National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average catalytic reforming

  1. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  2. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  3. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  4. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  5. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  6. Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 2,668 2,629 2,824 2,727 2,894 2,994 2010-2016 PADD 1 192 183 180 188 193 195 2010-2016 East Coast 175 167 164 174 176 177

  7. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  9. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio

  10. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  11. Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

    2005-01-27

    This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

  12. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  13. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  14. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  15. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic - oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria

  16. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO₂ for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO₂ cubes and CeO₂ rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO₂-cubes > RhPd/CeO₂ -rods > RhPd/CeO₂- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO₂-cubes and RhPd/CeO₂ -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more » oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  17. Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish: 2, Modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skocypec, R.D.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Muir, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) experiment was conducted to determine the thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance of a commercial-scale, dish-mounted, direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) reactor over a range of steady state and transient (cloud) operating conditions. The focus of the experiment is on global performance such as receiver efficiencies and overall methane conversion; it was not intended to provide data for code validation. A numerical model was previously developed to provide guidance in the design of the absorber. The one-dimensional, planar and steady-state model incorporates, the following energy transfer mechanisms: solar and infrared radiation, heterogeneous chemical reaction, conduction in the solid phase, and convection between the fluid and solid phases. A number of upgrades to the model and improved property values are presented here. Model predictions are shown to bound the experimental axial thermocouple data when experimental uncertainties are included. Global predictions are made using a technique in which the incident solar flux distribution is subdivided into flux contour bands. Model predictions for each band are then spatially integrated to provide global predictions such as reactor efficiencies and methane conversions. Global predictions are shown to compare well with experimental data. Reactor predictions for anticipated operating conditions suggest a further decrease in optical density at the front of the absorber inner disk may be beneficial. The need to conduct code-validation experiments is identified as essential to improve the confidence in the capability to predict large-scale reactor operation.

  18. Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

    2005-01-27

    This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

  19. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  20. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  1. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  2. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  3. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  4. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 06_nrel_distributed_reforming_biomass_pyrolysis_oils.pdf (301.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D

  5. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  6. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  7. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  8. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  9. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  10. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  11. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  12. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  13. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  15. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  16. Catalytic Self-Decontaminating Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Jan-16 Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 View History U.S. 2,668 2,629 2,824 2,727 2,894 2,994 2010-2016 PADD 1 192 183 180 188 193 195 2010-2016 East Coast 175 167 164 174 176 177

  17. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Average Residential Price Residential Price - Local Distribution Companies Residential Price - Marketers Residential % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Average Commercial Price Commercial Price - Local Distribution Companies Commerical Price - Marketers Commercial % Sold by Local Distribution Companies Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011

  18. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  19. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  20. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    File Name:","petpnpdwnsa(na)ydrmbblpdm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetpnpdwnsa(na)ydrmbblpdm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  1. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  2. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  3. Catalytic cracking process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  4. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  5. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  6. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  7. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  9. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Catalytic hydrotreating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Jr., Clarence; McCaskill, Kenneth B.

    1978-01-01

    Carbonaceous liquids boiling above about 300.degree. C such as tars, petroleum residuals, shale oils and coal-derived liquids are catalytically hydrotreated by introducing the carbonaceous liquid into a reaction zone at a temperature in the range of 300.degree. to 450.degree. C and a pressure in the range of 300 to 4000 psig for effecting contact between the carbonaceous liquid and a catalytic transition metal sulfide in the reaction zone as a layer on a hydrogen permeable transition metal substrate and then introducing hydrogen into the reaction zone by diffusing the hydrogen through the substrate to effect the hydrogenation of the carbonaceous liquid in the presence of the catalytic sulfide layer.

  12. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications ...

  13. Fact #571: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation Fact #571: May 18, 2009 Light Truck CAFE Standards - 2006 Reformation In 2006 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) established new requirements for the light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. In the new rule, there are Unreformed CAFE standards for model years (MY) 2008 through 2010 using the same CAFE calculations as in the past, and there are Reformed CAFE standards

  14. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  15. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  16. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  17. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  18. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  19. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  20. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  1. Exergy & Economic Analysis of Catalytic Coal Gasifiers Coupled with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas; Litster, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has undertaken a review of coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide. One way to achieve an overall system efficiency of greater than 60% is in a power plant in which a catalytic coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis and this is sent to a SOFC, with CO{sub 2} capture occurring either before or after the SOFC. Integration of a catalytic gasifier with a SOFC, as opposed to a conventional entrained flow gasifier, is improved due to (a) decreased exergy destruction inside a catalytic, steam-coal gasifier producing a high-methane content syngas, and (b) decreased exergy destruction in the SOFC due to the ability to operate at lower air stoichiometric flow ratios. For example, thermal management of the SOFC is greatly improved due to the steam-methane reforming in the anode of the fuel cell. This paper has two main goals. First, we converted the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates of various research groups into an average internal rate of return on investment (IRR) in order to make comparisons between their results, and to underscore the increased rate of return on investment for advanced integrated gasification fuel cell systems with carbon capture & sequestration (IGFC-CCS) compared with conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CCS) systems and pulverized coal combustion (PCC-CCS) systems. Using capital, labor, and fuel costs from previous researchers and using an average price of baseload electricity generation of $61.50 / MW-hr, we calculated inflation-adjusted IRR values of up to 13%/yr for catalytic gasification with pressurized fuel cell and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), whereas we calculate an IRR of ∼4%/yr and ∼2%/yr for new, conventional IGCC-CCS and PCC-CCS, respectively. If

  2. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Campbell, Christian X.; Subramanian, Ramesh

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  3. Concentric catalytic combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Laster, Walter R.

    2009-03-24

    A catalytic combustor (28) includes a tubular pressure boundary element (90) having a longitudinal flow axis (e.g., 56) separating a first portion (94) of a first fluid flow (e.g., 24) from a second portion (95) of the first fluid flow. The pressure boundary element includes a wall (96) having a plurality of separate longitudinally oriented flow paths (98) annularly disposed within the wall and conducting respective portions (100, 101) of a second fluid flow (e.g., 26) therethrough. A catalytic material (32) is disposed on a surface (e.g., 102, 103) of the pressure boundary element exposed to at least one of the first and second portions of the first fluid flow.

  4. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  8. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  9. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  10. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  11. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  12. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  13. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  15. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  16. Catalytic hydroprocessing of chloropyridinols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.I.; Allen, D.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    The hydrodechlorination and hydrodeoxygenation of 2-chloro-3-pyridinol, 5-chloro-3-pyridinol, and 6-chloro-2-pyridinol were examined using a packed bed microreactor operating at 1,500 psi and at temperatures between 275 and 325 C. A commercial NiMo catalyst was used. Dechlorination to pyridinols was the dominant pathway with some subsequent deoxygenation. The overall rates and activation energies (18--35 kcal/mol) of dechlorination were comparable to the dechlorination rate parameters observed for chlorinated benzenes and chlorinated phenols, indicating that the pyridinic nitrogen has only a minor effect on dechlorination rates. Differences in dechlorination rates between the chloropyridinols were qualitatively explained based on the electron donating properties of the hydroxyl group and steric effects. Such studies are critical for evaluating the utility of catalytic hydroprocessing in waste management since waste streams are likely to contain a variety of contaminants and some chlorinated organics are multifunctional (e.g., chlorophenol).

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  18. Catalytic Solutions Inc CSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Oxnard, California Zip: 93033 Product: Developer of the breakthrough catalytic coating technology and the Mixed Phase Catalyst (MPCTM), and also manufacturer of catalytic...

  19. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  20. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass ...

  1. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  2. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  3. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  4. The low-temperature partial-oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and/or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the convenience in handling and vehicle refueling. Such a liquid fuel must be dynamically converted (reformed) to hydrogen on board the vehicle in real time to meet fluctuating power demands. This paper describes the low-temperature Argonne partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) developed for this application. The APOR is a rapid-start, compact, lightweight, catalytic device that is efficient and dynamically responsive. The reformer is easily controlled by varying the feed rates of the fuel, water, and air to satisfy the rapidly changing system power demands during the vehicle`s driving cycle.

  5. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform By: Secretary...

  6. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  7. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  8. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  9. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  10. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  11. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  12. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  13. Reformer assisted lean NO.sub.x catalyst aftertreatment system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Mohan; Park, Paul W.; Ragle, Christie S.

    2010-06-29

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver-containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, a second catalyst composed of a copper-containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range, a hydrocarbon compound for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst to provide a reductant, and a reformer for reforming a portion of the hydrocarbon compound into H.sub.2 and/or oxygenated hydrocarbon for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst. The second catalyst is adapted to facilitate the reaction of reducing NOx into N.sub.2, whereby the intermediates are produced via the first catalyst reacting with NOx and hydrocarbons.

  14. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  15. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 1. Topical report, January 1990--January 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    The authors have found a family of new catalytic materials which, if successfully developed, will be effective in the conversion of light alkanes to alcohols or other oxygenates. Catalysts of this type have the potential to convert natural gas to clean-burning high octane liquid fuels directly without requiring the energy-intensive steam reforming step. In addition they also have the potential to upgrade light hydrocarbons found in natural gas to a variety of high value fuel and chemical products. In order for commercially useful processes to be developed, increases in catalytic life, reaction rate and selectivity are required. Recent progress in the experimental program geared to the further improvement of these catalysts is outlined.

  16. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  17. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  18. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement

  19. Promoting energy efficiency in reforming electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinton, J.; Kozloff, K.

    1998-07-01

    Many developing countries are initiating power sector reforms to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and recover the full costs of power. Reforms may include unbundling generation, transmission, distribution and retail services; commercial management; competition; and private ownership. This paper draws upon six country case studies--Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the US--to identify major models of power reforms and their implications for energy efficiency--both positive and negative. There are both structural and institutional features of reform that may discourage commercial offerings of end-use efficiency services. Valuable lessons are discussed regarding what reforms and policies have worked to promote energy efficiency and which have not. Several models are offered for how developing countries can promote energy efficiency under some of the more common forms of power sector restructuring. Conclusions and recommendations are directed at key decision-makers in developing countries contemplating power sector reforms.

  20. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming Success Story Converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as diesel and coal-based fuels, into hydrogen-rich synthesis gas is a necessary step for fuel cells and other applications. The high sulfur and aromatic content of these fuels poses a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate reforming catalysts. Taking on this challenge, NETL researchers invented a novel fuel-reforming catalyst that overcomes limitations of current catalysts by

  1. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  3. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) ...

  4. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | ...

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  6. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  7. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing; Wang, Xiaoping

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print Wednesday, 20 August 2014 07:59 A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ

  9. BioCatalytics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Product: BioCatalytics Inc. provides a broadest range of enzymes for chemical synthesis, especially biomass to biofuel enzymes along with the resources and technology to...

  10. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  11. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  12. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  13. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.; Hsiao, Mark C.; Wallman, P. Henrik; Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO.sub.x reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts.

  14. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Energy-Efficient Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions. Hydrogenation reactions are very versatile and account for 10% to 20% of all reactions in the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... Task 2, organic base-catalyzed arene hydrogenation and hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  18. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. ...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid ... It was found that the rhodium catalyst works well under biphase conditions rather than ...

  20. Catalytic Device International LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pleasanton, California Product: California-based, firm focused on portable, heat-on-demand products. References: Catalytic Device International LLC1 This article is a stub....

  1. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

  2. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  3. Innovative Catalytic Converter Wins National Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Golden, Colo., July 25, 1996A new catalytic converter design that could dramatically reduce automobile emissions and urban air pollution has been named one of the years most ...

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  5. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf (471.59 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  6. Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion Recuperative Reforming (RR) for H2 Enhanced Combustion 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations ...

  7. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government...

  8. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  9. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen ... More Documents & Publications On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel ...

  10. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and ...

  11. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration ...

  12. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling ...

  13. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements EAS ...

  14. Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform ...

  15. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the ...

  16. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The autothermal reforming method employs an improved dehydrogenation process for olefin production, utilizing platinum based dehydrogenation catalysts in the presence of oxygen. The autothermal process requires no external energy input following ignition and produces high conversions and yields from the gaseous hydrocarbon feeds. Autothermal reforming is an effective solution that meets the high demands of the chemical market industry by producing high yields...

  17. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  18. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  19. Catalytic hydroprocessing of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Catalytic hydroprocessing is a promising technology for the treatment or recycling of chlorinated organic waste streams. This paper will describe the hydroprocessing kinetics and reaction pathways of chlorinated aromatics and aliphatics. The compounds investigated include chlorinated benzenes, chlorinated phenols, chlorinated pyridinols, perchloroethylene, trichloroethyene, and dichloroethylenes. Experiments were performed over a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in the temperature range of 175{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C. For the chlorinated benzenes, removal of chlorine proceeded at comparable rates for all species from hexachlorobenzene to chlorobenzene. For the chlorophenols and chloropyridinols, dechlorination proceeded at a much higher rate than deoxygenation. Rates of dechlorination of aliphatics were approximately an order of magnitude faster than the rates for aromatics. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  1. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  2. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  3. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water Distillation for Water Detritiation Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water ...

  4. Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foley, Henry C.; Strano, Michael; Acharya, Madhav; Raich, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

  5. Improvement of catalytic activity in selective oxidation of styrene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improvement of catalytic activity in selective oxidation of styrene with Hsub 2Osub 2 ... Title: Improvement of catalytic activity in selective oxidation of styrene with Hsub ...

  6. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the ...

  7. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed ...

  8. Heavy oil catalytic cracking process and apparatus (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy oil catalytic cracking process and apparatus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy oil catalytic cracking process and apparatus This paper describes a fluidized ...

  9. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  10. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation of the heave performance of a two-body floating-point absorber wave energy system Yi-Hsiang Yu, Ye Li ⇑ National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO 80401, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 September 2011 Received in revised form 5 August 2012 Accepted 9 October 2012 Available online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged

  11. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  12. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  13. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  14. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01

    Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

  16. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  17. Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map This is a "pre-decisional draft of the Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map. biliwg06_schlasner.pdf (36.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to

  18. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian; Northrop, William F.

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  20. Catalytic converter for automotive exhaust system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merry, R.P.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a catalytic converter having a metallic casing, a unitary, solid ceramic catalytic element disposed within the casing, and resilient means disposed between the catalytic element and the metallic casing for positioning the catalytic element and for absorbing mechanical and thermal shock. The improvement described here comprises: the resilient means being a flexible intumescent planar sheet corrugated with a generally sinusoidal wave pattern along both its lengthwise edges. The corrugations are generally parallel and regular and are comprised of substantially equal ridges and hollows having a perimeter to frequency ratio in a range of 2.44 to 4.88 and amplitude in a range of 12 to 50% of the width of the sheet.

  1. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and optimization of the catalytic reaction. Research conducted by: E. Gross, X.-Z. Shu, S. Alayoglu, F.D. Toste, and G.A. Somorjai (Univ. of California, Berkeley), and H.A....

  2. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6 and 7 2007 R. J. Evans, NREL D. M. Steward, NREL Innovation / Overview Biomass pyrolysis produces a liquid product, bio-oil, which contains a wide spectrum of components that can be efficiently, stored, and shipped, to a site for renewable hydrogen production and converted to H2 at moderate severity

  3. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  4. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  5. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  6. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    Functionalization Department of Chemistry Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars Undergraduate Studies Contact Us Faculty & Research > Research Centers & Programs > Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization CCHF Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization Catalysts are central to the efficient and clean utilization of energy resources, and they impact all aspects of the energy sector. With the University of Virginia as

  7. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  9. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  10. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been opened by a study in which, for the first time, the catalytic reactivity inside a microreactor was mapped in high resolution from start to finish. The formation of different chemical products during the reactions was analyzed in situ using infrared microspectroscopy, while the state of the catalyst along the flow

  11. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  12. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  13. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  14. Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF on catalytic bioenergy process Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons (477.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Selection Effort Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  15. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  16. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  17. Effect of electronic structures on catalytic properties of CuNi alloy and Pd in MeOH-related reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, An-Pang; Kimura, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Yukinori; Kameoka, Satoshi; Shimoda, Masahiko; Ishii, Yasushi

    2013-04-14

    We investigated the catalytic properties of a CuNi solid solution and Pd for methanol-related reactions and associated valence electronic structures. Calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the CuNi alloy has a similar valence electronic structure to Pd and hence they exhibited similar CO selectivities in steam reforming of methanol and decomposition of methanol. Samples prepared by various processes were found to have similar CO selectivities. We conjecture that alloying of Cu and Ni dramatically alters the valence electronic structures, making it similar to that of Pd so that the alloy exhibits similar catalytic properties to Pd. First-principles slab calculations of surface electronic structures support this conjecture.

  18. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  19. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  20. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  1. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  2. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  3. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and

  4. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skala, Glenn William; Hart-Predmore, David James; Pettit, William Henry; Borup, Rodney Lynn

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  5. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  6. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen ... Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ...

  7. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  8. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming Photo of cylindrical reactor vessel and associated piping and equipment in the Thermochemical Process Development Unit at NREL Liquids derived from biomass resources-including ethanol and bio-oils-can be reformed to produce hydrogen in a process similar to natural gas reforming. Biomass-derived liquids can be transported more easily than their biomass feedstocks, allowing for semi-central

  9. Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas Reforming Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production. How Does It Work? Natural gas contains methane (CH4) that can be used to

  10. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched

  11. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) ...

  12. Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony of Daniel Poneman, Deputy Secretary of Energy Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform 8-1-13_ Daniel_Pohema FT HOGR.pdf (42.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Email from BPA Acting Administrator Eliot Mainzer -- July 19, 2013 Gregory H. Friedman: Provided for The Committee on Oversight and Government Reform U.S. House of Representatives MANAGEMENT ALERT:

  13. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_ahmed_anl.pdf (638.37 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen

  14. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_schmidt_umn.pdf (247.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Biofuels Report Final Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator (SCPO) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working

  15. DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety and Security Reform Meeting DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting Meeting Date: August 13, 2010 HSS senior managers with lead responsibilities in DOE's safety and security reform activities met with labor union representatives to discuss approach and process for the engagement of worker stakeholders in the reform efforts. Documents Available for Download Meeting Agenda (74.42 KB) Meeting Summary (95.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Work Group Telecom (Draft Charters) Focus Group

  16. Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities | Department of Energy Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Utility Regulation and Business Model Reforms for Addressing the Financial Impacts of Distributed Solar on Utilities Implementing a range of alternative utility-rate reforms could minimize solar

  17. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  18. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2004_deer_bromberg.pdf (404.01 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Onboard

  19. DIESEL REFORMERS FOR LEAN NOX TRAP REGENERATION AND OTHER ON-BOARD HYDROGEN APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauss, M; Wnuck, W

    2003-08-24

    Many solutions to meeting the 2007 and 2010 diesel emissions requirements have been suggested. On board production of hydrogen for in-cylinder combustion and exhaust after-treatment provide promising opportunities for meeting those requirements. Other benefits may include using syngas to rapidly heat up exhaust after-treatment catalysts during engine startup. HydrogenSource's development of a catalytic partial oxidation reformer for generating hydrogen from ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel is presented. The system can operate on engine exhaust and diesel fuel with no water tank. Test data for hydrogen regeneration of a lean NOx trap is presented showing 90% NOx conversion at temperatures as low as 150 degrees C and 99% conversion at 300 degrees C. Finally, additional efforts required to fully understand the benefits and commercial challenges of this technology are discussed.

  20. Production of LPG olefins by catalytic dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.

    1984-09-01

    Catalytic dehydrogenation allows for the production of specific olefins thus avoiding the large capital and operating expenses associated with the recovery and processing of the many by-products from pyrolysis units. The chemistry of the process is discussed along with the process economics.

  1. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  2. Method of making a catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, C.H.; De Palma, T.V.; Dillon, J.E.

    1982-08-10

    Arrangement for resiliently mounting a ceramic monolithic type catalytic converter element in a metal housing with a blanket of knit wire mesh material includes at least one circumferential band of high temperature intumescent material containing ceramic fibers positioned within the wire mesh blanket which prevents virtually all bypass leakage around the element and substantially reduces the temperature of the wire mesh.

  3. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  4. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production | ANSER Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production

  5. Fractionation and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Fractionation and Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil ... Deconstruction of Biomass to Form Bio-Oil Intermediates Tt-I. Catalytic Upgrading of ...

  6. Heavy oil catalytic cracking apparatus (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It comprises a catalytic cracking reactor means; a separation means connective with the ... PETROLEUM REFINERIES; CATALYSTS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; ...

  7. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  8. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  9. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  10. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  11. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  12. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  13. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  14. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Shockling, Larry A.; George, Raymond A.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  15. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}−Ce−Co and Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co−H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  16. Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance L.; Etemad, Shahrokh; Ulkarim, Hasan; Castaldi, Marco J.; Pfefferle, William C.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

  17. Control of a catalytic fluid cracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbel, A.; Huang, Z.; Rinard, I.; Shinnar, R.

    1993-12-13

    Control offers an important tool for savings in refineries, mainly by integration of process models into on-line control. This paper is part of a research effort to better understand problems of partial control; control of a Fluid Catalytic Cracker (FCC) is used as example. Goal is to understand better the control problems of an FCC in context of model based control of a refinery, and to understand the general problem of designing partial control systems.

  18. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  19. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  20. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  1. Pulsating catalytic combustion of gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gal-Ed, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of operating catalytic combustors under pulsating conditions and the circumstances under which acoustic pulsations increase the combustion efficiencies and output of catalytic combustors. An experimental catalytic combustor was developed, and a theoretical model of acoustic motions in non-isothermal, low match number, duct flow was used to predict the acoustic behavior of the combustor. The effects of pulsations were determined by comparing temperature and species concentration data measured during operation with pulsations at different frequencies and pressure amplitudes to similar data measured during non-pulsating combustion. Experiments conducted with lean mixtures of methane or propane with air revealed that acoustic pulsations affected the temperature distribution along the combustor at flow Reynolds numbers less than 17,500. Excitation of pulsations during methane combustion caused shifts in the location of the combustion, and sometimes the onset of extinction of gas phase reactions. This occurred when several catalyst segments were located in the combustion section between an upstream pressure node and a downstream velocity node, defined here as an in phase location. Propane mixtures were used to investigate possible improvements in combustor's performance. Burning propane mixtures on a single catalyst segment at an in phase location showed that the excitation of acoustic pulsations increased the combustion efficiency by 10 to 50%. The changes in the operation of catalytic combustors caused by acoustic waves are explained by acoustic streaming. When the catalyst surfaces are at an in phase location, rotational flows caused by acoustic streaming enhance the reactants and products diffusion rate to and from the catalyst surfaces, respectively, improving combustion efficiency.

  2. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  3. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (moreThe Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.less

  4. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan Memoranda and Action Plan to support the President's mandate directing the improvement of the Federal recruitment and hiring process throughout the Federal government. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan (6.76 MB) Responsible Contacts Kenneth Venuto Director, Office of Human Capital Management E-mail kenneth.venuto@hq.doe.gov More Documents & Publications Chief Human Capital Officer Memo on Improving DOE

  5. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Academy of Public Administration | Department of Energy to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration January 12, 2015 - 10:30am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give a

  6. Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 December 17, 2004 To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. SEC. 102. (a) DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-(1) There is a Director of National Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and

  7. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf (809.59 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost

  8. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia.

  9. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aftertreatment | Department of Energy generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2003_deer_bromberg.pdf (739.71 KB) More Documents & Publications H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle

  10. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) | Department of Energy Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System.

  11. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources | Department of Energy Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for Download: DOE IT Policy Archive: ZIP IT Leadership Directory: HTML | JSON | PDF CIO Governance Board Membership List: HTML | JSON | PDF DOE IT Reform Cost Savings: JSON | PDF DOE IT Policies policyarchive.zip (1.36 MB) bureaudirectory.html (8.07 KB) bureaudirectory.json (10.48 KB)

  12. Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations | Department of Energy Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations Hearing Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Technology and Subcommittee on Government Operations 5-18-16_Michael_Johnson FT HOGR (383.24 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act

  13. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  14. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  15. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  16. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  17. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  18. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or ...

  19. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. ...

  20. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 07anlhighpressuresteamethanolref...

  1. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Return to Search Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming National Energy Technology...

  2. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications Onboard Plasmatron ...

  3. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  4. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Subir Roychoudhury Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI), North Haven, CT Shipboard Fuel Cell Workshop March 29, 2011 ...

  5. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement An ...

  6. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration WASHINGTON- On Thursday, January 15, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will give ...

  7. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  8. Catalytic conversion of sulfur dioxide and trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solov'eva, E.L.; Shenfel'd, B.E.; Kuznetsova, S.M.; Khludenev, A.G.

    1987-11-10

    The reclamation and utilization of sulfur-containing wastes from the flue gas of fossil-fuel power plants and the subsequent reduction in sulfur emission is addressed in this paper. The authors approach this problem from the standpoint of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on solid poison-resistant catalysts with subsequent sorption of the sulfur trioxide and its incorporation into the manufacture of sulfuric acid. The catalyst they propose is a polymetallic dust-like waste from the copper-smelting industry comprised mainly of iron and copper oxides. Experiments with this catalyst were carried out using multifactorial experiment planning.

  9. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol | Department of Energy diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Evaluation and comparison of the measurements of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using the European Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) system and catalytic stripper deer11_jung.pdf (1.44 MB)

  10. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway