cases facilitate the operator's task and enhance their work quality and productivity.
Statistical Error analysis of Nucleon-Nucleon phenomenological potentials
R. Navarro Perez; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola
2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
Nucleon-Nucleon potentials are commonplace in nuclear physics and are determined from a finite number of experimental data with limited precision sampling the scattering process. We study the statistical assumptions implicit in the standard least squares fitting procedure and apply, along with more conventional tests, a tail sensitive quantile-quantile test as a simple and confident tool to verify the normality of residuals. We show that the fulfilment of normality tests is linked to a judicious and consistent selection of a nucleon-nucleon database. These considerations prove crucial to a proper statistical error analysis and uncertainty propagation. We illustrate these issues by analyzing about 8000 proton-proton and neutron-proton scattering published data. This enables the construction of potentials meeting all statistical requirements necessary for statistical uncertainty estimates in nuclear structure calculations.
Statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents
Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In a recently published paper (Campbell and Ott, 1979), a general methodology was proposed for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined residual frequency of yet unknown types of accidents lurking in a certain technological system. Here, the original methodology is extended, as to apply to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. A special categorization of incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of the nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents that involve in the accident-progression a particular design inadequacy.
Average discharge rate representation of voice onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve
Sinex, D.G.; McDonald, L.P.
1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to synthesized stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT) were obtained. The syllables, heard as /ga/--/ka/ or /da/--/ta/, were similar to those previously used by others in psychophysical experiments with human and with chinchilla subjects. Average discharge rates of neurons tuned to the frequency region near the first formant generally increased at the onset of voicing, for VOTs longer than 20 ms. These rate increases were closely related to spectral amplitude changes associated with the onset of voicing and with the activation of the first formant; as a result, they provided accurate information about VOT. Neurons tuned to frequency regions near the second and third formants did not encode VOT in their average discharge rates. Modulations in the average rates of these neurons reflected spectral variations that were independent of VOT. The results are compared to other measurements of the peripheral encoding of speech sounds and to psychophysical observations suggesting that syllables with large variations in VOT are heard as belonging to one of only two phonemic categories.
Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide
Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J
2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.
Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary
Not Available
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)
Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick
Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.
Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick
Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.
1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z
A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.
Watson Library enhancements to include new service desk
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
12/5/13 KU Libraries News: Watson Library enhancements to include new service desk www.lib.ku.edu/news/newservicedesk.shtml 1/1 Contact Us The University of Kansas Libraries Lawrence, KS 66045 (785) 864-8983 Copyright © 2013 by the University... of Kansas Watson Library enhancements to include new service desk The University of Kansas Libraries is adding a new service desk to Watson Library to enhance the user experience and draw attention to new and existing resources. The desk, which...
Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer
Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)
1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.
On the Asymptotic Analysis of Average Interference Power Generated by a Wireless Sensor Network
Yanikomeroglu, Halim
was supported by Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. GHz at six locations including the New York City [5
Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm
Molley, Perry A. (Albuquerque, NM)
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.
Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Optimal Energy Management Strategy including Battery Health through Thermal Management for Hybrid: Energy management strategy, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, Li-ion battery aging, thermal management, Pontryagin's Minimum Principle. 1. INTRODUCTION The interest for energy management strategy (EMS) of Hybrid
Major initiatives in materials research at Western include
Christensen, Dan
, and the growth and formation of new materials. Western is a leader in the study of the interactions of radiationMajor initiatives in materials research at Western include Surface Science Western, Interface of the wide range of materials and biomaterials research within the Faculty of Science and across Western
Perhaps federal research grants can include infrastructure costs.
Sur, Mriganka
Perhaps federal research grants can include infrastructure costs. There are signs to find favour in China, a country beset by similar problems. The particular structure of Indian science and healthystart-uppackages. The government could contribute to these costs. 487 NATURE|Vol 436|28 July 2005
cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence
Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.
1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.
DYNAMIC MODELLING OF AUTONOMOUS POWER SYSTEMS INCLUDING RENEWABLE POWER SOURCES.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
DYNAMIC MODELLING OF AUTONOMOUS POWER SYSTEMS INCLUDING RENEWABLE POWER SOURCES. ABSTRACT The use of renewable energies for electricity production presents a growing interest, especially in autonomous power production imposes several difficulties to the power system operation when penetration is high. Here, a model