Sample records for average cloud fraction

  1. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  2. SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation

  3. A Comparison of Multiscale Variations of Decade-long Cloud Fractions from Six Different Platforms over the Southern Great Plains in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang; Jensen, Michael; Toto, Tami; Foster, Michael J.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates 1997-2011 observationally based cloud fraction estimates from different platforms over the Southern Great Plains, United States, including three ground-based estimates and three satellite-based estimates at multiple temporal and spatial scales. They are: 1) the Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL); 2) the Total Sky Imager (TSI); 3) the Radiative Flux Analysis (RFA); 4) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES); 5) the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP); and 6) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder Atmospheres Extended (PATMOS-x). A substantial disagreement is evident among different estimates, especially for ISCCP and ARSCL with statistically significant larger cloud fractions than the other estimates. For example, ISCCP and ARSCL mean cloud fractions in January are ~21% and 8% larger than the average from all the other estimates, respectively. Three estimates (ISCCP, ARSCL, GOES) exhibit an 8%-10% overall increase in the annually averaged cloud fractions from 1998 to 2009; the other three estimates (TSI, RFA, and PATMOS-x) exhibit no significant tendency of increase in this decade. Monthly cloud fractions from all the estimates exhibit Gaussian-like distributions while the distributions of daily cloud fractions are dependent on spatial scales. Investigations of high-resolution cloud fractions reveal that the differences stem from the inconsistent definitions of cloud fraction. Findings from this study suggest caution when using observationally based cloud fraction estimates for climate studies, highlighting that the consistency in defining cloud fraction between models and observations is crucial for studying the Earth’s climate.

  4. average void fraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    void fraction correlations and experimental Ghajar, Afshin J. 4 Measurement of the fractal order of wall void fraction during nucleate boiling Engineering Websites Summary:...

  5. Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    555 Use of a lidar forward model for global comparisons of cloud fraction between the ICESat lidar in extinction-to-backscatter ratio and effective radius affect the forward modeled mean cloud fraction by no more than 10%. 1. Introduction Clouds play a major role in the Earth's radiation budget and predictions

  6. CLOUD FRACTION: CAN IT BE DEFINED, CAN IT BE MEASURED, AND IF WE KNEW IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    droplets and/or ice particles in the atmosphere above the earth's surface. Total cloud cover: Fraction, JGR (ERBE, 1988) Cloud cover is a loosely defined term. Potter Stewart (U.S. Supreme Court, 1964) I feedbacks. Accurate representation of cloud radiative effects is essential in climate models. Getting cloud

  7. INTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    : ___________________________________________________________ #12;i Abstract Marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds have a large effect on the global radiation budget cooling effect in the MBL. Thus, simulating MBL clouds in General Circulation Models (GCM) is crucialINTERANNUAL AND SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER CLOUD FRACTION AND LOWER TROPOSPHERIC

  8. ARM: Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gaustad, Krista; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally; McFarlane, Sally

    Fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux for each of 25 individual SGP facilities.

  9. Parameterizing the Difference in Cloud Fraction Defined by Area and by Volume as Observed with Radar and Lidar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    partially cloudy grid boxes by weighting clear and cloudy fluxes by the fractional area of cloud cover (Ca cloud cover from 53% to 63%, and so is of similar importance to the cloud overlap assumption. A simple for calculating the radiative effect of cloud (Stephens 1984; Edwards and Slingo 1996) and the representation

  10. Use of a Lidar Forward Model for Global Comparisons of Cloud Fraction between the ICESat Lidar and the ECMWF Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    to underestimate cloud cover in the extra-tropical oceans, the trade wind cumulus, the stratocumulus sheets off-to-backscatter ratio and effective radius affect the forward modeled mean cloud fraction by no more than 10%. 1. Introduction Clouds play a major role in the Earth's radiation bud- get and predictions of future climate

  11. CARBON ISOTOPE AND ISOTOPOMER FRACTIONATION IN COLD DENSE CLOUD CORES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: furuya@stu.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-003 (Japan)

    2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a gas-grain chemical network model which includes carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C and {sup 13}C) with an emphasis on isotopomer-exchange reactions. Temporal variations of molecular abundances, the carbon isotope ratios ({sup 12}CX/{sup 13}CX), and the isotopomer ratios ({sup 12}C{sup 13}CX/{sup 13}C{sup 12}CX) of CCH and CCS in cold dense cloud cores are investigated by numerical calculations. We confirm that the isotope ratios of molecules, both in the gas phase and grain surfaces, are significantly different depending on whether the molecule is formed from the carbon atom (ion) or the CO molecule. Molecules formed from carbon atoms have CX/{sup 13}CX ratios greater than the elemental abundance ratio of [{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C]. On the other hand, molecules formed from CO molecules have CX/{sup 13}CX ratios smaller than the [{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C] ratio. We reproduce the observed C{sup 13}CH/{sup 13}CCH ratio in TMC-1, if the isotopomer-exchange reaction, {sup 13}CCH + H {r_reversible} C{sup 13}CH + H + 8.1 K, proceeds with the forward rate coefficient k{sub f} > 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. However, the C{sup 13}CS/{sup 13}CCS ratio is lower than that observed in TMC-1. We then assume the isotopomer-exchange reaction catalyzed by the H atom, {sup 13}CCS + H {r_reversible} C{sup 13}CS + H + 17.4 K. In the model with this reaction, we reproduce the observed C{sup 13}CS/{sup 13}CCS, CCS/C{sup 13}CS, and CCS/{sup 13}CCS ratios simultaneously.

  12. Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave radiometer data are systematically compared to models to quantify and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    Cloud fraction, liquid and ice water contents derived from long-term radar, lidar, and microwave a systematic evaluation of clouds in forecast models. Clouds and their associated microphysical processes for end users of weather forecasts, who may be interested not only in cloud cover, but in other variables

  13. ARM: Gridded (0.25 x 0.25 lat/lon) fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux over the SGP site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gaustad, Krista; Gaustad, Krista; McFarlane, Sally; McFarlane, Sally

    Gridded (0.25 x 0.25 lat/lon) fractional cloud cover, clear-sky and all-sky shortwave flux over the SGP site.

  14. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and for single-layered low (0­3 km), middle (3­6 km), and high clouds ( 6 km) using ARM SCF ground-based paired-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties

  15. ISOTOPIC ANOMALIES IN PRIMITIVE SOLAR SYSTEM MATTER: SPIN-STATE-DEPENDENT FRACTIONATION OF NITROGEN AND DEUTERIUM IN INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirstroem, Eva S.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Milam, Stefanie N., E-mail: ewirstrom@gmail.com [Astrochemistry Laboratory and Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic material found in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles is enriched in D and {sup 15}N. This is consistent with the idea that the functional groups carrying these isotopic anomalies, nitriles and amines, were formed by ion-molecule chemistry in the protosolar nebula. Theoretical models of interstellar fractionation at low temperatures predict large enrichments in both D and {sup 15}N and can account for the largest isotopic enrichments measured in carbonaceous meteorites. However, more recent measurements have shown that, in some primitive samples, a large {sup 15}N enrichment does not correlate with one in D, and that some D-enriched primitive material displays little, if any, {sup 15}N enrichment. By considering the spin-state dependence in ion-molecule reactions involving the ortho and para forms of H{sub 2}, we show that ammonia and related molecules can exhibit such a wide range of fractionation for both {sup 15}N and D in dense cloud cores. We also show that while the nitriles, HCN and HNC, contain the greatest {sup 15}N enrichment, this is not expected to correlate with extreme D enrichment. These calculations therefore support the view that solar system {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies have an interstellar heritage. We also compare our results to existing astronomical observations and briefly discuss future tests of this model.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Cloud fraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,

  17. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -term global warming. If the EIS-low cloud fraction relationship holds under global warming, it is likely that the tropical low cloud fraction change is non-negative. Climate models without significant negative low cloud fraction change suggest that the cloud...

  18. Cloud Services Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Services Cloud Services In 2012 UCD IT Services launched an exciting new set of cloud solutions called CloudEdu, which includes cloud servers, cloud storage, cloud hosting and cloud network. The CloudEdu package includes a consultancy service in design, deployment, management and utilisation

  19. Validation of MODIS-Retrieved Cloud Fractions Using Whole Sky Imager Measurements at the Three ARM Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps toValidatingCloud Properties Derived

  20. Evaluating the Performance of the MRF Subgrid-Scale Cloud Fraction Parameterization: Examination of Two Significant Strati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13Evacuation EmergencyCloudSat, ARM, and thethe

  1. 7, 1711717146, 2007 Dependence of cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17117­17146, 2007 Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud height on temperature T. Wagner et a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Dependence of cloud fraction and cloud top height on surface temperature derived from spectrally resolved UV/vis satellite observations T

  2. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong; Liu, Yangang; Niu, Shengjie; Endo, Satoshi

    2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasingmore »scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.« less

  3. Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Chunsong [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Chinese Acadamy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Niu, Shengjie [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.

    2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

  4. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two regions.

  5. Cloud Spectrum Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    droplets are within the laser beam long enough so they can be sized. · A running average of droplet transit, it is rejected from sizing but included in the running average. Laser Beam Fraction Correction #12;The velocity ­ Activity Fraction #12;Percentage of particle losses based on the measured FSSP activity. FSSP Particle Loss

  6. Transitions of cloud-topped marine boundary layers characterized by AIRS, MODIS, and a large eddy simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias; Fetzer, E. J.; Teixeira, J.; Suselj, Kay

    2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.

  7. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  8. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  9. A New Double-Moment Microphysics Parameterization for Application in Cloud and Climate Models. Part II: Single-Column Modeling of Arctic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    of the arctic bound- ary layer, the presence of leads (cracks) in the sea ice surface, the persistence of mixed-phaseA New Double-Moment Microphysics Parameterization for Application in Cloud and Climate Models. Part- dicted cloud boundaries and total cloud fraction compare reasonably well with observations. Cloud phase

  10. Characterizing synoptic and cloud variability in the Northern Atlantic using self-organizing maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Carly Sue

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4 Results 19 4.1 June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2 January . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.3 Joint variability of cloud fraction with vertical motion and EIS... heights using the same contour limits and intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 LIST OF FIGURES vii 4.9 Cloud properties for four patterns in January. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.10 Joint PDFs of cloud fraction and EIS...

  11. Changes in high cloud conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himebrook, Richard Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). When the effect of unknowns is added to the data (Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), p, 21), the period with most high-cloud cover seems to alter- nate back and forth almost monthly, The average, global, solar radiation (Fig. 3(c), p. 21) depicts a decrease from... radiation, per cent possible sunshine, and average sky cover. The increases in high-cloud cover occurred in areas with the following characteristics: strong upper-air flow; frequent jet ' aircraft traffic; coverage of less than half the sky; late...

  12. Evaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    , and net cloud radiative effect, projected cloud fraction, and surface precipitation rate) over the globalEvaluating the present-day simulation of clouds, precipitation, and radiation in climate models] This paper describes a set of metrics for evaluating the simulation of clouds, radiation, and precipitation

  13. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  14. Cloud Computing Adam Barker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Cloud Computing 1 Adam Barker #12;Overview · Introduction to Cloud computing · Enabling technologies · Di erent types of cloud: IaaS, PaaS and SaaS · Cloud terminology · Interacting with a cloud: management consoles · Launching an instance · Connecting to an instance · Running your application · Clouds

  15. Lecture Ch. 8 Cloud Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    clouds Middle clouds Grayish, block the sun, sometimes patchy Sharp outlines, rising, bright white1 Lecture Ch. 8 · Cloud Classification ­ Descriptive approach to clouds · Drop Growth and Precipitation Processes ­ Microphysical characterization of clouds · Complex (i.e. Real) Clouds ­ Examples

  16. Modeling clouds observed at SHEBA using a bulk microphysics parameterization implemented into a single-column model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    cloud fraction, that is, underpredicting the frequency of liquid- or mixed-phase clouds. The mean ice associated with leads, ``clear-sky'' ice crystal precipitation, and persis- tent mixed-phase clouds. BiasesModeling clouds observed at SHEBA using a bulk microphysics parameterization implemented

  17. Interstellar Turbulence, Cloud Formation and Pressure Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enrique Vazquez-Semadeni

    1998-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss HD and MHD compressible turbulence as a cloud-forming and cloud-structuring mechanism in the ISM. Results from a numerical model of the turbulent ISM at large scales suggest that the phase-like appearance of the medium, the typical values of the densities and magnetic field strengths in the intercloud medium, as well as Larson's velocity dispersion-size scaling relation in clouds may be understood as consequences of the interstellar turbulence. However, the density-size relation appears to only hold for the densest simulated clouds, there existing a large population of small, low-density clouds, which, on the other hand, are hardest to observe. We then discuss several tests and implications of a fully dynamical picture of interstellar clouds. The results imply that clouds are transient, constantly being formed, distorted and disrupted by the turbulent velocity field, with a fraction of these fluctuations undergoing gravitational collapse. Simulated line profiles and estimated cloud lifetimes are consistent with observational data. In this scenario, we suggest it is quite unlikely that quasi-hydrostatic structures on any scale can form, and that the near pressure balance between clouds and the intercloud medium is an incidental consequence of the density field driven by the turbulence and in the presence of appropriate cooling, rather than a driving or confining mechanism.

  18. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic) clouds is reviewed, with an emphasis on factors that may be expected to change in a changing climate of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  19. Cloud Controlling Factors --Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Bjorn

    Cloud Controlling Factors -- Low Clouds BJORN STEVENS, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic conspire to determine the statistics and cli- matology of layers of shallow (boundary layer) clouds of low-cloud control- ling processes are offered: these include renewing our focus on theory, model

  20. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models RMetS Conference 4th September 2007 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations What is the distribution of cloud lifetimes? What factors determine the lifetime of an individual

  1. Cloud Security by Max Garvey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolmach, Andrew

    Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

  2. Clarifying the Dominant Sources and Mechanisms of Cirrus Cloud Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cziczo, Daniel James

    Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the ...

  3. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  4. Trace-Based Analysis and Prediction of Cloud Computing User Behavior Using the Fractal Modeling Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Trace-Based Analysis and Prediction of Cloud Computing User Behavior Using the Fractal Modeling and technology. In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of the cloud computing requests received the alpha- stable distribution. Keywords- cloud computing; alpha-stable distribution; fractional order

  5. Estimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    scenes. We first determine the global occurrence of events in 2006 with high effective cloud fractionEstimate of Solar Radiative Forcing by Polluted Clouds Using OMI and SCIAMACHY Satellite Data P potentially have a large heating effect if they are situated above bright clouds. However, the detection

  6. Cloud Computing og availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Henrik Bćrbak

    Cloud Computing og availability Projekt i pĺlidelighed Henrik Lavdal - 20010210 Sřren Bardino Kaa - 20011654 Gruppe 8 19-03-2010 #12;Cloud Computing og availability Side 2 af 28 Indholdsfortegnelse as a Service (SaaS) ...................................................................9 Availability i cloud

  7. Ad hoc cloud computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGilvary, Gary Andrew

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial and private cloud providers offer virtualized resources via a set of co-located and dedicated hosts that are exclusively reserved for the purpose of offering a cloud service. While both cloud models appeal to ...

  8. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  9. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  10. Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING YANG,* BRYAN A. BAUM,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Influence of Ice Particle Surface Roughening on the Global Cloud Radiative Effect BINGQI YI,* PING locally by more than 10 W m22 over a range of effective diameters. The global-averaged SW cloud radiative but nonnegligible increase in the global LW cloud radiative effect. 1. Introduction Ice clouds significantly

  11. Cloud Effects on Radiative Heating Rate Profiles over Darwin using ARM and A-train Radar/Lidar Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of clouds from the ground-based U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) and satellite-based A-train are used to compute cloud radiative forcing profiles over the ARM Darwin, Australia site. Cloud properties are obtained from both radar (the ARM Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) and the CloudSat satellite in the A-train) and lidar (the ARM Micropulse lidar (MPL) and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite in the A-train) observations. Cloud microphysical properties are taken from combined radar and lidar retrievals for ice clouds and radar only or lidar only retrievals for liquid clouds. Large, statistically significant differences of up to 1.43 K/day exist between the mean ARM and A-train net cloud radiative forcing profiles. The majority of the difference in cloud radiative forcing profiles is shown to be due to a large difference in the cloud fraction above 12 km. Above this altitude the A-train cloud fraction is significantly larger because more clouds are detected by CALIPSO than by the ground-based MPL. It is shown that the MPL is unable to observe as many high clouds as CALIPSO due to being more frequently attenuated and a poorer sensitivity even in otherwise clear-sky conditions. After accounting for cloud fraction differences and instrument sampling differences due to viewing platform we determined that differences in cloud radiative forcing due to the retrieved ice cloud properties is relatively small. This study demonstrates that A-train observations are better suited for the calculation cloud radiative forcing profiles. In addition, we find that it is necessary to supplement CloudSat with CALIPSO observations to obtain accurate cloud radiative forcing profiles since a large portion of clouds at Darwin are detected by CALIPSO only.

  12. On Demand Surveillance Service in Vehicular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Jui-Ting

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toward Vehicular Service Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2 Open Mobile Cloud Requirement . . . . .3.1 Mobile Cloud

  13. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  14. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  15. Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Cloud Computing For Bioinformatics EC2 and AMIs #12;Quick-starting an EC2 instance (let's get our feet wet!) Cloud Computing #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance Quick Start · On EC2 console, we can click on Launch Instance · This will let us get up and going quickly #12;Cloud Computing: EC2 instance

  16. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    albedo and radiative forcing for a given LWP are highly sensitive to effective radius; for solar zenith and the average cloud cover on earth. Additionally, reduction in cloud cover caused by absorption of solarEffective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol Byung

  17. Retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect over clouds from spaceborne spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect over clouds from spaceborne spectrometry M. de direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds over the South Atlantic Ocean west of Africa, averaged through), Retrieval of the aerosol direct radiative effect over clouds from spaceborne spectrometry, J. Geophys. Res

  18. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  19. Magnetic Fields in Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of magnetic field strengths imply that molecular cloud fragments are individually close to being in a magnetically critical state, even though both magnetic field and column density measurements range over two orders of magnitude. The turbulent pressure also approximately balances the self-gravitational pressure. These results together mean that the one-dimensional velocity dispersion $\\sigv$ is proportional to the mean \\Alf speed of a cloud $\\va$. Global models of MHD turbulence in a molecular cloud show that this correlation is naturally satisfied for a range of different driving strengths of the turbulence. For example, an increase of turbulent driving causes a cloud expansion which also increases $\\va$. Clouds are in a time averaged balance but exhibit large oscillatory motions, particularly in their outer rarefied regions. We also discuss models of gravitational fragmentation in a sheet-like region in which turbulence has already dissipated, including the effects of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction. Clouds with near-critical mass-to-flux ratios lead to subsonic infall within cores, consistent with some recent observations of motions in starless cores. Conversely, significantly supercritical clouds are expected to produce extended supersonic infall.

  20. RISK ASSESSMENT CLOUD COMPUTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    SECURITY RESEARCH PRIVACY RISK ASSESSMENT AMC DATA FISMA CLOUD COMPUTING MOBILE DEVICES OPERATIONS application hosted in the cloud · Alaska DHHS fined $1.7M ­ Portable device stolen from vehicle · Mass Eye

  1. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  2. XSEDE Cloud Survey Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    XSEDE Cloud Survey Report David Lifka, Cornell Center for Advanced Computing Ian Foster, ANL, ANL and The University of Chicago A National Science Foundation-sponsored cloud user survey was conducted from September 2012 to April 2013 by the XSEDE Cloud Integration Investigation Team to better

  3. Research Cloud Computing Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    Research Cloud Computing Recommendations SRCPAC December 3, 2014 #12;Mandate and Membership SRCPAC convened this committee in Sept 2014 to investigate the role that cloud computing should play in our & Academic Affairs (Social Work) #12;Questions discussed · What cloud resources are available? · Which kinds

  4. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Nonlinear Hydromagnetic Wave Support of a Stratified Molecular Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kudoh; S. Basu

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform numerical simulations of nonlinear MHD waves in a gravitationally stratified molecular cloud that is bounded by a hot and tenuous external medium. We study the relation between the strength of the turbulence and various global properties of a molecular cloud, within a 1.5-dimensional approximation. Under the influence of a driving source of Alfvenic disturbances, the cloud is lifted up by the pressure of MHD waves and reaches a steady-state characterized by oscillations about a new time-averaged equilibrium state. The nonlinear effect results in the generation of longitudinal motions and many shock waves; however, the wave kinetic energy remains predominantly in transverse, rather than longitudinal, motions. There is an approximate equipartition of energy between the transverse velocity and fluctuating magnetic field (aspredicted by small-amplitude theory) in the region of the stratified cloud which contains most of the mass; however, this relation breaks down in the outer regions, particularly near the cloud surface, where the motions have a standing-wave character. This means that the Chandrasekhar-Fermi formula applied to molecular clouds must be significantly modified in such regions. Models of an ensemble of clouds show that, for various strengths of the input energy, the velocity dispersion in the cloud $\\sigma \\propto Z^{0.5}$, where $Z$ is a characteristic size of the cloud.Furthermore, $\\sigma$ is always comparable to the mean Alfven velocity of the cloud, consistent with observational results.

  6. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  7. Fraction Collector User Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Fraction Collector Frac-950 18-1139-56 User Manual #12;#12;Important user information All users Territories Hong Kong © Copyright Amersham Biosciences AB 2002 - All rights reserved Fraction Collector Frac Fraction Collector Frac-950 User Manual 18-1139-56 Edition AE v Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 General

  8. Conclusions Fractionated Space Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Conclusions Fractionated Space Systems There is a growing interest in fractionated space system design. Fractionated space systems are inherently flexible and modular. There are many key technologies of flexibility serves as a source of motivation for system designers to embed flexibility into a system design (i

  9. Final Technical Report for Project "Improving the Simulation of Arctic Clouds in CCSM3"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen J. Vavrus

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has focused on the simulation of Arctic clouds in CCSM3 and how the modeled cloud amount (and climate) can be improved substantially by altering the parameterized low cloud fraction. The new formula, dubbed 'freeezedry', alleviates the bias of excessive low clouds during polar winter by reducing the cloud amount under very dry conditions. During winter, freezedry decreases the low cloud amount over the coldest regions in high latitudes by over 50% locally and more than 30% averaged across the Arctic (Fig. 1). The cloud reduction causes an Arctic-wide drop of 15 W m{sup -2} in surface cloud radiative forcing (CRF) during winter and about a 50% decrease in mean annual Arctic CRF. Consequently, wintertime surface temperatures fall by up to 4 K on land and 2-8 K over the Arctic Ocean, thus significantly reducing the model's pronounced warm bias (Fig. 1). While improving the polar climate simulation in CCSM3, freezedry has virtually no influence outside of very cold regions (Fig. 2) or during summer (Fig. 3), which are space and time domains that were not targeted. Furthermore, the simplicity of this parameterization allows it to be readily incorporated into other GCMs, many of which also suffer from excessive wintertime polar cloudiness, based on the results from the CMIP3 archive (Vavrus et al., 2008). Freezedry also affects CCSM3's sensitivity to greenhouse forcing. In a transient-CO{sub 2} experiment, the model version with freezedry warms up to 20% less in the North Polar and South Polar regions (1.5 K and 0.5 K smaller warming, respectively) (Fig. 4). Paradoxically, the muted high-latitude response occurs despite a much larger increase in cloud amount with freezedry during non-summer months (when clouds warm the surface), apparently because of the colder modern reference climate. These results of the freezedry parameterization have recently been published (Vavrus and D. Waliser, 2008: An improved parameterization for simulating Arctic cloud amount in the CCSM3 climate model. J. Climate, 21, 5673-5687.). The article also provides a novel synthesis of surface- and satellite-based Arctic cloud observations that show how much the new freezedry parameterization improves the simulated cloud amount in high latitudes (Fig. 3). Freezedry has been incorporated into the CCSM3.5 version, in which it successfully limits the excessive polar clouds, and may be used in CCSM4. Material from this work is also appearing in a synthesis article on future Arctic cloud changes (Vavrus, D. Waliser, J. Francis, and A. Schweiger, 'Simulations of 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount in the global climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4', accepted in Climate Dynamics) and was used in a collaborative paper on Arctic cloud-sea ice coupling (Schweiger, A., R. Lindsay, S. Vavrus, and J. Francis, 2008: Relationships between Arctic sea ice and clouds during autumn. J. Climate, 21, 4799-4810.). This research was presented at the 2007 CCSM Annual Workshop, as well as the CCSM's 2007 Atmospheric Model Working Group and Polar Working Group Meetings. The findings were also shown at the 2007 Climate Change Prediction Program's Science Team Meeting. In addition, I served as an instructor at the International Arctic Research Center's (IARC) Summer School on Arctic Climate Modeling in Fairbanks this summer, where I presented on the challenges and techniques used in simulating polar clouds. I also contributed to the development of a new Arctic System Model by attending a workshop in Colorado this summer on this fledgling project. Finally, an outreach activity for the general public has been the development of an interactive web site () that displays Arctic cloud amount in the CMIP3 climate model archive under present and future scenarios. This site allows users to make polar and global maps of a variety of climate variables to investigate the individual and ensemble-mean GCM response to greenhouse warming and the extent to which models adequately represent Arctic clouds in the modern clima

  10. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2283­2300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 ­ Accepted: 9 March 2004 ­ Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  11. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Whole Sky Imager Cloud Fraction Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single ColumngovCampaignsWater CyclegovCampaignsWhole

  13. Bolocam Survey for 1.1 mm Dust Continuum Emission in the c2d Legacy Clouds. II. Ophiuchus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. E. Young; M. L. Enoch; N. J. Evans II; J. Glenn; A. Sargent; T. Huard; J. Aguirre; S. Golwala; D. Haig; P. Harvey; G. Laurent; P. Mauskopf; J. Sayers

    2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a large-scale millimeter continuum map of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. Nearly 11 square degrees, including all of the area in the cloud with visual extinction more than 3 magnitudes, was mapped at 1.1 mm with Bolocam on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). By design, the map also covers the region mapped in the infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We detect 44 definite sources, and a few likely sources are also seen along a filament in the eastern streamer. The map indicates that dense cores in Ophiuchus are very clustered and often found in filaments within the cloud. Most sources are round, as measured at the half power point, but elongated when measured at lower contour levels, suggesting spherical sources lying within filaments. The masses, for an assumed dust temperature of 10 K, range from 0.24 to 3.9 solar masses, with a mean value of 0.96 solar masses. The total mass in distinct cores is 42 solar masses, 0.5 to 2% of the total cloud mass, and the total mass above 4 sigma is about 80 solar masses. The mean densities in the cores are quite high, with an average of 1.6 x 10^6 per cc, suggesting short free-fall times. The core mass distribution can be fitted with a power law with slope of 2.1 plus or minus 0.3 for M>0.5 solar masses, similar to that found in other regions, but slightly shallower than that of some determinations of the local IMF. In agreement with previous studies, our survey shows that dense cores account for a very small fraction of the cloud volume and total mass. They are nearly all confined to regions with visual extinction at least 9 mag, a lower threshold than found previously.

  14. Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    UROP 2012 Working inside the Cloud: Developing a Cloud Computing Infrastructure Cloud computing and live-migration of running VM. USI participates to the development of the first European Cloud computing for a motivated student that will have a chance to improve his/her knowledge on Cloud computing, Java and/or Ruby

  15. Dynamic Cloud Resource Reservation via Cloud Brokerage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto Department of Electrical@eecg.toronto.edu, liang@utoronto.ca Abstract--Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds offer diverse pric- ing options

  16. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  17. An Autonomous Reliabilit Cloud Comput

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    An Autonomous Reliabilit Ami Cloud Comput Department of Computing and Informa Abstract--Cloud computing paradigm allo based access to computing and storages s Internet. Since with advances of Cloud. Keywords- Cloud computing; SLA negotiat I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing has transferred the services

  18. Using Stochastically Generated Subcolumns to Represent Cloud Structure in a Large-Scale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert, Pincus

    condensate amount and cloud fraction, has about the same effect on radiative fluxes as does the ad hoc tuning for representing cloud structure in instantaneous calculations and long-term integrations. Shortwave radiation accounting for this effect in the operational radiation scheme. Long simulations with the new model

  19. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  20. Clouds up close | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactions that affect clouds and thus improve climate projections. Contact Heng Xiao Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 902 Battelle Blvd., PO Box 999 MSIN: K9-30...

  1. Finance Idol Word Cloud

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This word cloud represents the topics discussed during the Big and Small Ideas: How to Lower Solar Financing Costs breakout session at the SunShot Grand Challenge.

  2. Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    Aggregation Behavior of Two Asphaltenic Fractions in Aromatic Solvents Rahoma S. Mohamed* and Anto. The results indicated possible asphaltene aggregation as well as the probable existence of critical micelle fraction. Average molecular areas for asphaltenes adsorbed at different interfaces estimated from surface

  3. Holographic fractional topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jensen, Kristan; Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low-energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

  4. (Carbon isotope fractionation inplants)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  5. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Computing Services Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Cloud Computing...

  6. Profiling clouds' inner life | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    life Released: May 29, 2014 Subgrid modeling pinpoints cloud transformation to uncover true reflective power An accurate understanding of clouds over the ocean is important for...

  7. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic Spring and Fall seasons performed under the Cloud- Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase stratocumulus, and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level clouds, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons and cloud fraction in the Spring season. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave (LW) radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. The model with a new ice nucleation parameterization moderately improves the model simulations by increasing cloud liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron- Findeisen (WBF) process. The CAM5 single column model testing shows that change in the homogeneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C has a substantial impact on the modeled liquid water content through the slowing-down of liquid and rain-related processes. In contrast, collections of cloud ice by snow and cloud liquid by rain are of minor importance for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic.

  8. CONTRIBUTED Green Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Rod

    to manage energy consumption across the entire information and communications technology (ICT) sector. While considers both public and private clouds, and includes energy consumption in switching and transmission to energy consumption and cloud computing seems to be an alternative to office-based computing. By Jayant

  9. Toward Securing Sensor Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · 32 GB microSDHC storage 2 Image from http://hothardware.com/News/Leaked-Motorola-DROID-X-2-Daytona Computer Mini Computer External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud: micro surveys, amber alerts 4 #12;Router Router Router Router Mini Computer Mini Computer Mini Computer

  10. July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jiangchuan (JC)

    July 2012July 2012 Cloud Computing and Virtualization:Cloud Computing and Virtualization/26/2633 Recent: CloudRecent: Cloud The fast growth of cloud computing Cloud file storage/synchronization services Google entries about cloud computing: 184,000,000 #12;July 2012July 2012 44/26/2644 Our CloudOur Cloud 7

  11. When Clouds become Green: the Green Open Cloud Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a new original energy-efficient Cloud infrastructure called Green Open Cloud. Keywords. Energy with the support of energy-efficient frameworks dedicated to Cloud architectures. Virtualization is a key feature of the energy-aware Cloud infras- tructure that we propose. The conclusion and future works are reviewed

  12. Representing Cloud Processing of Aerosol in Numerical Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechem, D.B.; Kogan, Y.L.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The satellite imagery in Figure 1 provides dramatic examples of how aerosol influences the cloud field. Aerosol from ship exhaust can serve as nucleation centers in otherwise cloud-free regions, forming ship tracks (top image), or can enhance the reflectance/albedo in already cloudy regions. This image is a demonstration of the first indirect effect, in which changes in aerosol modulate cloud droplet radius and concentration, which influences albedo. It is thought that, through the effects it has on precipitation (drizzle), aerosol can also affect the structure and persistence of planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds. Regions of cellular convection, or open pockets of cloudiness (bottom image) are thought to be remnants of strongly drizzling PBL clouds. Pockets of Open Cloudiness (POCs) (Stevens et al. 2005) or Albrecht's ''rifts'' are low cloud fraction regions characterized by anomalously low aerosol concentrations, implying they result from precipitation. These features may in fact be a demonstration of the second indirect effect. To accurately represent these clouds in numerical models, we have to treat the coupled cloud-aerosol system. We present the following series of mesoscale and large eddy simulation (LES) experiments to evaluate the important aspects of treating the coupled cloud-aerosol problem. 1. Drizzling and nondrizzling simulations demonstrate the effect of drizzle on a mesoscale forecast off the California coast. 2. LES experiments with explicit (bin) microphysics gauge the relative importance of the shape of the aerosol spectrum on the 3D dynamics and cloud structure. 3. Idealized mesoscale model simulations evaluate the relative roles of various processes, sources, and sinks.

  13. A discrete fractional random transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu

    2006-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  14. Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Convective Cloud Lifecycles Lunchtime seminar 19th May 2009 Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK #12;Introduction Obtain life cycle statistics for clouds in CRM simulations Why Conclusions Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.1/3 #12;Why bother? Convective Cloud Lifecycles ­ p.2/3 #12;Some

  15. Revision submitted 2/10/05 Detection of Faceted Crystals in Deep Convective Clouds via the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    Very High Resolution Radiometer) data, the average peak stands 22% above the background for sampled in regulating Earth's energy budget, and are a necessary first step on the way to rain formation. Cloud importance in generating Earth's blanket of high clouds. One type of information that would presumably

  16. Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds A. J. Durant,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    that such ``overseeded'' volcanic clouds will exhibit enhanced ice crystal concentrations and smaller average ice crystal nucleation in volcanic plumes and clouds affects dynamics [Glaze et al., 1997; Herzog et al., 1998; Mastin- porting water to the stratosphere [Glaze et al., 1997] and these fluxes depend in part on the microphysics

  17. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Sciences #12;Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE depends on season, cloud type CRE ­ whether clouds specifically chosen to include nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform

  18. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Declining September sea-ice extent #12;Clouds & Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE Defined CRE nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform) - Middle Clouds: Altocumulus

  19. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore »and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  20. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Giangrande, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kollias, Pavlos [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  1. Migrating enterprise storage applications to the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vrable, Michael Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1 Cloud Providers . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1.1 Cloud Storage . . . . . . . . .2.1.2 Cloud Computation . . . . . . 2.2 Enterprise Storage

  2. A developer's survey on different cloud platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doan, Dzung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Introduction Cloud computing is a computing paradigm inFor this reason, cloud computing has also been describedparallel processing. Cloud computing can be contrasted with

  3. A complex network approach to cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travieso, Gonzalo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has become an important means to speed up computing. One problem influencing heavily the performance of such systems is the choice of nodes as servers responsible for executing the users' tasks. In this article we report how complex networks can be used to model such a problem. More specifically, we investigate the performance of the processing respectively to cloud systems underlain by Erdos-Renyi and Barabasi-Albert topology containing two servers. Cloud networks involving two communities not necessarily of the same size are also considered in our analysis. The performance of each configuration is quantified in terms of two indices: the cost of communication between the user and the nearest server, and the balance of the distribution of tasks between the two servers. Regarding the latter index, the ER topology provides better performance than the BA case for smaller average degrees and opposite behavior for larger average degrees. With respect to the cost, smaller values are found in the BA ...

  4. On Fractionally Integrated Autoregressive Moving-Average Time Series Models With Conditional Heteroscedasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Shiqing

    Heteroscedasticity Author(s): Shiqing Ling and W. K. Li Source: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 92, No. 439 (Sep., 1997), pp. 1184- 1194 Published by: American Statistical Association Stable URL contact support@jstor.org. . American Statistical Association is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize

  5. Fractional Variational Iteration Method for Fractional Nonlinear Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-cheng Wu

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, fractional differential equations have been investigated via the famous variational iteration method. However, all the previous works avoid the term of fractional derivative and handle them as a restricted variation. In order to overcome such shortcomings, a fractional variational iteration method is proposed. The Lagrange multipliers can be identified explicitly based on fractional variational theory.

  6. Thin Cloud Length Scales Using CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solbrig, Jeremy E.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin clouds are the most difficult cloud type to observe. The recent availability of joint cloud products from the active remote sensing instruments aboard CloudSat and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (CALIPSO) facilitates...

  7. Fractionation, rearrangement, consolidation, reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    is an innovation. WGD and fractionation are particularly prevalent in flowering plants [6], where the slow (tens itself does not add any new adjacencies or remove any; the pre-existing adjacencies simply continue or by pseudogenization. Even if xy and yz still exist in the homeologous region of the genome, the adjacency xz

  8. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu X.; Lin W.; Xie, S.; Boyle, J.; Klein, S. A.; Shi, X.; Wang, Z.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M.; Liu, P. S. K.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2011-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m{sup -2}. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  9. ARE SOME CLOUDS OBSCURED IN SATELLITE VIEW?* MIRELA VOICULESCU1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    results support the idea that the low cloud amount (LCA) shows a high degree of correlation with the flux of galactic cosmic rays (CR) impinging on the Earth. In [1­3] the global average of LCA and CR recorded by a neutron monitor for the period 1984­1994 were used to show that here is a high LCA-CR correlation

  10. Dynamic Energy-Aware Capacity Provisioning for Cloud Computing Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    reduction in energy cost, while maintaining an acceptable average scheduling delay for individual tasksDynamic Energy-Aware Capacity Provisioning for Cloud Computing Environments Qi Zhang University by amortizing initial capital investment over large number of machines, they also incur tremendous energy cost

  11. Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations of mixed-phase clouds in short-range forecasts with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) climate model (AM2) for the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) are performed under the DOE CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT), which initializes the climate models with analysis data produced from numerical weather prediction (NWP) centers. It is shown that CAM3 significantly underestimates the observed boundary layer mixed-phase clouds and cannot realistically simulate the variations with temperature and cloud height of liquid water fraction in the total cloud condensate based an oversimplified cloud microphysical scheme. In contrast, AM2 reasonably reproduces the observed boundary layer clouds while its clouds contain much less cloud condensate than CAM3 and the observations. Both models underestimate the observed cloud top and base for the boundary layer clouds. The simulation of the boundary layer mixed-phase clouds and their microphysical properties is considerably improved in CAM3 when a new physically based cloud microphysical scheme is used. The new scheme also leads to an improved simulation of the surface and top of the atmosphere longwave radiative fluxes in CAM3. It is shown that the Bergeron-Findeisen process, i.e., the ice crystal growth by vapor deposition at the expense of coexisting liquid water, is important for the models to correctly simulate the characteristics of the observed microphysical properties in mixed-phase clouds. Sensitivity tests show that these results are not sensitive to the analysis data used for model initializations. Increasing model horizontal resolution helps capture the subgrid-scale features in Arctic frontal clouds but does not help improve the simulation of the single-layer boundary layer clouds. Ice crystal number density has large impact on the model simulated mixed-phase clouds and their microphysical properties and needs to be accurately represented in climate models.

  12. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Stephen A.; McCoy, Renata B.; Morrison, Hugh; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; de Boer, Gijs; Chen, Mingxuan; Cole, Jason N.S.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Falk, Michael; Foster, Michael J.; Fridlind, Ann; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hashino, Tempei; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Khairoutdinov, Marat F.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Yali; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Menon, Surabi; Neggers, Roel A. J.; Park, Sungsu; Poellot, Michael R.; Schmidt, Jerome M.; Sednev, Igor; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sud, Yogesh C.; Turner, David D.; Veron, Dana E.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wang, Zhien; Wolf, Audrey B.; Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Yang, Fanglin; Zhang, Gong

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed average liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the average mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics suggest that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics.

  13. Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Ice Heating Up Cold Clouds Released: October 04, 2011 In a heated battle, ice crystals win the competition for cloud water vapor The mighty cloud ice...

  14. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  15. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  16. Attribution Analysis of Cloud Feedback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chen

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty on cloud feedback is the primary contributor to the large spread of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) in climate models. In this study, we compare the short-term cloud feedback in climate models with observations, and evaluate...

  17. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead toelectron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead tocloud phenomena in positrons storage rings the effect of syn- chrotron radiation

  18. Secure Cloud Computing With Brokered Trusted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ·Audio ·QualComm 7201 528MHZ ·64MB Ram ·MicroSD Slow Storage ·Currently NO SIM CHIPS Monday, March 29 External Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Storage External Storage Router Router Router Router Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Cloud Computing Tower

  19. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  20. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  1. Command Line Tools Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Command Line Tools Cloud Computing #12;Everybody (or nearly everybody) loves GUI. AWS Command Line of advanced features. After surviving the cloud computing class till now, Your are almost a command line guru! You need AWS command line tools, ec2-api-tools, to maximize the power of AWS cloud computing. Plugging

  2. 8, 96979729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval algorithm P. Wang et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 9697 #12;ACPD 8, 9697­9729, 2008 FRESCO+ cloud retrieval

  3. 3, 33013333, 2003 Cirrus cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity J. Str and Physics Discussions Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient relative humidity: A comparison¨om (johan@itm.su.se) 3301 #12;ACPD 3, 3301­3333, 2003 Cirrus cloud occurrence as function of ambient

  4. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  5. 5, 60136039, 2005 FRESCO cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction cloud information over deserts from SCIAMACHY O2 A-band N. Fournier 1 , P. Stammes 1 , M. de Graaf 1 , R, 6013­6039, 2005 FRESCO cloud algorithm N. Fournier et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

  6. NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

  7. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...

  8. Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    by latent heating in updrafts and cooling in downdrafts. Turbulent eddies and evaporative cooling drives, stratification of the STBL, and in some cases cloud breakup. Feedbacks between radiative cooling, precipitation- way interactions may be a key driver of aerosol concentrations over the remote oceans. Aerosol

  9. The use of satellite cloud pictures to determine average relative humidity below 500 mb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Philip Walter

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Gratch equation (Wurtele and Finke, 1961) 1 g10 s 7'90298( ~ 1) 373. 16 + 5. 02808 log10 373. 16 11. 344(1 ? ~) 1. 3816 x 10 [10 -I] 49149 (373 ~ 16 + 8. 1328 x 10 [10 -I] + log10 1013. 26 (4) where e is def ined as above and T is the temperature...

  10. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would

  11. Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks Using Cloud Property Histograms. Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    radiative forcing. The global and annual mean model-simulated cloud feedback is dominated by contributions to a hypothetical cloudless but other- wise identical planet, the global and annual mean effect of clouds at the top is how cloud radiative effects will change as the planet warms because of long-lived greenhouse gases

  12. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  13. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  14. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  15. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  16. Effects of cloud overlap in photochemical models Yan Feng, Joyce E. Penner, Sanford Sillman, and Xiaohong Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sillman, Sanford

    Effects of cloud overlap in photochemical models Yan Feng, Joyce E. Penner, Sanford Sillman for radiation and cloud microphysics in general circulation models and for photolysis in photochemical transport their effects on averaged photolysis frequencies and OH concentrations in a global photochemical model

  17. The dynamics and high-energy emission of conductive gas clouds in supernova-driven galactic superwinds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Marcolini; D. K. Strickland; A. D'Ercole; T. M. Heckman; C. G. Hoopes

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present high-resolution hydrodynamical models of warm ionized clouds embedded in a superwind, and compare the OVI and soft X-ray properties to the existing observational data. These models include thermal conduction, which we show plays an important role in shaping both the dynamics and radiative properties of the resulting wind/cloud interaction. Heat conduction stabilizes the cloud by inhibiting the growth of K-H and R-T instabilities, and also generates a shock wave at the cloud's surface that compresses the cloud. This dynamical behaviour influences the observable properties. We find that while OVI emission and absorption always arises in cloud material at the periphery of the cloud, most of the soft X-ray arises in the region between the wind bow shock and the cloud surface, and probes either wind or cloud material depending on the strength of conduction and the relative abundances of the wind with respect to the cloud. In general only a small fraction (thermal conduction, in particular in terms of the OVI-to-X-ray luminosity ratio, but cloud life times are uncomfortably short (thermal conductivity and found that even when we reduced conduction by a factor of 25 that the simulations retained the beneficial hydrodynamical stability and low O{\\sc vi}-to-X-ray luminosity ratio found in the Spitzer-level conductive models, while also having reduced evaporation rates.

  18. EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas EA-1852: Cloud County Community College Wind Energy Project, Cloud County, Kansas Summary This EA...

  19. CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calheiros, Rodrigo N.

    CloudAnalyst: A CloudSim-based Visual Modeller for Analysing Cloud Computing Environments and Applications Bhathiya Wickremasinghe1 , Rodrigo N. Calheiros2 , and Rajkumar Buyya1 1 The Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University

  20. CloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the radiative and water budgets of clouds are broadly referred to as indirect aerosol effects. The aerosol processes and their accumulated effects on the global scale. 2. Mission Description CloudSat is plannedCloudSat Overview CloudSat will provide, from space, the first global survey of cloud profiles

  1. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  2. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  3. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  4. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  5. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  6. A Catalog of HI Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kim; E. Rosolowsky; Y. Lee; Y. Kim; Y. C. Jung; M. A. Dopita; B. G. Elmegreen; K. C. Freeman; R. J. Sault; M. J. Kesteven; D. McConnell; Y. -H. Chu

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A 21 cm neutral hydrogen interferometric survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) combined with the Parkes multi-beam HI single-dish survey clearly shows that the HI gas is distributed in the form of clumps or clouds. The HI clouds and clumps have been identified using a thresholding method with three separate brightness temperature thresholds ($T_b$). Each catalog of HI cloud candidates shows a power law relationship between the sizes and the velocity dispersions of the clouds roughly following the Larson Law scaling $\\sigma_v \\propto R^{0.5}$, with steeper indices associated with dynamically hot regions. The clouds in each catalog have roughly constant virial parameters as a function mass suggesting that that the clouds are all in roughly the same dynamical state, but the values of the virial parameter are significantly larger than unity showing that turbulent motions dominate gravity in these clouds. The mass distribution of the clouds is a power law with differential indices between -1.6 and -2.0 for the three catalogs. In contrast, the distribution of mean surface densities is a log-normal distribution.

  7. Measurement of local void fraction in a ribbed annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer code FLOWTRAN-TF is used to analyze hypothetical hydraulic accidents for the nuclear reactor at the Savannah River Site. During a hypothetical Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), reactor assemblies would contain a two-phase mixture of air and water which flows downward. Reactor assemblies consist of nested, ribbed annuli. Longitudinal ribs divide each annulus into four subchannels. For accident conditions, air and water can flow past ribs from one subchannel to another. For FLOWTRAN-TF to compute the size of those flows, it is necessary to know the local void fraction in the region of the rib. Measurements have previously been made of length-average void fraction in a ribbed annulus. However, no direct measurements were available of local void fraction. Due to the lack of data, a test was designed to measure local void fraction at the rib. One question addressed by the test was whether void fraction at the rib is solely a function of azimuthal-average void fraction or a function of additional variables such as pressure boundary conditions. This report provides a discussion of this test.

  8. Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, H Q; Phoa, Frederick; Wong, W K

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,

  9. Recent Developments in Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongquan Xu; Frederick K. H. Phoa; Weng Kee Wong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fractional factorial designs and their applications. Ann.nonregular fractional factorial designs. Metrika, 62, 73-83.The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs. Technometrics, 3,

  10. Broken and inhomogeneous cloud impact on satellite cloud particle effective radius and cloudphase retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    on the particle size distribution, height, and thermo- dynamic phase of clouds. Water and ice clouds have parameterizations is the global dis- tribution of cloud thermodynamic phase, i.e., whether a cloud is composed on satellitederived cloud particle effective radius (re) and cloud phase (CPH) for broken and overcast inhomogeneous

  11. Incompressible Stars and Fractional Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Bayin; J. P. Krisch

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractional calculus is an effective tool in incorporating the effects of non-locality and memory into physical models. In this regard, successful applications exist rang- ing from signal processing to anomalous diffusion and quantum mechanics. In this paper we investigate the fractional versions of the stellar structure equations for non radiating spherical objects. Using incompressible fluids as a comparison, we develop models for constant density Newtonian objects with fractional mass distributions or stress conditions. To better understand the fractional effects, we discuss effective values for the density, gravitational field and equation of state. The fractional ob- jects are smaller and less massive than integer models. The fractional parameters are related to a polytropic index for the models considered.

  12. A Survey on Cloud Provider Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Survey on Cloud Provider Security Measures Alex Pucher, Stratos Dimopoulos Abstract Cloud take advantage of this model already, but security and privacy concerns limit the further adoption agencies and start offering security certifications and separate tightly controlled "government" cloud

  13. Cicada: Predictive Guarantees for Cloud Network Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaCurts, Katrina

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In cloud-computing systems, network-bandwidth guarantees have been shown to improve predictability of application performance and cost. Most previous work on cloud-bandwidth guarantees has assumed that cloud tenants know ...

  14. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties In?uencing Electron Cloud Phenomena,” Appl. Surf.Dissipation of the Electron Cloud,” Proc. PAC03 (Portland,is no signi?cant electron-cloud under nominal operating

  15. DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    1 DIRSIG Cloud Modeling Capabilities; A Parametric Study Kristen Powers powers:................................................................................................................... 13 Calculation of Sensor Reaching Radiance Truth Values for Cloudless & Stratus Cloud Scenes and Atmospheric Database Creation for Stratus Cloud Scene & Calculation of Associated Sensor Reaching Radiance

  16. Magellan: experiences from a Science Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2010. From Clusters To Clouds: xCAT 2 Is Out Of The Bag.Cost of Doing Science on the Cloud: The Montage Example. Incost of doing science on the cloud: the montage example. In

  17. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.moment. Lasts hours. Cloud Computing Just there Over the

  18. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coghlan, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.3.1 Cloud Computing Attractive Features . 4.3.2A berkeley view of cloud computing. Technical Report UCB/matching computations on cloud computing platforms and hpc

  19. Minimization of Fractional Power Densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimization of Fractional Power Densities. Robert Hardt, Rice University. Abstract: A k dimensional rectifiable current is given by an oriented k dimensional

  20. Resolved Atomic Super-clouds in Spiral Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun

    1995-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality data are presented of neutral hydrogen emission and absorption in the fields of eleven of the nearest spiral galaxies. Multi-configuration VLA observations have provided angular resolution of 6~arcsec (corresponding to about 100~pc at the average galaxy distance of 3.5~Mpc) and velocity resolution of 6~km~s$^{-1}$, while accurately recovering the total line flux detected previously with filled apertures. Previous experience suggests that this physical resolution is sufficient to at least marginally resolve the \\ion{H}{1} super-cloud population which delineates regions of active star formation. A high brightness filamentary network of \\ion{H}{1} super-clouds is seen in each galaxy. Emission brightness temperatures in excess of 200~Kelvin are sometimes detected at large radii, even in relatively face-on systems. All galaxies display a systematic increase in the observed brightness temperature of super-clouds with radius, followed by a flattening and subsequent decline. In the few instances where background continuum sources allow detection of \\ion{H}{1} absorption, the indicative spin temperatures are consistent with the super-cloud brightness temperature seen in emission at similar radii. These data suggest substantial opacity of the \\ion{H}{1} in the super-cloud network.

  1. Fractional Method of Characteristics for Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-cheng Wu

    2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of characteristics has played a very important role in mathematical physics. Preciously, it was used to solve the initial value problem for partial differential equations of first order. In this paper, we propose a fractional method of characteristics and use it to solve some fractional partial differential equations.

  2. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  3. Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. B. Ma; F. Lu; L. Z. Wang; Y. X. Chen; W. L. Zhong; F. P. An

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor antineutrino experiment are used to study neutrino oscillation, search for signatures of nonstandard neutrino interaction, and monitor reactor operation for safeguard application. Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Commercial code is used for reactor simulation to evaluate fission fraction in Daya Bay neutrino experiment, but the source code doesn't open to our researcher results from commercial secret. In this study, The open source code DRAGON was improved to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions, $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu, and then was validated for PWRs using the Takahama-3 benchmark. The fission fraction results are consistent with those of MIT's results. Then, fission fraction of Daya Bay reactor core was calculated by using improved DRAGON code, and the fission fraction calculated by DRAGON agreed well with these calculated by SCIENCE. The average deviation less than 5\\% for all the four isotopes. The correlation coefficient matrix between $^{235}$U,$^{238}$U,$^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Pu were also studied using DRAGON, and then the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was calculated by using the correlation coefficient matrix. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6\\% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment. The uncertainties source of fission fraction calculation need further to be studied in the future.

  4. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be conservatively applied to confined CSNF assemblies.

  5. Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Sunlight Changes Aerosols in Clouds Released: October 20, 2011 Scientists show how sunlight alters optical, chemical properties of atmospheric...

  6. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  7. 3, 44614488, 2003 Cloud particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects. On one hand, clouds reflect the incoming solar radiation and thus cool the Earth significant effect on the radiation balance (Wielicki et al, 1996; Mitchell, 1989) due to two competing-Atmosphere system. On the other hand, clouds absorb longwave thermal radiation coming from the surface and then re

  8. A Holographic Fractional Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Hoyos-Badajoz; Kristan Jensen; Andreas Karch

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a holographic realization of the recently proposed low energy effective action describing a fractional topological insulator. In particular we verify that the surface of this hypothetical material supports a fractional quantum Hall current corresponding to half that of a Laughlin state.

  9. Cloud and Star Formation in Disk Galaxy Models with Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Shetty; Eve C. Ostriker

    2008-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We include feedback in global hydrodynamic simulations in order to study the star formation properties, and gas structure and dynamics, in models of galactic disks. We extend previous models by implementing feedback in gravitationally bound clouds: momentum is injected at a rate proportional to the star formation rate. This mechanical energy disperses cloud gas back into the surrounding ISM, truncating star formation in a given cloud, and raising the overall level of ambient turbulence. Propagating star formation can however occur as expanding shells collide, enhancing the density and triggering new cloud and star formation. By controlling the momentum injection per massive star and the specific star formation rate in dense gas, we find that the negative effects of high turbulence outweigh the positive ones, and in net feedback reduces the fraction of dense gas and thus the overall star formation rate. The properties of the large clouds that form are not, however, very sensitive to feedback, with cutoff masses of a few million solar masses, similar to observations. We find a relationship between the star formation rate surface density and the gas surface density with a power law index ~2 for our models with the largest dynamic range, consistent with theoretical expectations for our model of disk flaring. We point out that the value of the "Kennicutt-Schmidt" index depends on the thickness of the disk. With our simple feedback prescription (a single combined star formation event per cloud), we find that global spiral patterns are not sustained; less correlated feedback and smaller scale turbulence appear to be necessary for spiral patterns to persist.

  10. The frequency of tropical precipitating clouds as observed by the TRMM PR and ICESat/GLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Sean Patrick

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    METHODOLOGY??????????????????? 11 A. Data??????????????????? 11 B. Analysis Method?????????????? 12 III COINCIDENT SCAN ANALYSIS????????????... 18 IV TROPICAL PRECIPITATING CLOUD FRACTION????? 23 V CONCLUSION????????????????????.. 31..., with land-ocean separation included.??????????????. 15 4 a) Horizontal scan and b) cross-section of a sample coincident case from 20 October 2003 over the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo?????????????????????............. 19 5 Histograms...

  11. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  12. Variational Approach for Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-cheng Wu

    2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractional variational approach has gained much attention in recent years. There are famous fractional derivatives such as Caputo derivative, Riesz derivative and Riemann-Liouville derivative. Several versions of fractional variational principles are proposed. However, it becomes difficult to apply the existing fractional variational theories to fractional differential models, due to the definitions of fractional variational derivatives which not only contain the left fractional derivatives but also appear right ones. In this paper, a new definition of fractional variational derivative is introduced by using a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative and the fractional Euler-Lagrange principle is established for fractional partial differential equations.

  13. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  14. Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Platform for Hybrid Cloud Technical White Paper Published: September 2013 (updated) Applies to: SQL Server and Windows Azure Summary: Cloud computing brings a new paradigm shift in computing in the cloud with greater scale and flexibility. Microsoft SQL Server runs very well in the cloud environment

  15. Cloud Computing An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Cloud Computing ­ An enterprise perspective Raghavan Subramanian Infosys Technologies Limited #12;2Infosys Confidential Overview of cloud computing? Cloud computing* Computing in which dynamically scalable of cloud computing 1. On-demand self-service 2. Ubiquitous network access 3. Location independent resource

  16. IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Software Solution Brief Safeguarding the cloud with IBM Security solutions Maintain visibility and control with proven security solutions for public, private and hybrid clouds Highlights Address cloud internal and external users, data, applications and workloads as they move to and from the cloud Regain

  17. Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draft NISTIR 80061 NIST Cloud Computing2 Forensic Science Challenges NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Computing11 Forensic Science Challenges 12 NIST Cloud Computing Forensic Science Working Group13 Information challenges77 faced by experts when responding to incidents that have occurred in a cloud-computing ecosystem

  18. Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /W performance / Parallelism No/ Simple SQL operations 12 /26 Survey of CDM Cloud Storage: Architecture: Master#12;Cloud Data Management (CDM) Yunpeng Chai 2 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud China Mobile National Health Care #12;9 /26 Outline Motivation of CDM Survey of CDM IBM SUR Cloud

  19. 6, 43414373, 2006 Cloud-borne aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussions Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects S. J. Ghan of aerosols employ a variety of rep- resentations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol- ulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representa- tion of cloud

  20. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical modeling of drizzle evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 2. Observations and microphysical I, the influence of cloud microphysics and dynamics on the shape of cloud radar Doppler spectra in warm stratiform clouds was discussed. The traditional analysis of radar Doppler moments was extended

  1. Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Vision: Cloud-Powered Sight for All Showing the Cloud What You See Paramvir Bahl Matthai Philipose argue that for computers to do more for us, we need to show the cloud what we see and embrace cloud General Terms Algorithms, Design, Human Factors, Languages, Performance, Security Keywords Camera, cloud

  2. CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLOUD, DRIZZLE, AND TURBULENCE OBSERVATIONS IN MARINE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS IN THE AZORES Jasmine at the Azores provided a unique, long-term record (May 2009 to December 2010) of cloud observations in a regime dominated by low-level stratiform clouds. First, a comprehensive cloud classification scheme that utilizes

  3. Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosup, Alexandru

    1 Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming Alexandru Iosup Pierre (Vrije U.). Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming (Rain for the Thirsty) #12;Cloud Futures Workshop 2010 ­ Cloud Computing Support for Massively Social Gaming 2 Intermezzo: Tips on how

  4. Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Total cloud cover 54 68 Clear sky (frequency) 22 3 #12;Low Clouds & Solar Radiation Low clouds scatterChanges in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types Over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 1954-2008 Ryan This produces a weak net warming effect in the atmosphere, since more radiation comes in, and less goes out

  5. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey negative radiative forcing on the global scale, mainly due to the cloud cover effect. © 2013 Elsevier B

  6. A Survey of Changes in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over Land from Surface Observations, 197196

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    of their effects on solar radiation, terrestrial radiation, and precipitation. These effects depend on cloud height, and the season of the year and time of day. The effect of clouds on the earth's radiation budget, the "cloud to be a useful classification in studies of cloud processes (Houze 1993). The climatic effects of clouds further

  7. Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koma, Tohru

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.

  8. Topological Current in Fractional Chern Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohru Koma

    2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interacting fermions in a magnetic field on a two-dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. In order to measure the Hall current, we apply an electric potential with a compact support. Then, due to the Lorentz force, the Hall current appears along the equipotential line. Introducing a local current operator at the edge of the potential, we derive the Hall conductance as a linear response coefficient. For a wide class of the models, we prove that if there exists a spectral gap above the degenerate ground state, then the Hall conductance of the ground state is fractionally quantized without averaging over the fluxes. This is an extension of the topological argument for the integrally quantized Hall conductance in noninteracting fermion systems on lattices.

  9. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, T; Norman, M L; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg L.; Norman, Michael L.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 11eV is very small.

  10. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Greg L. Bryan; Michael L. Norman

    1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 0.5 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~100,000 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of 100,000/cm^3 are found. We find that less than 1% of the primordial gas in such small scale structures cools and collapses to sufficiently high densities to be available for primordial star formation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the formation of very massive objects, massive black holes, fragmentation of a large fraction of baryons into brown dwars or Jupiter size fragments seems, in contrast to various claims in the literature, very unlikely. The expected escape fraction of UV photons with (h nu) > 11eV is very small.

  11. Mixed phase clouds, cloud electrification and remote sensing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P. (Petr); Borel, C. C. (Christoph C.); Klett, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of hypothesis trying to explain charge separation in thunderstorm clouds require presence of ice and supercooled water. Thus the existence of ice or at least mixed phase regions near cloud tops should be a necessary (but not a sufficient) condition for development of lightning. We show that multispectral satellite based instruments, like the DOE MTI (Multispectral Thermal Imager) or NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), using the near infrared and visible spectral bands are able to distinguish between water, ice and mixed phase cloud regions. An analysis of the MTI images of mixed phase clouds - with spatial resolution of about 20 m - shows regions of pure water, pure ice as well as regions of water/ice mixtures. We suggest that multispectral satellite instruments may be useful for a short time forecast of lightning probabilities.

  12. Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    Fractions: conceptual and didactic aspects Martha Isabel Fandiño Pinilla NRD Department of transforming "Knowledge" into "knowledge to teach" is called didactic transposition and constitutes a moment

  13. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Han Wei

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate ...

  14. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies could provide an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. This analysis, however, does not take credit for the additional barrier and establishes only the total release fractions for bare unconfined intact commercial SNF assemblies, which may be conservatively applied to confined intact commercial I SNF assemblies.

  15. Listing Unique Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrivastava, Abhishek Kumar

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December... 2009 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering LISTING UNIQUE FRACTIONAL FACTORIAL DESIGNS A Dissertation by ABHISHEK KUMAR SHRIVASTAVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  16. Fractal dimension of interstellar clouds: opacity and noise effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nestor Sanchez; Emilio J. Alfaro; Enrique Perez

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists observational evidence that the interstellar medium has a fractal structure in a wide range of spatial scales. The measurement of the fractal dimension (Df) of interstellar clouds is a simple way to characterize this fractal structure, but several factors, both intrinsic to the clouds and to the observations, may contribute to affect the values obtained. In this work we study the effects that opacity and noise have on the determination of Df. We focus on two different fractal dimension estimators: the perimeter-area based dimension (Dper) and the mass-size dimension (Dm). We first use simulated fractal clouds to show that opacity does not affect the estimation of Dper. However, Dm tends to increase as opacity increases and this estimator fails when applied to optically thick regions. In addition, very noisy maps can seriously affect the estimation of both Dper and Dm, decreasing the final estimation of Df. We apply these methods to emission maps of Ophiuchus, Perseus and Orion molecular clouds in different molecular lines and we obtain that the fractal dimension is always in the range 2.6 2.3) average fractal dimension for the interstellar medium, as traced by different chemical species.

  17. Cloud Computing and Validation of Expandable In Silico Livers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ropella, Glen EP; Hunt, C Anthony

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit analysis of cloud computing versus desktop grids.as: Ropella and Hunt: Cloud computing and validation ofCloud computing and validation of expandable in silico

  18. UNDERSTANDING TRENDS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOUDS IN IRRADIATED EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Demory, Brice-Olivier, E-mail: kevin.heng@csh.unibe.ch, E-mail: demory@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Unlike previously explored relationships between the properties of hot Jovian atmospheres, the geometric albedo and the incident stellar flux do not exhibit a clear correlation, as revealed by our re-analysis of Q0-Q14 Kepler data. If the albedo is primarily associated with the presence of clouds in these irradiated atmospheres, a holistic modeling approach needs to relate the following properties: the strength of stellar irradiation (and hence the strength and depth of atmospheric circulation), the geometric albedo (which controls both the fraction of starlight absorbed and the pressure level at which it is predominantly absorbed), and the properties of the embedded cloud particles (which determine the albedo). The anticipated diversity in cloud properties renders any correlation between the geometric albedo and the stellar flux weak and characterized by considerable scatter. In the limit of vertically uniform populations of scatterers and absorbers, we use an analytical model and scaling relations to relate the temperature-pressure profile of an irradiated atmosphere and the photon deposition layer and to estimate whether a cloud particle will be lofted by atmospheric circulation. We derive an analytical formula for computing the albedo spectrum in terms of the cloud properties, which we compare to the measured albedo spectrum of HD 189733b by Evans et al. Furthermore, we show that whether an optical phase curve is flat or sinusoidal depends on whether the particles are small or large as defined by the Knudsen number. This may be an explanation for why Kepler-7b exhibits evidence for the longitudinal variation in abundance of condensates, while Kepler-12b shows no evidence for the presence of condensates despite the incident stellar flux being similar for both exoplanets. We include an 'observer's cookbook' for deciphering various scenarios associated with the optical phase curve, the peak offset of the infrared phase curve, and the geometric albedo.

  19. Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Networking the Cloud: Enabling Enterprise Computing and Storage Abstract: Cloud computing has been changing how enterprises run and manage their IT systems. Cloud computing platforms provide introduction on Cloud Computing. We propose a Virtual Cloud Pool abstraction to logically unify cloud

  20. Cluster analysis of cloud properties : a method for diagnosing cloud-climate feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Neil D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    represent cloud effects on gridbox mean visible radiationclouds and the resulting effect on the balance of radiationrepresent cloud effects on grid-box-mean visible radiation

  1. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  2. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  3. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P.; The ATLAS collaboration; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  4. Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, fu ze

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 Robustness of Factorial Designs Summary . . . . . .10 Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs for m = 4 10.0Comparison of fractional factorial designs D 2.1 and D

  5. Robust and Optimum Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, fu ze

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1961a), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part I,1961b), The 2 k?p fractional factorial designs, Part II,

  6. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  7. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  8. A Game Theoretic Framework of SLA-Based Resource Allocation for Competitive Cloud Service Providers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    paradigm that allows the on-demand delivering of software, hardware, and data as services. It has attracted subtracted by the total energy cost. The total revenue depends on the average service request response time access, on- demand service, and transference of risk [1]-[4]. Cloud computing shifts the computation

  9. Magnetic Fields and the Triaxiality of Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shantanu Basu

    2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We make the hypothesis that molecular cloud fragments are triaxial bodies with a large scale magnetic field oriented along the short axis. While consistent with theoretical expectations, this idea is supported by magnetic field strength data, which show strong evidence for flattening along the direction of the mean magnetic field. It is also consistent with early submillimeter polarization data, which show that the projected direction of the magnetic field is often slightly misaligned with the projected minor axis of a molecular cloud core, i.e., the offset angle $\\Psi$ is nonzero. We calculate distributions of $\\Psi$ for various triaxial bodies, when viewed from a random set of viewing angles. The highest viewing probability always corresponds to $\\Psi=0^{\\circ}$, but there is a finite probability of viewing all nonzero $\\Psi$, including even $\\Psi =90^{\\circ}$; the average offset typically falls in the range $10^{\\circ}-30^{\\circ}$ for triaxial bodies most likely to satisfy observational and theoretical constraints.

  10. Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Dust takes detour on ice-cloud journey Pollution-coated particles bypass ice formation, but influence clouds Cirrus clouds are composed of...

  11. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  12. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  13. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menache, Ishai

    The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible computing resources of variable size and capabilities. We consider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous, time-varying ...

  14. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ryan P; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Cordeiro, Cristovao; Desmarais, Ron; Field, Laurence; Gable, Ian; Giordano, Domenico; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Hover, John; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Love, Peter; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This paper describes the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the virtual machine (VM) management systems used for harnessing infrastructure as a service (IaaS) resources are discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for ma...

  15. Disruptive technology business models in cloud computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krikos, Alexis Christopher

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing, a term whose origins have been in existence for more than a decade, has come into fruition due to technological capabilities and marketplace demands. Cloud computing can be defined as a scalable and flexible ...

  16. SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING CLOUD RADAR OBSERVATIONS AT AZORES: PRELIMINARY 3D CLOUD PRODUCTS P. Kollias, I. Jo, A, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers

  17. Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, David

    1 Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA NOAA/NESDIS Satellite of satellite-derived cloud-top brightness temperatures from GOES longwave infrared (channel 4) satellite data, rain, freezing rain, and sleet. The distributions of cloud-top brightness temperatures were constructed

  18. Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Editorial Cloud networking and communications Cloud computing is having an important impact attention has been devoted to system aspects of Cloud computing. More recently, however, the focus is shifting towards Cloud net- working and communications with evolutionary and revo- lutionary propositions

  19. Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Cloud seeding as a technique for studying aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratocumulus hygroscopic aerosols were introduced into a solid marine stratocumulus cloud (200 m thick) by burning hygroscopic flares mounted on an aircraft. The cloud microphysical response in two parallel seeding plumes

  20. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloudscale. Profiling, millimeterwavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three

  1. The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    1 The Cloud Adoption Toolkit: Supporting Cloud Adoption Decisions in the Enterprise Ali Khajeh-Hosseini, David Greenwood, James W. Smith, Ian Sommerville Cloud Computing Co-laboratory, School of Computer Science University of St Andrews, UK {akh, dsg22, jws7, ifs}@cs.st-andrews.ac.uk Abstract Cloud computing

  2. CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jimmy

    CLOUD COMPUTING AND INFORMATION POLICY 1 Cloud Computing and Information Policy: Computing in a Policy Cloud? Forthcoming in the Journal of Information Technology and Politics, 5(3). Paul T. Jaeger University of Maryland Jimmy Lin University of Maryland Justin M. Grimes University of Maryland #12;CLOUD

  3. HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    Agenda HPI Cloud Symposium ,Operating The Cloud` 25.09.2013, Hasso-Plattner-Institut, Auditorium Building 09:30h Registration 10:00h Opening Prof. Dr. Christoph Meinel, HPI Potsdam 10:30h Cloud-RAID: Eine Methode zur Bereitstellung zuverlässiger Speicherressourcen in Öffentlichen Clouds Maxim Schnajkin, HPI

  4. Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaeger, Trent

    Cloud Verifier: Verifiable Auditing Service for IaaS Clouds Joshua Schiffman Security Architecture University Park, PA, USA yus138,hvijay,tjaeger@cse.psu.edu Abstract--Cloud computing has commoditized compute paradigm, its adoption has been stymied by cloud platform's lack of trans- parency, which leaves customers

  5. Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plant, Robert

    Cloud Tracking in Cloud-Resolving Models R. S. Plant1 1 Department of Meteorology, University. INTRODUCTION In recent years Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) have become an increasingly important tool for CRM data, which allows one to investigate statistical prop- erties of the lifecycles of the "clouds

  6. From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mejias, Peter Van Roy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaventure, Olivier

    From mini-clouds to Cloud Computing Boris Mej´ias, Peter Van Roy Universit´e catholique de Louvain ­ Belgium {boris.mejias|peter.vanroy}@uclouvain.be Abstract Cloud computing has many definitions with different views within industry and academia, but everybody agrees on that cloud computing is the way

  7. AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlen, Kevin W.

    AnonymousCloud: A Data Ownership Privacy Provider Framework in Cloud Computing Safwan Mahmud Khan their computation results are ultimately delivered. To provide this data ownership privacy, the cloud's distributed-anonymity; authentication; cloud computing; in- formation security; privacy; Tor I. INTRODUCTION Revolutionary advances

  8. Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Anthony J. H.

    Leveraging Platform Basic Services in Cloud Application Platforms for the Development of Cloud.Simons@dcs.shef.ac.uk Abstract-- Cloud application platforms gain popularity and have the potential to alter the way service based cloud applications are developed involving utilisation of platform basic services. A platform

  9. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  10. Climatological data for clouds over the globe from surface observations, 1982--1991: The total cloud edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, C.J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences] [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Warren, S.G. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences] [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; London, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences] [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical, Planetary, and Atmospheric Sciences

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Routine, surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations over the entire globe, for the ten-year period December 1981 through November 1991, were processed for total cloud cover and the frequencies of occurrence of clear sky, precipitation, and sky-obscured due to fog. Archived data, consisting of various annual, seasonal and monthly averages, are provided in grid boxes that are typically 2.5{degrees} {times} 2.5{degrees} for land and 5{degrees} {times} 5{degrees} for ocean. Day and nighttime averages are also given separately for each season. Several derived quantities, such as interannual variations and annual and diurnal harmonics, are provided as well. This data set incorporates an improved representation of nighttime cloudiness by utilizing only those nighttime observations for which the illuminance due to moonlight exceeds a specified threshold. This reduction in the night-detection bias increases the computed global average total cloud cover by about 2%. The impact on computed diurnal cycles is even greater, particularly over the oceans where is found, in contrast to previous surface-based climatologies, that cloudiness is often greater at night than during the day.

  11. Interactive physically-based cloud simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overby, Derek Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of digital artistic media. Previous methods for modeling the growth of clouds do not account for the fluid interactions that are responsible for cloud formation in the physical atmosphere. We propose a model for simulating cloud formation based on a basic...

  12. Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS712 Dynamics of Clouds Fall Semester 2012 Meeting Times: T/Th: 9-10:15am Room: ATS 101-2pm Course Description: This class focuses on the general dynamics of cloud systems. Models of fog and other Tools / Skills Cotton, W.R., G.H. Bryan, and S.C. van den Heever, 2010: Storm and Cloud Dynamics

  13. Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 1 1 Microsoft Private Cloud A Comparative Look at Functionality, Benefits, and Economics November2012 #12;Microsoft Private Cloud Title of document 2 2 Copyright Information © 2012 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This document is provided "as-is." Information

  14. Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    Performance Engineering for Cloud Computing John Murphy Lero ­ The Irish Software Engineering.Murphy@ucd.ie Abstract. Cloud computing potentially solves some of the major challenges in the engineering of large efficient operation. This paper argues that cloud computing is an area where performance engineering must

  15. Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

  16. 6, 93519388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global 6, 9351­9388, 2006 Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS and models G. Myhre et al. Title

  17. Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Pierangela Samarati*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samarati, Pierangela

    1 Cloud Security: Issues and Concerns Authors Pierangela Samarati* Universitŕ degli Studi di Milano, Italy sabrina.decapitani@unimi.it Keywords cloud security confidentiality integrity availability secure data storage and processing Summary The cloud has emerged as a successful computing paradigm

  18. Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Cloud Computing: Centralization and Data Sovereignty Primavera De Filippi, Smari McCarthy Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision of computing resources on-demand over and elasticity of costs, problems arise concerning the collection of personal information in the Cloud

  19. Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Optimizing Offloading Strategies in Mobile Cloud Computing Esa Hyyti¨a Department of Communications Abstract--We consider a dynamic offloading problem arising in the context of mobile cloud computing (MCC consider the task assignment problem arising in the context of the mobile cloud computing (MCC). In MCC

  20. CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Cliff C.

    #12;CONTROLLING DATA IN THE CLOUD: OUTSOURCING COMPUTATION WITHOUT OUTSOURCING CONTROL Paper By Laboratories Of America 2009 ACM WORKSHOP ON CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY (CCSW 2009) Presented By Talal Basaif CAP that will arise later · New directions to solve some issues #12;INTRODUCTION · Cloud computing is one of desirable

  1. Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Merwe, Kobus

    Towards a Ubiquitous Cloud Computing Infrastructure Jacobus Van der Merwe, K.K. Ramakrishnan of a number of cloud computing use cases. We specifically consider cloudbursting and follow-the-sun and focus that are also network service providers. I. INTRODUCTION Cloud computing is rapidly gaining acceptance

  2. Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cloud Computing: Legal Issues in Centralized Architectures Primavera DE FILIPPI1 , Smari McCARTHY2, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland - Email: smari@gmail.com Abstract: Cloud computing can be defined as the provision they can access their data and the extent to which parties can exploit it. Keywords: Cloud Computing

  3. Implications of the formation of cloud condensation nuclei from gaseous precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of the derivation of the characteristic shape of the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectrum from commonly used aerosol size distributions is examined. The shape of the CCN spectrum is important since it determines if the cloud droplets are controlled by the number of CCN or cloud dynamics. It is found that both a Junge and a Whitby size distribution of soluble particles over-predict the exponent of the CCN spectrum, and the situation is made worse by considering the fraction of soluble material to be particle size dependent. Approximate agreement is obtained from a model that assumes the number of CCN to be proportional to the surface area of the ambient aerosol as might be the case if the particle surface catalysts a chemical reaction to form the soluble material.

  4. Implications of the formation of cloud condensation nuclei from gaseous precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of the derivation of the characteristic shape of the cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectrum from commonly used aerosol size distributions is examined. The shape of the CCN spectrum is important since it determines if the cloud droplets are controlled by the number of CCN or cloud dynamics. It is found that both a Junge and a Whitby size distribution of soluble particles over-predict the exponent of the CCN spectrum, and the situation is made worse by considering the fraction of soluble material to be particle size dependent. Approximate agreement is obtained from a model that assumes the number of CCN to be proportional to the surface area of the ambient aerosol as might be the case if the particle surface catalysts a chemical reaction to form the soluble material.

  5. Cloud Seeding By: Julie Walter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    , smoke, that then are cooled because of the high altitudes. As the water or condensation nuclei cool more pushed up enough the warm air that is filled with moisture should reach an optimum cooling point-based Western Weather Consultants, whose company supplied Vail Resorts with the cloud seeding generators

  6. Cloud and Autonomic Computing Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    boundary layers and wind turbine aerodynamics Siva Parameswarn, Ph.D. Professor in the Department vehicles » Wake development behind wind turbines PHYSICS Ismael Regis de Farias Jr., Ph.D. Associate in cloud environments » Intelligent data management & understanding » Automated web service composition

  7. High Latitude, Translucent Molecular Clouds as Probes of Local Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrahams, R D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the gamma-ray emission from 9 high latitude, translucent molecular clouds taken with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) between 250 MeV and 10 GeV. Observations of gamma-rays allow us to probe the density and spectrum of cosmic rays in the solar neighborhood. The clouds studied lie within $\\sim\\!$270 pc from the Sun and are selected from the Planck all-sky CO map. Gamma-rays in this energy range mostly result from cosmic ray interactions with the interstellar medium, which is traced with three components: HI, CO, and dark gas. Every cloud is detected and shows significant, extended gamma-ray emission from molecular gas. The gamma-ray emission is dominated by the CO-emitting gas in some clouds, but by the CO-dark gas in others. The average emissivity and gamma-ray power law index from HI above 1 GeV shows no evidence of a systematic variation. The CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor shows no variation between clouds over this small spatial range, but shows significant variations within each cloud. The a...

  8. Improvements in Representations of Cloud Microphysics for BBHRP and Models using Data Collected during M-PACE and TWP-ICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg M. McFarquhar

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In our research we proposed to use data collected during the 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) and the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) to improve retrievals of ice and mixed-phase clouds, to improve our understanding of how cloud and radiative processes affect cloud life cycles, and to develop and test methods for using ARM data more effectively in model. In particular, we proposed to: 1) use MPACE in-situ data to determine how liquid water fraction and cloud ice and liquid effective radius (r{sub ei} and r{sub ew}) vary with temperature, normalized cloud altitude and other variables for Arctic mixed-phase clouds, and to use these data to evaluate the performance of model parameterization schemes and remote sensing retrieval algorithms; 2) calculate rei and size/shape distributions using TWP-ICE in-situ data, investigate their dependence on cirrus type (oceanic or continental anvils or cirrus not directly traced to convection), and develop and test representations for MICROBASE; 3) conduct fundamental research enhancing our understanding of cloud/radiative interactions, concentrating on effects of small crystals and particle shapes and sizes on radiation; and 4) improve representations of microphysical processes for models (fall-out, effective density, mean scattering properties, rei and rew) and provide them to ARM PIs. In the course of our research, we made substantial progress on all four goals.

  9. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)] [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  11. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  12. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  13. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  14. Fractional topological insulators in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph Maciejko; Xiao-Liang Qi; Andreas Karch; Shou-Cheng Zhang

    2010-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological insulators can be generally defined by a topological field theory with an axion angle theta of 0 or pi. In this work, we introduce the concept of fractional topological insulator defined by a fractional axion angle and show that it can be consistent with time reversal (T) invariance if ground state degeneracies are present. The fractional axion angle can be measured experimentally by the quantized fractional bulk magnetoelectric polarization P_3, and a `halved' fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of the form (p/q)(e^2/2h) with p,q odd. In the simplest of these states the electron behaves as a bound state of three fractionally charged `quarks' coupled to a deconfined non-Abelian SU(3) `color' gauge field, where the fractional charge of the quarks changes the quantization condition of P_3 and allows fractional values consistent with T-invariance.

  15. Fractional Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maciejko, Joseph; Zhang Shoucheng [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Qi Xiaoliang [Microsoft Research, Station Q, Elings Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Karch, Andreas [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological insulators can be generally defined by a topological field theory with an axion angle {theta} of 0 or {pi}. In this work, we introduce the concept of fractional topological insulator defined by a fractional axion angle and show that it can be consistent with time reversal T invariance if ground state degeneracies are present. The fractional axion angle can be measured experimentally by the quantized fractional bulk magnetoelectric polarization P{sub 3}, and a 'halved' fractional quantum Hall effect on the surface with Hall conductance of the form {sigma}{sub H}=(p/q)(e{sup 2}/2h) with p, q odd. In the simplest of these states the electron behaves as a bound state of three fractionally charged 'quarks' coupled to a deconfined non-Abelian SU(3) 'color' gauge field, where the fractional charge of the quarks changes the quantization condition of P{sub 3} and allows fractional values consistent with T invariance.

  16. Fractional Inversion in Krylov Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Bunk

    1998-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The fractional inverse $M^{-\\gamma}$ (real $\\gamma >0$) of a matrix $M$ is expanded in a series of Gegenbauer polynomials. If the spectrum of $M$ is confined to an ellipse not including the origin, convergence is exponential, with the same rate as for Chebyshev inversion. The approximants can be improved recursively and lead to an iterative solver for $M^\\gamma x = b$ in Krylov space. In case of $\\gamma = 1/2$, the expansion is in terms of Legendre polynomials, and rigorous bounds for the truncation error are derived.

  17. The Difficulty Getting High Escape Fractions of Ionizing Photons from High-redshift Galaxies: a View from the FIRE Cosmological Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Quataert, Eliot; Keres, Dusan; Murray, Norman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a series of high-resolution (20-2000 Msun, 0.1-4 pc) cosmological zoom-in simulations at z~6 from the Feedback In Realistic Environment (FIRE) project. These simulations cover halo masses 10^9-10^11 Msun and rest-frame ultraviolet magnitude Muv = -9 to -19. These simulations include explicit models of the multi-phase ISM, star formation, and stellar feedback, which produce reasonable galaxy properties at z = 0-6. We post-process the snapshots with a radiative transfer code to evaluate the escape fraction (fesc) of hydrogen ionizing photons. We find that the instantaneous fesc has large time variability (0.01%-20%), while the time-averaged fesc over long time-scales generally remains ~5%, considerably lower than the estimate in many reionization models. We find no strong dependence of fesc on galaxy mass or redshift. In our simulations, the intrinsic ionizing photon budgets are dominated by stellar populations younger than 3 Myr, which tend to be buried in dense birth clouds. The escaping photons mo...

  18. Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions of holm oak, beech and fir forests biomass fractions in individual monospecific stands of holm oak (Quercus ilex L), beech (Fagus sylvatica L in different biomass fractions of the holm oak forest studied. This can be related to the low soil pH values

  19. What is a Weber fraction? Justin Halberda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halberda, Justin

    What is a Weber fraction? Justin Halberda Johns Hopkins University Corresponding Author: Justin System (ANS), discrimination within the ANS, and how to think about Weber fractions (w). What the ANS representations for numerosities 4-10 for an individual with Weber fraction = .125. You can think

  20. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cloud has the correct effect on surface fluxes of radiation.radiation is 200 W m –2 in clear-sky STREAMER calculations, the longwave cloud radiative effect

  1. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit theInnovation PortalCompositionalCompressed Natural

  2. Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

  3. Determinating Timing Channels in Statistically Multiplexed Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviram, Amittai; Ford, Bryan; Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timing side-channels represent an insidious security challenge for cloud computing, because: (a) they enable one customer to steal information from another without leaving a trail or raising alarms; (b) only the cloud provider can feasibly detect and report such attacks, but the provider's incentives are not to; and (c) known general-purpose timing channel control methods undermine statistical resource sharing efficiency, and, with it, the cloud computing business model. We propose a new cloud architecture that uses provider-enforced deterministic execution to eliminate all timing channels internal to a shared cloud domain, without limiting internal resource sharing. A prototype determinism-enforcing hypervisor demonstrates that utilizing such a cloud might be both convenient and efficient. The hypervisor enables parallel guest processes and threads to interact via familiar shared memory and file system abstractions, and runs moderately coarse-grained parallel tasks as efficiently and scalably as current nond...

  4. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We adopt a new chemical evolution model for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and thereby investigate its past star formation and chemical enrichment histories. The delay time distribution of Type Ia supernovae recently revealed by Type Ia supernova surveys is incorporated self-consistently into the new model. The principle results are summarized as follows. The present gas mass fraction and stellar metallicity as well as the higher [Ba/Fe] in metal-poor stars at [Fe/H] < -1.5 can be more self-consistently explained by models with steeper initial mass functions. The observed higher [Mg/Fe] ({>=}0.3) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.6 and higher [Ba/Fe] (>0.5) at [Fe/H] {approx} -0.3 could be due to significantly enhanced star formation about 2 Gyr ago. The observed overall [Ca/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation and remarkably low [Ca/Fe] (< - 0.2) at [Fe/H] > -0.6 are consistent with models with short-delay supernova Ia and with the more efficient loss of Ca possibly caused by an explosion mechanism of Type II supernovae. Although the metallicity distribution functions do not show double peaks in the models with a starburst about 2 Gyr ago, they show characteristic double peaks in the models with double starbursts {approx}200 Myr and {approx}2 Gyr ago. The observed apparent dip of [Fe/H] around {approx}1.5 Gyr ago in the age-metallicity relation can be reproduced by models in which a large amount ({approx}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) of metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1) gas can be accreted onto the LMC.

  5. Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Analysis of cloud layer structure in Shouxian, China using RS92 radiosonde aided by 95 GHz cloud to analyze cloud vertical structure over this area by taking advantage of the first direct measurements of cloud vertical layers from the 95 GHz radar. Singlelayer, twolayer, and threelayer clouds account for 28

  6. In Proceedings of APSEC 2010 Cloud Workshop, Sydney, Australia, 30th An Analysis of The Cloud Computing Security Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grundy, John

    of The Cloud Computing Security Problem Mohamed Al Morsy, John Grundy and Ingo Müller Computer Science to adopt IT without upfront investment. Despite the potential gains achieved from the cloud computing solution. Keywords: cloud computing; cloud computing security; cloud computing security management. I

  7. April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    April 12, 2014: The Era of Cloud Computing is coming #12;Headline: The Era of Cloud Computing of Cloud Computing at a seminar in MANIT and RGPV on Saturday. Inset headline: This is the right time to build a career in Cloud Computing Article: Prof. Rajkumar Buyya gave guidance to students about Cloud

  8. After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What's next?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    After the definition of Cloud Computing ... What has NIST done in the Cloud space lately? What Publication SP 500-292: Cloud Computing Reference Architecture. This document takes the NIST definition of Cloud Computing a step further by expanding the definition into a logical representation of the cloud

  9. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    by adjusting the change in cloud radiative forcing for non-cloud22 related effects as in Soden et al. (2008 planet, the global and annual mean effect40 of clouds at the top of atmosphere (TOA) is to increase Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part I: Cloud Radiative Kernels3 Mark D. Zelinka Department

  10. Influence of Cloud-Top Height and Geometric Thickness on a MODIS Infrared-Based Ice Cloud Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    of the net cloud radiative forc- ing of these clouds requires a global, diurnal climatology, which can most and temporal scales. In this study, the sensitivity of an infrared-based ice cloud retrieval to effective cloud temperature is investigated, with a focus on the effects of cloud-top height and geometric thickness

  11. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  13. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 21642172 Correlation between clouds at different altitudes and solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    to the vertical current system induced by solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere (Tinsley, 1996.g., Dickinson, 1975; Tinsley et al., 1989). Recent results have suggested that the low-cloud amount (LCA) has averaged LCA in 1984­1994 and CR recorded by a neutron monitor and found that the two quantities are highly

  14. Intercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    /crystal concentration also suggests the need for improved understanding of ice nucleation and its parameterizationIntercomparison of cloud model simulations of Arctic mixed-phase boundary layer clouds observed is presented. This case study is based on observations of a persistent mixed-phase boundary layer cloud

  15. Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dark Clouds on the Horizon: Using Cloud Storage as Attack Vector and Online Slack Space Martin this as online slack space. We conclude by discussing security improvements for mod- ern online storage services protocol. With the advent of cloud computing and the shared usage of resources, these centralized storage

  16. To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namboodiri, Vinod

    To Cloud or Not to Cloud: A Mobile Device Perspective on Energy Consumption of Applications Vinod important criteria might be the energy consumed by the applications they run. The goal of this work is to characterize under what scenarios cloud-based applications would be relatively more energy-efficient for users

  17. Aircraft Microphysical Documentation from Cloud Base to Anvils of Hailstorm Feeder Clouds in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    in Argentina DANIEL ROSENFELD The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel WILLIAM L. WOODLEY Woodley, Argentina, with a cloud-physics jet aircraft penetrating the major feeder clouds from cloud base to the 45°C. Introduction The province of Mendoza in western Argentina (32°S, 68°W), which is known worldwide for its wine

  18. Investigating the Radiative Impact Clouds Using Retrieved Properties to Classify Cloud Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    of Reading, RG6 6AL, UK Abstract. Active remote sensing allows cloud properties such as ice and liquid water remote sensing, Cloud categorization, Cloud properties, Radiative impact. PACS: 92.60. Vb. INTRODUCTION in a radiation scheme which can simulate the radiation budget and heating rates throughout the atmospheric

  19. The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    The Design of a Community Science Cloud: The Open Science Data Cloud Perspective Robert L. Grossman, Matthew Greenway, Allison P. Heath, Ray Powell, Rafael D. Suarez, Walt Wells, and Kevin White University Abstract--In this paper we describe the design, and implemen- tation of the Open Science Data Cloud

  20. From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. Project Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vialle, Stéphane

    24/10/2011 1 From Grid to private Clouds, to interClouds. AlGorille Project Team An overviewGorille INRIA Project Team October 21, 2011 I Premise of Grid ComputingI Premise of Grid Computing... From Grid to private Clouds, to inter

  1. LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    , the montane forest experienced higher precipi- tation, cloud cover and leaf wetting events of longer duration for an improved understanding of clouds and their effects on cloud forest plant functioning. As summarised below (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation. In turn, this decreases plant water demand. The suppres

  2. Variations in Cloud Cover and Cloud Types over the Ocean from Surface Observations, 19542008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    ). MSC therefore have a cooling ef- fect on climate [negative cloud radiative effect (CRE)]. Randall et in climate, affecting both radiation fluxes and latent heat fluxes, but the various cloud types affect marine. By contrast, high (cirriform) clouds are thinner and colder, so their longwave effect dominates, giving them

  3. A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS CLOUDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    A 3D STOCHASTIC CLOUD MODEL FOR INVESTIGATING THE RADIATIVE PROPERTIES OF INHOMOGENEOUS CIRRUS, Berkshire, United Kingdom 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of ice clouds on the earth's radiation budget for quantifying this effect, and several such models exist for boundary layer clouds, such as those of Cahalan et

  4. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational Management »EnergyHubs | DepartmentCloud Spatial

  5. Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phoa, Frederick; Xu, H Q

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–

  6. A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Hongquan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration

  7. A Catalogue of Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongquan Xu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on 2 n?k fractional factorial designs and search for minimumLevel Fractional Factorial Designs Hongquan Xu Department ofchoice of fractional factorial designs. Minimum aberration

  8. Quarter-Fraction Factorial Designs Constructed via Quaternary Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick Phoa; Hongquan Xu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory QUARTER-FRACTION FACTORIAL DESIGNS and Applications.for fractional factorial designs and pro- jection justi?regular fractional factorial designs. Ann. Statist. 27 1914–

  9. Moment Aberration Projection for Nonregular Fractional Factorial Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Hongquan; Deng, Lih-Yuan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 k?p Fractional Factorial Designs,” Technometrics, Box,Three-Level Fractional Factorial Designs With Small Runs,”of Fractional Factorial Designs,” Journal of Complexity, 17,

  10. Projection, Search, and Optimality in Fractional Factorial Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zongpeng

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regular fractional factorial designs and their applications.variance fractional factorial designs and their optimalityoptimal 2 m fractional factorial designs of Resolution V, m

  11. Radiation Parameterization for Three-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Cirrus Clouds Applied to ARM Data and Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo-Nan Liou

    2003-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 (a) We developed a 3D radiative transfer model to simulate the transfer of solar and thermal infrared radiation in inhomogeneous cirrus clouds. The model utilized a diffusion approximation approach (four-term expansion in the intensity) employing Cartesian coordinates. The required single-scattering parameters, including the extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor, for input to the model, were parameterized in terms of the ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size. The incorporation of gaseous absorption in multiple scattering atmospheres was accomplished by means of the correlated k-distribution approach. In addition, the strong forward diffraction nature in the phase function was accounted for in each predivided spatial grid based on a delta-function adjustment. The radiation parameterization developed herein is applied to potential cloud configurations generated from GCMs to investigate broken clouds and cloud-overlapping effects on the domain-averaged heating rate. Cloud inhomogeneity plays an important role in the determination of flux and heating rate distributions. Clouds with maximum overlap tend to produce less heating than those with random overlap. Broken clouds show more solar heating as well as more IR cooling as compared to a continuous cloud field (Gu and Liou, 2001). (b) We incorporated a contemporary radiation parameterization scheme in the UCLA atmospheric GCM in collaboration with the UCLA GCM group. In conjunction with the cloud/radiation process studies, we developed a physically-based cloud cover formation scheme in association with radiation calculations. The model clouds were first vertically grouped in terms of low, middle, and high types. Maximum overlap was then used for each cloud type, followed by random overlap among the three cloud types. Fu and Liou's 1D radiation code with modification was subsequently employed for pixel-by-pixel radiation calculations in the UCLA GCM. We showed that the simulated cloud cover and OLR fields without special tuning are comparable to those of ISCCP dataset and the results derived from radiation budget experiments. Use of the new radiation and cloud schemes enhances the radiative warming in the middle to upper tropical troposphere and alleviates the cold bias in the UCLA atmospheric GCM. We also illustrated that ice crystal size and cloud inhomogeneous are significant factors affecting the radiation budgets at the top of the atmosphere and the surface (Gu et al. 2003). (c) An innovative approach has been developed to construct a 3D field of inhomogeneous clouds in general and cirrus in particular in terms of liquid/ice water content and particle size on the basis of a unification of satellite and ground-based cloud radar data. Satellite remote sensing employing the current narrow-band spectro-radiometers has limitation and only the vertically integrated cloud parameters (optical depth and mean particle size) can be determined. However, by combining the horizontal cloud mapping inferred from satellites with the vertical structure derived from the profiling Doppler cloud radar, a 3D cloud field can be constructed. This represents a new conceptual approach to 3D remote sensing and imaging and offers a new perspective in observing the cloud structure. We applied this novel technique to AVHRR/NOAA satellite and mm-wave cloud radar data obtained from the ARM achieve and assessed the 3D cirrus cloud field with the ice crystal size distributions independently derived from optical probe measurements aboard the University of North Dakota Citation. The retrieved 3D ice water content and mean effective ice crystal size involving an impressive cirrus cloud occurring on April 18, 1997, are shown to be comparable to those derived from the analysis of collocated and coincident in situ aircraft measurements (Liou et al. 2002). (d) Detection of thin cirrus with optical depths less than 0.5, particularly those occurring i n the tropics remains a fundamental problem in remote sensing. We developed a new detection scheme for the

  12. Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Shoring up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage #12;2StorSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Hybrid Cloud Storage Table of Contents The Hybrid Cloud Context for IT Managers ............................................................. 3 The Bottleneck of Managing Storage

  13. Satellite Remote Sensing of Mid-level Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Hongchun 1980-

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    algorithm is evaluated using the CALIPSO cloud phase products for single-layer, heterogeneous, and multi-layer scenes. The AIRS phase algorithm has excellent performance (>90%) in detecting ice clouds compared to the CALIPSO ice clouds. It is capable...

  14. A cloud-assisted design for autonomous driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh Kumar, Swarun

    This paper presents Carcel, a cloud-assisted system for autonomous driving. Carcel enables the cloud to have access to sensor data from autonomous vehicles as well as the roadside infrastructure. The cloud assists autonomous ...

  15. Aneka Cloud Application Platform and Its Integration with Windows Azure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    scheduling, and energy efficient resource utilization. The Aneka Cloud Application platform, together. Ltd., Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 2 Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS) Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Australia Abstract

  16. Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Fair-weather clouds hold dirty secret Released: May 05, 2013 New study reveals particles that seed small-scale clouds over Oklahoma Air...

  17. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and F. Zimmermann, ”LC e-Cloud Activities at CERN”, talkal. , Simulations of the Electron Cloud for Vari- ous Con?E-CLOUD BUILD-UP IN GROOVED CHAMBERS ? M. Venturini † LBNL,

  18. Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Building Dynamic Computing Infrastructures over Distributed Clouds Pierre Riteau University--The emergence of cloud computing infrastructures brings new ways to build and manage computing systems objectives. First, leveraging virtualization and cloud computing infrastruc- tures to build distributed large

  19. Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling Cloud Computing Infrastructure Marianne Hickey and Maher Rahmouni, HP Labs, Long Down, and shared vocabularies. Keywords: Modelling, Cloud Computing, RDF, Ontology, Rules, Validation 1 Introduction There is currently a shift towards cloud computing, which changes the model of provision

  20. Consistent cloud computing storage as the basis for distributed applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James William

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Messaging in Cloud Computing . . . . . . . . . .7 1.4Eucalyptus Open—Source Cloud—Computing System. In C'C&#http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Cloud-Computing/Amazons—Head—Start—

  1. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  2. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  3. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  4. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  5. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  6. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  7. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  8. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  9. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  10. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  11. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  12. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  13. Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. I. The Cam OB1 Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Straizys; V. Laugalys

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of dust and molecular clouds in the direction of Galactic longitudes 132--158 deg and latitudes pm 12 deg is investigated. The maps of dust distribution in the area were plotted from the following surveys: the star counts in the DSS I database by Dobashi et al. (2005), the survey of the average infrared color excesses by Froebrich et al. (2007) and the thermal dust emission survey at 100 micrometers by Schlegel et al. (1998). The distribution of molecular clouds was taken from the whole sky CO survey by Dame et al. (2001). All these surveys show very similar cloud patterns in the area. Using the radial velocities of CO, the distances to separate clouds are estimated. A revised list of the Cam OB1 association members contains 43 stars and the open cluster NGC 1502. 18 young irregular variable and H alpha emission stars are identified in the area. All this proves that the star forming process in the Camelopardalis clouds is still in progress.

  14. The Formation and Fragmentation of Primordial Molecular Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Abel; Greg L. Bryan; Michael L. Norman

    2000-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Many questions in physical cosmology regarding the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, chemical enrichment, reionization, etc. are thought to be intimately related to the nature and evolution of pregalactic structure. In particular the efficiency of primordial star formation and the primordial IMF are of special interest. We present results from high resolution three--dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations that follow the collapse of primordial molecular clouds and their subsequent fragmentation within a cosmologically representative volume. Comoving scales from 128 kpc down to 1 pc are followed accurately. Dark matter dynamics, hydrodynamics and all relevant chemical and radiative processes (cooling) are followed self-consistently for a cluster normalized CDM structure formation model. Primordial molecular clouds with ~10^5 solar masses are assembled by mergers of multiple objects that have formed hydrogen molecules in the gas phase with a fractional abundance of ~10^-4. As the subclumps merge cooling lowers the temperature to ~200 Kelvin in a `cold pocket' at the center of the halo. Within this cold pocket, a quasi-hydrostatically contracting core with ~200 solar mass and number densities > 10^5 cm^-3 is found. We find that less than 1% of the primordial gas in such small scale structures cools and collapses to sufficiently high densities to be available for primordial star formation. Furthermore, it is worthwhile to note that this study achieved the highest dynamic range covered by structured adaptive mesh techniques in cosmological hydrodynamics to date.

  15. Baryonic fraction in the cold plus hot dark matter universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eunwoo Choi; Dongsu Ryu

    1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a study to constrain the fraction of baryonic matter in the cold plus hot dark matter (CHDM) universe by numerical simulations which include the hydrodynamics of baryonic matter as well as the particle dynamics of dark matter. Spatially flat, COBE-normalized CHDM models with the fraction of hot component $\\Omega_h\\leq0.2$ are considered. We show that the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.1$ and $0.5/0.9/0.2$ give a linear power spectrum which agrees well with observations. Here, $h$ is the Hubble constant in unit of $100~km/s/Mpc$ and $n$ is the spectral index of the initial power spectrum. Then, for the models with $h/n/\\Omega_h=0.5/0.9/0.2$ and baryonic fraction $\\Omega_b=0.05$ and 0.1 we calculate the properties of X-ray clusters, such as luminosity function, temperature distribution function, luminosity-temperature relation, histogram of gas to total mass ratio, and change of average temperature with redshift $z$. Comparison with the observed data of X-ray clusters indicates that the model with $\\Omega_b=0.05$ is preferred. The COBE-normalized CHDM model with $\\Omega_b>0.1$ may be ruled out by the present work, since it produces too many X-ray bright clusters.

  16. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  17. AEROSOL, CLOUDS, AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ, S.E.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth's climate is thought to be quite sensitive to changes in radiative fluxes that are quite small in absolute magnitude, a few watts per square meter, and in relation to these fluxes in the natural climate. Atmospheric aerosol particles exert influence on climate directly, by scattering and absorbing radiation, and indirectly by modifying the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their radiative effects and hydrology. The forcing of climate change by these indirect effects is thought to be quite substantial relative to forcing by incremental concentrations of greenhouse gases, but highly uncertain. Quantification of aerosol indirect forcing by satellite- or ground-based remote sensing has proved quite difficult in view of inherent large variation in the pertinent observables such as cloud optical depth, which is controlled mainly by liquid water path and only secondarily by aerosols. Limited work has shown instances of large magnitude of aerosol indirect forcing, with local instantaneous forcing upwards of 50 W m{sup 66}-2. Ultimately it will be necessary to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models to accurately identify the anthropogenic forcing at present and over secular time and to assess the influence of this forcing in the context of other forcings of climate change. While the elements of aerosol processes that must be represented in models describing the evolution and properties of aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation particles are known, many important components of these processes remain to be understood and to be represented in models, and the models evaluated against observation, before such model-based representations can confidently be used to represent aerosol indirect effects in climate models.

  18. The Giant Molecular Cloud Environments of Infrared Dark Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Audra K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the GMC environments surrounding 10 IRDCs, based on 13CO molecular line emission from the Galactic Ring Survey. Using a range of physical scales, we measure the physical properties of the IRDCs and their surrounding molecular material extending out to radii, R, of 30pc. By comparing different methods for defining cloud boundaries and for deriving mass surface densities, Sigma, and velocity dispersions, sigma, we settled on a preferred "CE,tau,G" method of "Connected Extraction" in position-velocity space along with Gaussian fitting to opacity-corrected line profiles for velocity dispersion and mass estimation. We examine how cloud definition affects measurements of the magnitude and direction of line of sight velocity gradients and velocity dispersions, including the associated dependencies on size scale. CE,tau,G-defined IRDCs and GMCs show velocity gradient versus size relations that scale approximately as dv_0/ds~s^(-1/2) and velocity dispersion versus size relations sigma~s^(1/2), which are consi...

  19. Catalytic cracking of residual petroleum fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, H.F.; Mayo, S.L.; Goolsby, T.L. (Research and Development Dept., Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on Arabian Light crude oil vacuum bottoms fractionated into five high-boiling fractions by wiped film evaporation, and the fractions subjected to catalytic cracking in a fixed-fluidized bed using a commercial equilibrium cracking catalyst. Density, aromaticity, and heteroatom content generally increased with boiling point, as did metals content except for vanadium and iron which demonstrated possible bimodal distributions. The cracking response of these fractions showed increasing yields of dry gas and coke, with decreasing gasoline yields, as a function of increasing apparent boiling point as would normally be expected. Surprisingly, however, local maxima were observed for wet gas yield and total conversion, with local minima for cycle oil and slurry yields, in the region of the 1200-1263{degrees}F (650-680{degrees}C) middle fraction. All fractions showed significant response to cracking, with coke yields generally being the only negative factor observed.

  20. Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasily E. Tarasov

    2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.

  1. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: Making Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska OutreachMaking Clouds Outreach Home

  3. Sandia Energy - Cloud Computing Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCaptureCloud Computing Services

  4. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  5. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  6. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  7. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  8. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  9. Stable Isotope Fractionations in Biogeochemical Reactive Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druhan, Jennifer Lea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    34 S fractionation . Summary A mesoscale study of isotopicion exchange and ! 44 Ca . A mesoscale study of isotopicmodeling and ! 34 S . A mesoscale study of isotopic

  10. CloneCloud: Boosting Mobile Device Applications Through Cloud Clone Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun, Byung-Gon; Maniatis, Petros; Naik, Mayur

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and provide ever richer functionality on mobile devices. At the same time, such devices often enjoy strong connectivity with more powerful machines ranging from laptops and desktops to commercial clouds. This paper presents the design and implementation of CloneCloud, a system that automatically transforms mobile applications to benefit from the cloud. The system is a flexible application partitioner and execution runtime that enables unmodified mobile applications running in an application-level virtual machine to seamlessly off-load part of their execution from mobile devices onto device clones operating in a computational cloud. CloneCloud uses a combination of static analysis and dynamic profiling to optimally and automatically partition an application so that it migrates, executes in the cloud, and re-integrates computation in a fine-grained manner that makes efficient use of resources. Our evaluation shows that CloneCloud can achieve up to 21.2x s...

  11. Public Cloud B CarbonEmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Sensors, Demand Prediction Power Capping, Green Software Services such as energy-efficient scientific) Request a Cloud service 4) Allocate service 5) Request service allocation 3) Request energy efficiency information Green Offer Directory 2) Request any `Green Offer' Routers Internet Green Broker #12;Cloud

  12. The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Stefan

    Nets Network Virtualization Architecture Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de 05. Februar, 2014 Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12;..... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ..... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . Johannes Grassler jgrassler@inet.tu-berlin.de The CloudNets Network Virtualization Architecture #12

  13. 7, 80878111, 2007 Influence of cloud top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter, Barfus top variability from radar measurements on 3-D radiative transfer F. Richter 1 , K. Barfus 1 , F. H.richter@awi.de) 8087 #12;ACPD 7, 8087­8111, 2007 Influence of cloud top variability on radiative transfer Richter

  14. Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maniatis, Petros

    Verifiable Resource Accounting for Cloud Computing Services Vyas Sekar Intel Labs Petros Maniatis Intel Labs ABSTRACT Cloud computing offers users the potential to reduce operating and capital expenses cause providers to incorrectly attribute resource consumption to customers or im- plicitly bear

  15. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  16. CLOUD COMPUTING INFRASTRUCTURE AND OPERATIONS PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    theory and best practices, Cloud operations analytics, globally-responsive architecture, functional of Cloud infrastructures Best practices for building Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), with an emphasis-distributed, responsive web application capable of massive scale with operational performance metrics. DePaul University

  17. Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Privacy in the Cloud Computing Era A Microsoft Perspective November 2009 #12;The information information presented after the date of publication. This white paper is for informational purposes only. Microsoft Corp. · One Microsoft Way · Redmond, WA 98052-6399 · USA #12;Contents Cloud Computing and Privacy

  18. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day?km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by the cloud radiative heating profiles. However, the height of the radiative heating maxima and gradient of the heating profiles are important to determine the sign and patterns of the horizontal circulation anomaly driven by radiative heating at upper levels.

  19. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  20. Cloud-integrated Storage What & Why 2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Cloud-integrated Storage ­ What & Why #12;2StoreSimple White Pages: Shoring Up Infrastructure Weaknesses with Cloud Storage Overview..........................................................................................................3 Enterprise-class storage platform

  1. Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOE NationalCommitteeof3

  2. QUANTIFYING OBSERVATIONAL PROJECTION EFFECTS USING MOLECULAR CLOUD SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, Christopher N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Offner, Stella S.R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Goodman, Alyssa A., E-mail: beaumont@ifa.hawaii.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical properties of molecular clouds are often measured using spectral-line observations, which provide the only probes of the clouds' velocity structure. It is hard, though, to assess whether and to what extent intensity features in position-position-velocity (PPV) space correspond to 'real' density structures in position-position-position (PPP) space. In this paper, we create synthetic molecular cloud spectral-line maps of simulated molecular clouds, and present a new technique for measuring the reality of individual PPV structures. Using a dendrogram algorithm, we identify hierarchical structures in both PPP and PPV space. Our procedure projects density structures identified in PPP space into corresponding intensity structures in PPV space and then measures the geometric overlap of the projected structures with structures identified from the synthetic observation. The fractional overlap between a PPP and PPV structure quantifies how well the synthetic observation recovers information about the three-dimensional structure. Applying this machinery to a set of synthetic observations of CO isotopes, we measure how well spectral-line measurements recover mass, size, velocity dispersion, and virial parameter for a simulated star-forming region. By disabling various steps of our analysis, we investigate how much opacity, chemistry, and gravity affect measurements of physical properties extracted from PPV cubes. For the simulations used here, which offer a decent, but not perfect, match to the properties of a star-forming region like Perseus, our results suggest that superposition induces a ?40% uncertainty in masses, sizes, and velocity dispersions derived from {sup 13}CO (J = 1-0). As would be expected, superposition and confusion is worst in regions where the filling factor of emitting material is large. The virial parameter is most affected by superposition, such that estimates of the virial parameter derived from PPV and PPP information typically disagree by a factor of ?2. This uncertainty makes it particularly difficult to judge whether gravitational or kinetic energy dominate a given region, since the majority of virial parameter measurements fall within a factor of two of the equipartition level ? ? 2.

  3. Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jindal, Nihar

    1 Fractional Power Control for Decentralized Wireless Networks Nihar Jindal, Steven Weber, Jeffrey G. Andrews Abstract We propose and analyze a new paradigm for power control in decentralized wireless networks, termed fractional power control. Transmission power is chosen as the current channel

  4. Void Fraction Instrument operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borgonovi, G.; Stokes, T.I.; Pearce, K.L.; Martin, J.D.; Gimera, M.; Graves, D.B.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Operations and Maintenance Manual (O&MM) addresses riser installation, equipment and personnel hazards, operating instructions, calibration, maintenance, removal, and other pertinent information necessary to safely operate and store the Void Fraction Instrument. Final decontamination and decommissioning of the Void Fraction Instrument are not covered in this document.

  5. Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Frank

    Combinatorial Dimension in Fractional Cartesian Products Ron Blei,1 Fuchang Gao2 1 Department of Mathematics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268; e-mail: blei@math.uconn.edu 2 Department? Correspondence to: R. Blei © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 146 #12;COMBINATORIAL DIMENSION IN FRACTIONAL CARTESIAN

  6. [Carbon isotope fractionation inplants]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Leary, M.H.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research are: To develop a theoretical and experimental framework for understanding isotope fractionations in plants; and to develop methods for using this isotope fractionation for understanding the dynamics of CO{sub 2} fixation in plants. Progress is described.

  7. Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. II. Infrared Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Straizys; V. Laugalys

    2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using infrared photometric data extracted from the 2MASS, IRAS and MSX databases, 142 suspected young stellar objects (YSOs) are selected from about 2 million stars in the Camelopardalis segment of the Milky Way limited by Galactic longitude 132-158 deg, latitude pm 12 deg. According to radial velocities of the associated CO clouds, the objects are attributed to three molecular and dust cloud layers at 150--300 pc, 900 pc and 2.2 kpc distances from the Sun. These objects concentrate into dust and molecular clouds and exhibit extremely large reddenings (A_V up to 25 mag) which can be caused by the dust in foreground clouds and circumstellar envelopes or disks. In the J-H vs. H-K diagram these objects lie above the intrinsic line of T Tauri variables, roughly along the black-body line. Among the identified objects, some already known YSOs are present, including the well investigated massive object GL 490. The spectral energy distributions between 700 nm and 100 mum suggest that the objects may be YSOs of classes I, II and III. However, we do not exclude the possibility that a small fraction of the objects, especially those without IRAS and MSX photometry, may be unrecognized heavily reddened OB-stars, late-type AGB stars or even galaxies.

  8. A study of the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate and cloud drop nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C. C..; Penner, J. E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document investigates the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosols and the condensationally produced cloud drops. The changes in aerosol size distribution associated with anthropogenic sulfur emissions may increase the number of cloud drops with subsequent influence on cloud albedo and climate. It has been suggested that the increase in CCN in industrial regions might explain why the Northern Hemisphere has not been warming as rapidly as the Southern Hemisphere over the last 50 Years (Wigley, 1989). In reality, the aerosol size distribution is the result of processes working simultaneously and continuously with such sources as sulfur, soot, particulate organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, etc. Instead of applying a complete aerosol model to investigate the effect of anthropogenic sulfur emissions on the aerosol size distribution, we simply derived the anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosol distribution by assuming that 75% of the anthropogenic was formed through aqueous-phase oxidation and the remaining 25% condensed onto a Prescribed preexisting particle distribution. Uncertainties may arise from the assumed fraction of sulfate produced by condensation and in cloud oxidation. In addition, new particle formation through homogeneous nucleation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O is ignored in this paper.

  9. Early-stage star forming cloud cores in GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs) as traced by organics pecies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Jixing; Chen, Xi; Takahashi, S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate the physical and chemical properties of massive star forming cores in early stages, we analyse the excitation and abundance of four organic species, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3 and CH3CH2CN, toward 29 Extended Green Object (EGO) cloud cores that were observed by our previous single dish spectral line survey. The EGO cloud cores are found to have similar methanol J_3-J_2 rotation temperatures of ~44 K, a typical linear size of ~0.036 pc, and a typical beam averaged methanol abundance of several 10^(-9) (the beam corrected value could reach several 10^(-7)). The abundances of the latter three species, normalized by that of methanol, are found to be correlated also across a large variety of clouds such as EGO cloud cores, hot corinos, massive hot cores and Galactic Center clouds. The chemical properties of the EGO cloud cores lie between that of hot cores and hot corinos. However, the abundances and abundance ratios of the four species can not be satisfactorily explained by recent chemical mo...

  10. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  11. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  12. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  13. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  14. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  15. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  16. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  17. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  18. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  19. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  20. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  1. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  2. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  3. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  4. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  5. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  6. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  7. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  8. Securely Managing Cryptographic Keys used within a Cloud Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Co-tenancy, Distributed Management Cryptography essential to secure cloud operations Use of sound;Page 3 Cloud Service Provider (CSP) - Models Cloud Service Models Software as a Service (Saa CSP know who I am? How is my connection to cloud components protected? Administration Who

  9. Proximity Graphs for Defining Surfaces over Point Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    over Point Clouds Gabriel Zachmann University of Bonn Germany Jan Klein University of Paderborn Germany

  10. The aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud scenes. The cloud reflectance spectra are read from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    distribution of clouds and aerosols along the white CALIPSO track in Fig.1b is shown in Fig. 2. The distanceThe aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over clouds is quantified using measured reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol polluted cloud scenes and modeled reflectance spectra of unpolluted cloud

  11. CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    CLOUD PHYSICS From aerosol-limited to invigoration of warm convective clouds Ilan Koren,1 * Guy Dagan,1 Orit Altaratz1 Among all cloud-aerosol interactions, the invigoration effect is the most elusive. Most of the studies that do suggest this effect link it to deep convective clouds with a warm base

  12. Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Jing

    Fault-Tolerant and Reliable Computation in Cloud Computing Jing Deng Scott C.-H. Huang Yunghsiang S, Taipei, 106 Taiwan. § Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA. Abstract-- Cloud computing of scientific computation in cloud computing. We investigate a cloud selection strategy to decompose the matrix

  13. How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    How Mobility Increases Mobile Cloud Computing Processing Capacity Anh-Dung Nguyen, Patrick S--In this paper, we address a important and still unanswered question in mobile cloud computing "how mobility the resilience of mobile cloud computing services. Keywords--Mobile cloud computing, mobility, quality of service

  14. IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Tivoli Cloud Computing: Technical Enablement for IBM Business Partners Cloud computing is a key part of driving greater alignment between business and IT. IBM Service Management and Cloud Computing to the IBM technical community. IBM Cloud Computing Business Partner Technical Enablement Offering

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Analysis of Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Rachel L. Atlas1' gas-phase emissions and the aerosols they form (figure 6), including a cloud condensation nuclei Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are particles which water vapor condenses onto to form cloud droplets

  16. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  17. The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for cloud-radiation research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.; Young, S.A. [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia)] [Division of Atmospheric Research, Victoria (Australia); Carswell, A.I.; Pal, S.R. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada)] [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); McCormick, M.P.; Winker, D.M. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)] [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); DelGuasta, M.; Stefanutti, L. [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy)] [Institute Ricerca Onde Elettromagnetiche, Florence (Italy); Eberhard, W.L.; Hardesty, M. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)] [and others] [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) was initiated to obtain statistics on cloud-base height, extinction, optical depth, cloud brokenness, and surface fluxes. Two observational phases have taken place, in October-December 1989 and April-July 1991, with intensive 30-day periods selected within the two time intervals. Data are being archived at NASA Langley Research Center, and, once there, are readily available to the international scientific community. 43 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Cloud Computing Strategy working paper, April 2011 1 of 25 NIST Strategy to build a USG Cloud of United States Government (USG) secure and effective adoption of the Cloud Computing2 model to reduce costs and improve services. The working document describes the NIST Cloud Computing program efforts

  19. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Computing and Partitioning Cloud Feedbacks using Cloud1 Property Histograms.2 Part II: Attribution to the Nature of Cloud Changes3 Mark D-103 Livermore, CA 94551 E-mail: zelinka1@llnl.gov 1 #12;ABSTRACT7 Cloud radiative kernels

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky: Formation Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Daniel

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CLOUD COMPUTING, VOL. XX, NO. X, XXXX 1 Cloud Federations in the Sky federation, virtual machine, game theory. 1 INTRODUCTION CLOUDS are large-scale distributed computing sys (VM) instances. Cloud computing systems' ability to provide on de- mand access to always-on computing

  1. Development of advanced cloud parameterizations to examine air quality, cloud properties, and cloud-radiation feedback in mesoscale models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, In Young

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of atmospheric pollutants is governed by dynamic processes that create the general conditions for transport and mixing, by microphysical processes that control the evolution of aerosol and cloud particles, and by chemical processes that transform chemical species and form aerosols. Pollutants emitted into the air can undergo homogeneous gas reactions to create a suitable environment for the production by heterogeneous nucleation of embryos composed of a few molecules. The physicochemical properties of preexisting aerosols interact with newly produced embryos to evolve by heteromolecular diffusion and coagulation. Hygroscopic particles wig serve as effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), while hydrophobic particles will serve as effective ice-forming nuclei. Clouds form initially by condensation of water vapor on CCN and evolve in a vapor-liquid-solid system by deposition, sublimation, freezing, melting, coagulation, and breakup. Gases and aerosols that enter the clouds undergo aqueous chemical processes and may acidity hydrometer particles. Calculations for solar and longwave radiation fluxes depend on how the respective spectra are modified by absorbers such as H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, chlorofruorocarbons, and aerosols. However, the flux calculations are more complicated for cloudy skies, because the cloud optical properties are not well defined. In this paper, key processes such as tropospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics parameterizations, and radiation schemes are reviewed in terms of physicochemical processes occurring, and recommendations are made for the development of advanced modules applicable to mesoscale models.

  2. Pre-Cloud Aerosol, Cloud Droplet Concentration, and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign First Quarter 2010 ASR Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Lee, Y-N; Sedlacek, AJ; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this, the first of a series of Program Metric Reports, we (1) describe archived data from the DOE G-1 aircraft, (2) illustrate several relations between sub-cloud aerosol, CCN, and cloud droplets pertinent to determining the effects of pollutant sources on cloud properties, and (3) post to the data archive an Excel spreadsheet that contains cloud and corresponding sub-cloud data.

  3. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  4. EVENT CLOUDS : lighter than air architectural structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peydro Duclos, Ignacio

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVENT CLOUD is a versatile covering system that allows events to happen independently to weather conditions. It consists of a lighter than air pneumatic structure, filled either with helium or hot air, that covers spaces ...

  5. Uranus at equinox: Cloud morphology and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sromovsky, Lawrence; Hammel, Heidi; Ahue, William; de Pater, Imke; Rages, Kathy; Showalter, Mark; van Dam, Marcos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the 7 December 2007 equinox of Uranus approached, ring and atmosphere observers produced a substantial collection of observations using the 10-m Keck telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. Those spanning the period from 7 June 2007 through 9 September 2007 we used to identify and track cloud features, determine atmospheric motions, characterize cloud morphology and dynamics, and define changes in atmospheric band structure. We confirmed the existence of the suspected northern hemisphere prograde jet, locating its peak near 58 N, and extended wind speed measurements to 73 N. For 28 cloud features we obtained extremely high wind-speed accuracy through extended tracking times. The new results confirm a small N-S asymmetry in the zonal wind profile, and the lack of any change in the southern hemisphere between 1986 (near solstice) and 2007 (near equinox) suggests that the asymmetry may be permanent rather than seasonally reversing. In the 2007 images we found two prominent groups of discrete cloud features ...

  6. Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Scalable Cloud Computing Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computer Science Division Start Date: Apr 9 2015 - 11:00am BuildingRoom: Building 240Room 4301 Location: Argonne...

  7. Factors shaping the future of Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Steven (Steven Douglas)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many different forces are currently shaping the future of the Cloud Computing Market. End user demand and end user investment in existing technology are important drivers. Vendor innovation and competitive strategy are ...

  8. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  9. HPC CLOUD APPLIED TO LATTICE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; Nishimura, Hiroshi; James, Susan; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As Cloud services gain in popularity for enterprise use, vendors are now turning their focus towards providing cloud services suitable for scientific computing. Recently, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) introduced the new Cluster Compute Instances (CCI), a new instance type specifically designed for High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. At Berkeley Lab, the physicists at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been running Lattice Optimization on a local cluster, but the queue wait time and the flexibility to request compute resources when needed are not ideal for rapid development work. To explore alternatives, for the first time we investigate running the Lattice Optimization application on Amazon's new CCI to demonstrate the feasibility and trade-offs of using public cloud services for science.

  10. Exploiting weather forecast data for cloud detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackie, Shona

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate, fast detection of clouds in satellite imagery has many applications, for example Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate studies of both the atmosphere and of the Earth’s surface temperature. Most ...

  11. Aircraft induced cirrus cloud First year report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    and coagulation. A resulting size distribution of ice crystals is deemed indicative of contrail cirrus cloud model operates, simulating the life cycle of aerosol and ice particles: nucleation, condensation

  12. Ground-based All-sky Mid-infrared and Visible Imagery for Purposes of Characterizing Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebe, Dimitri; Blatherwick, R. D.; Morris, Victor R.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA), a multi-purpose visible and infrared sky imaging and analysis instrument whose primary functionality is to provide radiometrically calibrated imagery in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) atmospheric window. This functionality enables the determination of diurnal hemispherical cloud fraction (HCF) and estimates of sky/cloud temperature from which one can derive estimates of cloud emissivity and cloud height. This paper describes the calibration methods and performance of the ASIVA instrument with particular emphasis on data products being developed for the meteorological community. Data presented here were collected during a field campaign conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility from May 21 to July 27, 2009. The purpose of this campaign was to determine the efficacy of IR technology in providing reliable nighttime HCF data. Significant progress has been made in the analysis of the campaign data over the past several years and the ASIVA has proven to be an excellent instrument for determining HCF as well as several other important cloud properties.

  13. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  14. The arc cloud complex: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Robert Loren

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE ARC CLOUD COMPLEX: A CASE STUDY A Thesis by ROBERT LOREN MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject...: Meteorology THE ARC CLOUD COMPLEX; A CASE STUDY A Thesis by ROBERT LOREN MILLER Approved as to style and content by: Kenneth C. Brundidge (Chairman of Committee) Walter K. Henry (Member) Marshall ~ Mcparland (Member) James R. Scog s (Head...

  15. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  16. Selecting Fractionators for Product Composition Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, D. E.; Anderson, J. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benefits resulting from computer control of fractionators have been proven in many installations. These benefits include energy savings, increased throughput, higher recovery product upgrade and smoother operation. As a basis for understanding...

  17. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  18. Algebra of Fractions of Algebra with Conjugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleks Kleyn

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In the paper, I considered construction of algebra of fractions of algebra with conjugation. I also considered algebra of polynomials and algebra of rational mappings over algebra with conjugation.

  19. Carbon isotope fractionation in autotrophic Chromatium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, William Wai-Lun

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CARSON ISOTOPE FRACTIONATION IN AUTOTPOPHIC CHROYATIUN A Thesis 'JILLIAJJ J JAI LJJN BONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&H University in partial fulfillment of the requirenent for the degree of PLASTER OF SCIENCE August 1974...) August 1974 ABSTRACT Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Autotrophic Chromatium (August 1974) blilliam Wai-Lun Wang, B. S. , Texas Lutheran College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Isilliam N. Sackett Dr. Chauncey P. . Benedict Bacterial cells...

  20. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

  1. Exact Methods In Fractional Combinatorial Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ursulenko, Oleksii

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -to-time ratio cycle problem, also known as the tramp steamer problem [2]. A short survey on fractional combinatorial optimization problems and related solution approaches can be found in [35]. Recently, Skiscim and Palocsay [39, 40] have introduced a..., approximability and local search, are addressed in [32, 33]. Generally speaking, multiple-ratio problems arise in case of multiple fractional performance metrics that need to be optimized, e.g., a eet of cargo ships in the tramp steamer problem. Related...

  2. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Cloud-Based Software: A U.S. Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology:  Can  Cloud  Computing  Enable  Carbon  environment/resources/Can_Cloud_Computing_Enable_Carbon_AbatTechnology:  Can  Cloud  Computing  Enable  Carbon  

  3. Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

  4. Cloud water contents and hydrometeor sizes during the FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    of radiometers at an ice station frozen into the drifting ice pack of the Arctic Ocean. The NASA/FIRE Arctic- dependent water contents and hydrometeor sizes for all-ice and all-liquid clouds. For the spring and early summer period, all-ice cloud retrievals showed a mean particle diameter of about 60 m and ice water

  5. X-1 ROEBELING ET AL.: SEVIRI & AVHRR CLOUD PROPERTY RETRIEVALS Cloud property retrievals for climate monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Generation (METEOSAT-8) and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the National Oceanic a consistent and high quality dataset of SEVIRI and AVHRR retrieved cloud properties for climate research studies. Clouds strongly modulate the energy balance of the Earth and its atmosphere through

  6. JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS surface. In 1997-1998, a large multi-agency effort made the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA with the ice pack in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas for one year. Surface-based remote sensors generated

  7. CloudCmp: Shopping for a Cloud Made Easy Ang Li Xiaowei Yang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ming

    benchmarking results on three representative cloud providers. These results show that the performance and costs interfaces, and benchmarks the performance and costs of these services. It then expresses an applicationCmp and highlight the main technical chal- lenges. CloudCmp includes a set of benchmarking tools that compare

  8. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

  9. The Radiative, Cloud, and Thermodynamic Properties of the Major Tropical Western Pacific Cloud Regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakob, Christian

    's surface. Other effects include the release and consumption of latent heat related to phase changes in the tropical western Pacific (TWP). A cluster analysis is applied to 2 yr of daytime-only data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) to identify four major cloud regimes in the TWP region

  10. Isolating signatures of major cloud-cloud collisions using position-velocity diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haworth, T J; Fukui, Y; Torii, K; Dale, J E; Shima, K; Takahira, K; Habe, A; Hasegawa, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisions between giant molecular clouds are a potential mechanism for triggering the formation of massive stars, or even super star clusters. The trouble is identifying this process observationally and distinguishing it from other mechanisms. We produce synthetic position-velocity diagrams from models of: cloud-cloud collisions, non-interacting clouds along the line of sight, clouds with internal radiative feedback and a more complex cloud evolving in a galactic disc, to try and identify unique signatures of collision. We find that a broad bridge feature connecting two intensity peaks, spatially correlated but separated in velocity, is a signature of a high velocity cloud-cloud collision. We show that the broad bridge feature is resilient to the effects of radiative feedback, at least to around 2.5Myr after the formation of the first massive (ionising) star. However for a head on 10km/s collision we find that this will only be observable from 20-30 per cent of viewing angles. Such broad-bridge features have...

  11. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  12. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  13. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  14. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  15. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  16. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  17. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  18. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  19. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  20. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  1. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  4. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  5. Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Particulate Matter on DPF Soot Method Development: Identification of the Soluble Organic Fraction of...

  6. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides. Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes in Phosphate during its Interactions with Iron Oxides....

  7. Triggered star formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Elmegreen; J. Palous; Kenji Bekki

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. We discuss how tidal interaction between the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the Galaxy triggers galaxy-wide star formation in the Clouds for the last ? 0.2 Gyr based on our chemodynamical simulations on the Clouds. Our simulations demonstrate that the tidal interaction induces the formation of asymmetric spiral arms with high gas densities and consequently triggers star formation within the arms in the LMC. Star formation rate in the present LMC is significantly enhanced just above the eastern edge of the LMC’s stellar bar owing to the tidal interaction. The location of the enhanced star formation is very similar to the observed location of 30 Doradus, which suggests that the formation of 30 Doradus is closely associated with the last Magellanic collision about 0.2 Gyr ago. The tidal interaction can dramatically compress gas initially within the outer part of the SMC so that new stars can be formed from the gas to become intergalactic young stars in the inter-Cloud region (e.g., the Magellanic Bridge). The metallicity distribution function of the newly formed stars in the Magellanic Bridge has a peak of [Fe/H] ? ?0.8, which is significantly lower than the stellar metallicity of the SMC.

  8. Study of Electron Cloud for MEIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Ahmed, J.D. Dolph, G.A. Krafft, T. Satogata, B.C. Yunn

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab has been envisioned as a future high energy particle accelerator beyond the 12 GeV upgrade of the existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Synchrotron radiation from the closely spaced proton bunches in MEIC can generate photoelectrons inside the vacuum chamber and cause secondary emission due to multipacting in the presence of beam's electric field. This phenomenon can lead to fast build up of electron density, known as electron cloud effect - resulting into beam instability coupled to multi-bunches in addition to a single bunch. For MEIC, the estimated threshold value of the electron-cloud density is approximately 5 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3}. In this paper, we would like to report the self-consistent simulation studies of electron cloud formation for MEIC. The code has been benchmarked against the published data of electron cloud effects observed in LHC. Our first simulations predict increase of electron clouds with the increase of repetition rate. The detailed simulations are under progress and will be reported.

  9. Cloud Business Models and Sustainability: Impacts for businesses and e-Research Accepted by "Software Sustainability" Workshops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by Mathematica. This leads to development of Cloud Sustainability Framework (CSF), which measures cloud business

  10. Quantum probes for fractional Gaussian processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo G. A. Paris

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the characterization of classical fractional random noise via quantum probes. In particular, we focus on estimation and discrimination problems involving the fractal dimension of the trajectories of a system subject to fractional Brownian noise. We assume that the classical degree of freedom exposed to the environmental noise is coupled to a quantum degree of freedom of the same system, e.g. its spin, and exploit quantum limited measurements on the spin part to characterize the classical fractional noise. More generally, our approach may be applied to any two-level system subject to dephasing perturbations described by fractional Brownian noise, in order to assess the precision of quantum limited measurements in the characterization of the external noise. In order to assess the performances of quantum probes we evaluate the Bures metric, as well as the Helstrom and the Chernoff bound, and optimize their values over the interaction time. We find that quantum probes may be successfully employed to obtain a reliable characterization of fractional Gaussian process when the coupling with the environment is weak or strong. In the first case decoherence is not much detrimental and for long interaction times the probe acquires information about the environmental parameters without being too much mixed. Conversely, for strong coupling, information is quickly impinged on the quantum probe and can effectively retrieved by measurements performed in the early stage of the evolution. In the intermediate situation, none of the two above effects take place: information is flowing from the environment to the probe too slowly compared to decoherence, and no measurements can be effectively employed to extract it from the quantum probe. The two regimes of weak- and strong-coupling are defined in terms of a threshold value of the coupling, which itself increases with the fractional dimension.

  11. Simulation and measurement of the fractional particle number in one-dimensional optical lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan-Wei Zhang; Feng Mei; Zheng-Yuan Xue; Shi-Liang Zhu; Z. D. Wang

    2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme to mimic and directly measure the fractional particle number in a generalized Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with ultracold fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices. We show that the fractional particle number in this model can be simulated in the momentum-time parameter space in terms of Berry curvature without a spatial domain wall. In this simulation, a hopping modulation is adiabatically tuned to form a kink-type configuration and the induced current plays the role of an analogous soliton distributing in the time domain, such that the mimicked fractional particle number is expressed by the particle transport. Two feasible experimental setups of optical lattices for realizing the required Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and time-varying hopping modulation are presented. We also show practical methods for measuring the particle transport in the proposed cold atom systems by numerically calculating the shift of the Wannier center and the center of mass of an atomic cloud.

  12. The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  13. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  14. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  15. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  16. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  17. The star-forming content of the W3 giant molecular cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T J T Moore; D E Bretherton; T Fujiyoshi; N A Ridge; J Allsopp; M G Hoare; S L Lumsden; J S Richer

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have surveyed a ~0.9-square-degree area of the W3 giant molecular cloud and star-forming region in the 850-micron continuum, using the SCUBA bolometer array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. A complete sample of 316 dense clumps was detected with a mass range from around 13 to 2500 Msun. Part of the W3 GMC is subject to an interaction with the HII region and fast stellar winds generated by the nearby W4 OB association. We find that the fraction of total gas mass in dense, 850-micron traced structures is significantly altered by this interaction, being around 5% to 13% in the undisturbed cloud but ~25 - 37% in the feedback-affected region. The mass distribution in the detected clump sample depends somewhat on assumptions of dust temperature and is not a simple, single power law but contains significant structure at intermediate masses. This structure is likely to be due to crowding of sources near or below the spatial resolution of the observations. There is little evidence of any difference between the index of the high-mass end of the clump mass function in the compressed region and in the unaffected cloud. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of current models of triggered star formation.

  18. Clouds, solar irradiance and mean surface temperature over the last century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlykin, A D; Wolfendale, A W; 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.12.013

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inter-relation of clouds, solar irradiance and surface temperature is complex and subject to different interpretations. Here, we continue our recent work, which related mainly to the period from 1960 to the present, back to 1900 with further, but less detailed, analysis of the last 1000 years. The last 20 years is examined especially. Attention is given to the mean surface temperature, solar irradiance correlation, which appears to be present (with decadal smoothing) with a 22-year period; it is stronger than the 11-year cycle correlation with one year resolution. UV in the solar radiation is a likely cause. Cloud data are taken from synoptic observations back to 1952 and, again, there appears to be a correlation - with opposite phase for high and low clouds - at the 20-30y level. Particular attention is devoted to answering the question, 'what fraction of the observed increase in mean Global temperature (~0.7^oC) can be attributed to solar, as distinct from man-made, effects?' We conclude that a best est...

  19. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  20. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  1. Electron Cloud observation in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rumolo, G; Baglin, V; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Baudrenghien, P; Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P; Claudet, S; De Maria, R; Esteban-Muller, J; Favier, M; Hansen, C; Höfle, W; Jimenez, J M; Kain, V; Lanza, G; Li, K S B; Maury Cuna, G H I; Métral, E; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Roncarolo, F; Salvant, B; Shaposhnikova, E N; Steinhagen, R J; Tavian, L J; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Zimmermann, F; Iriso, U; Dominguez, O; Koukovini-Platia, E; Mounet, N; Zannini, C; Bhat, C M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of LHC with bunch trains at different spacings has revealed the formation of an electron cloud inside the machine. The main observations of electron cloud build up are the pressure rise measured at the vacuum gauges in the warm regions, as well as the increase of the beam screen temperature in the cold regions due to an additional heat load. The effects of the electron cloud were also visible as instability and emittance growth affecting the last bunches of longer trains, which could be improved running with higher chromaticity or larger transverse emittances. A summary of the 2010 and 2011 observations and measurements and a comparison with models will be presented. The efficiency of scrubbing to improve the machine running performance will be briefly discussed.

  2. High-velocity clouds: a diverse phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Wakker

    2001-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution the current state of knowledge about the high-velocity clouds (HVCs) is summarized. Recent progress has shown that the HVCs are a diverse phenomenon. The intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) are likely to be part of a Galactic Fountain. The Magellanic Stream is a tidal remnant. HVC complex C (possibly complexes A and GCN) are low-metallicity clouds near the Galaxy; they could be remnants of the formation of the Galaxy or old tidal streams extracted from nearby dwarf galaxies. Having a substantial number of HI HVCs dispersed throughout the Local Group seems incompatible with the observed HI mass function of galaxies. Finally, FUSE finds high-velocity OVI, some of which is clearly associated with HI HVCs, but some which is not.

  3. Towards the Next Generation of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muńoz, Francesc

    Towards the Next Generation of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms Javier Esparza-Peidro, Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco of Model-Driven Cloud Platforms Javier Esparza-Peidro, Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco´i Institut Universitari Mixt

  4. CO and IRAS detection of an intermediate-velocity cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desert, F.X.; Bazell, D.; Blitz, L. (Paris Observatoire, Meudon (France) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Maryland Univ., College Park (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the course of a radio survey of high-Galactic-latitude clouds, CO emission was detected at the position l = 210.8 deg and b = 63.1 deg with an LSR velocity of -39 km/sec. This molecular cloud constitutes the third one with an unusually large absolute velocity at these latitudes, as compared with the 5.4-km/sec cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of the high-latitude molecular clouds. The position is coincident with an H I intermediate-velocity cloud (GHL 11, Verschuur H, OLM 268) and the IR-excess cloud 306 in the list by Desert et al. (1988). This cloud is clearly detected at all four IRAS wavelengths and has warmer colors than the local ISM. 27 refs.

  5. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  6. Cloud computing and its implications for organizational design and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farahani Rad, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud computing has been at the center of attention for a while now. This attention is directed towards different aspects of this concept which concern different stakeholders from IT companies to cloud adopters to simple ...

  7. The study of cirrus clouds using airborne and satellite data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Kerry Glynne

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    (AVIRIS) and the Moderate-resolution Infrared Spectroradiometer (MODIS), scientists now have an unprecedented ability to study cirrus clouds. To aid in the understanding of such clouds, a significant study of cirrus radiative properties has been undertaken...

  8. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  9. arctic cloud experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-level Arctic clouds in cold seasons and have a significant impact on the surface energy budget. However, the treatment of mixed-phase clouds in most current climate models...

  10. Cloud computing adoption model for governments and large enterprises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trivedi, Hrishikesh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud Computing has held organizations across the globe spell bound with its promise. As it moves from being a buzz word and hype into adoption, organizations are faced with question of how to best adopt cloud. Existing ...

  11. Cloud computing : implications for enterprise software vendors (ESV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Leonard, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'Cloud computing', is a broad concept and in general is a term used for internet-based computing resources that are in an unspecified remote location or locations and that are flexible and fungible. Clouds provide a wide ...

  12. Transition to cloud computing in healthcare information systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Haiying, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a study on the adoption of cloud computing in healthcare information technology industry. It provides a guideline for people who are trying to bring cloud computing into healthcare information systems through ...

  13. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The ultimate goal is to improve our cloud classification algorithm into a VAP.

  14. A Survey on Approaches for Interoperability and Portability of Cloud Computing Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrakis, Euripides G.M.

    A Survey on Approaches for Interoperability and Portability of Cloud Computing Services Kostas.sotiriadis, petrakis}@intelligence.tuc.gr Keywords: Cloud computing, cloud interoperability, cloud portability Abstract: Over the recent years, the rapid development of Cloud Computing has driven to a large market of cloud

  15. TGRS-2010-00092.R1 1 Abstract--Cloud properties were retrieved by applying the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    cover (~59%) is divided equally between liquid and ice clouds. Global mean cloud effective heights , respectively, for liquid clouds and 8.3 km, 12.7, 52.2 µm, and 230 gm-2 for ice clouds. Cloud droplet effective radiation processes requires determination of cloud property distributions and the radiation budget

  16. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  17. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. Part I: Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60-hour case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in-situ measurements from the RACORO field campaign and remote-sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functionsmore »for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, ?, are derived from observations to be ~0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing datasets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, ECMWF forecasts, and a multi-scale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in 'trial' large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.« less

  18. 2012 MELLANOX TECHNOLOGIES 1 The Interconnect is the Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Assaf

    IT costs from CAPEX to OPEX IT Efficiency and Business Agility Hybrid Cloud Compute and Storage Resource

  19. Information Security Management System for Microsoft's Cloud Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Information Security Management System for Microsoft's Cloud Infrastructure Online Services ......................................................................................................................................................................................1 Information Security Management System.......................................................................................................................7 Information Security Management Forum

  20. Intrinsic Shapes of Molecular Cloud Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. E. Jones; Shantanu Basu; John Dubinski

    2001-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We conduct an analysis of the shapes of molecular cloud cores using recently compiled catalogs of observed axis ratios of individual cores mapped in ammonia or through optical selection. We apply both analytical and statistical techniques to deproject the observed axis ratios in order to determine the true distribution of cloud core shapes. We find that neither pure oblate nor pure prolate cores can account for the observed distribution of core shapes. Intrinsically triaxial cores produce distributions which agree with observations. The best-fit triaxial distribution contains cores which are more nearly oblate than prolate.

  1. Young stars and clouds in Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Straizys; V. Laugalys

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Star formation in the Local spiral arm in the direction of the Galactic longitudes 132--158 deg is reviewed. Recent star-forming activity in this Milky Way direction is evidenced by the presence here of the Cam OB1 association and dense dust and molecular clouds containing H$\\alpha$ emission stars, young irregular variables and infrared stellar objects. The clouds of the Local arm concentrate in two layers at 150-300 pc and at about 900 pc from the Sun. The Perseus arm objects in this direction are at a distance of about 2 kpc.

  2. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  3. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  4. Inverse Problems for Fractional Diffusion Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lihua

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    and preliminaries in Section 1 and 2, in the third section we consider our first inverse boundary problem. This is where an unknown boundary condition is to be determined from overposed data in a time- fractional diffusion equation. Based upon the fundamental...

  5. Introduction Spectrum Phases Fractionization Kitaev Honeycomb Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fractionization Spin ! Majorana Transformation Key Idea - Factorize the Pauli matrices by moving to a higher by Majorana fermions 2 Gapped and gapless phases 3 Relation to the Toric Code 4 Eect of a magnetic field dimensional subspace Can replace each complex fermionic degree a of freedom with two Majoranas 1 and 2 1 1 = a

  6. 1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1Fractions and Chemistry Because molecules and atoms come in 'integer' packages, the ratios of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7 molecules of oxygen you get 4 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6;1 Answer Key Problem 1 - What makes your car go: When 2 molecules of gasoline (ethane) are combined with 7

  7. World Volume Action for Fractional Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merlatti, P

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the world volume action of fractional Dp-branes of type IIA string theory compactified on the orbifold T^4/Z_2. The geometric relation between these branes and wrapped branes is investigated using conformal techniques. In particular we examine in detail various scattering amplitudes and find that the leading low-energy interactions are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically.

  8. World Volume Action for Fractional Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Merlatti; G. Sabella

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the world volume action of fractional Dp-branes of type IIA string theory compactified on the orbifold T^4/Z_2. The geometric relation between these branes and wrapped branes is investigated using conformal techniques. In particular we examine in detail various scattering amplitudes and find that the leading low-energy interactions are consistent with the boundary action derived geometrically.

  9. THE DEPENDENCE OF BROWN DWARF RADII ON ATMOSPHERIC METALLICITY AND CLOUDS: THEORY AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Adam; Nampaisarn, Thane [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tnampais@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: kheng@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing realistic and consistent atmosphere boundary conditions, we have generated evolutionary models for brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (VLMs) for different atmospheric metallicities ([Fe/H]), with and without clouds. We find that the spread in radius at a given mass and age can be as large as {approx}10% to {approx}25%, with higher-metallicity, higher-cloud-thickness atmospheres resulting quite naturally in larger radii. For each 0.1 dex increase in [Fe/H], radii increase by {approx}1% to {approx}2.5%, depending upon the age and mass. We also find that, while for smaller masses and older ages brown dwarf radii decrease with increasing helium fraction (Y, as expected), for more massive brown dwarfs and a wide range of ages they increase with helium fraction. The increase in radius in going from Y = 0.25 to Y = 0.28 can be as large as {approx}0.025 R{sub J} ({approx}2.5%). Furthermore, we find that for VLMs an increase in atmospheric metallicity from 0.0 to 0.5 dex, increases radii by {approx}4%, and from -0.5 to 0.5 dex by {approx}10%. Therefore, we suggest that opacity due to higher metallicity might naturally account for the apparent radius anomalies in some eclipsing VLM systems. Ten to twenty-five percent variations in radius exceed errors stemming from uncertainties in the equation of state alone. This serves to emphasize that transit and eclipse measurements of brown dwarf radii constrain numerous effects collectively, importantly including the atmosphere and condensate cloud models, and not just the equation of state. At all times, one is testing a multi-parameter theory, and not a universal radius-mass relation.

  10. A New Dust Budget In The Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chunhua; Wang, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of dust in a galaxy is poorly understood. Recently, the surveys of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provide astrophysical laboratories for the dust studies. By a method of population synthesis, we investigate the contributions of dust produced by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, common envelope (CE) ejecta and type II supernovae (SNe II) to the total dust budget in the LMC. Based on our models, the dust production rates (DPRs) of AGB stars in the LMC are between about $2.5\\times10^{-5}$ and $4.0\\times10^{-6}M_\\odot{\\rm yr^{-1}}$. The uncertainty mainly results from different models for the dust yields of AGB stars. The DPRs of CE ejecta are about $6.3\\times10^{-6}$(The initial binary fraction is 50\\%). These results are within the large scatter of several observational estimates. AGB stars mainly produce carbon grains, which is consistent with the observations. Most of dust grains manufactured by CE ejecta are silicate and iron grains. The contributions of SNe II are very uncertain. Compared wi...

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of diatomic molecules - a fractional calculus approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Herrmann

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The eigenvalue spectrum of the fractional quantum harmonic oscillator is calculated numerically solving the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation based on the Riemann and Caputo definition of a fractional derivative. The fractional approach allows a smooth transition between vibrational and rotational type spectra, which is shown to be an appropriate tool to analyze IR spectra of diatomic molecules.

  12. A Fractional Lie Group Method For Anomalous Diffusion Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-cheng Wu

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Lie group method provides an efficient tool to solve a differential equation. This paper suggests a fractional partner for fractional partial differential equations using a fractional characteristic method. A space-time fractional diffusion equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the Lie group method.

  13. Dynamics of Finite Dust Clouds in a Magnetized Anodic Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, A.; Pilch, I.; Trottenberg, T. [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505-6315 (United States)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The response to an external modulation voltage of small dust clouds confined in an anodic plasma is studied. Dust density waves are excited when the cloud is larger than a wavelength, whereas a sloshing and stretching motion is found for smaller clouds. The wave dispersion shows similarities with waveguide modes.

  14. Modeling, Characterizing, and Enhancing User Experience in Cloud Mobile Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Modeling, Characterizing, and Enhancing User Experience in Cloud Mobile Rendering Yao Liu, Shaoxuan of California, San Diego {yal019, shaoxuan, dey}@ece.ucsd.edu Abstract--Cloud Mobile Rendering (CMR), where compute intensive rendering is performed on cloud servers instead of on mobile devices, can be a promising

  15. Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud Storage Standards Overview and Research Ideas Brainstorm Mark Carlson, SNIA TC and Sun Chair, SNIA Cloud Storage TWG CMU SDI Lecture ­ 12th November 2009 #12;Insert tutorial title in footer © 2009 Storage Networking Industry Association.All Rights Reserved. Abstract ! Cloud Storage is a new business

  16. A Survey of Mobile Cloud Computing Applications: Perspectives and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    operating systems, configure computation environment, and develop software. The cloud provides a powerful from the marriage of powerful yet affordable mobile devices and cloud computing. In this paper we in the cloud. So users simply use the applications without concerning system configuration prob- lems

  17. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  18. 8, 42674308, 2008 3-D retrieval of cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 4267­4308, 2008 3-D retrieval of cloud particle profiles T. Zinner et al. Title Page.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Remote sensing of cloud sides of deep convection: towards a three-dimensional retrieval of cloud particle size profiles T. Zinner 1,2 , A. Marshak 1 , S

  19. CLOUD COVER REPORTING BIAS AT MAJOR AIRPORTS Richard Perez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    CLOUD COVER REPORTING BIAS AT MAJOR AIRPORTS Richard Perez Joshua A. Bonaventura-Sparagna & Marek Kmiecik ASRC, SUNY, Albany, NY Ray George & David Renné NREL, Golden, CO ABSTRACT Cloud cover has been generated all or in part from cloud cover measurements [1,2]. This paper presents evidence

  20. Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    Process-based Management of Cloud Computing Infrastructure Background Cloud Computing with minimal management effort. Examples of modern cloud computing solutions include (but are not limited to is an emerging computing capability that provides an abstraction between the computing resource and its

  1. Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Ming Li, Shucheng Yu, Ning,ncao,wjlou}@ece.wpi.edu Dept. of CS, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, email: sxyu1@ualr.edu Abstract--In cloud computing In recent years, cloud computing is gaining much mo- mentum in the IT industry. Especially, we have seen

  2. Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimkin, Nahum

    Socially Optimal Pricing of Cloud Computing Resources Ishai Menache Microsoft Research New England The cloud computing paradigm offers easily accessible com- puting resources of variable size and capabilities. We con- sider a cloud-computing facility that provides simultaneous service to a heterogeneous

  3. Special Publication 500-293 US Government Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume I Release 1.0 (Draft) High-Priority Requirements to Further USG Agency Cloud Computing Adoption Lee Badger Sokol, Jin Tong, Fred Whiteside and Dawn Leaf NIST Cloud Computing Program Information Technology

  4. Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Jin Li, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, Ning Cao}@ece.wpi.edu Abstract--As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized in Cloud Computing as it greatly affects system usability, rendering user searching experiences very

  5. Special Publication 500-293 US Government Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume II and Dawn Leaf NIST Cloud Computing Program Information Technology Laboratory #12;This page left Publication 500-293 (Draft) US Government Cloud Computing Technology Roadmap Volume II Release 1.0 (Draft

  6. Coordination of Cloud Computing and Smart Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Coordination of Cloud Computing and Smart Power Grids Amir-Hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon.mohsenian.rad, alberto.leongarcia}@utoronto.ca Abstract--The emergence of cloud computing has established a trend towards increasing the load at locations where they are built. However, data centers and cloud computing also provide

  7. Controlling Data in the Cloud: Outsourcing Computation without Outsourcing Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Controlling Data in the Cloud: Outsourcing Computation without Outsourcing Control Richard Chow.fujitsu.com ABSTRACT Cloud computing is clearly one of today's most enticing technology areas due, at least in part, there are significant, persistent concerns about cloud computing that are impeding momentum and will eventually

  8. Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive Fault Tolerance in Real Time Cloud Computing Sheheryar Malik Research Team OASIS INRIA.huet@inria.fr Abstract -- With the increasing demand and benefits of cloud computing infrastructure, real time computing can be performed on cloud infrastructure. A real time system can take advantage of intensive computing

  9. Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing Cong Wang, Student Member, IEEE lightweight communication and computation cost. The auditing result not only ensures strong cloud storage, dependable distributed storage, error localization, data dynamics, cloud computing. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION SEVERAL

  10. Introduction to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Introduction to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing Rajkumar Buyya Welcome to the IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing (TCC). It is my privilege and honor to serve as the inaugural Editor-in-Chief of TCC. I would like to thank the IEEE and the world-wide Cloud Computing community for giving me

  11. Efficient and Secure Data Storage Operations for Mobile Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient and Secure Data Storage Operations for Mobile Cloud Computing Zhibin Zhou and Dijiang Huang {zhibin.zhou,dijiang}@asu.edu Arizona State University Abstract--Cloud computing is a promising. With the development of wireless access technologies, cloud computing is expected to expand to mobile environments

  12. An Approach for Security Evaluation and Analysis in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Approach for Security Evaluation and Analysis in Cloud Computing T. Probst1,2 , E. Alata1,3 , M for security evaluation and analysis in cloud computing environments. The objective is to provide an automated way to evaluate the efficiency of security mechanisms aiming at protecting the cloud computing

  13. Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    Towards a New Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling Center for Research in Extreme Scale an alternative paradigm for bringing Clouds more closely aligned to Science, Technology, Engineering Execution Model for HPC Clouds Thomas Sterling 1. Introduction Even as HPC is transiting the pan

  14. Summertime Arctic Clouds observed during SHEBA Paquita Zuidema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    understanding the underlying cloud processes (that impact the cloud optical depth). With the goal in mind consistently southerly and warm.The ice melt rate was directly measured to be 2.3-2.5 cm/day from gauges). The responsive surface melting during July suggests not only a high Sun angle,but also low cloud optical depths

  15. CLOUD DROPLET NUCLEATION AND ITS CONNECTION TO AEROSOL PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the uncertainty of the indirect effect arises from incomplete ability to describe changes in cloud properties. Keywords - Climate. aerosols. clouds, radiation INTRODUcnON In recent years awareness has increased of enhancement of scanering of radiation by aerosols in clear (cloud-free) air; a portion of the scattered

  16. be explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: selected cases from FIRE ACE. Jbe explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration enables us to separate the effects of the cloud LWP and cloud droplet number

  17. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  18. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  19. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  20. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average