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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Simultaneous measurement of the average ion-induced electron emission yield and the mean charge for isotachic ions in carbon foils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the incident ion{close_quote}s atomic number (Z{sub 1}) dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields can be the basis for a general understanding of ion-atom interaction phenomena and, in particular, for the design of Z{sub 1}-sensitive detectors that could be useful, for example, in the separation of isobars in accelerator mass spectrometry. The Z{sub 1} dependence of ion-induced electron emission yields, {gamma}, has been investigated using heavy ions C{sup 3+}, O{sup 3+}, F{sup +3}, Na{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Si{sup 3+}, P{sup 3+}, S{sup 3+}, Cl{sup 3+}, K{sup 3+}, Ti{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 4+}, Fe{sup 4+}, Co{sup 4+}, Ni{sup 4+}, Cu{sup 4+}, Ga{sup 4+}, As{sup 5+}, Br{sup 5+}, Ru{sup 7+}, Ag{sup 7+}, Sn{sup 7+}, and I{sup 8+} of identical velocity (v=2v{sub 0}, where v{sub 0} is the Bohr velocity) normally incident on 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} sputter-cleaned carbon foils. Measured yields as a function of Z{sub 1} reveal an oscillatory behavior with pronounced maxima and minima. Contrary to previously reported yields that assumed a monotonically increasing empirical mean charge state for the exiting ion, the present work indicates the Z{sub 1} oscillations in the experimentally measured yields, a fact masked in previous work. The strong Z{sub 1} oscillations can only be observed by simultaneous measurement of the yield and the mean charge state. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

Arrale, A.M. [Eaton Corporation, Semiconductor Equipment Division, 2433 Rutland Drive, Austin, Texas 78758-5285 (United States)] [Eaton Corporation, Semiconductor Equipment Division, 2433 Rutland Drive, Austin, Texas 78758-5285 (United States); Zhao, Z.Y.; Kirchhoff, J.F.; Weathers, D.L.; McDaniel, F.D.; Matteson, S. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics and Center for Materials Characterization, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics and Center for Materials Characterization, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

4

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

Watson, Andrew

6

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

8

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a hot topic in the last decade...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

10

Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions Climate change is real not only emitting less greenhouse gas (GHG), but actually sources of negative carbon. We then present two

12

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

13

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission display with ZnO nanocluster phosphor. Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission...

15

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy and GDP Per Capita, with China 2050 Scenarios Carbon EmissionsEnergy and GDP Per Capita, with China 2050 Scenarios .. 37 Figure 39 Carbon Emissions

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

17

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

18

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

19

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market Redouane Belaouar Arash Fahim Nizar Scheme (EU ETS) which provides a way to control the emission of CO2 within carbon polluters through carbon emission. Within ETS, certain industrial installations with intensive carbon pollution are given

Touzi, Nizar

20

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large Wildfires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large: Global Biomass Burning & Carbon Emissions Standard Emissions Inventories: Burned Area & GFED recently daily. Fire occurrenceoccurrence Roy et al.Roy et al. Carbon emissions (C) = burned area . fuel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

onward. Table A-4: Carbon Emission Factors of ElectricityAdjustment factor Carbon Emission Factor (kg C/kWh)L ABORATORY Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of

Lin, Jiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hirsch (2001), Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forestin estimating carbon emissions from boreal forest fires, J.Law (2007), Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionscontribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest2008), Fire-related carbon emissions from land use

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, and Eco-Driving Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, and Eco-Driving July 23, 2010 -...

26

Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No. 5 Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan INSTITUTE University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan E. Hultman and Daniel M. Kammen Energy & Resources Group Goldman

Kammen, Daniel M.

27

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

29

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market Radoin Belaouar Arash Fahim Nizar Touzi than what she used to do before the existence of the emission market. Key words: EU ETS, Carbon ETS) which provides a way to control the emission of CO2 within carbon polluters through trading

30

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management Challenge Many organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions consideration is the carbon dioxide emissions per square metre of floor space. While an important metric

31

Carbon 40 (2002) 429436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon 40 (2002) 429­436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes *A simulations of field emission from 2-nm long open (5,5), closed (5,5) and open (10,0) carbon nanotubes recently where the carbon nanotubes [1,2], a vast literature has appeared on field-emission current from

Mayer, Alexandre

32

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

33

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

34

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unburned lubricant produces 60%­90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more

35

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542PeruCarbon Emissions in the

37

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Who Owns China’s Carbon Emissions? Tyndall Centre for34 Key Words Carbon emissions forecasts, carbon intensity,s annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of17 4.1. Economic Reform and Carbon Intensity ofCarbon emissions forecasts, carbon intensity, energy policy,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ń 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M capita income. Using the income and population growth assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panel

40

Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

related carbon emissions per unit GDP. Energy intensity: thes per capita emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide weres carbon emissions, per se. On the basis of NBS energy data,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Parcel Per Parcel Toward A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CAof lifestyle on carbon emissions in the residential sector [an all-time low in carbon emissions, though most use overall

Živanovi?, Ana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Secondary ion emission under keV carbon cluster bombardment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such that higher energies produce more multiple ion emission. The emission of CN- from biological samples as a function of carbon-based projectile characteristics was examined to explore the possibility of using CN- as a molecular identifier. CN- emission was found...

Locklear, Jay Edward

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to an increase in atmospheric CO2 are partly offset by the carbon uptake by the oceans and the restAnalytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes 2008; accepted 18 June 2008; published 12 September 2008. [1] Carbon perturbations leading

Follows, Mick

47

Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

51

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

52

Uncertainty in future carbon emissions : a preliminary exploration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to analyze competing policy approaches for addressing global climate change, a wide variety of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due to uncertainties ...

Webster, Mort David.

53

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calculation of the carbon intensity of fuel and electricitys announced a 2015 carbon intensity reduction target of 17%to calculate economic carbon intensities. The China average

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon… (more)

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrĂ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

56

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

The 'Mine/Yours' method of international comparisons of carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In previous work (Schipper, Unander & Lilliu 1999), we summarized a new method for comparing energy use and carbon emissions among various countries. We call this the ''Mine/Yours'' comparison. In this paper, we provide details of the comparisons methodology, and carry out the comparison on a number of IEA countries. We calculate the average energy intensities I for a sample of countries (''yours'') and multiply them by structural parameters S for a particular country (''mine''). Comparing the results with the actual energy use of the country in question gives us an estimate of how much energy that country would use with average intensities but with its own structural conditions. The converse can be calculated as well, that is, average structure and own intensities. Emissions can be introduced through the F (fuel mix) term. These calculations show where differences in the components of emissions lead to large gaps among countries, and where those differences are not important. We show which components cause the largest variance in emissions by sector. In households, home size, average winter climate, and energy intensity appear to be the most important differentiating characteristics for space heating. For other residential energy uses the mix of fuels used to generate electricity (utility mix) is most important. Because some of the differences are ''built in'' - geography, climate, natural resources endowment - we conclude by questioning whether uniform emissions reductions targets make sense. Indeed, the ''Mine/Yours'' tool provides a valuable guide to important ways in which emissions may or may not be flexible.

Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 IEA estimate LBNL estimate ORNL estimate Sources: IEA, Carbon Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective of the accurate estimation of carbon emissions from fires. So far, the continental-scale estimates of carbon conventional and satellite data to maximize their utility for fire emission estimation. 18.2 Carbon Emission

Li, Zhanqing

60

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon tax, combined heat and power, distributed energyuseful heat in combined heat and power systems, thermally-fossil-fuel based combined heat and power (CHP), thermally-

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Impact of European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) on carbon emissions and investment decisions in the power sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This masters thesis assesses the impact of a emissions trading on short-term carbon abatement and investment decisions in the power sector. Environmental benefits from carbon abatement due to emissions trading are quantified ...

Feilhauer, Stephan M. (Stephan Marvin)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

Tseng, L. T.; Yi, J. B., E-mail: jiabao.yi@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, X. Y.; Xing, G. Z.; Luo, X.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Fan, H. M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Herng, T. S.; Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Ionescu, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate Coated Carbon Nanotube Matrices With Low Emission Thresholds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coating of strontium titanate and Poly(methyl methacrylate). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/?m was demonstrated, about five-fold lower than that of the as-grown VAMWCNTs. Theoretical simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs’ repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolong emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices.

Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Yap, Yoke K.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

66

Amp\\`ere-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

Mihalcea, D; Hartzell, J; Panuganti, H; Boucher, S M; Murokh, A; Piot, P; Thangaraj, J C T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000 the emission of carbon (C) and carbon-containing trace gases including CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC (nonmethane carbon emission from forest fires in China is about 11.31 Tg per year, ranging from a minimum level of 8

68

Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster Abstract of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due distributions of carbon emissions from the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model. From the specific

69

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

70

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES Alexandre- emission properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The structure considered for the transport properties-saturation of the dangling bonds still improves the emission. I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission

Mayer, Alexandre

71

Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

Cao, Renyu (Cupertino, CA); Pan, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Vergara, German (Madrid, ES); Fox, Ciaran (Los Altos, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire objectives Fifteen years Yorkshire town are being replaced by a cleaner, green alternative: biomass. Barnsley's Communal Biomass on to residents. · To increase energy efficiency. · To develop biomass usage in new and refurbished public

73

SWAMP Project Trip report Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 SWAMP Project Trip report Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Emissions from the Mangrove Forests University Corvallis, Oregon, USA. #12;2 1. Introduction Funding for this project came from a grant, Washington DC. This intensive study is part of the Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program

Tullos, Desiree

74

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species-specific allometric equations and wood densities developed for local species.

Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function Zhi Xu of the most promising applications of carbon nanotubes CNTs for flat panel displays1 and highly coherent field-emission studies on carbon nanotube field emission took the work function as a constant e.g., 5 eV . Actually

Wang, Zhong L.

77

Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1 Karen;1 Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth ABSTRACT What are the drivers of future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions growth and how would the availability of key

Wing, Ian Sue

78

Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube pn diode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p­n diode Thomas Mueller1 and Phaedon Avouris1 * Electrically driven light emission from carbon nanotubes1­8 could be used in nanoscale. Here, we report electrically induced light emission from individual carbon nanotube p­n diodes. A new

Perebeinos, Vasili

79

Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter-Morphologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Field emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which have been prepared through: single-walled carbon nanotube, field emission, alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition, ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

80

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported Available online 27 June 2008 Keywords: Field emission Current density Carbon nanotube Strain phonon A B

Melnik, Roderick

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory October, 2008 Contract #05-310 "Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Continuous Emissions Monitoring CHP Combined Heat and Power CO2 Carbon Dioxide DMV Department of Motor

82

Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma Carbon nanofibers Metal coating Results from electron field-emission studies using arrays of patterned carbon nanofiber bundles are reported. We find that the desired field-emission characteristics were

Javey, Ali

83

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer-matrix methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer- matrix simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes, using a transfer-matrix methodology. By repeating field, as shown by recent ab-initio calculations [10]. To study field emission from carbon nanotubes, we

Mayer, Alexandre

84

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs William T: Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Wildland fire Climate Forests Carbon cycle Emissions a b s t r a c climate change and the principal emissions component of wildland fires, while black carbon and other

85

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage; accepted for publication 27 November 2001 Field emission of individual carbon nanotubes was observed found to exhibit very low turn-on field and superior field emission performance. Carbon nanotubes grow

Wang, Zhong L.

86

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films Y.Y. Wanga,*, S of the emission site intensity. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Small diameter carbon nanotubes; MWCVD; Growth; Field emission 1. Introduction Single- or double-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT

Qin, Lu-Chang

87

Field emission of electrons from a Cs-doped single carbon nanotube of known chiral indices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission of electrons from a Cs-doped single carbon nanotube of known chiral indices Gongpu on the field emission properties of a five-shell single carbon nanotube. The chiral indices of each shell­3 Carbon nanotubes can be used in a wide range of applications requiring electron emission such as flat

Qin, Lu-Chang

88

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

"Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand" revised personal version of paper to appear in Energy Policy (in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.046 1 CARBON EMISSION OFFSETS FOR AVIATION-GENERATED EMISSIONS DUE TO INTERNATIONAL-called carbon offsetting schemes have emerged that allow individual travellers and companies to compensate

Otago, University of

91

High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in Gregory P. Asnera,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon emissions by 47% over deforestation alone, and secondary regrowth provided an 18% offset againstHigh-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon Gregory P. Asnera,1 , George V. N Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depend on mapping and monitoring of tropical forest carbon stocks

Saleska, Scott

92

Electron emission from the side wall of an individual multiwall carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bombardment, individual carbon nanotubes can be bent into loops with different radii. An external electricElectron emission from the side wall of an individual multiwall carbon nanotube Guangyu Chai, Lee November 2006 Abstract Electron emission from the sidewall of a bent individual multiwall carbon nanotube

Chow, Lee

93

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

94

Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Carbon Emissions Primer Symposium on Greenhouse Gas andSymposium on Greenhouse Gas) · Simple, somewhat inflexible · Do not price emissions directly Carbon taxes · Use market forces Council June 4, 2013 Portland, OR 1 CO2 Chemistry 1 molecule of CO 1 atom carbon1 molecule of CO2 = 1 atom

95

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube electron emitter. By adjusting the catalytic synthesis conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT

Resasco, Daniel

96

Self-assembly of carbon nanohelices: Characteristics and field electron emission properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-assembly of carbon nanohelices: Characteristics and field electron emission properties Guangyu. Their field-emission properties were investigated. Carbon nanohelices were fabricated using microwave- plasma of self-assembled carbon nanohelices on iron needles using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor

Zhang, Guangyu

97

Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube A. Mayera three-dimensional simulations of field emission from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without of carbon atoms and by repeating periodically a basic unit of the nanotube, band-structure effects

Mayer, Alexandre

98

New carbon cone nanotip for use in a highly coherent cold field emission electron microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 New carbon cone nanotip for use in a highly coherent cold field emission electron Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, TOULOUSE, Cedex 4, FRANCE Abstract A new cathode for cold-field emission gun using a pyrolytic carbon-cone supported onto a carbon nanotube as the electron emitting tip has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis By Wee Chiang, Technology and Policy Program 1 #12;Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System Abstract The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas

100

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Low-Carbon Growth Country Studies: Getting Started Experience...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RE and EE targets and low carbon growth. India's relatively low carbon economy reflects energy intensity 20 percent below world averages and per capita emissions among the lowest...

102

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that China's 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and...

104

Carbon Emissions Analysis of Rail Resurfacing Work: A Case Study, Practical Guideline, and Systems Thinking Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon pollution has become a sensitive topic across the globe in recent times. In Australia, incentive has been provided to industry in order to reduce carbon emissions in heavy polluting industries. The railway transportation ...

Krezo, S.

105

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

106

emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use carbonation processes. One aspect was to verify the possible use of mineral carbon- ation for the separation, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological

Zevenhoven, Ron

107

Stabilizing a pulsed field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we propose a new design configuration for a carbon nanotube (CNT) array based pulsed field emission device to stabilize the field emission current. In the new design, we consider a pointed height distribution ...

Sinha, Niraj

108

15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bank Group's Photo- voltaic Market Transformation Initiative (PVMTI) has se- lected Kenya and Morocco, battery charging, and to a lesserextent,generators),SHS mayalsoyield indirect carbon emissions reductions

Kammen, Daniel M.

109

Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use AgencyCompany Organization Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner Asian...

110

Assessing carbon tax and emissions trading as policy options for climate change mitigation in Australia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The primary question explored by this thesis is what alternative, carbon tax or emissions trading, would be an optimal policy for climate change mitigation in… (more)

Guglyuvatyy, Evgeny

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

112

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

Montes-Hernandez, German

113

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Theoretical comparison between field emission from single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes A. Mayer,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical comparison between field emission from single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes A s : 73.63.Fg, 79.70. q, 85.35.Kt, 03.65.Nk I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission of field emission from carbon nanotubes,13­16 we now consider the depen- dence of the emission from single

Mayer, Alexandre

116

Regional patterns of U.S. household carbon emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in energy use, carbon intensity of electricity generation,of electricity, where carbon intensity varies by location.well as differences in the carbon intensity of electricity

Pizer, William; Sanchirico, James N.; Batz, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a difference in carbon intensity of economic activity (often called “the carbon intensity of economic activity. ”and de- crease carbon intensities in developing countries,

Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)of installing carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission Markets Ren such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and offset certificates such as CERs generated within historically. Keywords. Environmental risk, energy economics, cap-and-trade, carbon mar- kets, Kyoto protocol

Carmona, Rene

122

Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). As indicated by Wagner (2008), the series of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita carbon focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide ( 2CO ) emissions and economic growth nexus in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the 2CO emissions trajectories are accounted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop 4493 g CO2 eq?m22 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72019. doi

DeLucia, Evan H.

124

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks of California, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710 Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel

125

Carbon 41 (2003) 18271831 Optical emission spectroscopy study of the influence of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon 41 (2003) 1827­1831 Optical emission spectroscopy study of the influence of nitrogen on carbon nanotube growth a , b b b b a a *E.G. Wang , Z.G. Guo , J. Ma , M.M. Zhou , Y.K. Pu , S. Liu , G, China Received 20 June 2002; accepted 14 April 2003 Abstract In-situ optical emission spectroscopy

Zhang, Guangyu

126

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees A cross-scale assessment of wildfire and carbon dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees ­ A cross, 59812, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Carbon Fire Emissions. Measurements of wildfire carbon emissions are thus highly biased by the spatial and temporal scales that bound

Montana, University of

127

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees A cross-scale assessment of wildfire and carbon dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees ­ A cross. Measurements of wildfire carbon emissions are thus highly biased by the spatial and temporal scales that bound.g., vegetation composition and structure, carbon emissions) occur and inter- act. Improved understanding

128

India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Inelastic light scattering and light emission from single and double wall carbon , Stephen Cronin2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfactant suspensions. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, optical transition energies, chirality, photoluminescence of excitation energy from a distribution of single wall carbon nanotubes, in a surfactant suspensionInelastic light scattering and light emission from single and double wall carbon nanotubes Yan Yin1

130

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short term effects of moderate carbon prices on land use in the New Zealand emissions trading Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was introduced through the Climate Change Response Act............................................................................ 14 #12;1 1 Introduction The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) was legislated through

Silver, Whendee

132

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Path of China's CO2 Emissions Using Province LevelTransportation (Lbs of CO2) Emissions from Home Heating (LbsStandardized Household CO2 Emissions for Households Living

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

43 International trends in CO2 emissions and GDP per capita,53 Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by54 Figure 63 AIS EV Change in CO2 Emissions Relative to

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 62 Transport CO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by Fuel57 Figure 67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source Energy

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Transfer-matrix simulations of field emission from bundles of open and closed ,,5,5... carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transfer-matrix simulations of field emission from bundles of open and closed ,,5,5... carbon simulations of field emission from bundles of metallic 5,5 carbon nanotubes, which are either ideally open.35.Kt, 03.65.Nk I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission proper- ties

Mayer, Alexandre

136

Photon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting ,,10,0... and metallic ,,5,5... carbon nanotubes A. Mayer,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting ,,10,0... and metallic ,,5,5... carbon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting carbon nano- tubes may lead to important technological applications is an extension of our previous investigations of field emission from carbon nanotubes13­15 to include pho- tonic

Mayer, Alexandre

137

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

138

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal Generation Shares Demand Reduction from EE CIS Emissions Powercoal and electricity in demand sectors, and the decarbonization of the power sector. Under AIS, annual emissions

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Towards constraints on fossil fuel emissions from total column carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G. Keppel-Aleks et al. : Fossil fuel constraints from X CO 2P. P. : Assess- ment of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and otherstrong localized sources: fossil fuel power plant emissions

Keppel-Aleks, G.; Wennberg, P. O; O'Dell, C. W; Wunch, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Growth and welfare losses from carbon emissions restrictions : a general equilibrium analysis for Egypt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper is an assessment for a particular country, Egypt, of the economic effects, under various conditions, of carbon emission restrictions. Like other work, it is an exemplification of some of the economic possibilities. ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

146

Large and stable emission current from synthesized carbon nanotube/fiber network  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to obtain a large and stable electron field emission current, the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized on carbon fibers by cold wall chemical vapor deposition method. In the hierarchical nanostructures, carbon fibers are entangled together to form a conductive network, it could provide excellent electron transmission and adhesion property between electrode and emitters, dispersed clusters of carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters have been synthesized on the top of carbon fibers as field emitters, this kind of emitter distribution could alleviate electrostatic shielding effect and protect emitters from being wholly destroyed. Field emission properties of this kind of carbon nanotube/fiber network have been tested, up to 30?mA emission current at an applied electric field of 6.4?V/?m was emitted from as-prepared hierarchical nanostructures. Small current degradation at large emission current output by DC power operation indicated that carbon nanotube/fiber network could be a promising candidate for field emission electron source.

Di, Yunsong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Xiao, Mei; Zhang, Xiaobing, E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn; Wang, Qilong; Li, Chen; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yunkang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

e are hearing a lot these days about carbon emissions and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that solar energy into a rela- tively small volume can raise its temper- ature quite a bit, even on a cold of climate change or global warming. The basic problem, we are told, is the carbon dioxide that is released carbon emissions is overblown? To answer that we need to understand what are called climate forcings

Sherwood, Steven

148

Unintended Consequences of Transportation Carbon Policies: Land-Use, Emissions, and Innovation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Renewable fuel standards, low carbon fuel standards, and ethanol subsidies are popular policies to incentivize ethanol production and reduce emissions from transportation. Compared to carbon trading standard (LCFS) and ethanol subsidies have similar effects while costs under an equivalent cap and trade

Rothman, Daniel

149

Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: magnitude, mechanisms and its implications for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: magnitude, mechanisms and its implications Range, MSC 3 JER, NMSU, Box 30003, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8003, USA. E-mail: nwebb@nmsu.edu ABSTRACT: Soil to the role of aeolian processes in influencing soil organic carbon (SOC) flux and the release of greenhouse

150

Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission Dingyong Zhong, Shuang Liu, Guangyu Zhang, and E. G. Wanga) State Key Laboratory for Surface Received 2 January 2001; accepted for publication 13 March 2001 Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride

Zhang, Guangyu

151

Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve? Xiliang Zhang, Valerie J interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

152

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

O P I N I O N Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O P I N I O N Biogenic vs. geologic carbon emissions and forest biomass energy production J O H N for Conservation Sciences, 14 Maine St., Suite 410, Brunswick, ME, 04011, USA, Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, 209 Hills Building, 81 Carrigan Drive

Vermont, University of

154

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks of suchan option basedon the use of commercially ready technologies involving coal gasification for power08544,USA June 1991 Abstract. New energytechnologiesare neededto limit CO2 emissions and the detrimental

155

Prediction of average. beta. and. gamma. energies and probabilities of. beta. -delayed neutron emission in the region of fission products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mean {beta} and {gamma} energies and probabilities of {beta}-delayed neutron emission (P{sub n}) in the region of fission products are calculated using a proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation nuclear model. {beta}-decay properties of these nuclides are essential input parameters for decay heat calculations for nuclear reactors. The results are compared with recent measurements. Mean energies and the P{sub n} values of {approximately}150 experimentally unknown short-lived isotopes are predicted.

Hirsch, M.; Staudt, A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission

157

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sedimentary basins. 1. Introduction #12;In recent years emissions of carbon dioxide from the UK electricity of these measures for deployment in 2020 depends entirely on final UK carbon emission targets and the abilityScope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment

Haszeldine, Stuart

160

Three-dimensional simulations of field emission through an oscillating barrier from a ,,10,0... carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of field emission through an oscillating barrier from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without adsorption is an extension of our previous investigations of field emission from carbon nanotubes12­14 to include pho- tonicThree-dimensional simulations of field emission through an oscillating barrier from a ,,10

Mayer, Alexandre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

163

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

Dr. Atul Jain

2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

165

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

168

Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

Ball, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB® carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 KTA@Bath Challenge The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially research and lead the education of highly skilled low carbon designers. These Centres will have strong

Burton, Geoffrey R.

171

Carbon Emissions from Smouldering Peat in Shallow and Strong Fronts   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 ...

Rein, Guillermo; Cohen, Simon; Simeoni, Albert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Market power in international carbon emissions trading: a laboratory test  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The prospect that governments of one or a few large countries, or trading blocs, would engage in international greenhouse gas emissions trading has led several policy analysts to express concerns that trade would be ...

Carlén, Björn.

173

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Policies and Measures International and United State Programs - Kyoto Protocol - European Union Emission Trading Scheme - California Global Warming Solutions Act - Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative #0;z Strategies for Expanding Buildings Role Buildings... Emission Targets in 2008-2012 for 37 Annex I Countries Which Have Ratified It ? Relies Primarily on Policies and Measures ? Flexibility Measures Include CDMs and JIs #0;z European Climate Change Program ? Reflects EU’s Leadership in Implementing Kyoto...

Millhone, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Aatola, P. 2013. Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts. ABSTRACT This dissertation examines the… (more)

Aatola, Piia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions fromReducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions from tropical deforestation -the BIOMASS mission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from tropical deforestation - the BIOMASS mission Shaun Quegan University of Sheffield x average biomassCem = deforested area x average biomass (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Good Practice Guide 2003) #12;How well is biomass known? Model Model + SatelliteInterpolation Model

176

Personal revised version of: Howitt, O. J. A., et al., Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers travel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Personal revised version of: Howitt, O. J. A., et al., Carbon emissions from international cruise.enpol.2009.12.050 1 CARBON EMISSIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL CRUISE SHIP PASSENGERS' TRAVEL TO AND FROM NEW-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the "hotel" function of these cruise vessels was estimated

Otago, University of

177

Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon and metal surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon ­ and metal surfaces, 20080 San Sebastián, Spain Abstract Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined of carbon­fiber inforced graphite used as first­wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data

Muiño, Ricardo Díez

178

Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon-and metal surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon- and metal surfaces, 20080 San Sebastián, Spain Abstract Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined of carbon-fiber inforced graphite used as first-wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data

Muiño, Ricardo Díez

179

Emissive and Cooling Properties of Carbon Based Materials for Microelectronics N. M. Miskovsky, P. H. Cutler, A. Mayera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissive and Cooling Properties of Carbon Based Materials for Microelectronics N. M. Miskovsky, P The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 ABSTRACT Among carbon-based materials, diamond and nanotubes exhibit field emission characteristics, which can be very useful for applications. These include

Mayer, Alexandre

180

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 Ă? 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed

185

Trends and breaks in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions, 1870-2028  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider per-capita carbon dioxide emission trends in 16 early developed countries over the period 1870-2028. Using a multiple-break time series method we find more evidence for very early downturns in per-capita trends ...

Lanne, Markku

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass haĂ?1 yrĂ?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

Zhuang, Qianlai

187

Announcing the 2012-2013 Energy Innovation Contest for undergraduates to stamp out carbon emissions on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the best innovative plans to reduce student energy consumption and promote eco-friendly practices April 1, 2013. Read more... go to Energy Contest page at http://rei.rutgers.edu/ Check us out at www.facebook.com/RutgersEnergyAnnouncing the 2012-2013 Energy Innovation Contest for undergraduates to stamp out carbon emissions

Garfunkel, Eric

188

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

192

Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the secondary sites. Aboveground carbon density is 120 {+-} 15 t ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 40 {+-} 5 t ha{sup -1} in secondary forest. Forest stands in the secondary forest sites range in age from 10 to 42 y. Growth in biomass (t ha{sup -1}) as a function of time (y) follows the relation: biomass = 4.09-0.017 age{sup 2} (p < 0.001). Aboveground biomass and forest species richness are positively correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.59, p < 0.001). Analyses of Landsat data show that the land cover of the 3700 km{sup 2} of non-cloud areas in 1999 was: closed forest 78%; open forest 12%, low vegetation cover 4%, sparse vegetation cover 6%. Deforestation from 1987 to 1999 claimed a net 200 km{sup 2} of forest, proceeding at a rate of 0.005 y{sup -1}. Of those areas of closed forest in 1987, only 89% remained closed forest in 1999. Consequently, closed forests experienced disruption in the time period at double the rate of net deforestation. The three protected areas experienced negligible deforestation or slight reforestation. Based on 1987 forest cover, 26,000 ha are eligible for forest carbon trading under the Clean Development Mechanism, established by the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Principal components analysis showed that distance to nonforest was the factor that best explained observed patterns of deforestation while distance to forest best explained observed patterns of reforestation, more significant than elevation, distance to rivers, distance to roads, slope, and distance to towns of population > 400. Aboveground carbon in live vegetation in the project area decreased from 35 million {+-} 4 million t in 1987 to 34 million {+-} 4 million t in 1999. Projected aboveground carbon in live vegetation would fall to 33 million {+-} 4 million t in 2006, 32 million {+-} 4 million t in 2011, and 29 million {+-} 3 million t in 2035. Projected net deforestation in the research area would total 13,000 {+-} 3000 ha in the period 1999-2011, proceeding at a rate of 0.003 {+-} 0.0007 y{sup -1}, and would total 33,000 {+-} 7000

Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

2000-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design alternatives provides reduction of CO2 emission levels such that the CO2 emissions for 2050 meet Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused regulations at airports through reduction of CO2 for all components of flight operations. The purpose

195

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

Mather, Patrick T.

196

Simulations of transport and field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulations of transport and field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes A. Mayera) Laboratoire. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission proper- ties such as low extraction fields, high the transfer-matrix methodology17­19 already used to simulate field emission from carbon nanotubes,7,8,20­22 we

Mayer, Alexandre

197

Electron emission and structural characterization of a rope of single-walled carbon nanotubes Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron emission and structural characterization of a rope of single-walled carbon nanotubes D with a one-dimensional conductor.1,17,18 Also, many studies of field emission from carbon fiber tips19 devices. It is known that carbon fibers are capable of maintaining large, stable emission currents 2

198

Universal field-emission model for carbon nanotubes on a metal tip D. Y. Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, and S. Liu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Universal field-emission model for carbon nanotubes on a metal tip D. Y. Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, and S Electron-field-emission properties have been investigated systematically for carbon nanotubes CNTs.1063/1.1430507 Carbon nanotubes CNTs have excellent electron-field- emission properties because of their electronic

Zhang, Guangyu

199

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

200

Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

Han, In-taek (Yongin, KR); Kim, Jong-min (Seongnam, KR)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Probing the mass loss history of carbon stars using CO line and dust continuum emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An extensive modelling of CO line emission from the circumstellar envelopes around a number of carbon stars is performed. By combining radio observations and infrared observations obtained by ISO the circumstellar envelope characteristics are probed over a large radial range. In the radiative transfer analysis the observational data are consistently reproduced assuming a spherically symmetric and smooth wind expanding at a constant velocity. The combined data set gives better determined envelope parameters, and puts constraints on the mass loss history of these carbon stars. The importance of dust in the excitation of CO is addressed using a radiative transfer analysis of the observed continuum emission, and it is found to have only minor effects on the derived line intensities. The analysis of the dust emission also puts further constraints on the mass loss rate history. The stars presented here are not likely to have experienced any drastic long-term mass loss rate modulations, at least less than a factor of about 5, over the past thousands of years. Only three, out of nine, carbon stars were observed long enough by ISO to allow a detection of CO far-infrared rotational lines.

F. L. Schoeier; N. Ryde; H. Olofsson

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

204

VLA Observations of Carbon 91$?$ Recombination Line Emission in W49 North  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have detected C91$\\alpha$ (8.5891 GHz) emission toward 4 ultra-compact \\HII regions (\\UCHII s; W49G, J, L & C) in the W49 North massive star forming region with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3\\arcsec resolution. No carbon line emission was detected toward \\UCHII s W49F, A, O, S and Q at this frequency to a 3$\\sigma$ level of 2 mJy. We also observed the same region in the C75$\\alpha$ line (15.3 GHz) with no detection at a 3$\\sigma$ level of 6 mJy with a 1\\arcsec.7 beam. Detection of line emission toward these sources add supporting data to the earlier result of \

D. Anish Roshi; C. G. De Pree; W. M. Goss; K. R. Anantharamaiah

2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

205

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

206

Design and implementation of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen emissions measurement in swirl-stabilized oxy-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxy-fuel combustion in natural gas power generation is a technology of growing interest as it provides the most efficient means of carbon capture. Since all the emissions from these power plants are sequestered, there are ...

Sommer, Andrew (Andrew Zhang)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A general equilibrium analysis of the effects of carbon emission restrictions on economic growth in a developing country  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A general equilibrium approach, in the form of a multisector, intertemporal programming model, is used to analyze the effects on the growth of the Egyptian economy of carbon emissions constraints that differ across sectors ...

Blitzer, Charles R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

209

Implementation of Carbon Reduction in Capital Projects Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

means capping its total greenhouse gas emissions at 16,000 t/CO2 p.a. (see the College Carbon Management deliver a carbon emission p.a. reduction of at least 50% at design stage (with the aim of achieving operational reductions of at least 40%). This reduction should be below that of the average emission

Chittka, Lars

210

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

215

Atomic Carbon and CO Isotope Emission in the Vicinity of DR15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present observations of the 3P1-3P0 fine structure transition of atomic carbon [CI], the J=3-2 transition of CO, as well as of the J=1-0 transitions of 13CO and C18O toward DR15, an HII region associated with two mid-infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The 13CO and C18O J=1-0 emissions closely follow the dark patches seen in optical wavelength, showing two self-gravitating molecular cores with masses of 2000 Msun and 900 Msun, respectively, at the positions of the catalogued IRDCs. Our data show a rough spatial correlation between [CI] and 13CO J=1-0. Bright [CI] emission occurs in relatively cold gas behind the molecular cores, neither in highly excited gas traced by CO J=3-2 emission nor in HII region/molecular cloud interface. These results are inconsistent with those predicted by standard photodissociation region (PDR) models, suggesting an origin for interstellar atomic carbon unrelated to photodissociation processes.

T. Oka; S. Yamamoto; M. Iwata; H. Maezawa; M. Ikeda; T. Ito; K. Kamegai; T. Sakai; Y. Sekimoto; K. Tatematsu; Y. Arikawa; Y. Aso; T. Noguchi; S-C. Shi; K. Miyazawa; S. Saito; H. Ozeki; H. Fujiwara; M. Ohishi; J. Inatani

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source emission, soil organic carbon Received 16 April 2013 and accepted 21 May 2013 Introduction Uncertainty, Gunnedah, NSW 2380, Australia Abstract Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within

217

Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient K. F. Al-Shboul, S. S. Harilal, and A. Hassanein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient helium K. F. Al-Shboul, S carbon species in the plume were obtained using time of flight emission spectroscopy. These contours 2013; published online 30 April 2013) We investigated the optical emission features of plasmas produced

Harilal, S. S.

218

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Co. (2008) Carbon capture and storage: Assessing theof Carbon Dioxide, in Carbon Capture and SequestrationWilson and Gerard, editors, Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

2004-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Spatial Distribution of Atomic Carbon Emission in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 604-2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have mapped a giant molecular cloud in the giant HII region NGC 604 in M33 in the 492 GHz ^3P_1 -- ^3P_0 transition of neutral atomic carbon using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find the distribution of the [CI] emission to be asymmetric with respect to the CO J=1--0 emission, with the peak of the [CI] emission offset towards the direction of the center of the HII region. In addition, the line ratio I_{[CI]}/I_{CO} is highest (~ 0.2) facing the HII region and lowest (emission is strongest on the side of the cloud facing the center of the HII region, and not detected at all on the opposite side This suggests that the sources of the incident flux creating C from the dissociation of CO are the massive stars of the HII region. The lowest line ratios are similar to what is observed in Galactic molecular clouds, while the highest are similar to starburst galaxies and other regions of intense star formation. The column density ratio, N(C)/N(H_2) is a few times 10^{-6}, in general agreement with models of photodissociation regions.

Christopher L. Taylor; Christine D. Wilson

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA–

Wenzel, Thomas P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

227

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Field emission effects of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes on chlorination and oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With reference to our recent reports [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192107 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202102 (2007)] about the electronic structure of chlorine treated and oxygen-plasma treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), here we studied the electron field emission effects on chlorination (N-CNT:Cl) and oxidation (N-CNT:O) of N-CNT. A high current density (J) of 15.0 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on chlorination, whereas low J of 0.0052 mA/cm{sup 2} is observed on oxidation compared to J=1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} for untreated N-CNT at an applied electric field E{sub A} of {approx}1.9 V/{mu}m. The turn-on electric field (E{sub TO}) was {approx}0.875. The 1.25 V/{mu}m was achieved for N-CNT:Cl and N-CNT:O, respectively, with respect to E{sub TO}=1.0 V/{mu}m for untreated one. These findings are due to the formation of different bonds with carbon and nitrogen in the N-CNT during the process of chlorine (oxygen)-plasma treatment by the charge transfer, or else that changes the density of free charge carriers and hence enhances (reduces) the field emission properties of N-CNTs:Cl (N-CNTs:O)

Ray, S. C.; Palnitkar, U.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Pong, W. F.; Lin, I-N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ganguly, Abhijit; Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Detecting z > 10 objects through carbon, nitrogen and oxygen emission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By redshift of 10, star formation in the first objects should have produced considerable amounts of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. The submillimeter lines of C, N and O redshift into the millimeter and centimeter bands (0.5 mm -- 1.2 cm), where they may be detectable. High spectral resolution observations could potentially detect inhomogeneities in C, N and O emission, and see the first objects forming at high redshift. We calculate expected intensity fluctuations and discuss frequency and angular resolution required to detect them. For CII emission, we estimate the intensity using two independent methods: the line emission coefficient argument and the luminosity density argument. We find they are in good agreement. At 1+z \\sim 10, the typical protogalaxy has a velocity dispersion of 30 km s^{-1} and angular size of 1 arcsecond. If CII is the dominant coolant, then we estimate a characteristic line strength of \\sim 0.1 K km s^{-1}. We also discuss other atomic lines and estimate their signal. Observations with angular resolution of 10^{-3} can detect moderately nonlinear fluctuations of amplitude 2 \\cdot 10^{-5} times the microwave background. If the intensity fluctuations are detected, they will probe matter density inhomogeneity, chemical evolution and ionization history at high redshifts.

Maki Suginohara; Tatsushi Suginohara; David N. Spergel

1998-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalinventory of black carbon emissions. Atmos. Environ. 1993,commonly studied form of carbon emissions. Black carbon (BC)

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the electricity sector, and the use of unconventional feedstocks in the liquid fuel refining sector. Of the three end-use sectors, advanced transportation technologies have the greatest potential to reduce costs of meeting carbon policy requirements. Services in the buildings and industrial sectors can often be supplied by technologies that consume low-emissions fuels such as biomass or, in policy cases, electricity. Passenger transportation, in contrast, is especially unresponsive to climate policies, as the fuel costs are small compared to the time value of transportation and vehicle capital and operating costs. Delaying the transition from reference to advanced technologies by 15 years increases the costs of meeting 450 ppmv stabilization emissions requirements by 21%, but the costs are still 39% lower than the costs assuming reference technology. The report provides a detailed description of the end-use technology scenarios and provides a thorough analysis of the results. Assumptions are documented in the Appendix.

Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

practice equals 100. Carbon intensity trends are closelyby calculating a carbon intensity index, which compares theThe best practice benchmark carbon intensity for each of the

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National7 Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the ProvincialResults Subsectoral CO2 Emissions at the National Level In

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

EXCITATION OF THE AROMATIC INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: CHEMICAL ENERGY IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON PARTICLES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We outline a model for the heating of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC) dust via the release of stored chemical energy and show that this energy ({approx}12 kJ mole{sup -1}) is sufficient to heat dust grains of classical size (50-1000 A) to temperatures at which they can emit at 3.3 {mu}m and other 'UIR' wavelengths. Using laboratory data, we show that this heating process is consistent with a concentration of a few percent of dangling bonds in HAC and may be initiated by the recombination of trapped H atoms. We suggest that the release of chemical energy from dust represents an additional source of excitation for the UIR bands relaxing the previous requirement that only stochastically heated molecules having fewer than {approx}50 atoms can produce emission at 3.3 {mu}m.

Duley, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Williams, D. A., E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Prediction of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Emissions in Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using Multi-Zone Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignitions (HCCI) engines show promise as an alternative to Diesel engines, yet research remains: development of practical HCCI engines will be aided greatly by accurate modeling tools. A novel detailed chemical kinetic model that incorporates information from a computational fluid mechanics code has been developed to simulate HCCI combustion. This model very accurately predicts many aspects of the HCCI combustion process. High-resolution computational grids can be used for the fluid mechanics portion of the simulation, but the chemical kinetics portion of the simulation can be reduced to a handful of computational zones (for all previous work 10 zones have been used). While overall this model has demonstrated a very good predictive capability for HCCI combustion, previous simulations using this model have tended to underpredict carbon monoxide emissions by an order of magnitude. A factor in the underprediction of carbon monoxide may be that all previous simulations have been conducted with 10 chemical kinetic zones. The chemistry that results in carbon monoxide emissions is very sensitive to small changes in temperature within the engine. The resolution in temperature is determined directly by the number of zones. This paper investigates how the number of zones (i.e. temperature resolution) affects the model's prediction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions in an HCCI engine. Simulations with 10, 20, and 40 chemical kinetic zones have been conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism (859 species, 3606 reactions) to simulate an isooctane fueled HCCI engine. The results show that 10-zones are adequate to resolve the hydrocarbon emissions, but a greater numbers of zones are required to resolve carbon monoxide emissions. Results are also presented that explore spatial sources of the exhaust emissions within the HCCI engine combustion chamber.

Flowers, D; Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Dibble, R

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

242

Duke, R. D. and Kammen, D. M. (2003) "Energy for Development: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions", Climate Change for Africa: Science,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Duke, R. D. and Kammen, D. M. (2003) "Energy for Development: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions", Climate Change for Africa: Science, Technology, Policy and Capacity Building: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions Richard D. Duke* and Daniel M. Kammen

Kammen, Daniel M.

243

Generation of continuous and pulsed diagnostic imaging x-ray radiation using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray radiation can be generated using a carbon nanotube CNT -based field-emission cathode. The device can readilyGeneration of continuous and pulsed diagnostic imaging x-ray radiation using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission cathode G. Z. Yue Department of Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North

244

Methane and carbon monoxide emissions from asphalt pavement: Measurements and estimates of their important to global budgets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors measured emissions of methane from asphalt surfaces used in pavement for roadways. Maximum emissions were 22 mg/m{sup 2}/hr for 1- to 4-week-old pavement during maximum sunlight intensity. Emissions were much smaller at low sunlight intensity and dropped off to negligible amounts at night. Smaller emissions were observed for asphalt pavement of 2.5 to 3 years approximate age under similar conditions. Comparison measurements of carbon monoxide emissions resulted in maximum emissions of about 2.6 mg/m{sup 2}hr for 1-week-old pavement. These findings indicate that emissions of CH{sub 4} and CO are a function of both sunlight and temperature. Based on these results, methane emissions from asphalt pavement cannot be a significant source of atmospheric methane as compared to other identified methane sources. Therefore, although asphalt methane emissions are a form of fossil fuel methane, they cannot explain the relatively high fraction of {sup 14}C-depleted methane in the atmosphere.

Tyler, S.C.; Dlugokencky, E.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cicerone, R.J. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA)); Lowe, D.C. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

245

Energy Efficient Design in MIMO Multicell Systems with Time Average QoS Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Energy Efficient Design in MIMO Multicell Systems with Time Average QoS Constraints Subhash Abstract--In this work, we address the issue of energy efficient design in a MIMO multi-cell network. Energy efficient design in cellular networks addresses the concerns of ICT related carbon emissions [1

Boyer, Edmond

246

Isotopic Tracing of Fuel Carbon in the Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Biodiesel Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental tests were conducted on a Cummins 85.9 direct-injected diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends. 20% and 50% blend levels were tested, as was 100% (neat) biodiesel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbons (HC) and CO were measured under steady-state operating conditions. The effect of biodiesel on PM emissions was mixed; however, the contribution of the volatile organic fraction to total PM was greater for the higher biodiesel blend levels. When only non-volatile PM mass was considered, reductions were observed for the biodiesel blends as well as for neat biodiesel. The biodiesel test fuels increased NO{sub x}, while HC and CO emissions were reduced. PM collected on quartz filters during the experimental runs were analyzed for carbon-14 content using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMs). These measurements revealed that carbon from the biodiesel portion of the blended fuel was marginally less likely to contribute to PM, compared to the carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. The results are different than those obtained in previous tests with the oxygenate ethanol, which was observed to be far less likely contribute to PM than the diesel component of the blended fuel. The data suggests that chemical structure of the oxygen- carbon bonds in an oxygenate affects the PM formation process.

Buchholz, B A; Cheng, A S; Dibble, R W

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

247

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980 todrivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proceedings of thefraction of China’s CO2 emissions can be attributed to

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. EPA), 2005.. Emission Inventory Improvement Program,National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Annex 8A.2: Reportingin the fossil CO 2 emissions inventories, and verify whether

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(petrol ICE, diesel ICE, LPG ICE, petrol HEV), engine size (2 litres) and vehicle age. The ‘most used vehicle’ reported by the participants was taken as the reference vehicle for the emissions analysis. Where one or more... fleet average of petrol and diesel car emissions factors. Multiplying total distance travelled by these speed-emissions factors gave us an estimate of the total ‘hot’ emissions for each vehicle when the engine was warmed up. As a final adjustment...

Goodman, Anna; Brand, Christian; Ogilvie, David; on behalf of the iConnect consortium

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

252

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008), Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for each

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (CO2008 Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions frompatterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO 2 is important

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

SCENARIOS FOR DEEP CARBON EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM ELECTRICITY BY 2050 IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA USING THE SWITCH ELECTRIC POWER SECTOR PLANNING MODEL California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was installed on some gas plants by 2050.

Collaboration/ University of California, Berkeley; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andresdioxide emis- sions from fossil-fuel use in North America,S. : High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***includes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,CHP) ** Uncertainties with hydrogen production are not estimated ***ncludes emissions from other sectors such as other industry, residential,

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6 Growth in...

260

Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

See, Wee Chiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

262

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of embodied energy in international trade on ecologicalcalculate embedded energy and carbon of trade. While it isembodiment in US–China trade. Energy Policy 33. Int. Energy

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

section). Also, no conversion factor or carbon content isincludes the use of conversion factors. Since refinery fuelrefineries, a conversion factor specific to California

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Growth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e-beam lithography and defined by dry etching for field emission application.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Individual vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, Electron-beam lithography, Dry etching, Field emission and uniform electronic emission, cathodes based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are patternedGrowth of individual carbon nanotubes on an array of TiN/Ni nanodots patterned by e

Boyer, Edmond

266

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang Song1, Igor Razlivano1, Kevin R. Gurney1, and Preeti Rao2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM U.S. LARGE CITIES Risa Patarasuk1, Darragh O'Keeffe1, Yang University, 2Jet Propulsion Laboratory Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a primary greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas, coal, and petroleum sources. We use a `bottom-up' approach in which CO2

Hall, Sharon J.

267

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

269

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon emissions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8 Summary of the January 2010 Forum Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CEBS Summary: in stocks while emissions from fossil fuels and...

270

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal electricity generation, coal-fired plants accountedelectricity use. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coal fired plants

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kW LBNL LPG Mcf MECS MMBtu Mt MTBE MVSTAFF MW Average Annualof ethanol, as opposed to MTBE, as a blending component of

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DM. 2003. Does Emissions Trading Encourage Innovation?A. 2001. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-International Emissions Trading Association. 2010. Response

Haya, Barbara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

277

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

278

BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

279

Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...

Nam, Kyung-Min

280

Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transportation sector accounts for nearly one third of the United States' greenhouse gas emissions. While over the past number of decades, policy makers have avoided directly pricing the externalities from vehicles, ...

Knittel, Christopher Roland

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Who Pays a Price on Carbon?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that a fully auctioned emissions trading program (with aof a carbon tax or emissions trading system (Fullertona carbon tax or emissions trading system may have exemptions

Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

First Detection of UV emission from a Detached Dust Shell: GALEX Observations of the Carbon AGB Star U Hya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the discovery of an extended ring of ultraviolet emission surrounding the AGB star U Hya in archival observations performed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). This is the third discovery of extended UV emission from a carbon AGB star and the first from an AGB star with a detached shell. From imaging and photometric analysis of the FUV and NUV images, we determined that the ultraviolet ring has a radius of $\\sim 110^{\\prime\\prime}$, thus indicating that the emitting material is likely associated with the detached shell seen in the infrared. We find that scattering of the central point source of NUV and FUV emission by the dust shell is negligible. Moreover, we find that scattering of the interstellar radiation field by the dust shell can contribute at most $\\sim10%$ of the FUV flux. Morphological and photometric evidence suggests that shocks caused by the star's motion through space and, possibly, shock-excited H$_2$ molecules are the most likely origins of the UV flux. In contrast to previou...

Sanchez, E; Ramstedt, S; Stassun, K G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Quark cluster contribution to cumulative proton emission in fragmentation of carbon ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5$^\\circ$ have been measured at fragmentation of carbon ions at $T_0 = $ 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable $x$ in the range 0.9 carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8--12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2--0.6% for nine-quark clusters.

B. M. Abramov; P. N. Alekseev; Yu. A. Borodin; S. A. Bulychjov; I. A. Dukhovskoy; A. I. Khanov; A. P. Krutenkova; V. V. Kulikov; M. A. Martemyanov; M. A. Matsyuk; E. N. Turdakina

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

284

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

U.S. EPA State Carbon Emissions Goals Georgia Fact Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on economic cost and benefits estimates, a set of five very specific carbon abatement measures were selected. New renewable electrical energy sources, e.g., solar, wind, etc. 5. Reducing electric consumption Shelton, PhD Strategic Energy Institute Georgia Tech The U.S. EPA has published

Das, Suman

286

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How Climate Efficient Is Tourism in Switzerland? An Assessment of Tourism's Carbon Dioxide;#12;Summary The tourism sector is not only affected by climate change but also has an impact on the Earth of such measures, we calculated the climate efficiency of the tourism sector in the case of Switzerland.We defined

Fischlin, Andreas

287

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used5 Identify carbon emission coefficients and calculate total35 Appendix: Overview of the China Carbon Emissions

Fridley, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Legislative Proposals to Control Carbon Emissions through Cap and Towards the end of 2007 the Climate Change Bill was introduced into the House of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· efficiency of energy use · carbon pricing through economic mechanisms (taxation or emissions trading on climate change are too dire to risk (N. Stern, Economic Impacts of Climate Change, Report to the Prime and trade, and offers some further thoughts on the potential wider implications of such a development

Martin, Ralph R.

291

The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBostonFacility | OpenCarboPur Technologies Jump to:CarbonCounty isandDome

293

Water Ice, Silicate and PAH Emission Features in the ISO Spectrum of the Carbon-rich Planetary Nebula CPD-56 8032  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combined ISO SWS and LWS spectroscopy is presented of the late WC-type planetary nebula nucleus CPD-56 8032 and its carbon-rich nebula. The extremely broad coverage (2.4-197 microns) enables us to recognize the clear and simultaneous presence of emission features from both oxygen- and carbon- rich circumstellar materials. Removing a smooth continuum highlights bright emission bands characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (hereafter PAHs) in the 3-14 micron region, bands from crystalline silicates longwards of 18 microns, and the 43- and 62-micron bands of crystalline water ice. We discuss the probable evolutionary state and history of this unusual object in terms of (a) a recent transition from an O-rich to a C-rich outflow following a helium shell flash; or (b) a carbon-rich nebular outflow encountering an O-rich comet cloud.

Martin Cohen; M. J. Barlow; R. J. Sylvester; X. -W. Liu; P. Cox; T. Lim; B. Schmitt; A. K. Speck

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

294

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for) Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy...

295

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for) Electricity Export 0 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy...

296

India's challenge of improving the living standards of its growing population through a low-emission development calls for early adaptation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) though the available  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-emission development calls for early adaptation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) though the available storage, sequestration or overseas shipment of CO .2 Rudra Kapila and Jon Gibbins getting India ready for carbon capture to become clearer, and the only way to contain it is, if fossil fuels are used, to employ carbon capture

297

A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Reducing Carbon Emissions from UK Business: The RoleCommittee. 2008. Reducing Carbon Emissions from UK Business:2. Conduct Energy and Carbon Emissions Inventory a. Identify

Zhou, Nan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

ON-ROAD REMOTE SENSING OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN MONTERREY, N.L. MEXICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON-ROAD REMOTE SENSING OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN MONTERREY, N.L. MEXICO Final Report Prepared for the University of Denver traveled to Monterrey, N.L. Mexico to monitor remotely the carbon monoxide (CO with other cities that have been sampled in Mexico. The on-road emission averages are similar to the latest

Denver, University of

299

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

Lin, Jiang

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

300

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

order for the low carbon fuel standard, 2012. URL http://mediated e?ects of low carbon fuel policies. AgBioForum, 15(Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards? American

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbon Tax and 100% Dividend No Alligator Shoes! The charts for my talk (Climate Threat to the Planet: Implications for Energy Policy) on 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effect. Carbon emissions will plummet far faster than in top-down or Manhattan projects. A clean is needed to figure this out. If the initial carbon tax averages $1200 per person per year, $100 will raise energy prices, but lower and middle income people, especially, will find ways to reduce carbon

Hansen, James E.

302

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

303

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildlandfuel consumption and carbon emissions in Canadian borealY. : Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

306

Carbon monoxide line emission as a CMB foreground: tomography of the star-forming universe with different spectral resolutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The rotational lines of carbon monoxide and the fine structure lines of CII and of the most abundant metals, emitted during the epoch of enhanced star formation in the universe, are redshifted in the frequency channels where the present-day and future CMB experiments are sensitive. We estimate the contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum by the emission in such lines in merging star-forming galaxies. We used the Lacey-Cole approach to characterize the distribution of the merging halos, together with a parametrization for the star formation rate in each of them. Using observational data from a sample of local, low-redshift, and high-redshift objects, we calibrated the luminosity in each line as a function of the star formation rate. We show that the correlation term arising from CO line emission is a significant source of foreground for CMB in a broad range of frequencies (in particular in the 20-60 GHz band) and for 1000

Mattia Righi; Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Rashid Sunyaev

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

307

Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y ,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motor Vehicle Fleet Emissions by OP-FTIR K I M B E R L Y S . B R A D L E Y , K E V I N B . B R O O concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O) caused by emissions from to average emissions results obtained from on-road exhaust analysis using individual vehicle remote sensing

Denver, University of

308

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

63 Figure 59. Carbon Intensity of Power Generation,economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short andproduction) and carbon intensity (CO 2 emissions per unit of

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of human development and carbon emissions embodied in trade03.html) Lo A Y 2012 Carbon emissions trading in Chinagoal is to regulate carbon emissions, then, because only a

Andrew, Robbie M; Davis, Steven J; Peters, Glen P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Enhanced field emission from cerium hexaboride coated multiwalled carbon nanotube composite films: A potential material for next generation electron sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intensified field emission (FE) current from temporally stable cerium hexaboride (CeB{sub 6}) coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Si substrate is reported aiming to propose the new composite material as a potential candidate for future generation electron sources. The film was synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. A remarkable increase in maximum current density, field enhancement factor, and a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field with comparable temporal current stability are observed in CeB{sub 6}-coated CNT film when compared to pristine CeB{sub 6} film. The elemental composition and surface morphology of the films, as examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray measurements, show decoration of CeB{sub 6} nanoparticles on top and walls of CNTs. Chemical functionalization of CNTs by the incorporation of CeB{sub 6} nanoparticles is evident by a remarkable increase in intensity of the 2D band in Raman spectrum of coated films as compared to pristine CeB{sub 6} films. The enhanced FE properties of the CeB{sub 6} coated CNT films are correlated to the microstructure of the films.

Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S., E-mail: santanu1@physics.iitd.ac.in [Nanostech Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-16 (India); Sheremet, E.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Gordan, O. D.; Zahn, D. R. T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Jha, M.; Ganguli, A. K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-16 (India); Schmidt, H. [Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schulze, S. [Solid Surfaces Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Schmidt, O. G. [Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During the MILAGRO Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonaceous aerosol were measured at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March of 2006 during the MILAGRO study (Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Objectives). Diurnal variations of hydrocarbons, elemental carbon (EC) and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) were dominated by a high peak in the early morning when local emissions accumulated in a shallow boundary layer, and a minimum in the afternoon when the emissions were diluted in a significantly expanded boundary layer and, in case of the reactive gases, removed by OH. In comparison, diurnal variations of species with secondary sources such as the aldehydes, ketones, oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) stayed relatively high in the afternoon indicating strong photochemical formation. Emission ratios of many hydrocarbon species relative to CO were higher in Mexico City than in the U.S., but we found similar emission ratios for most oxygenated VOCs and organic aerosol. Secondary formation of acetone may be more efficient in Mexico City than in the U.S., due to higher emissions of alkane precursors from the use of liquefied petroleum gas. Secondary formation of organic aerosol was similar between Mexico City and the U.S. Combining the data for all measured gas and aerosol species, we describe the budget of total observed organic carbon (TOOC), and find that the enhancement ratio of TOOC relative to CO is conserved between the early morning and mid afternoon despite large compositional changes. Finally, the influence of biomass burning is investigated using the measurements of acetonitrile, which was found to correlate with levoglucosan in the particle phase. Diurnal variations of acetonitrile indicate a contribution from local burning sources. Scatter plots of acetonitrile versus CO suggest that the contribution of biomass burning to the enhancement of most gas and aerosol species was not dominant and perhaps not dissimilar from observations in the U.S.

de Gouw, Joost A.; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; Warneke, Carsten; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, Angela K.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, D. R.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Celada, A. T.; Huey, L. G.; Junkermann, W.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Salcido, A.; Sjostedt, S. J.; Sullivan, Amy; Tanner, David J.; Vargas-Ortiz, Leroy; Weber, R. J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

313

Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

315

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clean CO 2 for storage and a hydrogen stream to be recycledand storage ? Flexibility to make CO 2 -free hydrogen forand storage computational fluid dynamics carbon monoxide carbon dioxide direct reduced iron electric arc furnace gram gigajoules hour diatomic hydrogen

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

security, renewable energy, bio- fuel, carbon tax, mandate,and taxpayer cost of bio- fuel excise tax credits dwarf the

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Les dterminants du prix du carbone sur le march europen des quotas Carbon price drivers in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme Emilie Alberola1 et Julien Chevallier2 Résumé: L'article examine le prix des quotas durant la première période (2005-2007) de l'European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Nanotubes on the2.4 Static Deformation of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . .3.2 Field Emission from Carbon Nanotubes: Electrostatics

Aleman, Benjamin Jose

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542Peru (Million

322

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542Peru (MillionFood Industry

323

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542Peru (MillionFoodPaper

324

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increase in fuel consumers’ and ethanol producers’ surplusof cane ethanol, higher emissions, lower expenditure on fuelthe sum of fuel consumer, oil producer, and ethanol producer

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

Dickerson, Russell R.

326

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Time-resolved vibrational and rotational emission analysis of laser-produced plasma of carbon and polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1) 436.54 nm (4-2) Carbon argon nitrogen Intensity (a.u.) W avelength (nm) 466 468 470 472 474 0 500 1000 (4-4) 507.00 nm (3-3) 509.80 nm (2-2) 512.90 nm (1-1) 516.50 nm (0-0)Carbon argon nitrogenIntensity-4) 554.00 nm (2-3) 558.50 nm (1-2) 563.50 nm (0-1) Carbon argon nitrogen Intensity (a.u.) Wavelength (nm

329

Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capping an industry’s carbon emissions per unit of output.be an increase in carbon emissions. The LCFS may also reducestandard, which limits carbon emissions per unit of output,

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

IDENTIFICATION OF DAMAGE TYPES IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC LAMINATES BY A NOVEL OPTICAL FIBER ACOUSTIC EMISSION SENSOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION OF DAMAGE TYPES IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC LAMINATES BY A NOVEL OPTICAL technology. PZT sensors have been being used as AE sensors. However, because this kind of sensor has bulk

Boyer, Edmond

331

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

332

Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inventory for Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions. J. Air &T. A. Cackette (2001), Diesel engines: Environmental impact2003), http://www.arb.ca.gov/diesel/diesel.htm BAAQMD, Bay

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

`Capture ready' regulation of fossil fuel power plants Betting the UK's carbon emissions on promises of future technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-linked UK energy and climate change policies. Current climate change targets include 20% reduction of national green house gas emissions by 2010 and 80% reduction by 2050 from a 1990 baseline. However, only

Haszeldine, Stuart

336

Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

337

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing

Stanley, H. Eugene

338

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

due to biofuel policies. Biofuels, 2(2):119–121, 2011. C.Lapan and G.C. Moschini. Biofuels policies and welfare: Isgas emissions from biofuels: Indirect land use change are

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

In situ optical emission study on the role of C{sub 2} in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the temporal and spatial behavior of laser induced plasmas in the laser-furnace synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A graphite composite target located within a sealed quartz tube with a chemical stoichiometric composition of 95:4:1 at. wt % of carbon, yttrium, and nickel, respectively, was ablated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser delivering colinear, focused laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm temporarily separated by 20 ns. The ablation process was done at a furnace temperature of 1273 K in a flow of argon gas at either 150 or 200 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The pressure was varied (100, 400, and 600 Torr) for each gas flow setting. The temporal and spatial behavior of the emission intensity associated with C{sub 2} Swan bands (d {sup 3{Pi}}{sub g}-a {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) was investigated and found to be influenced by the pressure and flow rate of the argon gas. At conditions optimal to SWCNT production, a sharp drop in C{sub 2} intensity followed by a rise in C{sub 2} intensity was observed. The temporal and spatial behavior of the electron density was determined by the Stark broadening profile of the CII emission peak at 283.7 nm and was found to decrease with the adiabatic expansion of the plume. We propose that the sharp drop in C{sub 2} intensity and the rise in electron density and electron temperature observed in this study are due to the accompanying rapid nucleation and growth of SWCNTs.

Motaung, David Edmond [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Moodley, Mathew Kisten [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, 2050 (South Africa); Manikandan, E. [National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Coville, Neil J. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, 2050 (South Africa); DST/NRF Center of Excellence in Strong Materials and Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg, 2020 (South Africa)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

K. G. : Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires,O. , and Merlet, P. : Emission of trace gases and aerosolsEstimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildland

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; Michalak, Anna M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; McKenna, Sean Andrew [IBM Research, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15, Ireland

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Emissions Trading, Electricity Industry Restructuring, and Investment in Pollution Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foss, B . "Carbon Emissions Trading is New Weapon to BattleBehavior and the Emission Trading Market, Resources andof Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading." The Journal of

Fowlie, Meredith

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

346

CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of carbon emissions Other factors driving companies to reduce carbon emissions of their supply chain of carbon dioxide emitted to develop tools to measure the amount of carbon emissions produced from footprint of a can of food is the total amount of carbon emissions from production, transportation

Su, Xiao

347

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LCFS limits carbon emissions per unit of current energycarbon fuel standard expressed as a limit on the emissions per energy

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LCFS limits carbon emissions per unit of current energycarbon fuel standard expressed as a limit on the emissions per energy

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon” cities because their energy use and emissions percarbon development, such as energy use or CO 2 emissions per

Price, Lynn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The carbon question Debate The carbon question Comment/Q&A he key to climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions nor to adopt a carbon tax or permit system unless there is a much clearer technological pathway rapid economic growth with lower emissions. Moreover, a carbon permit system or carbon tax is only part

352

20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing Joseph R. McConnell,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ice cores indicate that sources and concentrations of BC in Greenland precipitation varied greatly, industrial emissions resulted in a seven-fold increase in ice core BC concentrations with most change to 1910, estimated surface climate forcing in early summer from BC in Arctic snow was about 3 W m­2

Saltzman, Eric

353

Personal revised version of: Howitt et al. (2011), Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight. Paper to appear in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO2 emissions from New calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements

Otago, University of

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

Sautter, John A.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

become more important as countries agree to emission reduction targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: immediate stabilization of carbon dioxide emissions, regulation of air pollution that balances removal

Constable, Steve

356

Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ppm in the pre-industrial revolution to 37942 ppm in 2005, rising faster in the last 10 years (average atmospheric CO2 concentration doubles the pre-industrial revolution concentration (IPCC,49 2007a 36 insu-00351929,version1-12Jan2009 #12;1. Introduction37 38 Coal caused the first industrial

Boyer, Edmond

357

Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

T. Buchert

1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

359

Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Phillippines and Tanzania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

potential for carbon sequestration and emission reductionForestry Options on Carbon Sequestration in India, Workinggas emissions and carbon sequestration in the forest sector

Sathaye, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

Teskey, Robert O.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

University of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon vision 11 2.3 Strategic themes 12 Targets and objectives 13 3 Emissions Baseline and Projections. Professor Anton Muscatelli, Principal Foreword from the Carbon Trust Cutting carbon emissions as partUniversity of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Carbon

Mottram, Nigel

362

THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY. IV. HELIUM AND CARBON RECOMBINATION LINES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average {sup 4}He{sup +}/H{sup +} abundance ratio by number, (y {sup +}), is 0.068 {+-} 0.023(1{sigma}). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y {sup +} upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y {sup +} less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low {sup 4}He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 {mu}m mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

Wenger, Trey V.; Bania, T. M. [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Balser, Dana S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States)] [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903-2475 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

amorphous diamondlike carbon: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: Field Emission from Hybrid Diamond-like Carbon and Carbon Nanotube Composite Structures H. Zanin Information ABSTRACT: A thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was...

364

City carbon budgets: Aligning incentives for climate-friendly communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008. Shrinking the carbon footprint of metropolitantheir per capita carbon footprint by a predetermined percentor of lower carbon footprint (embodied emissions) building

Salon, Deborah; Sperling, Dan; Meier, Alan; Murphy, Sinnott; Gorham, Roger; Barrett, James

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

E-Print Network 3.0 - average power cpa Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

emission Summary: emissions(tonCcapyr) AFRICA CPA FAR EAST MEA OCEANIA WEU NAM FSU EEU WORLD AVERAGE LAM Department... 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 tonCcapitayr NAM WEU CPA SAS...

366

The Future Trajectory of US CO2 Emissions: The Role of State vs. Aggregate Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drives down per capita energy use/carbon emissions. The ?nalreasons why per capita energy use and carbon emissions mayin per capita carbon emissions since the ?rst energy crisis.

Auffhammer, Maximilian; Steinhauser, Ralf

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

City carbon budgets: Aligning incentives for climate-friendly communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the cost of carbon emission trading. Resources for theTheoretically, emissions trading would give communities abudgets that make emissions trading problematic. The first

Salon, Deborah; Sperling, Dan; Meier, Alan; Murphy, Sinnott; Gorham, Roger; Barrett, James

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted in 2008 on 16 late-model conventional vehicles (1999-2007) to determine short-term effects of mid-level ethanol blends on performance and emissions. Vehicle odometer readings ranged from 10,000 to 100,000 miles, and all vehicles conformed to federal emissions requirements for their federal certification level. The LA92 drive cycle, also known as the Unified Cycle, was used for testing because it more accurately represents real-world acceleration rates and speeds than the Federal Test Procedure. Test fuels were splash-blends of up to 20 volume percent ethanol with federal certification gasoline. Both regulated and unregulated air-toxic emissions were measured. For the 16-vehicle fleet, increasing ethanol content resulted in reductions in average composite emissions of both nonmethane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and increases in average emissions of ethanol and aldehydes.

Knoll, K.; West, B.; Huff, S.; Thomas, J.; Orban, J.; Cooper, C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy 4 Report Introduction 5 Product Types 5 A. Carbon Offsets 5 B. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs. Voluntary Carbon Confusion: A Consumer's Guide to Purchasing Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy

Hoffman, Andrew J.

371

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

372

Evaluations of average level spacings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data03. U.S. EIA Conference52.

374

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

375

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

376

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate CoatedCarb...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate CoatedCarbon Nanotube Matrices With Low Emission Thresholds. Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate...

378

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

380

Who Pays a Price on Carbon?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a per-capita basis a carbon price is much more regressiveadverse distributional effects of a carbon emissions policy.Distributional incidence · Carbon tax · Tradable permits Q52

Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

382

6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan #12;2009/10 Emissions MMU Carbon Footprint Trajectory Project Footprint MMU Actual Carbon Footprint Projects that Reduced the 2009/10 CO2 Footprint #12;2010/11 Emissions6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan June 2011 let's make a sustainable planet #12

383

Emissions trading scheme for South Africa : opportunities and challenges.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research report aims to determine whether an emissions trading scheme or carbon tax is the most suitable market-based emissions reduction mechanism for… (more)

Jooste, Dustin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The Australian terrestrial carbon budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

University Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly to the emissions of the University. We all have a role to play in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University Statement on Carbon Offsetting for Travel July 2011 Travel contributes significantly be considered in the first instance. If flying is necessary, it is recommended that carbon offsets are purchased through one of the following: Government Quality Assurance Scheme for Carbon Offsetting (discontinued

Haase, Markus

386

Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Under this statute, the Director of Natural Resources will document and quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse emissions reductions associated with agricultural practices, management systems,...

387

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon pac Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(GHG) such as carbon dioxide... emissions through carbon offsets or some other means. A carbon offset is created by voluntarily removing Source: Wynne, Randolph H. - Department...

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon columns Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(GHG) such as carbon dioxide... emissions through carbon offsets or some other means. A carbon offset is created by voluntarily removing Source: Wynne, Randolph H. - Department...

389

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated carbon gac Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(GHG) such as carbon dioxide... emissions through carbon offsets or some other means. A carbon offset is created by voluntarily removing Source: Wynne, Randolph H. - Department...

390

The impact of mineral fertilizers on the carbon footprint of crop production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the GHG emissions (“carbon footprint”) of crop production inMaterials and methods – “carbon footprint” calculation basedLCA) principles A carbon footprint is “the total set of

Brentrup, Frank

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Curbing the U.S. carbon deficit Robert B. Jackson*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reduce carbon emissions and stabilize climate are needed, including greater energy effi- ciency to reduce net U.S. emissions by 10% ( 0.16 Pg of carbon per year). Based on mean seques- tration rates.S. emissions in 2001. To reduce net emissions by 0.16 Pg of carbon per year, a doubling of fuel efficiency

Jackson, Robert B.

392

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterizing flow patterns and mixing of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} is important for effectively using atmospheric measurements to constrain emissions inventories. Here we used measurements and a model of atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) to investigate the distribution and fluxes of atmospheric fossil fuel CO{sub 2} across the state of California. We sampled {sup 14}C in annual C{sub 3} grasses at 128 sites and used these measurements to test a regional model that simulated anthropogenic and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes, transport in the atmosphere, and the resulting {sup 14}C of annual grasses ({Delta}{sub g}). Average measured {Delta}{sub g} in Los Angeles, San Francisco, the Central Valley, and the North Coast were 27.7 {+-} 20.0, 44.0 {+-} 10.9, 48.7 {+-} 1.9, and 59.9 {+-} 2.5{per_thousand}, respectively, during the 2004-2005 growing season. Model predictions reproduced regional patterns reasonably well, with estimates of 27.6 {+-} 2.4, 39.4 {+-} 3.9, 46.8 {+-} 3.0, and 59.3 {+-} 0.2{per_thousand} for these same regions and corresponding to fossil fuel CO{sub 2} mixing ratios (Cf) of 13.7, 6.1, 4.8, and 0.3 ppm. {Delta}{sub g} spatial heterogeneity in Los Angeles and San Francisco was higher in the measurements than in the predictions, probably from insufficient spatial resolution in the fossil fuel inventories (e.g., freeways are not explicitly included) and transport (e.g., within valleys). We used the model to predict monthly and annual transport patterns of fossil fuel-derived CO{sub 2} within and out of California. Fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emitted in Los Angeles and San Francisco was predicted to move into the Central Valley, raising Cf above that expected from local emissions alone. Annually, about 21, 39, 35, and 5% of fossil fuel emissions leave the California airspace to the north, east, south, and west, respectively, with large seasonal variations in the proportions. Positive correlations between westward fluxes and Santa Ana wind conditions were observed. The southward fluxes over the Pacific Ocean were maintained in a relatively coherent flow within the marine boundary layer, while the eastward fluxes were more vertically dispersed. Our results indicate that state and continental scale atmospheric inversions need to consider areas where concentration measurements are sparse (e.g., over the ocean to the south and west of California), transport within and across the marine boundary layer, and terrestrial boundary layer dynamics. Measurements of {Delta}{sub g} can be very useful in constraining these estimates.

Riley, W.J.; Hsueh, D.Y.; Randerson, J.T.; Fischer, M.L.; Hatch, J.G.; Pataki, D.E.; Wang, W.; Goulden, M.L.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

394

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542Peru

395

Effect of E85 on Tailpipe Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

E85, which consists of nominally 85% fuel grade ethanol and 15% gasoline, must be used in flexible-fuel (or 'flexfuel') vehicles (FFVs) that can operate on fuel with an ethanol content of 0-85%. Published studies include measurements of the effect of E85 on tailpipe emissions for Tier 1 and older vehicles. Car manufacturers have also supplied a large body of FFV certification data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, primarily on Tier 2 vehicles. These studies and certification data reveal wide variability in the effects of E85 on emissions from different vehicles. Comparing Tier 1 FFVs running on E85 to similar non-FFVs running on gasoline showed, on average, significant reductions in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx; 54%), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs; 27%), and carbon monoxide (CO; 18%) for E85. Comparing Tier 2 FFVs running on E85 and comparable non-FFVs running on gasoline shows, for E85 on average, a significant reduction in emissions of CO (20%), and no significant effect on emissions of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs). NOx emissions from Tier 2 FFVs averaged approximately 28% less than comparable non-FFVs. However, perhaps because of the wide range of Tier 2 NOx standards, the absolute difference in NOx emissions between Tier 2 FFVs and non-FFVs is not significant (P 0.28). It is interesting that Tier 2 FFVs operating on gasoline produced approximately 13% less NMOGs than non-FFVs operating on gasoline. The data for Tier 1 vehicles show that E85 will cause significant reductions in emissions of benzene and butadiene, and significant increases in emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in comparison to emissions from gasoline in both FFVs and non-FFVs. The compound that makes up the largest proportion of organic emissions from E85-fueled FFVs is ethanol.

Yanowitz, J.; McCormick, R. L.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Research Summary Carbon Additionality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of much/reporting additionality rules. Technological Application of specific technology. Term Abatement arises within a specified

398

DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June, 2002.

Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Emission and chemistry of organic carbon in the gas and aerosol phase at a sub-urban site near Mexico City in March 2006 during the MILAGRO study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ocean uptake of acetonitrile (CH3CN) in the atmosphere,Automo- bile emissions of acetonitrile: Assessment of itsusing the measurements of acetonitrile. Previous es- timates

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Snowmobile Contributions to Mobile Source Emissions in Yellowstone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were collected from in-use snowmobiles% of the annual emissions of carbon monoxide and 77% of annual emissions of hydrocarbons using an equivalent bestSnowmobile Contributions to Mobile Source Emissions in Yellowstone National Park G A R Y A . B I

Denver, University of

402

Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agency (IEA), 2004c. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion,of Carbon Dioxide Emissions on GNP Growth: Interpretation ofD. , 2000. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios: Report of

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing: A General Equilibrium Approach with Micro-Data for Households  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor ...

Rausch, Sebastian

406

Carbon Footprint Calculator  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

407

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Discussion by Matthew J. Kotchen (Yale University and NBER) of "Carbon Prices and Automobile Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Extensive and Intensive Margins," by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Discussion by Matthew J. Kotchen (Yale University and NBER) of "Carbon Prices and Automobile about automobile use. In particular, KS consider how the price of gasoline affects decisions about when

Kotchen, Matthew J.

409

Effects of afforestation and forest management on soil carbon dynamics and trace gas emissions in a Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr.) forest   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The establishment and intensive management of forests for the production of timber can have significant effects on the soil carbon dynamics. The establishment of forest on organic soils under grasslands may lead to ...

Zerva, Argyro

410

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

describes the carbon emissions per unit of energy. Thisresult, lower energy use and carbon emissions per passengeremissions as the product of population, GDP per capita, energy intensity, and carbon

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

want to reduce their ‘carbon footprint,’ not by law, but todecreases of its carbon footprint could reduce emissions byTo decrease the carbon footprint of transportation, the

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

413

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

414

The Transportation Energy and Carbon Footprints of the 100 Largest U.S. Metropolitan Areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present estimates of the automobile and truck travel based energy and carbon footprints of the largest 100 U.S. metropolitan areas. The footprints are based on the estimated vehicle miles traveled and the transportation fuels consumed. Results are presented on an annual basis and represent end use emissions only. Total carbon emissions, emissions per capita, and emissions per dollar of gross metropolitan product are reported. Two years of annual data were examined, 2000 and 2005, with most of the in-depth analysis focused on the 2005 results. In section 2 we provide background data on the national picture and derive some carbon and energy consumption figures for the nation as a whole. In section 3 of the paper we examine the metropolitan area-wide results based on the sums and averages across all 100 metro areas, and compare these with the national totals and averages. In section 4 we present metropolitan area specific footprints and examine the considerable variation that is found to exist across individual metro areas. In doing so we pay particular attention to the effects that urban form might have on these differences. Finally, section 5 provides a summary of major findings, and a list of caveats that need to be borne in mind when using the results due to known limitations in the data sources used.

Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Sonnenberg, Anthon [Georgia Institute of Technology; Brown, Marilyn A [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

average brightness of moonlight as a function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

figures from Roach & Gordon: `The Light of the Night Sky' (1973) #12;many different reactions contribute to nightglow: tables from Roach & Gordon: `The Light of the Night Sky' (1973) nightglow lines can be very upper atmosphere emissions (Roach & Gordon 1973) aurora is transient emission driven by high

Peletier, Reynier

417

Disk-averaged Spectra & light-curves of Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We are using computer models to explore the observational sensitivity to changes in atmospheric and surface properties, and the detectability of biosignatures, in the globally averaged spectra and light-curves of the Earth. Using AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) data, as input for atmospheric and surface properties, we have generated spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the SMART radiative transfer model, for a variety of conditions, from the UV to the far-IR (beyond the range of current Earth-based satellite data). We have then averaged over the visible disk for a number of different viewing geometries to quantify the sensitivity to surface types and atmospheric features as a function of viewing geometry, and spatial and spectral resolution. These results have been processed with an instrument simulator to improve our understanding of the detectable characteristics of Earth-like planets as viewed by the first generation extrasolar terrestrial planet detection and characterization missions (Terrestrial Planet Finder/Darwin and Life finder). The wavelength range of our results are modelled over are applicable to both the proposed visible coronograph and mid-infrared interferometer TPF architectures. We have validated this model against disk-averaged observations by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS TES). This model was also used to analyze Earth-shine data for detectability of planetary characteristics and biosignatures in disk-averaged spectra.

G. Tinetti; V. S. Meadows; D. Crisp; W. Fong; N. Kiang; E. Fishbein; T. Velusamy; E. Bosc; M. Turnbull

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Understanding the 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis U.S....

419

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha -particle emission Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

p, 1 chart, 1 diagram, 9 graphs Document Type: Article Subject Terms: *EMISSIONS trading CARBON... of economic burdens among nations; Influence of emissions trading on...

420

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reading for Thursday Emissions scenario summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, for year 2000 #12;USA ­ CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion (2005) US EPA #12;#12;#12;Decreasing 13C strongly suggests that the source of atmospheric CO2 is fossil carbon #12;Line of evidence #1Reading for Thursday · Emissions scenario summary: ­ Read pages 3-6 · IPCC Chapter 11 (Regional

Schweik, Charles M.

422

STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

423

Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

424

Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Experimental Measurement and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Modelling of the Near-Field Structure of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from large point-sources of production such as coal-fired power stations to climate change. The technological requirements for the safe transportation of large quantities of liquids

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Effect of O{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}+ O{sub 2}{sup +}, and N{sub 2}{sup +}+ O{sub 2}{sup +} ion-beam irradiation on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of O{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}+ O{sub 2}{sup +}, and N{sub 2}{sup +}+ O{sub 2}{sup +} ion-beam irradiation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) films on the chemical and electronic properties of the material is reported. The CNTs were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) on silicon TiN coated substrates previously decorated with Ni particles. The Ni decoration and TiN coating were successively deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and afterwards the nanotubes were grown. The whole deposition procedure was performed in situ as well as the study of the effect of ion-beam irradiation on the CNTs by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman scattering, field-effect emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and field emission (FE) measurements were performed ex situ. The experimental data show that: (a) the presence of either H{sub 2}{sup +} or N{sub 2}{sup +} ions in the irradiation beam determines the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples as well as the studied structural characteristics; (b) due to the experimental conditions used in the study, no morphological changes have been observed after irradiation of the CNTs; (c) the FE experiments indicate that the electron emission from the CNTs follows the Fowler-Nordheim model, and it is dependent on the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples; and (d) in association with FE results, the XPS data suggest that the formation of terminal quinone groups decreases the CNTs work function of the material.

Acuna, J. J. S.; Alvarez, F. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6165 Campinas, SP, 13083-970 (Brazil); Escobar, M. [INQUIMAE, FCEyN-UBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Depto. Fisica, FECyN, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goyanes, S. N. [Depto. Fisica, FECyN, UBA, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Candal, R. J. [INQUIMAE, FCEyN-UBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, 3iA, UNSAM, Campus Migueletes, San Martin, Pcia. Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zanatta, A. R. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos-USP, P.O. Box 369, Sao Carlos 13560-250 (Brazil)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Air emissions inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory -- 1995 emissions report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1995 update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources. The air contaminants reported include nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulates, and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Linking Numerical and Analytical Models of Carbon Leakage By Jared C. Carbone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linking Numerical and Analytical Models of Carbon Leakage By Jared C. Carbone Carbon leakage describes the economy- wide response in carbon emission levels caused by abatement in one part efforts will be offset by emis- sion increases (a positive net leakage effect) elsewhere in the world

429

The Experience of Carbon Rationing Action Groups: Implications for a Personal Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their carbon footprint. Some groups have a price for carbon emitted in excess of the target, and even basic offer any useful information about the process of individual/household level carbon footprint reductions and calculating carbon footprints; whether/how emissions reductions were achieved, and what was easy and what

430

Royal College of Art Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon emissions come from our consumption of gas and electricity. We can expect energy prices of carbon management. Richard Rugg Head of Public Sector, Carbon Trust #12;Royal College of Art Carbon and the College recognises that it has a responsibility to contribute to the commitments made by the HE sector

Subramanian, Sriram

431

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric carbon monoxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reservoirs (storages, especially the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans... emissions trading and the control of greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon monoxide a chemical...

434

HOT SPOT ANALYSIS OF REAL WORLD VEHICLE EMISSIONS BASED UPON A PORTABLE ON-BOARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO2, and open loop/closed loop flag were also recorded using the OEM-2100TM . This paper presents examples percent of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, 77 percent of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and 25 percent

Frey, H. Christopher

435

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Hydroelectric Reservoirs -the Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydroelectric Reservoirs - the Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions of a "Carbon Free" Energy an overview on the greenhouse gas production of hydroelectric reservoirs. The goals are to point out the main how big the greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs are compared to thermo-power plants

Fischlin, Andreas

437

Influence of stand age on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in Canadian forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from economic activity, carbon intensity, and ef?ciency ofintensity and stand density. For instance, it has been estimated that the average amount of carbon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in West Virginia (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in West Virginia. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in West Virginia to be $1.0 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,763 million gallons.

Not Available

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

Lee, Taekoon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crude oil availabil- ity has the following results: less overall fuel consumption,crude-oil-equivalent fuels), the “emissions penalty” (in gigatonnes of carbon equivalent), and the total emissions from fuel production and consumption (

Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Abatement of Air Pollution: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Projects...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Projects that either capture and destroy landfill methane, avoid sulfur hexafluoride emissions, sequester carbon through afforestation, provide end-use energy efficiency, or avoid...

445

Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

446

High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 1 Gary A. Bishop, Sajal S to the national emission inventory.1 According to Heywood2 , carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles

Denver, University of

448

Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon dioxide (NEU-CO2) emissions, represent a signi?cantSimply described, NEU-CO2 emissions are generated via twoData permitting, NEU-CO2 emissions arising from energy

Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

U.S. zero emission coal alliance techology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For coal to maintain its major role in supplying the world's energy, eventually all emissions to the atmosphere must be eliminated. Not only must conventional pollutants, like sulfur compounds and dust particles be kept out of the air, but also the far larger quantities of carbon dioxide that result from the combustion of carbon. We present a new technology for coal-based power that generates hydrogen from carbon and water, avoids emissions to the atmosphere, and disposes of the carbon dioxide as inert, solid mineral carbonates. Based on the available resources, coal power is sustainable for centuries. Our zero emission technology makes coal energy as clean as renewable energy.

Lackner, K. S. (Klaus S.); Ziock, H. J. (Hans-Joachim)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Comparison of emissions and residential exposure from traditional and improved cookstoves in Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suspended particulate matter and carbon emissions from the combustion of biomass, in addition to their environmental consequences, have been causally associated with the incidence of respiratory and eye infections. Improved stoves offer the potential for emissions reduction. The authors compare the emissions of suspended particulate matter and carbon monoxide from traditional and improved biofuel stoves in Kenya under the actual conditions of household use. Data for analysis is from 137 14-h days of continuous real-time emission concentration monitoring in a total of 38 households. Their analysis shows that improved (ceramic) wood-burning stoves reduce daily average suspended particulate matter concentration by 48% during the active burning period and by 77% during the smoldering phase. Ceramic stoves also reduce the median and the 75th and 95th percentiles of daily emission concentration during the burning period and the 95th percentile during the smoldering phase, and therefore shift the overall emission profile downward. Improved charcoal-burning stoves also offer reductions in indoor air pollution compared to the traditional metal stove, but these are not statistically significant. The greatest reduction in emission concentration is achieved as a result of transition from wood to charcoal where mean emission concentrations drop by 87% during the burning period and by 92% when smoldering as well as large reductions in the median and 75th and 95th percentiles. These results indicate that transition to charcoal, followed by the use of improved wood stoves, are viable options for reduction of human exposure to indoor air pollution in many developing nations.

Ezzati, M.; Mbinda, B.M.; Kammen, D.M.

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US SoutheastGHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions

452

Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

Leaching of As, Cr, and Cu from High-Carbon Fly AshSoil Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of conversion to low-NOX combustion (Hower et al. 1998) and activated carbon ad- dition to control Hg emissions

Aydilek, Ahmet

454

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projection to meet the 2050 stabilization goal, the average carbon intensitycarbon intensity reductions. Developing consistent and reasonable cost projectionsprojection should be interpreted as a conservative rate of reduction in the average carbon intensity

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

projection to meet the 2050 stabilization goal, the average carbon intensitycarbon intensity reductions. Developing consistent and reasonable cost projectionsprojection should be interpreted as a conservative rate of reduction in the average carbon intensity

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Equity and Emissions Trading in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China has embarked on an ambitious pathway for establishing a national carbon market in the next five to ten years. In this study, we analyze the distributional aspects of a Chinese emissions-trading scheme from ethical, ...

Zhang, D.

457

PROJECT GOALS This project involved the development of the first Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, which will in turn allow prioritisation of actions to reduce the ANU carbon footprint. TYPEPROJECT GOALS This project involved the development of the first Carbon Emissions Inventory report and master Excel spreadsheet Figure 1: ANU Carbon Emission by Category (t CO2e) DESCRIPTION

458

Is dark energy an effect of averaging?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

459

Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExploration Jump to:FieldProceduresFYID6/OrganizationID8/WebsiteSalinityAverage Jump

460

Gas Emissions FLOODING THE LAND,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

signif- icant sources of emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and, in particular, methane to bacteria breaking down organic matter in the water. Methane, a much more powerful greenhouse gas than coal plants generating the same amounts of power. Dams and their associated reservoirs are globally

Batiste, Oriol

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 40% to 45% fromis preferable—such as total CO2 emissions, or energy use, orX Energy saved and/or CO2 emissions reduced annually Energy

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Daniel Boer

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

463

Carbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and 5% to buildings. To offset rising urban emissions of carbon, regional and national governments, also offset these carbon dioxide releases? Offset of carbon dioxide emis- sions can be achieved throughCarbon stored in human settlements: the conterminous United States G A L I N A C H U R K I N A *w z

Brown, Daniel G.

464

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for calculating the carbon intensity of biofuels. London:is introduced with a carbon intensity of -14 gCO 2 eq. /the average biofuel carbon intensity to 40 gCO 2 eq. /MJ by

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

6, 48974927, 2006 A global emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosol causes atmospheric warming through the direct aerosol effect, i.e. the trans- mission of absorbedACPD 6, 4897­4927, 2006 A global emission inventory of carbon aerosol for 1860­1997 C. Junker and C a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions A global emission inventory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

The carbon leakage effect on the cement sector under different ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tries participating in the program to obtain allowances to cover their carbon emissions. Energy ...... allowance gain is used to offset the other operative costs.

2015-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Economic Impacts of Technical Change in Carbon Capture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a general consensus in the literature that carbon capture and storage (CCS), a technology that controls CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants,… (more)

Rasmussen, Peter G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Carbon Utilization and Storage | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to Assess Carbon Utilization and Storage Technologies PDF Improving Domestic Energy Security and Lowering CO2 Emissions with "Next Generation" CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery...

469

Portfolio analysis of carbon sequestration technologies and barriers to adoption.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The effective targeting of investment funds and research efforts to reduce industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while preserving access to fossil fuel energy resources, requires… (more)

Young-Lorenz, Jillian D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

471

Combined heat and power: How much carbon and energy can it save for manufacturers?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a September 1997 National Laboratory study for the US Department of Energy, the authors estimated the potential for reducing industrial energy consumption and carbon emissions using advanced technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) for the year 2010. In this paper the authors re-analyze the potential for CHP in manufacturing only. The authors also refine the assessment by more accurately estimating the average efficiency of industrial boilers most likely to be replaced by CHP. The authors do this with recent GRI estimates of the age distribution of industrial boilers and standard age-efficiency equations. The previous estimate was based on use of the best CHP technology available, such as the about-to-be commercialized industrial advanced turbine system (ATS). This estimate assumes the use of existing off-the-shelf CHP technologies. Data is now available with which to develop a more realistic suite of penetration rates for existing and new CHP technologies. However, potential variation in actions of state and federal electricity and environmental regulators introduces uncertainties in the use of existing and potential new CHP far greater than those in previous technology penetration estimates. This is, thus, the maximum cost-effective technical potential for the frozen technology case. The authors find that if manufacturers in 1994 had generated all their steam and electric needs with existing CHP technologies, they could have reduced carbon equivalent (carbon dioxide) emissions by up to 30 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MtC) or nearly 20%. This result is consistent with carbon and energy savings found in other studies. For example, the aforementioned laboratory study found that just three CHP technologies, fuel cells, advanced turbines, and integrated combined cycle technologies, accounted for nearly 10% of the study's projected carbon savings of 400 MtC by 2010--enough to reduce projected US 2010 emissions to 1990 levels.

Kaarsberg, T.M.; Roop, J.M.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Carbon Capture  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Capture Pre-Combustion Post-Combustion CO2 Compression Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Program Plan Capture Handbook Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from...

473

The Net Environmental Effects of Carbon Dioxide Reduction Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of policy measures have been proposed to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, policies which reduce CO2 emissions will also decrease the emissions of greenhouse-relevant gases methane are overlooked the net effect of CO2 reduction policies on global warming is understated. Thus, emissions of all

474

Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Add a target for Carbon Intensity ES-2 Monitoring,Add a target for Carbon Intensity Given the government’starget for reduction of carbon intensity (CO 2 emissions per

Levine, Mark D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Fact #835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

5: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 Fact 835: August 25, Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 When adjusted for inflation, the average annual...

476

The ongoing University of Minnesota low carbon fuels policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;"low carbon fuels standard" · The average carbon intensity... · of all transportation fuels 3 2 6 total 10 48 10 46 Average fuel carbon intensity 4.8 4.6 9 #12;Key LCFS elements ·How "low" do you go ·What is "carbon intensity" ·What is a "fuel" ·Who is responsible ·How measure success

Minnesota, University of

477

Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

478

average atom model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

479

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

480

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "average carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On carbon footprints and growing energy use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1 , L. Loyon2 , F. Guiziou2 , P to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from stored pig slurry and measured the variations of the emissions in time and space. In 2006, dynamic

Boyer, Edmond

483

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

484

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHP investment. However, solar thermal collectors coupled to absorption chillers are an economic approach to energy cost

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, photovoltaics, solar thermal collectors, and energythermal storage solar thermal photovoltaics absorptionabsorption cooling, solar thermal collection, respectively.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and thermal equipment, and energy storage - collectivelysolar thermal collectors, and energy storage devices can be

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integrationand Energy Reliability, Distribution System Integration

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combined heat and power (CHP), thermally- activated cooling,electricity and heat from CHP. The economics of storage is1. installed capacity of CHP generators installed capacity (

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Public Cloud B CarbonEmission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors, Demand Prediction Power Capping, Green Software Services such as energy-efficient scientific) Request a Cloud service 4) Allocate service 5) Request service allocation 3) Request energy efficiency information Green Offer Directory 2) Request any `Green Offer' Routers Internet Green Broker #12;Cloud

Buyya, Rajkumar

490

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.Wyoming ElectricityCapacity200320030399Energy

491

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 058.5 57.1CubicVehicle Fuel2.47 441

492

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0Decade Year-0 Year-1 AppendixThis pageEHow

493

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,64397 272 522 542Peru (MillionFood

494

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskite oxideplatform size

495

NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

496

The Small Town Carbon Calculator (STOCC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Costs Source: Energy Information Administration #12;Rising Oil Costs Source: Energy Information energy inventory tool (Excel spreadsheet) Decision relevant information Energy cost Carbon dioxide emissions Energy use Represents a key step towards improving a town's energy efficiency Inventory Audit

New Hampshire, University of

497

Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy or creating waste? Big changes for a smaller carbon footprint and less pollution The Lab is working to reduce emissions by nearly 30 percent from energy use in...

498

Electrochemically mediated separation for carbon capture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon capture technology has been proposed as an effective approach for the mitigation of anthropogenic CO[subscript 2] emissions. Thermal-swing separation technologies based on wet chemical scrubbing show potential for ...

Simeon, Fritz

499

NIHR Carbon Guidelines -FAQs 1. Why do the guidelines address only the principles of good research?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research impact on the associated carbon footprint. 2. How much carbon can be cut using these guidelines if necessary. 5. What other steps is the Department of Health taking to reduce the carbon footprint of research will be asked to consider the carbon footprint of their research and take steps to reduce carbon emissions where

Diggle, Peter J.

500

Storage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks for Clean Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and carbon dioxide. Introduction Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels 20 metric tons of carbon dioxide per capita are released annually into the atmosphere.1a,b CarbonStorage of Hydrogen, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide in Highly Porous Covalent Organic Frameworks

Yaghi, Omar M.