National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average catalytic reforming

  1. Catalytic reforming methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  2. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  3. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving five pseudo components, was presented) developed a more de- tailed model of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo

  4. Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer Tore Lid Statoil Mongstad of a semiregenerative catalytic naphtha reformer, involving 35 pseudo compo- nents. They claimed that the simplified-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high

  5. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  6. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26

    -gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

  7. Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi, Enrique Iglesia *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Catalytic activation and reforming of methane on supported palladium clusters Aritomo Yamaguchi and 13 C18 O, and 13 CO and 12 CO during CH4 reforming catalysis. This catalytic sequence, but do not contribute to steady-state catalytic reforming rates. The high reactivity of Pd surfaces in C

  8. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  9. Electro-catalytic oxidation device for removing carbon from a fuel reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2010-02-23

    An electro-catalytic oxidation device (ECOD) for the removal of contaminates, preferably carbonaceous materials, from an influent comprising an ECOD anode, an ECOD cathode, and an ECOD electrolyte. The ECOD anode is at a temperature whereby the contaminate collects on the surface of the ECOD anode as a buildup. The ECOD anode is electrically connected to the ECOD cathode, which consumes the buildup producing electricity and carbon dioxide. The ECOD anode is porous and chemically active to the electro-catalytic oxidation of the contaminate. The ECOD cathode is exposed to oxygen, and made of a material which promotes the electro-chemical reduction of oxygen to oxidized ions. The ECOD electrolyte is non-permeable to gas, electrically insulating and a conductor to oxidized. The ECOD anode is connected to the fuel reformer and the fuel cell. The ECOD electrolyte is between and in ionic contact with the ECOD anode and the ECOD cathode.

  10. Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on Co/MgO catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Su, Yu; Engelhard, Mark H.; King, David L.; Wang, Yong

    2011-02-25

    Abstract: The catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol were investigated over Co/MgO catalysts. Catalysts with different Co0/(Co0+Co2+) fraction were prepared through calcination and/or reduction at different temperatures, and the Co0 fraction was quantified by TPR and in-situ XPS. High temperature calcination of Co/MgO allowed us to prepare catalysts with more non-reducible Co2+ incorporated in the MgO lattice, while lower calcination temperatures allowed for the preparation of catalysts with higher Co0/(Co0+Co2+) fractions. The catalytic tests on Co0, non-reducible Co2+, and reducible Co2+ indicated that Co0 is much more active than either reducible or non-reducible Co2+ for C-C cleavage and water gas shift reaction. In addition, catalysts with a higher Co0 surface fraction exhibited a lower selectivity to CH4.

  11. A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro-SOFC power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    A fast hybrid start-up process for thermally self-sustained catalytic n-butane reforming in micro at the investigation and optimization of a hybrid start-up process for a self-sustained reactor for n-butane to syngas

  12. High Efficiency Solar-based Catalytic Structure for CO{sub 2} Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menkara, Hisham

    2013-09-30

    Throughout this project, we developed and optimized various photocatalyst structures for CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbon fuels and various commodity chemical products. We also built several closed-loop and continuous fixed-bed photocatalytic reactor system prototypes for a larger-scale demonstration of CO{sub 2} reforming into hydrocarbons, mainly methane and formic acid. The results achieved have indicated that with each type of reactor and structure, high reforming yields can be obtained by refining the structural and operational conditions of the reactor, as well as by using various sacrificial agents (hole scavengers). We have also demonstrated, for the first time, that an aqueous solution containing acid whey (a common bio waste) is a highly effective hole scavenger for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor system and can help reform CO{sub 2} into several products at once. The optimization tasks performed throughout the project have resulted in efficiency increase in our conventional reactors from an initial 0.02% to about 0.25%, which is 10X higher than our original project goal. When acid whey was used as a sacrificial agent, the achieved energy efficiency for formic acid alone was ~0.4%, which is 16X that of our original project goal and higher than anything ever reported for a solar-based photocatalytic reactor. Therefore, by carefully selecting sacrificial agents, it should be possible to reach energy efficiency in the range of the photosynthetic efficiency of typical crop and biofuel plants (1-3%).

  13. ,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0.Volume (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet nameVolumeCatalytic

  14. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  15. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  16. Slab reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA); DeZubay, Egon A. (Mt. Lebanon, PA); Murray, Alexander P. (Murrysville, PA); Vidt, Edward J. (Churchill, PA)

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  17. The influence of nano-architectured CeOx supports in RhPd/CeO? for the catalytic ethanol steam reforming reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Divins, N. J.; Senanayake, S. D.; Casanovas, A.; Xu, W.; Trovarelli, A.; Llorca, J.

    2015-01-19

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction has been tested over RhPd supported on polycrystalline ceria in comparison to structured supports composed of nanoshaped CeO? cubes and CeO? rods tailored towards the production of hydrogen. At 650-700 K the hydrogen yield follows the trend RhPd/CeO?-cubes > RhPd/CeO? -rods > RhPd/CeO?- polycrystalline, whereas at temperatures higher than 800 K the catalytic performance of all samples is similar and close to the thermodynamic equilibrium. The improved performance of RhPd/CeO?-cubes and RhPd/CeO? -rods for ESR at low temperature is mainly ascribed to higher water-gas shift activity and a strong interaction between the bimetallic -more »oxide support interaction. STEM analysis shows the existence of RhPd alloyed nanoparticles in all samples, with no apparent relationship between ESR performance and RhPd particle size. X-ray diffraction under operating conditions shows metal reorganization on {100} and {110} ceria crystallographic planes during catalyst activation and ESR, but not on {111} ceria crystallographic planes. The RhPd reconstructing and tuned activation over ceria nanocubes and nanorods is considered the main reason for better catalytic activity with respect to conventional catalysts based on polycrystalline ceria« less

  18. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-27

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  19. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nag, A. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat (India)

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  20. Catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaron, Timothy Mark (East Amherst, NY); Shah, Minish Mahendra (East Amherst, NY); Jibb, Richard John (Amherst, NY)

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  1. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  2. Oxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    molybdenum dioxide displays excellent behavior as catalytic material for the oxidative reforming of bothOxidative Reforming of Biodiesel Over Molybdenum (IV) Oxide Jessica Whalen, Oscar Marin Flores, Su candidate as an effective catalyst for biodiesel. Few papers have been published on the topic of catalytic

  3. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  4. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  5. Ritterschaft & Reformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Ritterschaft & Reformation Renaissancesaal im Ledenhof 23. und 24. Oktober 2014 Osnabrückgefördert deutsche Reformation in Böhmen und Mähren (1520-1620) Dr. Josef Hrdlicka, Ceské Budjovice 10:30 Kaffeepause. Olga Weckenbrock, Osnabrück 11:45 Die Bedeutung der Reichsritterschaft für Reformation und

  6. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  7. 976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabri- cated976 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 4, AUGUST 2006 Methanol Steam Reformer is achieved through on-chip resis- tive heaters, whereby methanol steam reforming reactions were studied over

  8. Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czernik, S.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

  9. Acquisition Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapolsky, Harvey

    This report reviews the six most recent major acquisition reform reports, starting in 1949 with the Hoover Commissions and including McNamara's Total Package Procurement, Fitzhugh Commission, the Commission on Government ...

  10. Aalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    by a catalytic burner, which uses the excess hydrogen of the fuel cell. Figure 1 shows the reformer and fuel cellAalborg Universitet Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro., & Sahlin, S. L. (2012). Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro

  11. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  12. Journal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    2005-01-01

    of a micro-reformer for a fuel cell unit based on catalytic partial oxidation using a systematic numerical is around 80% is identified. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Catalytic partial oxidationJournal of Power Sources 142 (2005) 184­193 Modeling and optimization of catalytic partial

  13. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter, concentrating solar dish was modified to accommodate the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer and the integrated system was installed at the Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals test site at McClellan, CA. Several test runs were conducted without catalyst during which the ceramic heat exchanger in the Sunexus Solar Reformer reached temperatures between 1,050 F (566 C) and 2,200 F (1,204 C) during the test period. A dry reforming mixture of CO2/CH{sub 4} (2.0/1.0 molar ratio) was chosen for all of the tests on the integrated solar dish/catalytic reformer during December 2010. Initial tests were carried out to determine heat transfer from the collimated solar beam to the catalytic reactor. The catalyst was operated successfully at a steady-state temperature of 1,125 F (607 C), which was sufficient to convert 35% of the 2/1 CO2/CH{sub 4} mixture to syngas. This conversion efficiency confirmed the results from laboratory testing of this catalyst which provided comparable syngas production efficiencies (40% at 1,200 F [650 C]) with a resulting syngas composition of 20% CO, 16% H{sub 2}, 39% CO2 and 25% CH{sub 4}. As based upon the laboratory results, it is predicted that 90% of the CO2 will be converted to syngas in the solar reformer at 1,440 F (782 C) resulting in a syngas composition of 50% CO: 43% H{sub 2}: 7% CO2: 0% CH{sub 4}. Laboratory tests show that the higher catalyst operating temperature of 1,440 F (782 C) for efficient conversion of CO2 can certainly be achieved by optimizing solar reactor heat transfer, which would result in the projected 90% CO2-to-syngas conversion efficiencies. Further testing will be carried out during 2011, through other funding support, to further optimize the solar dish CO2 reformer. Additional studies carried out in support of this project and described in this report include: (1) An Assessment of Potential Contaminants in Captured CO2 from Various Industrial Processes and Their Possible Effect on Sunexus CO2 Reforming Catalysts; (2) Recommended Measurement Methods for Assessing Contaminant Levels in Captured CO2 Streams; (3) An Asse

  14. Coherent Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien M. E. Fraïsse; Daniel Braun

    2015-04-13

    We investigate in detail a recently introduced "coherent averaging scheme" in terms of its usefulness for achieving Heisenberg limited sensitivity in the measurement of different parameters. In the scheme, $N$ quantum probes in a product state interact with a quantum bus. Instead of measuring the probes directly and then averaging as in classical averaging, one measures the quantum bus or the entire system and tries to estimate the parameters from these measurement results. Combining analytical results from perturbation theory and an exactly solvable dephasing model with numerical simulations, we draw a detailed picture of the scaling of the best achievable sensitivity with $N$, the dependence on the initial state, the interaction strength, the part of the system measured, and the parameter under investigation.

  15. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  16. Will electricity market reform likely reduce retail rates?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, C.K.; Zarnikau, Jay

    2009-03-15

    To win public support, proponents for electricity market reform to introduce competition often promise that the post-reform retail rates will be lower than the average embedded cost rates that would have prevailed under the status quo of a regulated monopoly. A simple economic analysis shows that such a promise is unlikely to occur without the critical assumption that the post-reform market has marginal costs below average costs. (author)

  17. Immigration Reform: 1986 & Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    voice has  forced immigration reform back to the  political known as the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (

  18. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  19. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  20. Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Tailored Macroporous SiCN and SiC Structures for High-Temperature Fuel Reforming** By In-Kyung Sung such as the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels (e.g., die- sel or JP-8) into hydrogen for use in portable power sources. Performing heterogeneous catalytic reactions in porous struc- tures at the microscale has certain advantages

  1. Catalytic Coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Aberg

    2014-10-20

    Due to conservation of energy we cannot directly turn a quantum system with a definite energy into a superposition of different energies. However, if we have access to an additional resource in terms of a system with a high degree of coherence, as for standard models of laser light, we can overcome this limitation. The question is to what extent coherence gets degraded when utilized. Here it is shown that coherence can be turned into a catalyst, meaning that we can use it repeatedly without ever diminishing its power to enable coherent operations. This finding stands in contrast to the degradation of other quantum resources, and has direct consequences for quantum thermodynamics, as it shows that latent energy that may be locked into superpositions of energy eigenstates can be released catalytically.

  2. Preliminary Thoughts on Copyright Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Thoughts on Copyright Reform by Pamela Samuelson * Myriadfor undertaking a copyright reform project. For one thing,product of a copyright reform process that was initiated in

  3. First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    different catalytic processes, including methanol decomposition (eq 1), methanol steam reforming (eq 2First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming steam reforming (MSR) is an important industrial process for hydrogen production, and fundamental

  4. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Havstad, Mark A.

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  5. PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Besser, Ronald S.

    PREFERENTIAL OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN A THIN-FILM CATALYTIC MICROREACTOR: ADVANTAGES stream after hydrocarbon fuel reforming and water-gas-shift reactions. This process, referred to as CO intermediate, which enhances the catalytic activity at temperatures below 200°C. With the same catalyst system

  6. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  7. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  8. IEEE TRANSACTION ON CONTROL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2003 1 Control of Natural Gas Catalytic Partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Hydrogen Generation in Fuel Cell Applications Jay T. Pukrushpan, Anna G that reforms natural gas to hydrogen-rich mixture to feed the anode field of fuel cell stack is considered. The first reactor that generates the majority of the hydrogen in the fuel processor is based on catalytic

  9. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maisel, Sherman J.; Quigley, John M.

    1985-01-01

    WORKING PAPER 85-100 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE BY SHERMANof wider import. TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE by Sherman J.B. The Initial Impact of Tax Reform IV. RESULTS: RESTORING

  10. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  11. Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sotelo-Boyas, Rogelio

    2007-04-25

    model are the reduction of aromatics, mainly benzene. The results from the simulations agree with the typical performance found in the industrial process....

  12. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    and to regenerate catalysts. Firing rates provide an input of 216.2 x 106 Btu/hr. to the furnaces, at $1.90 per 106 Btu. The units are fitted with multiple natural draft burners. There is insufficient turbulence and swirl in the burners. Operators manually set up...

  13. Hydrogen from Biomass Catalytic Reforming of Pyrolysis Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kg H2/day) with catalyst attrition rates Biomass Feedstocks 6 CO2 +6 H2O C6 waste Issues: Biomass Availability and Costs Georgia Biomass Feedstock Supply 0 3 6 9 12 2000 2010 2020

  14. Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RUBUFFALO PENNELProcess:

  15. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  16. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Baker, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

  17. The Aftermath of Redistricting Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    2009. “Redistricting Reform Will Not Solve California’sMatthew. 2009. “Redistricting Reform Could Save California2. ———. 2011. “Redistricting Reform Revisited. ” California

  18. Bank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffee, Dwight M.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform Dwight M. Jaffee Boothfinancial sector regulatory reform initiatives are currentlyset concerns bank regulatory reform as embedded in the 2010

  19. Mapping the Consequences of Electoral Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latner, Michael S; Roach, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of Electoral Reform Table A2. Unrotated Matrixthe Consequences of Electoral Reform California Journal ofConsequences of Electoral Reform Michael S. Latner and Kyle

  20. Politics and Policy in State Health Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelman, Walter; Melamed, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Policy in State Health Reform by Walter Zelman, Ph.D.c Greenberge, S.S. , “Healthcare reform efforts win praise

  1. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carl

    2007-01-01

    Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution † CarlThis paper analyzes two major reforms to the patent systemthey are issued. Three additional reforms relating to patent

  2. Constitutional Reform in California: The Surprising Divides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binder, Mike; Frisby, Tammy; Kousser, Thad B

    2010-01-01

    Issue 2 Constitutional Reform in California: The Surprisingviews on constitutional reform than whites and African-and opposition to proposed reforms, such as the elimination

  3. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  4. Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Performance Carbon Deposit Removal and Catalyst Regeneration Management Process Energy Integration Integrated and 7 2007 R. J. Evans, NREL D. M. Steward, NREL #12;Innovation / Overview Biomass pyrolysis produces.31 O2 + 0.26 H2O 0.71 CO2 + 0.96 H2 #12;Key Performance Metrics Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio

  5. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Long life catalytic membrane reactors for spontaneous conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M., White, J., Deych, S., Millard, J., Myers, M., Sammells, A.

    1997-10-01

    This program is focusing on the development of mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials based on the brown millerite structure for use in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs). These CMRs are being evaluated for promoting the spontaneous and highly selective oxidative reforming of carbon dioxide / natural gas mixtures to synthesis gas.

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Shici Duan and Selim Senkan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen Using Combinatorial Methods Shici Duan and Selim Senkan* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1532 Ethanol in this area focused on steam reforming of ethanol at relatively high temperatures (T > 500 °C), where carbon

  9. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  10. CGIAR Reform - Why So Difficult? Review, Reform, Renewal, Restructuring, Reform Again and then "The New CGIAR" - So Much Talk and So Little Basic Structural Change - Why?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalla, Alex F

    2014-01-01

    Secretariat, FAO CGIAR Reform-Why So Difficult? 2013 TAC/of California, Davis CGIAR Reform — Why So Difficult?Review, Reform, Renewal, Restructuring, Reform Again and

  11. Ashcroft, A. T., Cheetham, A. K., Jones, R. H., Natarajan, S., Thomas, J. M., Waller, D. and Clark, S. M., "An in situ, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of natural gas conversion by CO2 reforming", J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reforming", J. Physical Chemistry, Vol. 97, pg. 3355 (1993) Bastiaansen, C., Schmidt, H.-W., Nishino, T., "Synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties of the layered oxide SbOReO4·2H2O: Location of hydrogen

  12. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  13. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. (Univ. of Leipzig (Germany)); Reschetilowski, W. (Karl Winnacker Inst. of DECHEMA, Frankfurt (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  14. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  15. Exergy & Economic Analysis of Catalytic Coal Gasifiers Coupled with Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas; Litster, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has undertaken a review of coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide. One way to achieve an overall system efficiency of greater than 60% is in a power plant in which a catalytic coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis and this is sent to a SOFC, with CO{sub 2} capture occurring either before or after the SOFC. Integration of a catalytic gasifier with a SOFC, as opposed to a conventional entrained flow gasifier, is improved due to (a) decreased exergy destruction inside a catalytic, steam-coal gasifier producing a high-methane content syngas, and (b) decreased exergy destruction in the SOFC due to the ability to operate at lower air stoichiometric flow ratios. For example, thermal management of the SOFC is greatly improved due to the steam-methane reforming in the anode of the fuel cell. This paper has two main goals. First, we converted the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) estimates of various research groups into an average internal rate of return on investment (IRR) in order to make comparisons between their results, and to underscore the increased rate of return on investment for advanced integrated gasification fuel cell systems with carbon capture & sequestration (IGFC-CCS) compared with conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC-CCS) systems and pulverized coal combustion (PCC-CCS) systems. Using capital, labor, and fuel costs from previous researchers and using an average price of baseload electricity generation of $61.50 / MW-hr, we calculated inflation-adjusted IRR values of up to 13%/yr for catalytic gasification with pressurized fuel cell and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), whereas we calculate an IRR of ?4%/yr and ?2%/yr for new, conventional IGCC-CCS and PCC-CCS, respectively. If the carbon dioxide is used for enhanced oil recovery rather than for saline aquifer storage, then the IRR values improve to 16%/yr, 10%/yr, and 8%/yr, respectively. For comparison, the IRR of a new conventional IGCC or PCC power plant without CO{sub 2} capture are estimated to be 11%/yr and 15.0%/yr, respectively. Second, we conducted an exergy analysis of two different configurations in which syngas from a catalytic gasifier fuels a SOFC. In the first case, the CO{sub 2} is captured before the SOFC, and the anode tail gas is sent back to the catalytic gasifier. In the second case, the anode tail gas is oxy-combusted using oxygen ion ceramic membranes and then CO{sub 2} is captured for sequestration. In both cases, we find that the system efficiency is greater than 60%. These values compare well with previous system analysis. In future work, we plan to calculate the IRR of these two cases and compare with previous economic analyses conducted at NETL.

  16. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  17. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  18. Catalytic conversion of LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Vora, B.V.; Mowry, J.R.; Anderson, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The low reactivity of light paraffins has long hindered their utilization as petrochemical feedstocks. Except for their use in ethylene crackers, LPG fractions have traditionally been consumed as fuel. New catalytic processes now being commercialized open new avenues for the utilization of LPG as sources of valuable petrochemical intermediates. This paper discusses processes for the dehydrogenation and aromatization of LPG.

  19. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  4. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  5. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  6. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maisel, Sherman J.; Quigley, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Berkeley CENTER Eon REAL ESTATE ANDURBAN ECONOMICS WORKING85-100 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE BY SHERMAN J. MAISEL JOHNADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE AND URBAN ECONOMICS

  7. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  8. AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Cigna AEDP & Healthcare Reform Dipti Patel, FSA, MAAA March 19, 2012 #12; Introductions Introducing... Cigna An overview of the AEDP Healthcare Reform Questions and Answers Overview #12 Branding ­ "GO YOU" · Things are changing ­ Health Care Reform · Young, energetic, executive leadership

  9. Average Angular Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Essen

    2004-01-28

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  10. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  11. Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Data Resources FITARA Resources Available for...

  12. Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Lee

    2010-01-01

    catalytic reductions, and catalytic oxidations. 13 The high-processes for the catalytic oxidation of lignin has focusedand paper industry. Catalytic oxidation is of less interest

  13. CHEMICAL AND CATALYTIC PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTAL CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    of kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S0 by variousand mechanism for the catalytic oxidation of so 2 on carbonthe pH is low. The catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid on

  14. Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification This project is developing a precious metal-free passive diesel particulate...

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  16. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mines Bio-Derived Liquids Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting HFC&IT Program Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006 1 Gasification Partial oxidation CH 1.46 O .67 + 0.16 O 2 ...

  17. Tax Reform and Real Estate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Kenneth T.; Lepcio, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    investment opportunities in real estate. -13- Appentlix CashBerkeley CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE S AND URBAN ECONOMICSPAPER 86-117 TAX REFORM AND REAL ESTATE_ BY KENNETH T. ROSEN

  18. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  19. The Dynamics of Reform of India’s Federal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2007-01-01

    Conflict and Economic Reform in the Developing World, Newconstraints to economic reforms that provide aggregateExpenditures and Economic Reform in India,” Journal of

  20. Essays on India’s Economy: Perspectives on Policy Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on Policy Reform Nirvikar Singh Professor ofwith economic policy reform. The essays are organized intofinancial inclusion and tax reform. This is followed by a

  1. Changing Tracks? The Prospect for California Pension Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Vladimir; McCubbins, Mathew D

    2010-01-01

    for California Pension Reform Notes We focus on the combinedfor California Pension Reform Vladimir Kogan University ofCalifornia budget, pension reform, fiscal oversight

  2. Administering Democracy: Public Opinion on Election Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of Electoral Reform in the United States. ”Turnout and Institutional Reform in Oregon. ” Social SciencePublic Opinion on Election Reform in California Elizabeth

  3. The role of the district office in instructional practice reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzi, Karen Schultz

    2008-01-01

    reality: Standards-based reform in urban districts. MenloW. A. (1989). Using reform: Conceptualizing districtHow districts support school reform. Seattle: University of

  4. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives...

  5. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  6. ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, Andrew

    ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE EDMONTON, ALBERTA CONTRACTS FOR THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF LAND;#12;Table of Contents ALBERTA LAW REFORM INSTITUTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHAPTER 2. COMPARISON OF THE PRESENT AND PREVIOUS LAW OF ALBERTA

  7. Informationsveranstaltung zur Reform des gymnasialen Lehramtes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Informationsveranstaltung zur Reform des gymnasialen Lehramtes W¨urzburg, 3. Mai 2013 ... was lange montags 16-17 Uhr und freitags 10-11 Uhr Euch und allen an der Reform Beteiligten ein herzliches Danke

  8. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  9. Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Applications Plasmatron Fuel Reformer Development and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  10. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  11. PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Richard N.

    PER-Based Reform at a Multicultural Institution Some Lessons from Physics Education Research that the most suc- cessful reform strategies require significant interactions among students, and between students and instructor. It is therefore reasonable to wonder about the extent to which PER-based reform

  12. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, Sang Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sensitivity The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO)stabilizer. The catalytic activity of CO oxidation overintriguing catalytic behavior for CO oxidation 5-15 ; while

  13. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  14. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  15. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  16. Reformer assisted lean NO.sub.x catalyst aftertreatment system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Mohan (Media, PA); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL); Ragle, Christie S. (Havana, IL)

    2010-06-29

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver-containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, a second catalyst composed of a copper-containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range, a hydrocarbon compound for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst to provide a reductant, and a reformer for reforming a portion of the hydrocarbon compound into H.sub.2 and/or oxygenated hydrocarbon for injection into the gas stream upstream of the first catalyst. The second catalyst is adapted to facilitate the reaction of reducing NOx into N.sub.2, whereby the intermediates are produced via the first catalyst reacting with NOx and hydrocarbons.

  17. Spacetime Averaged Null Energy Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

    2010-06-13

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even if one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  18. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  19. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  20. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  2. Hydrogen from Biomass by Autothermal Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Lanny D. Schmidt at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  3. Welfare reform and liberal governance: disciplining Cambodian-American bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Should Know About Welfare Reform (Series A, No. A- 52).2001). The Impact of Welfare Reform on Asians and PacificPunishment: How Welfare Reform Punishes the Poor. Oakland,

  4. State Finances in India: A Case for Systemic Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    M. Govinda (2000), “Tax Reform in India: Achievements andState Level Fiscal Reforms in India”, paper presented aton Indian Economic Reform, April 19-20. M. Govinda Rao and

  5. Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLoughlin, Padraig

    -Based Learning: An Educational Reform Based Upon Content-Centred Teaching. 1046-Centred Educational Reform 3 III Inquiry-Based Learning Pedagogy is Content 27 #12; ii Abstract Inquiry-Based Learning: An Educational Reform

  6. A second opinion on U.S. health care reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaufan, Claudia MD, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Cost Implications of Health Care Reform. N Engl J Med: p.opinion on U.S. health care reform Posted by PNHP on Friday,Obama argued that a model of reform as that implemented by

  7. Swimming Upstream: The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelman, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Hard Politics of Health Reform in California June 2009Report on State Health Access Reform,” Health Affairs, WebPolicy in State Health Reform,” Zelman, W. A. , and Melamed,

  8. Analysis of Senate Bill 92: Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    CJ. Effects of State Reforms on Health Insurance Coverage ofMorrisey MA. Small Group Reform and Insurance Provision byInterest Groups and Health Reform: Lessons from California.

  9. What is "Comprehensive Immigration Reform"? Taking the Long View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motomura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Stumpf. 1. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, Pub.8 U.S.C. ). 35. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986,about “comprehensive immigration reform”—in the way the next

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  11. Making Sense of Reform in Mathematics Education : : The Impact on Practice by Interactions Between Teachers' Beliefs, Reform Policy and Collaboration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javier, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    L. , & Cohen, D. K. (1996). Reform by the book: What is: Orlearning and instructional reform? Educational Researcher,school mathematics: The anti-reform of 1997-99. Phi Delta

  12. The Definitive Reform. How the 1996 Electoral Reform Triggered the Demise of the PRI's Dominant-Party Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrido de Sierra, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    the PRI Approve the Reform? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi 4 How the 1996 Reform Triggered the End of the PRI’seffect of the 1996 electoral reform on the PRI’s unity . The

  13. Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications Diesel Reformers for On-board Hydrogen Applications 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Hydrogen Source 2003deermauss.pdf More...

  14. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming Targets Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Kick-Off Meeting Proceedings Hilton Garden Inn-BWI,Baltimore, MD October 24, 2006...

  15. Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER...

  16. Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public Administration Secretary Moniz to Present Project Management Reforms to the National Academy of Public...

  17. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT,...

  18. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

  19. Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Management Reform at the National Academy of Public Administration -- As Delivered Secretary Moniz's Remarks on Project Management Reform at the National Academy of Public...

  20. Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration Design, Modeling, and Validation of a Flame Reformer for LNT External Bypass Regeneration...

  1. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government...

  2. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research...

  3. STEM education reform A public research university imperative!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    STEM education reform A public research university imperative! University of Florida A significant education reform initiative for introductory courses. Will these -- and a growing number of other national

  4. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  5. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targets (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

  6. Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elby, Andy

    Enabling Informed Adaptation of Reformed Instructional Materials Rachel E. Scherr and Andrew Elby 20742 USA Abstract. Instructors inevitably need to adapt even the best reform materials to suit instructors, and video clips of students working on the materials. Our materials thus facilitate their own

  7. Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The autothermal reforming method employs an improved dehydrogenation process for olefin production, utilizing platinum based dehydrogenation catalysts in the presence of oxygen. The autothermal process requires no external energy input following ignition and produces high conversions and yields from the gaseous hydrocarbon feeds. Autothermal reforming is an effective solution that meets the high demands of the chemical market industry by producing high yields...

  8. In Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    electricity consumption in industrial countries has caused major air pollution problems. In fact, power plantsIn Njeri Wamukonya, ed., Electricity Reform: Social and Environmental Challenges Roskilde, Denmark: UNEP-RISÃ? Centre. Rethinking reform in the electricity sector: Power liberalisation or energy

  9. "Reform" or "Opening"? Reform of China's State-Owned Enterprises and WTO Accession - The Dilemma of Applying GATT to Marketing Economies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumental, David

    1998-01-01

    China's Assurances on Reform Please U.S. , AsIAN WALL ST.REFORM" OR "OPENING"?REFORM OF CHINA'S STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISES AND WTO

  10. Catalytic oxidizers and Title V requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uberoi, M.; Rach, S.E.

    1999-07-01

    Catalytic oxidizers have been used to reduce VOC emissions from various industries including printing, chemical, paint, coatings, etc. A catalytic oxidizer uses a catalyst to reduce the operating temperature for combustion to approximately 600 F, which is substantially lower than thermal oxidation unit. Title V requirements have renewed the debate on the best methods to assure compliance of catalytic oxidizers, with some suggesting the need for continuous emission monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the various aspects of catalytic oxidation and consider options such as monitoring inlet/outlet temperatures, delta T across the catalyst, periodic laboratory testing of catalyst samples, and preventive maintenance procedures as means of assuring continuous compliance.

  11. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  12. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions Print A pathway to more effective and efficient synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other flow-reactor chemical products has been...

  13. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE)...

  14. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the...

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 The research was...

  16. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 You are accessing a...

  17. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    October--December 1994 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994 In this Quarter, the...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report In this Quarter, the research was focused continually on the two...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  1. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  2. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  3. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The team is now exploring techniques that would permit two- and three-dimensional mapping of catalytic reactions. Multidimensional imaging will give the ability to know...

  4. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Energy-Efficient Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions. Hydrogenation reactions are very versatile and account for 10% to 20% of all reactions in the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  6. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  7. Quantum Averages of Weak Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir Aharonov; Alonso Botero

    2005-08-23

    We re-examine the status of the weak value of a quantum mechanical observable as an objective physical concept, addressing its physical interpretation and general domain of applicability. We show that the weak value can be regarded as a \\emph{definite} mechanical effect on a measuring probe specifically designed to minimize the back-reaction on the measured system. We then present a new framework for general measurement conditions (where the back-reaction on the system may not be negligible) in which the measurement outcomes can still be interpreted as \\emph{quantum averages of weak values}. We show that in the classical limit, there is a direct correspondence between quantum averages of weak values and posterior expectation values of classical dynamical properties according to the classical inference framework.

  8. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  9. Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Submitted Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications Naomi Klinghoffer Utilization takes place during catalytic decomposition. This thesis focuses on the utilization of char as a catalyst

  10. September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

  11. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  12. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Walter R.

    -Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame J. Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL The cross section for Thomson scattering Average-Atom Model Divide plasma into WS cells with a nucleus and Z electrons p2 2 - Z r + V a(r) = a a(r) V(r) = VKS(n(r), r) n(r) = nb(r) + nc(r) 4r2nb(r) = nl 2(2l+1) 1+exp[( nl -µ)/kBT] Pnl(r)2 Z = r

  13. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  14. Nicholas Barr: USS reform directions Ver. 2 1 26 March 2015 What reform directions for USS?1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Nicholas Barr: USS reform directions Ver. 2 1 26 March 2015 What reform directions for USS?1 Nicholas Barr2 Summary This note discusses reform of USS as simply as possible (see glossary at end why and how a wider view of de-risking is both feasible and desirable. Some of the reforms of USS

  15. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water Distillation for Water Detritiation Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes Versus Water...

  16. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  17. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion You are accessing a document from...

  20. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  1. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  2. Catalytic cartridge SO3 decomposer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1982-05-25

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a crossflow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axialflow cartridge, so3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  3. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  4. Bank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffee, Dwight M.

    2011-01-01

    July 2008. U.S. Treasury/HUD (2011), “Reforming America’sthe recent U.S. Treasury/HUD (2011) White Paper. The Whitepresented in the Treasury/HUD (2011) White paper. I then

  5. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Copyright Law Reform: Some Achievable Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacQueen, Hector L

    2007-01-01

    Copyright law reform in the European Union. The chapter discusses possible actions in light of new and amended EU Directives and whether these balances rights' holders and users' interests....

  7. Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Valuable Chemical Products over Composite Catalytic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Hu, Jianli; Jones, Susanne B.; Wilcox, Wayne A.; Frye, John G.; White, J. F.; Jiang, Juyuan; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-01

    Presented is an experimental study on catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Catalysts having different catalytic functions were synthesized and combined in different ways to enhance selectivity to desired products. The combined catalyst system possessed the following functions: methanol synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, water-gas-shift and hydrogenation. Results showed that the methods of integrating these catalytic functions played important role in achieving desired product selectivity. It was speculated that if methanol synthesis sites were located adjacent to the C-C chain growth sites, the formation rate of C2 oxygenates would be enhanced. The advantage of using high temperature methanol catalyst PdZnAl in the combined catalyst system was demonstrated. In the presence of PdZnAl catalyst, the combined catalyst system was stable at temperature of 380oC. It was observed that, at high temperature, kinetics favored oxygenate formation. Results implied that the process can be intensified by operating at high temperature using Pd-based methanol synthesis catalyst. Steam reforming of the byproduct organics was demonstrated as a means to provide supplemental hydrogen. Preliminary process design, simulation, and economic analysis of the proposed CO2 conversion process were carried out. Economic analysis indicates how ethanol production cost was affected by the price of CO2 and hydrogen.

  8. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  9. The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Tiffany Linton

    2011-01-01

    the Democracy? Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. ” Journal ofLaura. 1997. Agrarian Reform and Class Consciousness inCristóbal. 1978. “Agrarian Reform and the Class Struggle in

  10. The politics of criminal law reform : a comparative analysis of lower court decision-making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiede, Lydia Brashear

    2008-01-01

    the Goals of Sentencing Reform. Washington, DC: USSC.1991. “The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: A Bold Approach to2008. “The Constitutional Reform Act 2005. ” Available at

  11. What Charter Reform Commissions Can Teach Us About a Proposed Constitutional Convention in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonenshein, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    eds. 1995. Constitutional Reform in California. Berkeley:The Reemergence of Municipal Reform. New York: Academy ofin the Los Angeles Charter Reform of 1996-1999. ” In David

  12. Excellence through General Education: The Status of General Education Reform in Chinese Universities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Xuehong

    2012-01-01

    of General Education Reform in Two Chinese Universities”.of general education reform. Change, 29(4), 18- AssociationGlobalization and educational reforms in Anglo-American

  13. The Political Economy of India’s Fiscal Federal System and its Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

    2006-01-01

    Political Economy and Issues for Reform, eds. , SatuIncentives, and Economic Reforms in India, New Delhi: Sageon Indian Economic Reform, June. Musgrave, Richard A. (

  14. The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    2006. Tafsir(an) Land Reform dalam Alur Sejarah Indonesia:Bibingka Strategy in Land Reform Implementation: Autonomous2006a. “Redistributive Land Reform in ‘Public (Forest) Land?

  15. You Must Learn! Hip-Hop Steps Into the Educational Reform Discourse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allahjah, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    in School: Afrocentric reform, urban youth & the promise of2005). Standards-Based Reform and Low Performing Schools: AIn F. Hess, Urban School Reform: Lessons From San Diego,

  16. School Reform for Students of Color and English Learners: Leaving Pedagogy Behind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    School Reform for Students of Color and English Learners:non-profit school reform organizations, universities, for-non- profit school reform organizations have proliferated in

  17. The Politics of Revenue-Raising Tax Reform in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fairfield, Tasha

    2010-01-01

    George, ed. 1998. “Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries:Markets, and Structural Reform in Latin America. Miami:Imperatives and Tax Reform: Lessons from Postcommunist

  18. Is California Different? State-Specific Risk Adjustment Needs under Health Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Brent D.; Dow, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment Needs under Health Reform Brent D. Fulton andinsurance market under reform is the use of risk adjustmentplans. Keywords: health care reform, The Affordable Health

  19. Mayors, Markets and Municipal Reform: The Politics of Water Delivery in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Veronica Maria Sol

    2011-01-01

    Economy of Water Pricing Reforms. Washington, DC: WorldEconomy of Policy Reform. Washington, DC: Institute for2001. “Constructing Reform Coalitions: The Politics of

  20. Reform or Radicalism: Left Social Movements from the Battle of Seattle to Occupy Wall Street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, James K; Carroll, Myles

    2014-01-01

    abstract antipathy towards ‘tepid reform’ and ‘unrealisticReform or Radicalism: Left Social Movements from the Battledynamism between radical and reform wings drove gains. This

  1. Prospects for Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in Immigration Public Opinion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrejano, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accountingpromised to make immigration reform a priority in his firstComprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013 Accounting for

  2. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  3. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  4. Effect of electronic structures on catalytic properties of CuNi alloy and Pd in MeOH-related reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, An-Pang [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Tomofumi; Suzuki, Yukinori; Kameoka, Satoshi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shimoda, Masahiko [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ishii, Yasushi [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Kasuga, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2013-04-14

    We investigated the catalytic properties of a CuNi solid solution and Pd for methanol-related reactions and associated valence electronic structures. Calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed that the CuNi alloy has a similar valence electronic structure to Pd and hence they exhibited similar CO selectivities in steam reforming of methanol and decomposition of methanol. Samples prepared by various processes were found to have similar CO selectivities. We conjecture that alloying of Cu and Ni dramatically alters the valence electronic structures, making it similar to that of Pd so that the alloy exhibits similar catalytic properties to Pd. First-principles slab calculations of surface electronic structures support this conjecture.

  5. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  6. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  7. CO2 Reduction by Dry Methane Reforming Over Hexaluminates: A Promising Technology for Decreasing Global Warming in a Cost Effective Manner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salazar-Villalpando, M.D.; Gardner, T.H.

    2008-03-01

    Efficient utilization of CO2 can help to decrease global warming. Methane reforming using carbon dioxide has been of interest for many years, but recently that interest has experienced a rapid increase for both environmental and commercial reasons. The use of CO2 provides a source of clean oxygen, which eliminates the need for costly oxygen separation plants. The product of dry reforming is useful syn-gas, which can be used to generate electrical power in a SOFC or in the production of synthetic fuels (hydrocarbons and alcohols). Hexaaluminate catalysts prepared at NETL may represent a product that can be utilized for the conversion of CO2 to syn-gas. In this work, transition metals dispersed in barium hexaaluminate have shown to be promising new catalysts for dry methane reforming. In this investigation, a series of BaNixAl12-yO19-? catalysts with varying Ni content were prepared by co-precipitation followed by calcination at 1400°C. CO2 reduction by dry methane reforming was carried out to determine catalyst performance as a function of temperature and carbon formation was also quantified after the reforming tests. Results of catalysts characterization, dispersion and surface area, were correlated to catalytic performance.

  8. Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

  9. Promoting Public Policy Reform from Inside and Outside Government

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Promoting Public Policy Reform from Inside and Outside Government Sponsored by SF-makers who have had the unique opportunity to fight for social policy reforms from both the inside

  10. The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS reform. Informatics is crucial in tackling this challenge. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

  11. How Did Health Care Reform in Massachusetts Impact Insurance Premiums?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, John A.

    It is widely recognized that the 2006 Massachusetts health reforms served as a blueprint for national reform under the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). As such, there is interest in using the Massachusetts experience to ...

  12. Voting Systems and Election Reform: What Do Election Officials Think? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

  13. Online appendix for Teacher Pay Reform and Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Online appendix for Teacher Pay Reform and Productivity by Sojourner, Mykerezi & West September 26 Figure 1: Effects of P4P-centered HRM reform on reading and math achievement as measured by the MCA

  14. Auxiliary reactor for a hydrocarbon reforming system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Davis, Robert; Rumsey, Jennifer W.

    2006-01-17

    An auxiliary reactor for use with a reformer reactor having at least one reaction zone, and including a burner for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, and heat exchanger for transferring heat from auxiliary reactor gas stream and heat transfer medium, preferably two-phase water, to reformer reaction zone. Auxiliary reactor may include first cylindrical wall defining a chamber for burning fuel and creating a heated auxiliary reactor gas stream, the chamber having an inlet end, an outlet end, a second cylindrical wall surrounding first wall and a second annular chamber there between. The reactor being configured so heated auxiliary reactor gas flows out the outlet end and into and through second annular chamber and conduit which is disposed in second annular chamber, the conduit adapted to carry heat transfer medium and being connectable to reformer reaction zone for additional heat exchange.

  15. Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

  16. Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties of BIMEVOX (Me = Ta)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Selective oxidation of hydrocarbons in a catalytic dense membrane reactor: Catalytic properties for syngas or H2 production from light hydrocarbons. #12;2 Keywords: Dense membrane reactor, BIMEVOX, BITAVOX to decouple the two steps of the redox mechanism that prevails in selective oxidation of hydrocarbons [1

  17. Monte Carlo study of the CO-poisoning dynamics in a model for the catalytic oxidation of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marro, Joaquín

    Monte Carlo study of the CO-poisoning dynamics in a model for the catalytic oxidation of CO The poisoning dynamics of the Ziff­Gulari­Barshad Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2553 1986 model, for a monomer absorbing state and close to the coexistence point. Analysis of the average poisoning time ( p) allows us

  18. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  19. Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior and Pension Reform , Victoria Prowse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior and Pension Reform Peter Haan , Victoria Prowse July 4, 2011 Abstract How can public pension systems be reformed to ensure fiscal stability in the face of increasing and retirement behavior. Keywords: Life Expectancy; Public Pension Reform; Retirement; Employment; Life

  20. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

  1. The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Myth of "Broken Britain": Welfare Reform and the Production of Ignorance Tom Slater School, dependency) is repeatedly invoked by the architects of welfare reform to manufacture ignorance of alternative. Keywords: agnotology, welfare reform, Broken Society, Big Society, Iain Duncan-Smith, think tanks

  2. Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Reformation and Revolution in Early Modern England History 418 Consider Resources Primary (Online) Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (Online) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online and reformation B. Look up Historical Figures, Organizations, and Agencies... If you know of a person involved

  3. the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

  4. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  5. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation Jeong Y.that the catalytic activity under CO oxidation with partiallayers on catalytic activity during CO oxidation is not

  6. Hydrogen Oxidation-Driven Hot Electron Flow Detected by Catalytic Nanodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    In conclusion, the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen on a Pt/chemicurrent from catalytic CO oxidation at atmosphericchemicurrent in catalytic hydrogen oxidation on Pt. Hydrogen

  7. CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) ON ACTIVATED CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSION: KINETICS AND MECHANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, Richard

    2012-01-01

    and Mechanism for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxidekinetic study of the catalytic oxidation on carbon particlesthe kinetics of the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on

  8. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 – Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  9. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  10. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina; P. Szedlacsek

    2006-03-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse is conducting a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1-Implementation Plan, Phase 2-Validation Testing and Phase 3-Field Testing. The Phase 1 program has been completed. Phase II was initiated in October 2004. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCL{trademark}) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to react part of the fuel, increasing the fuel/air mixture temperature. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the catalytic concept will be demonstrated through subscale testing. Phase III will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  11. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael del Rio; Carmen Martinez; Hermann Schulz-Baldes

    2008-02-20

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  12. Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    4 Patent Reform: Aligning Reward and Contribution Carl Shapiro, University of California the current U.S. patent system allows patent holders to capture private rewards that exceed their social with the patent system and discourage in- novation by others. Economic efficiency is promoted if rewards to patent

  13. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  14. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  15. Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan Jones

    2011-03-31

    The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

  16. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}?Ce?Co and Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}?Ce?Co?H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  17. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  18. Process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuno, Noritaka (Sapporo, JP); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Finke, Richard G. (Eugene, OR)

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a process for catalytically oxidizing cycloolefins, particularly cyclohexenes, to form a variety of oxygenates. The catalyst used in the process is a covalently bonded iridium-heteropolyanion species. The process uses the catalyst in conjunction with a gaseous oxygen containing gas to form 2-cyclohexen-1-ol and also 2-cyclohexen-1-one.

  19. Transparent and Catalytic Carbon Nanotube Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    for the dye-sensitized solar cell. Other possible applications include batteries, fuel cells and intercalation in hydrogen fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.1,10,12,14 However, the electrochemical activity to optimize performance through processing. In this study, we quantify the catalytic activity of single

  20. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  1. Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anodic aluminium oxide catalytic membranes for asymmetric epoxidation{ So-Hye Cho, Nolan D. Walther, the catalytic membrane reactor configuration confers a significant advantage to oxidation reactions--the use of a catalytic membrane can provide a reactive interface for the oxidation to take place while avoiding long

  2. Capturing fleeting intermediates in a catalytic CH amination reaction cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    for the mechanistic study of catalytic processes. mass spectrometry | transient intermediates | C­H oxidation | catalysis Catalytic methods for selective C­H oxidation rely on the exquisite choreography of a series oxidant (4, 5, 11). The fast rates of the on- and off-path steps in this catalytic process

  3. Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Catalytic Oxidation Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201400134 Trinuclear Pd3O2 Intermediate in Aerobic* Abstract: The activation of O2 is a key step in selective catalytic aerobic oxidation reactions mediated aerobic oxidation of alcohols. The formation and catalytic activity of the trinuclear Pd3O2 species

  4. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  5. Medicaid Expansion and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Lessons and Hopes for Implementation of Healthcare Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieber-Emmons, Autumn; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Grumbach, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Coverage under Health Care Reform. UCLA Center for HealthHow Will Health Care Reform Affect Costs and Coverage? – Ex-Implementing Healthcare Reform in California. ” NEJM Epub. (

  6. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  7. Optimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    policy the differ- ential cost is C1 on attractive control switching boundaries. Index Terms Average costOptimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers: Convexity and Differentiability Michael H and differentiability of the differential cost function are investigated. It is proven that under an optimal control

  8. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  9. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (more »The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  10. Autothermal hydrodesulfurizing reforming method and catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Kopasz, John P.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kao, Richard Li-chih; Randhava, Sarabjit Singh

    2005-11-22

    A method for reforming a sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel in which the sulfur-containing carbonaceous fuel is mixed with H.sub.2 O and an oxidant, forming a fuel/H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture. The fuel H.sub.2 O/oxidant mixture is brought into contact with a catalyst composition comprising a dehydrogenation portion, an oxidation portion and a hydrodesulfurization portion, resulting in formation of a hydrogen-containing gas stream.

  11. Method and apparatus for a catalytic firebox reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance L. (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Ulkarim, Hasan (Hamden, CT); Castaldi, Marco J. (Bridgeport, CT); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic firebox reactor employing an exothermic catalytic reaction channel and multiple cooling conduits for creating a partially reacted fuel/oxidant mixture. An oxidation catalyst is deposited on the walls forming the boundary between the multiple cooling conduits and the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, on the side of the walls facing the exothermic catalytic reaction channel. This configuration allows the oxidation catalyst to be backside cooled by any fluid passing through the cooling conduits. The heat of reaction is added to both the fluid in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel and the fluid passing through the cooling conduits. After discharge of the fluids from the exothermic catalytic reaction channel, the fluids mix to create a single combined flow. A further innovation in the reactor incorporates geometric changes in the exothermic catalytic reaction channel to provide streamwise variation of the velocity of the fluids in the reactor.

  12. Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Return to Search Pyrochem Catalysts for Diesel Fuel Reforming National Energy Technology...

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, Wei Wei, GE Global Research Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Darlene Steward, National Renewable Energy Laboratory High-Pressure Steam...

  14. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed...

  15. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  16. Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oversight and Government Reform ubcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement By: Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  17. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in...

  18. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation...

  19. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  20. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  1. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  2. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  3. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  4. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Preface: Challenges for Catalytic Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    This special issue of Catalysis Today continues the tradition established since the 18th NAM in Cancun, 2003, of publishing the highlights coming from these catalytic after-treatment technologies sessions, where this volume contains 18 papers based on oral and poster presentations of the 23rd NAM, 2013. The guest editors would like to thank all of the catalyst scientists and engineers who presented in the "Emission control" sessions, and especially the authors who contributed to this special issue of Catalysis Today.

  6. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  7. Average transmission probability of a random stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

    2009-07-31

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

  8. Prospects for Comprehensive Immigration Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in Immigration Public Opinion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrejano, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Reform in 2012-2013: Accounting for Trends in ImmigrationReform in 2012-2013 Accounting for Trends in ImmigrationReform in 2012-2013 Accounting for Trends in Immigration

  9. Negotiating Education Reform: Teacher Evaluations and Incentives in Chile (1990-2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizala, Alejandra

    Reforms designed to improve the quality of teaching by reforming personnel practices, such as pay for performance arrangements, usually run into opposition from well-organized teacher unions that can either block reform ...

  10. Statutory Damages in Copyright Law: A Remedy in Need of Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela; Wheatland, Tara

    2009-01-01

    consider whether legislative reform of U.S. statutory damagewe consider whether statutory reform might be desirable toTo put our suggestions for reform of U.S. statutory damages

  11. The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingram, James Warren

    2008-01-01

    the Challenges of Charter Reform, Kevin F. McCarthy, Stevenof Los Angeles Charter Reform,” Appendix B of Meetingthe Challenges of Charter Reform, Kevin F. McCarthy, Steven

  12. Californians Newly Eligible for Medi-Cal under Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E.; Kominski, Gerald F.

    2011-01-01

    for Medi-Cal under Health Care Reform Nadereh Pourat, Ana E.implementation of health care reform by incorporating manyCal under Health Care Reform. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center

  13. Modernization and Post-1978 Chinese Educational Reform: Impact on a Migrating Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Weiling

    2013-01-01

    upon the new curricular reform in China. Curriculum,A. Park (Eds. ). Education and Reform in China, (pp. 27-43).in Chinese educational reform. Journal of Education Studies,

  14. Managing Multiple Mandates : : Teachers' Practice in the Nexus of Educational Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Stephanie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    M. B. (1992). Getting reform right: What works and whatfor comprehensive school reform. In G. Orfield & E. H.Facts, not fads, in Title I reform (pp. 111-119). Cambridge,

  15. The Politics of School Reform: A Broader and Bolder Approach for Newark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noguera, Pedro A.; Wells, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    economy of urban educational reform. New York, NY: TeachersR. F. (2004). School reform from the inside out: Policy,The Politics of School Reform 23 Gonzalez, J. (2010, May

  16. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  17. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-3050, USA Abstract Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model

  18. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

  19. Electricity Reform Abroad and U.S. Investment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom in an attempt to better understand how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries of Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom.

  20. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  1. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  2. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  3. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  4. Comparison of Water-Hydrogen Catalytic Exchange Processes vs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 22-24, 2014, Aiken, SC COMPARISON OF WATER-HYDROGEN CATALYTIC EXCHANGE PROCESSES VERSUS WATER DISTILLATION FOR WATER DETRITIATION A. Busigin,...

  5. Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of different fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing-Tao

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogen-assisted catalytic ignition characteristics of methane (CH{sub 4}), n-butane (n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10}) and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied experimentally in a Pt-coated monolith catalytic reactor. It is concluded that DME has the lowest catalytic ignition temperature and the least required H{sub 2} flow, while CH{sub 4} has the highest catalytic ignition temperature and the highest required H{sub 2} flow among the three fuels. (author)

  6. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  7. Piloted rich-catalytic lean-burn hybrid combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newburry, Donald Maurice (Orlando, FL)

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic combustor assembly which includes, an air source, a fuel delivery means, a catalytic reactor assembly, a mixing chamber, and a means for igniting a fuel/air mixture. The catalytic reactor assembly is in fluid communication with the air source and fuel delivery means and has a fuel/air plenum which is coated with a catalytic material. The fuel/air plenum has cooling air conduits passing therethrough which have an upstream end. The upstream end of the cooling conduits is in fluid communication with the air source but not the fuel delivery means.

  8. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  9. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  10. Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of NO by Hydrocarbons Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  11. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  12. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide...

  13. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified....

  14. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway...

  15. Probing Hot Electron Flow Generated on Pt Nanoparticles with Au/TiO2 Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-01

    Schottky Diodes during Catalytic CO Oxidation Jeong Y. Parkwere measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures ofexothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly

  16. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K.

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}?8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  17. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  18. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekoon Lee

    2015-03-27

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  19. Thin film porous membranes for catalytic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, R.C.; Boyle, T.J.; Gardner, T.J. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on new and surprising experimental data for catalytic film gas sensing resistors coated with nanoporous sol-gel films to impart selectivity and durability to the sensor structure. This work is the result of attempts to build selectivity and reactivity to the surface of a sensor by modifying it with a series of sol-gel layers. The initial sol-gel SiO{sub 2} layer applied to the sensor surprisingly showed enhanced O{sub 2} interaction with H{sub 2} and reduced susceptibility to poisons such as H{sub 2}S.

  20. Surface Structure and Catalytic $CO$ Oxidation Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Danielak; A. Perera; M. Moreau; M. Frankowicz; R. Kapral

    1996-02-13

    A cellular automaton model is used to describe the dynamics of the catalytic oxidation of $CO$ on a $Pt(100)$ surface. The cellular automaton rules account for the structural phase transformations of the $Pt$ substrate, the reaction kinetics of the adsorbed phase and diffusion of adsorbed species. The model is used to explore the spatial structure that underlies the global oscillations observed in some parameter regimes. The spatiotemporal dynamics varies significantly within the oscillatory regime and depends on the harmonic or relaxational character of the global oscillations. Diffusion of adsorbed $CO$ plays an important role in the synchronization of the patterns on the substrate and this effect is also studied.

  1. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    NH3 Platform Catalytic steam reformation technology InternalNH3 Platform Catalytic steam reformation technology Supports

  2. Catalytic reactor for low-Btu fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Lance (North Haven, CT); Etemad, Shahrokh (Trumbull, CT); Karim, Hasan (Simpsonville, SC); Pfefferle, William C. (Madison, CT)

    2009-04-21

    An improved catalytic reactor includes a housing having a plate positioned therein defining a first zone and a second zone, and a plurality of conduits fabricated from a heat conducting material and adapted for conducting a fluid therethrough. The conduits are positioned within the housing such that the conduit exterior surfaces and the housing interior surface within the second zone define a first flow path while the conduit interior surfaces define a second flow path through the second zone and not in fluid communication with the first flow path. The conduit exits define a second flow path exit, the conduit exits and the first flow path exit being proximately located and interspersed. The conduits define at least one expanded section that contacts adjacent conduits thereby spacing the conduits within the second zone and forming first flow path exit flow orifices having an aggregate exit area greater than a defined percent of the housing exit plane area. Lastly, at least a portion of the first flow path defines a catalytically active surface.

  3. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESTHE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIESreactive species in catalytic oxidation of S(IV). so 3 2- as

  4. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  5. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis In ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, biomass is heated with catalysts...

  6. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis The in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis pathway involves rapidly heating...

  7. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Kotikov

    2014-11-30

    We show the results in [1,2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MSbar factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, alphas(Mz)=0.1199 +- 0.0026 has been obtained in the MSbar scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.

  8. HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming will have to grow and adapt to meet new challenges. For years, health reform has been a political football for academic health centers like OHSU to truly lead. Reform will touch all of OHSU's missions. Our hospitals

  9. Paper ID #10519 Sustainable Reform of "Introductory Dynamics" Driven by a Community of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Matthew

    Paper ID #10519 Sustainable Reform of "Introductory Dynamics" Driven by a Community of Practice;Sustainable Reform of Introductory Dynamics Driven by a Community of Practice Abstract The Strategic to initiate reforms, SIIP aims to improve the sustainability of reforms by forming Communities of Practice (Co

  10. 2007 DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    )(organic fraction) DistillationDistillation Reformation of ethanolReformation of ethanol Biogas reformationBiogas Deactivation/Regeneration #12;Overview of the Economic Analysis Strategies Process Mass and Heat Balance for reaction and heating; Reformer is simulated as RYield with temperature at 450oC and furnace is simulated

  11. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

  12. Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Ehud

    Antibody-Metalloporphyrin Catalytic Assembly Mimics Natural Oxidation Enzymes Shai Nimri and Ehud-metalloporphyrin assembly that catalyzes the enantioselective oxidation of aromatic sulfides to sulfoxides is presented-naphthoxy ligand. The catalytic assembly comprising antibody SN37.4 and a ruthenium- (II) porphyrin cofactor

  13. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  14. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  15. Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Biphenylene with Platinum, Palladium, and Nickel Phosphine Complexes activation and formation by plati- num and palladium phosphine complexes.4g The oper- ating catalytic cycle

  16. A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine N-Terminal Nucleophile Hydrolases, as Revealed by Free Energy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    2 | e32397 A Catalytic Mechanism for Cysteine Ntn-Hydrolaseson the catalytic mechanism of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA):serine protease- like mechanism with an N-terminal threonine

  17. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  18. Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates for structured catalytic reactors.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Preparation and characterization of VOx/TiO2 catalytic coatings on stainless steel plates are used in the mild oxidation of hydrocarbons and NOx abatement are studied. Stainless steel (316 L) was chosen because of its large application in industrial catalytic reactors. TiO2 films on stainless steel

  19. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  1. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codesReversingprovedReynolds-Averaged

  2. Make the most of catalytic hydrogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landert, J.P.; Scubla, T. [Biazzi S.A., Chailly-Montreux (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most useful and versatile reactions available for organic synthesis. Because it is environmentally clean, it has replaced other reduction processes, such as the Bechamp reaction, and zinc and sulfide reductions. Moreover, the economics are favorable, provided that raw materials free of catalyst poisons are used. The hydrogenation reaction is very selective with appropriate catalysts and can often be carried out without a solvent. Applications include reduction of unsaturated carbon compounds to saturated derivatives (for example, in vegetable-oil processing), carbonyl compounds to alcohols (such as sorbitol), and nitrocompounds to amines. the reactions are usually run in batch reactors to rapidly reach complete conversion and allow quick change-over of products. The paper describes the basics of hydrogenation; steering clear of process hazards; scale-up and optimization; and system design in practice.

  3. Biofuel from fast pyrolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-09-04

    This review addresses recent developments in biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading by catalytic hydrotreating. The research in the field has expanded dramatically in the past few years with numerous new research groups entering the field while existing efforts from others expand. The issues revolve around the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Much work in batch reactor tests with precious metal catalysts needs further validation to verify long-term operability in continuous flow systems. The effect of the low level of sulfur in bio-oil needs more study to be better understood. Utilization of the upgraded bio-oil for feedstock to finished fuels is still in an early stage of understanding.

  4. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  5. Catalytic cartridge SO.sub.3 decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, Terry R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A catalytic cartridge internally heated is utilized as a SO.sub.3 decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube being internally heated. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO.sub.3 gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and being internally heated. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety.

  6. Catalytic cartridge SO/sub 3/ decomposer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.

    1980-11-18

    A catalytic cartridge surrounding a heat pipe driven by a heat source is utilized as a SO/sub 3/ decomposer for thermochemical hydrogen production. The cartridge has two embodiments, a cross-flow cartridge and an axial flow cartridge. In the cross-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through a chamber and incident normally to a catalyst coated tube extending through the chamber, the catalyst coated tube surrounding the heat pipe. In the axial-flow cartridge, SO/sub 3/ gas is flowed through the annular space between concentric inner and outer cylindrical walls, the inner cylindrical wall being coated by a catalyst and surrounding the heat pipe. The modular cartridge decomposer provides high thermal efficiency, high conversion efficiency, and increased safety. A fusion reactor may be used as the heat source.

  7. The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these ...

  8. Estimate of resources required for a meaningful reform of education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glazek, Stanislaw D

    2012-01-01

    A simple estimate in terms of currency units shows that a meaningful educational reform process can be launched and sustained over many generations of teachers with support of parents of students. In the estimate, the steady inflow of resources from parents provides support for advanced studies by teachers. Not to waste the resources on spurious activities, the estimated inflow proceeds directly from the parents as clients to the providers of required reform program. The providers are the experts in various disciplines who excel in helping teachers become great. Their services to teachers are ultimately assessed by parents on the basis of changes in behavior of children. The resulting reform program grows slowly from small seeds. The running cost of the reform process to parents appears surprisingly low while its development leads to the desired changes over time.

  9. School Finance Reform: Do Equalized Expenditures Imply Equalized Teacher Salaries?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams, Meg; Butler, J.S.; Cowen, Joshua; Fowles, Jacob; Toma, Eugenia T.

    2011-10-01

    school finance and curricular reform is highly salient for understanding teacher labor market dynamics. This study examines the time path of teacher salaries in Appalachian and non-Appalachian Kentucky using a novel teacher-level administrative data set...

  10. The NCAA's Academic Performance Program: Academic Reform or Academic Racism?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackman, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Academic Reform or Academic Racism? Phillip C. Blackman* I.or Merely to Promote Racism? ,14 N.Y.L Sch. J. Hum. Rts.and sorrowful continuation of racism in this country, this

  11. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  12. Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

  13. Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Office of Nuclear Energy Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on the Interior 4-22-15JohnKotek FT HOGR.pdf More Documents &...

  14. Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClendon, Rodney Prescott

    2009-06-02

    The study examined urban university faculty members’ perceptions of their presidents’ leadership role in urban school reform. The population for this study consisted of faculty members from five urban research universities. All of the universities...

  15. LAND REFORM IN NAMIBIA: AN ANALYSIS OF MEDIA COVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelbrecht, Petrus J.

    2014-08-31

    in ensuring that land reform is successfully designed and executed. The media informs the public, sets the public and political agenda, holds the government accountable, and serves as a public sphere. This project analyses Namibia's three primary daily...

  16. Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co/CeO2: The Effect of ZnO Promoter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-02

    A series of ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 catalysts were synthesized and characterized using XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, CO chemisorption, O2-TPO, IR-Py, and CO2-TPD. The effects of ZnO on the catalytic performances of Co/CeO2 were studied in ethanol steam reforming. It was found that the addition of ZnO facilitated the oxidation of Co0 via enhanced oxygen mobility of the CeO2 support which decreased the activity of Co/CeO2 in C–C bond cleavage of ethanol. 3 wt% ZnO promoted Co/CeO2 exhibited minimum CO and CH4 selectivity and maximum CO2 selectivity. This resulted from the combined effects of the following factors with increasing ZnO loading: (1) enhanced oxygen mobility of CeO2 facilitated the oxidation of CHx and CO to form CO2; (2) increased ZnO coverage on CeO2 surface reduced the interaction between CHx/CO and Co/CeO2; and (3) suppressed CO adsorption on Co0 reduced CO oxidation rate to form CO2. In addition, the addition of ZnO also modified the surface acidity and basicity of CeO2, which consequently affected the C2–C4 product distributions.

  17. The 2009 World Average of $?_s$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegfried Bethke

    2009-08-15

    Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.

  18. Reforming the Power Sector in Transition: Do Institutions Matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    and Uzbekistan. Besides these countries, Turkey and Mongolia are also included in the group of transition economies as per European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) areas of operation. 2 For instance, the oil and gas exports for Turkmenistan... ). Stiglitz (1999) argues that the enforcement mechanisms of reforms (including  power  sector  reforms) were weak  as  the  state’s  legal  and  judicial  capacities were  limited during the transition process brewing inefficient rent...

  19. New Voices in U.S. Immigration Debates: Latino and Asian American Attitudes Toward the Building Blocks of Comprehensive Immigration Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSipio, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Louis. 2013. “Immigration Reforms from the Perspective ofthe Target of the Reform: Immigrant Generation and LatinoPreferences on Immigration Reform. ” In Gary P. Freeman,

  20. Media Framing Of U.S. Health Care Reform: A New Era Or Reinforcing Dominant Ideologies Of Health And The Health Care System?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaworski, Beth Kristen

    2012-01-01

    values shaping today’s health reform debate. Health Affairs,back on health care reform: “No easy choices. ” Healthopinion and health care reform. Defining Ideas. Retrieved

  1. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Afshar Farniya; Maria J. Esplandiu; Adrian Bachtold

    2014-10-20

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  2. Sequential tasks performed by catalytic pumps for colloidal crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farniya, Ali Afshar; Bachtold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Gold-platinum catalytic pumps immersed in a chemical fuel are used to manipulate silica colloids. The manipulation relies on the electric field and the fluid flow generated by the pump. Catalytic pumps perform various tasks, such as the repulsion of colloids, the attraction of colloids, and the guided crystallization of colloids. We demonstrate that catalytic pumps can execute these tasks sequentially over time. Switching from one task to the next is related to the local change of the proton concentration, which modifies the colloid zeta potential and consequently the electric force acting on the colloids.

  3. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact 744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster...

  4. Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic bi-resonance without external signal in the CO O2 catalytic oxidation reaction system reaction systems13 including the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO O2) and the catalytic reduction; accepted 19 April 1999 The noisy dynamic behavior of a surface catalytic reaction model to describe

  5. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cars are for gasoline cars only. Fuel economy average is the production-weighted harmonic mean. 2014 data are preliminary. Fact 849 Dataset Supporting Information Average...

  6. Emerging catalytic processes for the production of adipic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Vyver, Stijn

    Research efforts to find more sustainable pathways for the synthesis of adipic acid have led to the introduction of new catalytic processes for producing this commodity chemical from alternative resources. With a focus on ...

  7. Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Substrate Access to the Active Site and Catalytic Mechanism of Methane and Toluene Monooxygenases Friday, June 22, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL Main Conference Room 137-322 Prof....

  8. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  9. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  10. Catalytic oxidation of VOC`s and air toxics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassen, M.A.; Chu, W. [Johnson Matthey, Wayne, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Catalytic oxidation for VOC control of stationary sources has been in use since the 1940`s for energy recovery and odor control. Widespread use of catalytic oxidation, as a means for controlling emissions began in earnest in the early 1970`s with the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970. Since that time, catalytic technology has undergone many improvements and advancements. Some of these include higher destruction efficiencies at lower temperatures, poison resistance, enhanced durability and the ability to effectively control halogenated hydrocarbon compounds. This is particularly important for meeting the Title III requirements, since many of the air toxics regulated under Title III are halogenated VOC`s. This paper will describe catalytic oxidation, how it works, its benefits and limitations, its cost relative to thermal, and describe recent technology advances.

  11. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels 2.3.1.100 Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A....

  12. Catalytic H2O2 decomposition on palladium surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, S. Adriana

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic decomposition of H?O? at smooth single-crystal and polycrystalline palladium surfaces that had been subjected to various surface modifications has been studied. Monolayer and submonolayer coverages of I, Br and Cl adsorbates were used...

  13. In situ XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XAS Characterization of Catalytic Nano-Materials with Applications to Fuel Cells and Batteries Friday, July 12, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Qingying...

  14. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been...

  15. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Jezierski; Andrew Tadd; Johannes Schwank; Roland Kibler; David McLean; Mahesh Samineni; Ryan Smith; Sameer Parvathikar; Joe Mayne; Tom Westrich; Jerry Mader; F. Michael Faubert

    2010-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were found to have lower activities under S-free conditions, but did show less effect of S on performance, in this study. Imidazolium-based ILs, choline chloride compounds and low-melting eutectics of metal nitrates were evaluated, and it was found that, ILs have some capacity to dissolve cellulose and show thermal stability to temperatures where pyrolysis begins, have no vapor pressure, (simplifying product recoveries), and can dissolve ionic metal salts, allowing for the potential of catalytic reactions on breakdown intermediates. Clear evidence of photoactive commercial TiO2 was obtained, but in-house synthesis of photoactive TiO2 proved difficult, as did fixed-bed gasification, primarily due to the challenge of removing the condensable products from the reaction zone quickly enough to prevent additional reaction. Further investigation into additional non-PGM catalysts and ILs is recommended as a follow-up to this work.

  16. Northwestern University Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Tobin Jay

    2013-05-08

    Northwestern University with DOE support created a Facility for Clean Catalytic Process Research. This facility is designed to further strengthen our already strong catalysis research capabilities and thus to address these National challenges. Thus, state-of-the art instrumentation and experimentation facility was commissioned to add far greater breadth, depth, and throughput to our ability to invent, test, and understand catalysts and catalytic processes, hence to improve them via knowledge-based design and evaluation approaches.

  17. The Average Mass Profile of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Carlberg; H. K. C. Yee; E. Ellingson; S. L. Morris; R. Abraham; P. Gravel; C. J. Pritchet; T. Smecker-Hane; F. D. A. Hartwick; J. E. Hesser; J. B. Hutchings; J. B. Oke

    1997-05-23

    The average mass density profile measured in the CNOC cluster survey is well described with the analytic form rho(r)=A/[r(r+a_rho)^2], as advocated on the basis on n-body simulations by Navarro, Frenk & White. The predicted core radii are a_rho=0.20 (in units of the radius where the mean interior density is 200 times the critical density) for an Omega=0.2 open CDM model, or a_rho=0.26 for a flat Omega=0.2 model, with little dependence on other cosmological parameters for simulations normalized to the observed cluster abundance. The dynamically derived local mass-to-light ratio, which has little radial variation, converts the observed light profile to a mass profile. We find that the scale radius of the mass distribution, 0.20<= a_rho <= 0.30 (depending on modeling details, with a 95% confidence range of 0.12-0.50), is completely consistent with the predicted values. Moreover, the profiles and total masses of the clusters as individuals can be acceptably predicted from the cluster RMS line-of-sight velocity dispersion alone. This is strong support of the hierarchical clustering theory for the formation of galaxy clusters in a cool, collisionless, dark matter dominated universe.

  18. From the Frontlines to the Bottom Line: Medical Marijuana, the War on Drugs, and the Drug Policy Reform Movement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heddleston, Thomas Reed

    2012-01-01

    1993. “Cannabis: Legal Reform, Medicinal Use and HarmBruce 2004. "Drug Policy Reform and Its Detractors: TheRobins. 2003. Cannabis Law Reform in Canada: Is the “Saga of

  19. Identifying mistakes to discipline a New State : the rectification campaigns in China's land reform, 1946-1952

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Jiangsui

    2008-01-01

    de tudi gaige [The land reform during the war of liberation,Projects…………………………………..84 Chapter Three Land Reform andMistakes: Land Reform in Xigou………………………………87 I. Xigou and

  20. New Orleans Education Reform: A Guide for Cities or a Warning for Communities? (Grassroots Lessons Learned, 2005-2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buras, Kristen L.; Urban South Grassroots Research Collective, Members

    2013-01-01

    Orleans-style education reform: A guide for cities (Lessonspolitics of corporate school reform (pp. 160–188). New York,April 26). New Orleans school reform: Pass or fail? (Askwith

  1. A Family Affair: The Marriage of Elizabeth Cady and Henry Brewster Stanton and the Development of Reform Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Linda Christine

    2012-01-01

    and the Crusade for Social Reform Hamilton, NY: Log Cabinof the splits within the reform-minded congregations. InElizur Wright and the Reform Impulse Kent, Ohio: The Kent

  2. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  5. Microchannel Reactor System for Catalytic Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeniyi Lawal; Woo Lee; Ron Besser; Donald Kientzler; Luke Achenie

    2010-12-22

    We successfully demonstrated a novel process intensification concept enabled by the development of microchannel reactors, for energy efficient catalytic hydrogenation reactions at moderate temperature, and pressure, and low solvent levels. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for hydrogenation of onitroanisole and a proprietary BMS molecule. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we designed and developed a fully-automated skid-mounted multichannel microreactor pilot plant system for multiphase reactions. The system is capable of processing 1 – 10 kg/h of liquid substrate, and an industrially relevant immiscible liquid-liquid was successfully demonstrated on the system. Our microreactor-based pilot plant is one-of-akind. We anticipate that this process intensification concept, if successfully demonstrated, will provide a paradigm-changing basis for replacing existing energy inefficient, cost ineffective, environmentally detrimental slurry semi-batch reactor-based manufacturing practiced in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industries.

  6. the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in the Connecticut River basin. Fisheries (Bethesda) 7(6): 2-11. POTTER. I. C.· F. W. H. BEAMISH, AND B. G. H. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Servo Conn.· Dep. Environ. Prot., Bull. 101, 134 p

  7. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  8. Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Field, Sharon; Doren, Bonnie; Jones, Bonnie; Mason, Christine

    2004-01-01

    of the current educational context. We particularly examine the role of promoting self-determination in light of federal standards-based reform initiatives. We conclude that school reform efforts provide an opportunity to infuse instruction in self...

  9. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  10. Evaluating the Evidence on Electricity Reform: Lessons for the South East Europe (SEE) Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    This paper discusses the evidence on electricity reform and relates it to the current situation of the South East Europe (SEE) electricity market. We begin by discussing the main elements of the European Union (EU) electricity reform model. Then we...

  11. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard da

    2011-12-09

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was introduced in 1999. This policy...

  12. Reforming pharmaceutical regulation: a case study of generic drugs in Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonseca, Elize Massard

    2012-06-29

    Brazil is renowned worldwide for its remarkable reforms in pharmaceutical regulation, which have enhanced access to essential medicines while lowering drug costs. As part of these reforms, the Generic Drug Act was ...

  13. 10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework consultation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    1 10 December 2009 Educators for Reform response to HEFCE Research Excellence Framework that is already taking place in the private sector. Instead research funding should be reformed to give more

  14. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  15. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  16. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  17. The Church,the Councils,& Reform TheChurch,theCouncils,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pukelsheim, Friedrich

    The Church,the Councils,& Reform #12;#12;TheChurch,theCouncils, & Reform TheLegacyof the of Congress CaTaloging-in-PUbliCaTion DaTa The church,the councils,and reform:the legacy of the fifteenthPeCtIves Introduction 25 ThomasM.Izbicki 1. Councils of the Catholic Reformation:A Historical Survey 27 Nelson

  18. O'Leary unveils ambitious contract reform initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-02-04

    This article describes DOE's program to reform contract management of its projects. The department will move away from its traditional cost-reimbursement management toward a performance-based management contract that sets clearer goals, incentives, and expectations for contractors. The key objectives are to better tie compensation to actual performance and make it clear that contractors will be responsible for any cost overruns. Another objective of the reform program is to rebid major contracts more often and to encourage more companies to seek DOE business.

  19. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  20. Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Mexico's Energy Reform: What Does It Mean for Mexico and Beyond? The Mexican Senate is currently and Energy and Environment Program for a discussion on elements of the reform, questions for the road ahead, and the broader impacts of reform. The event will launch the Atlantic Council's new issue brief, Mexico Rising

  1. The effect of reformate gas enrichment on extinction limits and NOX formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    , known as reformate gas, contains not only hydrogen, but also carbon monoxide and some other components premixed combustion. When the reformate gas is added, the formation of NO is reduced in a near advantage of the reformate gas enriched lean premixed combustion is that it greatly reduces the formation

  2. Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

  3. OFQUAL Consultation on A-Level Reform Response from the London Mathematical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abrahams, I. David

    1 OFQUAL Consultation on A-Level Reform Response from the London Mathematical Society The present administration signalled clearly when in opposition that they wished to `reform' the existing A level structure by academics over a number of years. The consequent `reform' is therefore a matter of profound importance

  4. August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

  5. The New York Times > Opinion > Making Votes Count: Voting Reform Could Backfire May 9, 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Ronald L.

    The New York Times > Opinion > Making Votes Count: Voting Reform Could Backfire May 9, 2004 MAKING VOTES COUNT Voting Reform Could Backfire n 2000, untold thousands of eligible voters were prevented from. This is an important reform, but unless it is done right, provisional ballots could actually disenfranchise many

  6. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 of the Environment (CoEnv) to make useful contributions to the Governor's natural resource agency reform initiative. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

  7. WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

  8. Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G reform is, for this purpose, a useful case study. Yet I will not talk only about that conflict. I also will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats

  9. `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858-1898 Irish Centre for Nursing & Midwifery History Spring-summer Seminar series Sanitary reform in the Dublin and hospital sanitation `Pure air, pure water and good light' Sanitary reform in the Dublin hospitals, 1858

  10. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

  11. A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    A Proposal to Reform the Kyoto Protocol: the Role of Escape Clauses and Foresight Larry Karp University of California, Berkeley Jinhua Zhao Iowa Sate University February 23, 2007 Abstract A reform be designed. We propose a reform to the Kyoto Proto- col that allows signatories to avoid achieving the target

  12. Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E. #12;Bureaucratic Reform and E-Government in the United States: An Institutional Perspective Jane E perspective on e-government can provide important insights into bureaucratic reform, political development

  13. The Rhetoric of Science Education Reform Paper presentation prepared for the annual meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobern, William W.

    1 The Rhetoric of Science Education Reform Paper presentation prepared for the annual meeting. W. (2000, Nov). The rhetoric of science education reform. The Physics Teacher, 38, 20-21. William W, when has there ever not been reform movement in science education? Leon M. Lederman, Nobel Prize

  14. Addressing the Needs of Students Living in Poverty through Comprehensive School Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Addressing the Needs of Students Living in Poverty through Comprehensive School Reform Joseph John had 100% of their students qualifying for FRL. Nationally, Comprehensive School Reform efforts, which proposes a Full Service Community Schools model for Comprehensive School Reform, and (b) AB 448

  15. Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of Education and Budapest Business School #12;Copyright reform on the EU level What can science and education expect from a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR

  16. The Employers' Proposals for Reform of USS A Summary for USS Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Monica A.

    1 The Employers' Proposals for Reform of USS A Summary for USS Members Universities UK, on behalf and the Pensions Regulator and to negotiation with UCU and so may change. Why is reform necessary? In short will be based on final pensionable salary at the date the reforms come into effect and revalued each year

  17. Volume 8, Issue 1 2010 Article 8 THE POLITICS OF HEALTH CARE REFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    Volume 8, Issue 1 2010 Article 8 The Forum THE POLITICS OF HEALTH CARE REFORM Public Opinion on Health Care Reform Andrew Gelman, Columbia University Daniel Lee, Columbia University Yair Ghitza Opinion on Health Care Reform," The Forum: Vol. 8: Iss. 1, Article 8. DOI: 10

  18. The contribution of Internet electronic commerce to advanced supply chain reform -a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurnia, Sherah

    Chapter 13 The contribution of Internet electronic commerce to advanced supply chain reform retailers and distributors in implementing supply chain reforms. Unwillingness on the part of SMEs to adopt enabling role for advanced supply chain reforms. We begin by describing in detail a new distribution

  19. Method for improving catalyst function in auto-thermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H.D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2014-08-26

    The invention provides a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  20. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emissions performance comparison of conventional catalytic converter with multi-channel catalytic converter (ceramic fiber insulation layers introduced into ceramic monolith of three-way catalytic converter)

  1. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  2. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks...

  3. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...

  4. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  5. Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley, NJ)

    2011-03-08

    A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.

  6. Averaging top quark results in Run 2 M. Strovink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strovink, Mark

    average (cont'd) The pie chart shows the relative weights of the five input measurements in the world

  7. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

  8. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania by Oana Diaconu Department of Economics and Management-11 Abstract: Romania is a net exporter of electricity to the SE Europe region. Its performance of this role for international transmission. Romania has committed itself to an electricity restructuring plan that includes

  9. Understanding electricity market reforms and the case of Philippine deregulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiago, Andrea; Roxas, Fernando

    2010-03-15

    The experience of the Philippines offers lessons that should be relevant to any country seeking to deregulate its power industry. Regardless of structure, consumers must face the real price of electricity production and delivery that is closer to marginal cost. Politically motivated prices merely shift the burden from ratepayers to taxpayers. And any reform should work within a reasonable timetable. (author)

  10. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  11. First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhala, Raj

    2013-01-01

    India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the world’s largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

  12. Land reform, regional planning and socioeconomic development in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, Saulo

    2011-01-11

    : i) The scope for plan-led strategies towards sustainable development in the countryside has been given less than sufficient emphasis in the land reform literature; ii) There is not clear evidence that the market-based approach leads to higher...

  13. AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Gender, Educational Reform, and Instructional Assessment: Part I Laura McCullough, UW-Stout Catherine H. Crouch, Harvard Univ. #12;AAPT Philadelphia 1/02 Is there a gender problem, 1999) found gender difference on FCI pretest, little difference on post-test #12;AAPT Philadelphia 1

  14. Hydrogen production with a solar steammethanol reformer and colloid nanocatalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    and Process Engineering, Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland carried out [7,8] to improve the reforming system efficiency. Energy for the endothermic steam rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.10.083 #12;Using concentrated solar energy to provide energy

  15. Reforming designs: education and training in Scotland and Higher Still 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howieson, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    and economic stance, and its current preoccupations and ambitions for itself. Thus the thesis uses the example of the Higher Still reform of post compulsory education and training in Scotland (from 1999 onwards) to reflect more generally on education and social...

  16. Reformed Epistemology and the Epistemic Status of Religious Belief 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolos, Anthony

    2009-11-26

    I discuss the reformed epistemologist and his claim that one is within one’s epistemic rights in believing in God without any evidence or argument. The basis for this claim hinges on a parity argument that compares one’s perceptual experiences...

  17. Financial and ratepayer impacts of nuclear power plant regulatory reform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turpin, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Three reports - ''The Future Market for Electric Generating Capacity,'' ''Quantitative Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant Licensing Reform,'' and ''Nuclear Rate Increase Study'' are recent studies performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory that deal with nuclear power. This presents a short summary of these three studies. More detail is given in the reports.

  18. Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North. (2015) Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North;Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging:1 the case of the North Atlantic jet

  19. Engineering Grads Earn The Most Major Average Salary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Engineering Grads Earn The Most Table Major Average Salary Offer Petroleum Engineering $86/Aeronautical/Astronautical Engineering $57,231 Information Sciences & Systems $54,038 Source: Winter 2010 Salary Survey, National was the fourth most lucrative degree, with graduates starting at $61,205 on average. The average salary

  20. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  1. Enhancing the Catalytic Activity of Site-Isolated Heterogeneous Transition Metal Expoxidation Catalysts Prepared via the Thermolytic Molecular Precursor Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordeiro, Paul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    applied to a variety of catalytic oxidation reactions. 11-1548 h. Table 3. Catalytic 1-octene oxidation with tert-butylcatalysts. Table 4. Catalytic 1-octene oxidation with H 2 O

  2. Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

    2006-08-16

    -Au Bimetallic Supported Catalysts Palladium (Pd) is a well known catalyst for many reactions which are of industrial and environmental importance [7]. A major drawback of using Pd-only catalysts is the formation of carbides, i.e. PdCx, as shown in the Fig. 1... reveal that the addition of gold to palladium catalysts has pronounced catalytic effect [3, 6]. It is plausible that the electronic and geometric properties are tuned by the addition of Au with highly optimized sites [3, 6, 11]. Also, model catalytic...

  3. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  4. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michorczyk, Piotr [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Kubacka, Anna [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Stach, Eric A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fernandez-Garica, Marcos [State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  5. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; et al

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (more »under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  6. 72737Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 231 / Monday, December 1, 2008 / Rules and Regulations comprehensive reform efforts, the Joint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    comprehensive reform efforts, the Joint Board issued a recommended decision on November 20, 2007. The Universal-cost support and to reform the high-cost mechanisms. Specifically, the Universal Service Joint Board Board Comprehensive Reform NPRM, seeking comment on the Joint Board's Comprehensive Reform Recommended

  7. Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual Consultation: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform -July 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 1 Ofqual: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform Response core content in partnership does not deter exam boards from reforming worthwhile qualifications. 5: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 2 6. Under the new proposals, exam boards will be required

  8. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  9. Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity of SiC Wall Flow Filters - 4 Way Catalyst and DeNOx Application examples Incorporation of Catalytic Compounds in the Porosity...

  10. Continued investigations of the catalytic reduction of N? to NH? by molybdenum triamidoamine complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanna, Brian S. (Brian Stewart)

    2011-01-01

    A study of the effects of employing different solvents and the introduction of dihydrogen during the catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia with [HIPTN 3N]Mo complexes was completed. During a catalytic reaction, the ...

  11. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  12. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  13. 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles: Comparison to Reference Methods 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine Cycles:...

  14. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF S(IV) SLURRIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    and Technology THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFof California. THE ROLE OF FLY ASH IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION OFg los~ S(IV) in aqueous fly ash slurries :n;- and 0 , and SO

  15. Agglutination of single catalyst particles during fluid catalytic cracking as observed by X-ray nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, F.; Kalirai, S.; Weker, J. Nelson; Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Weckhuysen, B. M.

    2015-04-14

    Metal accumulation at the catalyst particle surface plays a role in particle agglutination during fluid catalytic cracking.

  16. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

  17. Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    NOx - 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST INTRODUCTION Automobile engines of gasoline (hydrocarbons, CxHy) in air: CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O + heat (1) When there is the correct balance

  18. Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Propane in Hydrogen Permselective Membrane Reactors John P. Collins and Production, Amoco Research Center, 150 West Warrenville Road, Naperville, Illinois 60566-7011 Propane operated at liquid hourly space velocities (LHSVs) similar to those used in commercial reactors for propane

  19. Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Roger L.

    Catalytic Domain of Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PLC) MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUES WITHIN THE ACTIVE SITE AND HYDROPHOBIC RIDGE OF PLC 1* (Received for publication, November 20, 1997 Institute, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, United Kingdom Structural studies of phospholipase C 1 (PLC

  20. Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Catalytic Methane Reduction in the Exhaust Gas of Combustion Engines Peter Mauermann1,* , Michael Dornseiffer6 , Frank Amkreutz6 1 Institute for Combustion Engines , RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 8, D of the hydrocarbon exhaust of internal combustion engines. In contrast to other gaseous hydrocarbons, significant

  1. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  2. Metal Vinylidenes and Allenylidenes as Intermediates in Catalytic Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Metal Vinylidenes and Allenylidenes as Intermediates in Catalytic Transformations Literature Group Key references: Metal Vinylidenes in Catalysis. Bruneau, C.; Dixneuf, P. H. Acc. Chem. Res. 1999, 32.; Pinkerton, A. B. Chem. Rev. 2001, 101, 2067-2096. Outline: · Definitions · Metal vinylidene generation

  3. Diffusiophoretic Self-Propulsion for Partially Catalytic Spherical Colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Georg Rempfer; Christian Holm

    2015-02-11

    Colloidal spheres with a partial platinum surface coating perform auto-phoretic motion when suspended in hydrogen peroxide solution. We present a theoretical analysis of the self-propulsion velocity of these particles using a continuum multi-component, self-diffusiophoretic model. With this model as a basis, we show how the slip-layer approximation can be derived and in which limits it holds. First, we consider the differences between the full multi-component model and the slip-layer approximation. Then the slip model is used to demonstrate and explore the sensitive nature of the particle's velocity on the details of the molecule-surface interaction. We find a strong asymmetry in the dependence of the colloid's velocity as a function of the level of catalytic coating, when there is a different interaction between the solute and solvent molecules and the inert and catalytic part of the colloid, respectively. The direction of motion can even be reversed by varying the level of the catalytic coating. Finally, we investigate the robustness of these results with respect to variations in the reaction rate near the edge between the catalytic and inert parts of the particle. Our results are of significant interest to the interpretation of experimental results on the motion of self-propelled particles.

  4. Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation and hydroconversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, James B. (Denville, NJ); McLean, Joseph B. (So. Somerville, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for two-stage catalytic hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent and fed at temperature below about 650.degree. F. into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils at conditions favoring hydrogenation reactions. The first stage reactor is maintained at 650.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-60 lb coal/hr/ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The partially hydrogenated material from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the close-coupled second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at a temperature at least about 25.degree. F. higher than for the first stage reactor and within a range of 750.degree.-875.degree. F. temperature for further hydrogenation and thermal hydroconversion reactions. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, which results in significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of undesirable residuum and unconverted coal and hydrocarbon gases, with use of less energy to obtain the low molecular weight products, while catalyst life is substantially increased.

  5. Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew involving both absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The model helps identify operator The system under analysis involves two key pro- cesses: absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR

  6. Thiol-Dependent Recovery of Catalytic Activity from Oxidized Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Thiol-Dependent Recovery of Catalytic Activity from Oxidized Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Zachary PTPs via oxidation of the enzyme's catalytic cysteine thiolate group. Importantly, low- molecular. Here we examined the recovery of catalytic activity from two oxidatively inactivated PTPs (PTP1B

  7. Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou, and Houwen Xina)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lingfa

    Stochastic resonance in surface catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide Lingfa Yang, Zhonghuai Hou: catalytic oxidation on a single sur- face, by analysis of the behavior of a set of ordinary differ- ential help researchers to find SR in this system experimentally. II. REACTION MODEL The catalytic oxidation

  8. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  9. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayr, Lukas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Raffael; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin ; Rameshan, Christoph; Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/01, 1060 Vienna

    2014-05-15

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for “real” and “inverse” model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7°, “magic angle”) and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  10. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2009-09-30

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOEâ??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  13. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

    2015-01-13

    Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  14. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 �������°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  15. Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2009-10-15

    A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

  16. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  17. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  18. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTIRegulatory and Financial Reform of Federal

  19. Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuiding SSLHanfordHomesHiring Reform Memoranda and

  20. IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelBConservation Standards and TestEquipment: Energy ConservationReform at

  1. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  2. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  3. Electroless preparation and characterization of Ni-B nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Wang, Feng; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Park, Ki Chul; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The MWCNT/Ni-B catalyst has been successfully prepared by an electroless deposition process. The Ni-B nanoparticles on the supporter are amorphous and are well-distributed. The catalytic conversion towards hydrogenation of styrene shows excellent catalytic activity of the obtained materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step treatment of MWCNTs enabled the homogeneous growth of Ni-B nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-B nanoparticles were amorphous with an average size of 60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were electron transfer between Ni and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst had excellent catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene. -- Abstract: Nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized through an electroless deposition process using the plating bath with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The structural and morphological analyses using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the Ni-B nanoparticles deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs are fine spheres comprised of amorphous structure with the morphologically unique fine-structure like flowers, and homogenously dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution centered at around 60 nm diameter. The catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles was evaluated with respect to hydrogenation of styrene. The hydrogenation catalyzed by MWCNT-supported Ni-B nanoparticles has been found to make styrene selectively converted into ethylbenzene. The highest conversion reaches 99.8% under proper reaction conditions, which demonstrates the high catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles.

  4. Effect Of Preparation Methods On The Performance Of Co/Al2O3 Catalysts For Dry Reforming Of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewbank, Jessica L.; Kovarik, Libor; Kenvin, Christian C.; Sievers, Carsten

    2014-01-06

    Two methods, dry impregnation (DI) and controlled adsorption (CA), are used for the preparation of Co/ Al2O3 catalysts for methane dry reforming reactions. Point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, pH-precipitation studies, and adsorption isotherms are used to develop a synthesis procedure in which deposition of Co2+ takes place in a more controlled manner than metal deposition during drying in synthesis by dry impregnation. The possible adsorption phenomena that occur during preparation of Co/Al2O3 catalysts by controlled adsorption are discussed. H2 chemisorption and TEM show that catalysts prepared by CA have smaller average particle sizes and higher dispersions. TPR studies show that for the sample prepared by CA a higher amount of cobalt is reduced to its metallic state and that more CoAl2O4 spinel species are present relative to DI samples. The catalyst prepared by CA shows higher activity and slower deactivation for methane dry reforming than the catalyst prepared by DI. XPS and C, H, N analysis on spent catalysts confirm two types of carbonaceous deposits are formed depending on the preparation method.

  5. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  6. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  7. Morgantown Slightly Exceeds National Average for Cost of Living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    (an index value of 100 reflects the national average). The index expresses the cost of living, health care, and miscellaneous goods and services. The index is designed to reflect the cost of living Relative to National Average by Category In Figure 2, we illustrate how the cost of living index has

  8. Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Catalytic Porous Ceramic Prepared In-Situ by Sol-Gelation for Butane-to-Syngas Processing­1859, 2009 Keywords: catalytic porous ceramic, butane-to-syngas processing, catalytic foam, sol-gelation, Rh containing cat- alytic Rh/ceria/zirconia nanoparticles is tested by its catalytic performance for butane

  9. Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerbonadies.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for...

  10. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  11. Regulatory Reform in the Wake of the Financial Crisis of 2007—2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Andrew W.

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory reform in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008.

  12. Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

    1999-06-07

    Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

  13. Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BANSAK, CYNTHIA A; Raphael, Steven

    1998-01-01

    the Effects of Employer Sanctions Using Alternative Single-Immigration Reform: Employer Sanctions and the Question ofLATINO WORKERS: DO EMPLOYER SANCTIONS CAUSE DISCRIMINATION?

  14. The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2011-01-01

    Land Reforms. Defects in Agrarian Structure as Obstacles tocolonial and feudal agrarian structures Indonesia inheritedthat “defects in agrarian structure, and in particular

  15. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

    1998-03-31

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

  16. Corporate governance reform in a developing country : the case of Bangladesh 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobhan, Md. Abdus

    2014-07-02

    Bangladesh reformed its corporate governance by adopting Bangladesh Corporate Governance Guidelines-2006 (the BCGG-2006 hereafter) due to pressures from international financial institutions (IFIs). However, there is huge ...

  17. Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  18. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic...

  19. Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

  20. The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Tiffany Linton

    2011-01-01

    El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela. Bengelsdorf, Carollee.Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. ” Journal of Interamerican2):27-61. Datamonitor. (2004). “Venezuela Country Profile. ”

  1. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  2. Role of surface generated radicals in catalytic combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santavicca, D.A.; Stein, Y.; Royce, B.S.H.

    1984-04-01

    The role of surface generated OH radicals in determining the catalytic ignition characteristics for propane oxidation on platinum were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stacked-plate, catalyst bed. Transient measurements, during catalytic ignition, of the catalyst's axial temperature profile were made and the effect of equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and inlet velocity was investigated. These measurements will provide insights which will be useful in planning and interpreting to OH measurements. Attempts to measure OH concentration in the catalyst bed using resonance absorption spectroscopy were unsuccessful, indicating that OH concentrations are below 10 to the 16th power/cc but still possibly above equilibrium values. Measurements are currently underway using forward scatter laser induced fluorescence which should extend the OH detection limits several orders of magnitude below the equilibrium concentrations.

  3. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  4. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  5. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  6. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  7. Catalytic membrane reactors for chemicals upgrading and environmental control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F. [Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting catalytic membrane reactors are being developed for promoting a number of spontaneous chemical reactions either leading to synthesis of value added products or decomposition of environmental contaminants. The dense non-porous ceramic materials behave as short-circuited electrochemical devices whereby ions (oxygen anions or protons) and electrons become simultaneously mediated for one reaction surface to another. The rationale behind membrane materials selection and specific applications will be discussed.

  8. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  9. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  10. Catalytic cracking receives heavy attention at Q and A meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-19

    Refiners discussed fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) - the workhorse of the modern refinery - in great detail at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association's annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were the newest FCC refractory lining and particulate-control methods. The panel of experts also answered questions on the role of FCC in reducing gasoline benzene to meet reformulated gasoline specifications. This paper discusses refractories; particulate control; gasoline feeds; and benzene reduction.

  11. Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levelton, Bruce Harding

    1951-01-01

    bed. A consideration of thermal effects in a gas-solid tubular reactor involves a number of prime variables, viz. (a) Reynolds number and heat capacity of reactants (b) Tube diameter and length (c) Catalyst particle size, shape and characteristics... conditions than in fixed bed reactors prevail. The problem of determining temperatures in moving-bed catalytic reactors is somewhat similar to that in gas-solid fixed bed reactors, but this investigation will not treat such cases. The mechanism of heat...

  12. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2003-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  13. New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The goals of the project are to develop new catalytic DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides and metal ions, and apply the sensors for on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation and stability of the individual contaminants during and after bioremediation. A negative selection strategy was tested and validated. In vitro selection was shown to yield highly active and specific transition metal ion-dependent catalytic DNA/RNA. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of in vitro selected DNA demonstrated that the trifluorophore labeled system is a simple and powerful tool in studying complex biomolecules structure and dynamics, and is capable of revealing new sophisticated structural changes. New fluorophore/quenchers in a single fluorosensor yielded improved signal to noise ratio in detection, identification and quantification of metal contaminants. Catalytic DNA fluorescent and colorimetric sensors were shown useful in sensing lead in lake water and in leaded paint. Project results were described in two papers and two patents, and won an international prize.

  14. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jingguang; Frenkel, Anatoly; Rodriguez, Jose; Adzic, Radoslav; Bare, Simon R.; Hulbert, Steve L.; Karim, Ayman; Mullins, David R.; Overbury, Steve

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  15. Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

  16. High School Principals' Perceptions of Their Effectiveness in Leading District Initiated High School Reform: An Analysis of High School Principals Previously Engaged in High School Reform in an Urban Texas School District 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rios, Carlos

    2012-07-16

    school reform. However, to date, research has not provided examples of a successful relationship between campus principals as a collective group and the district (central office) leadership team attempting to implement district-wide high school reform...

  17. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain...

  18. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by computing the sales-weighted harmonic average of the targets applicable to each of the manufacturer's passenger cars and...

  19. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  20. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...