National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average building lifetime

  1. A New World Average Value for the Neutron Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; A. K. Fomin

    2010-05-27

    The analysis of the data on measurements of the neutron lifetime is presented. A new most accurate result of the measurement of neutron lifetime [Phys. Lett. B 605 (2005) 72] 878.5 +/- 0.8 s differs from the world average value [Phys. Lett. B 667 (2008) 1] 885.7 +/- 0.8 s by 6.5 standard deviations. In this connection the analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of experiments [Phys. Lett. B 483 (2000) 15] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63 (1989) 593] is carried out. Systematic errors of about -6 s are found in each of the experiments. The summary table for the neutron lifetime measurements after corrections and additions is given. A new world average value for the neutron lifetime 879.9 +/- 0.9 s is presented.

  2. Note on an integral expression for the average lifetime of the bound state in 2D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Prustel; Martin Meier-Schellersheim

    2012-10-04

    Recently, an exact Green's function of the diffusion equation for a pair of spherical interacting particles in two dimensions subject to a backreaction boundary condition was used to derive an exact expression for the average lifetime of the bound state. Here, we show that the corresponding divergent integral may be considered as the formal limit of a Stieltjes transform. Upon analytically calculating the Stieltjes transform one can obtain an exact expression for the finite part of the divergent integral and hence for the average lifetime.

  3. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  4. Norwegian National Program for Lifetime Commissioning and Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakovic, V.; Djuric, N.; Holst, J.; Frydenlund, F.

    2006-01-01

    The project “Life-Time Commissioning for Energy Efficient Operation of Buildings” is actually a network of industrial companies, private and public entities, and R&D organizations. The overall objective of the project is to contribute...

  5. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Mark E.

    2010-07-10

    Although preliminary proof-of-principle of the efficacy of barrier materials and processes, first developed by Battelle at PNNL and commercialized by Vitex, has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, there are several challenges to the practical commercial implementation of these developments in the Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) market. Two important issues that are addressed in this project are identifying a low cost substrate material that can survive in the outside environment (rain, heat, dust, hail, etc.) for 25 years and developing an encapsulation method for the photovoltaic (PV) cells that can meet the required barrier performance without driving the cost of the total barrier package out of range (remaining below $3.00/Wp). Without these solutions, current encapsulation technologies will limit the use of PV for BIPV applications. Flexible, light-weight packaging that can withstand 25 years in the field is required for a totally flexible integrated PV package. The benefit of this research is to make substantial progress in the development of a cost-effective, viable thin film barrier package which will be a critical enabling technology to meet the Solar America Initiative cost and device reliability goals, and to make photovoltaics (PV) more cost-competitive with electricity generated using fossil fuels. Increased PV installations will enable increased US electrical capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil through increased utilization of a widely abundant source of renewable energy (sunlight).

  6. A Protocol for Lifetime Energy and Environmental Impact Assessment of Building Insulation Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors, and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist that provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines.

  7. A protocol for lifetime energy and environmental impact assessment of building insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S. Biswas, Kaushik; Desjarlais, Andre O.

    2014-04-01

    This article describes a proposed protocol that is intended to provide a comprehensive list of factors to be considered in evaluating the direct and indirect environmental impacts of building insulation materials, as well as detailed descriptions of standardized calculation methodologies to determine those impacts. The energy and environmental impacts of insulation materials can generally be divided into two categories: (1) direct impact due to the embodied energy of the insulation materials and other factors and (2) indirect or environmental impacts avoided as a result of reduced building energy use due to addition of insulation. Standards and product category rules exist, which provide guidelines about the life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials, including building insulation products. However, critical reviews have suggested that these standards fail to provide complete guidance to LCA studies and suffer from ambiguities regarding the determination of the environmental impacts of building insulation and other products. The focus of the assessment protocol described here is to identify all factors that contribute to the total energy and environmental impacts of different building insulation products and, more importantly, provide standardized determination methods that will allow comparison of different insulation material types. Further, the intent is not to replace current LCA standards but to provide a well-defined, easy-to-use comparison method for insulation materials using existing LCA guidelines. - Highlights: • We proposed a protocol to evaluate the environmental impacts of insulation materials. • The protocol considers all life cycle stages of an insulation material. • Both the direct environmental impacts and the indirect impacts are defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided operational energy’ is defined. • Standardized calculation methods for the ‘avoided environmental impact’ is defined.

  8. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAboutTotal Energymonthly gasolineBuilds

  9. Fire in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, G.

    During the lifetime of any building in Canada it is probable that one or more "unwanted" fires will occur. "Fire Loss in Canada, 1959," the report of the Dominion Fire Commissioner, states that for the period 1950-1959 the average number of reported...

  10. Real-Time Forcast Model Analysis of Daily Average Building Load for a Thermal Storage System Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Joo, I. S.; Guwana, S.

    2009-01-01

    methods for real-time forecasting of building electrical demand, ASHRAE Transaction vol.97(1):710-721 D.C. Montgomery, C. L. Jennings, M. Kulahci. 2007. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting, ISBN 978-0-471-65397-4. L Ljung, T. S...?derstr?m, 1987, Theory and application of recursive identification, ISBN 978-0-262-12095-1 ESL-IC-09-11-03 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 ...

  11. Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical Facilities

    2013-11-12

    MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES BUILDING. BUILDING EMERGENCY PLAN. Date Adopted: Sept 20, 2013. Date Revised: Sep 20. 2013. Prepared By: Kelly ...

  12. Zero Carbon Buildings? Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    #12;Net Zero Energy: Average Over Year ©K. Simonen 2012 Reduce Operations AND Generate Power Net: Total Lifetime Energy Use Typical Building ©K. Simonen 2012 #12;Net Zero = Zero Carbon Power Generation: Lower Net Use ©K. Simonen 2012 Add Solar Power Energy back to grid Meter runs two ways

  13. Coherent Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien M. E. Fraïsse; Daniel Braun

    2015-04-13

    We investigate in detail a recently introduced "coherent averaging scheme" in terms of its usefulness for achieving Heisenberg limited sensitivity in the measurement of different parameters. In the scheme, $N$ quantum probes in a product state interact with a quantum bus. Instead of measuring the probes directly and then averaging as in classical averaging, one measures the quantum bus or the entire system and tries to estimate the parameters from these measurement results. Combining analytical results from perturbation theory and an exactly solvable dephasing model with numerical simulations, we draw a detailed picture of the scaling of the best achievable sensitivity with $N$, the dependence on the initial state, the interaction strength, the part of the system measured, and the parameter under investigation.

  14. Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DIV. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities by Census Division, 1999" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  15. Lifetimes of noisy repellors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Faisst; B. Eckhardt

    2003-08-27

    We study the effects of additive noise on the lifetimes of chaotic repellors. Using first order perturbation theory we argue that noise will increase the lifetime if the escape holes lie in regions where the unperturbed density is higher than in the immediate vicinity and that it decreases if the density is lower. Numerical experiments support the qualitative conclusions also beyond perturbation theory.

  16. Lifetime Analysis at High Intensity Colliders Applied to the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvachua, B; Bruce, R; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Valentino, G; Wollmann, D

    2013-01-01

    The beam lifetime is one of the main parameters to define the performance of a collider. In a super-conducting machine like the LHC, the lifetime determines the intensity reach for a given collimation cleaning. The beam lifetime can be calculated from the direct measurement of beam current. However, due to the noise in the beam current signal only an average lifetime over several seconds can be calculated. We propose here an alternative method, which uses the signal of the beam loss monitors in the vicinity of the primary collimators to get the instantaneous beam lifetime at the collimators. In this paper we compare the lifetime from the two methods and investigate the minimum lifetime over the LHC cycle for all the physics fills in 2011 and 2012. These data provide a reference for estimates of performance reach from collimator cleaning.

  17. Highlighting High Performance Buildings: Department of Environmental Protection-Cambria Office Building, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-11-01

    The 36,000-square-foot Cambria Office building used integrated design to minimize energy use, pollution and environmental impact the building will create over its lifetime.

  18. The Neutron Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. E. Wietfeldt

    2014-11-13

    The decay of the free neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino is the prototype semileptonic weak decay and the simplest example of nuclear beta decay. The nucleon vector and axial vector weak coupling constants G_V and G_A determine the neutron lifetime as well as the strengths of weak interaction processes involving free neutrons and protons that are important in astrophysics, cosmology, solar physics and neutrino detection. In combination with a neutron decay angular correlation measurement, the neutron lifetime can be used to determine the first element of the CKM matrix Vud. Unfortunately the two main experimental methods for measuring the neutron lifetime currently disagree by almost 4 sigma. I will present a brief review of the status of the neutron lifetime and prospects for the future.

  19. Measurement of the lifetimes of B meson mass eigenstates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anikeev, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the results of the average lifetime measurements in ..., ..., and ... decays, as well as the results of a time-dependent angular analysis of ... and ... decays. The time-dependent angular ...

  20. Lifetime of topological quantum memories in thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Al-Shimary; James R. Wootton; Jiannis K. Pachos

    2012-09-13

    Here we investigate the effect lattice geometry has on the lifetime of two-dimensional topological quantum memories. Initially, we introduce various lattice patterns and show how the error-tolerance against bit-flips and phase-flips depends on the structure of the underlying lattice. Subsequently, we investigate the dependence of the lifetime of the quantum memory on the structure of the underlying lattice when it is subject to a finite temperature. Importantly, we provide a simple effective formula for the lifetime of the memory in terms of the average degree of the lattice. Finally, we propose optimal geometries for the Josephson junction implementation of topological quantum memories.

  1. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  2. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Harb, Charles C. (Palo Alto, CA); Paldus, Barbara A. (Mountain View, CA); Spence, Thomas G. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2003-01-01

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  3. Analog detection for cavity lifetime spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N. (Stanford, CA); Harb, Charles C. (Palo Alto, CA); Paldus, Barbara A. (Mountain View, CA); Spence, Thomas G. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-05-15

    An analog detection system for determining a ring-down rate or decay rate 1/.tau. of an exponentially decaying ring-down beam issuing from a lifetime or ring-down cavity during a ring-down phase. Alternatively, the analog detection system determines a build-up rate of an exponentially growing beam issuing from the cavity during a ring-up phase. The analog system can be employed in continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CW CRDS) and pulsed CRDS (P CRDS) arrangements utilizing any type of ring-down cavity including ring-cavities and linear cavities.

  4. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Summary of Prinicpal Building Activities in Commercial Buildings

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sumary Comparison Table Return to: A Look at CBECS Building Activities SUMMARY COMPARISON TABLE Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Average Square...

  6. Measurement of charm meson lifetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ammar, Raymond G.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Besson, David Zeke; Coppage, Don; Davis, Robin E. P.; Kravchenko, I.; Kwak, Nowhan; Zhao, L.

    1999-06-01

    We report measurements of the D-0, D-,(+) and D-s(+) meson lifetimes using 3.7 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) annihilation data collected near the Y(4S) resonance with the CLEO detector. The measured lifetimes of the D-0, D+, and D-s(+) mesons are 408.5 +/- 4.1(-3.4)(+3.5...

  7. Highlighting High Performance: Department of Environmental Protection; Cambria Office Building, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-11-01

    The 36,000-square-foot Cambria Office building used integrated design to minimize energy use, pollution and environmental impact the building will create over its lifetime.

  8. Effect of Superalloy Substrate and Bond Coating on TBC Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A; Zhang, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Several different single-crystal superalloys were coated with different bond coatings to study the effect of composition on the cyclic oxidation lifetime of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition from a commercial source. Three different superalloys were coated with a 7 {micro}m Pt layer that was diffused into the surface prior to YSZ deposition. One of the superalloys, N5, was coated with a low activity, Pt-modified aluminide coating and Pt-diffusion coatings with 3 and 7 {micro}m of Pt. Three coatings of each type were furnace cycled to failure in 1 h cycles at 1150 C to assess average coating lifetime. The 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating on N5 had an average YSZ coating lifetime >50% higher than a Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5. Without a YSZ coating, the Pt-modified aluminide coating on N5 showed the typical surface deformation during cycling, however, the deformation was greatly reduced when constrained by the YSZ coating. The 3 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating had a similar average lifetime as the Pt-modified aluminide coating but a much wider scatter. The Pt diffusion bond coating on superalloy X4 containing Ti exhibited the shortest YSZ coating lifetime, this alloy-coating combination also showed the worst alumina scale adhesion without a YSZ coating. The third generation superalloy N6 exhibited the longest coating lifetime with a 7 {micro}m Pt diffusion coating.

  9. Average Angular Velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Essen

    2004-01-28

    This paper addresses the problem of the separation of rotational and internal motion. It introduces the concept of average angular velocity as the moment of inertia weighted average of particle angular velocities. It extends and elucidates the concept of Jellinek and Li (1989) of separation of the energy of overall rotation in an arbitrary (non-linear) $N$-particle system. It generalizes the so called Koenig's theorem on the two parts of the kinetic energy (center of mass plus internal) to three parts: center of mass, rotational, plus the remaining internal energy relative to an optimally translating and rotating frame.

  10. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  11. The Lifetime of Grand Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Merrifield; R. J. Rand; S. E. Meidt

    2005-11-02

    The lifetime of the structure in grand design spiral galaxies is observationally ill-determined, but is essentially set by how accurately the pattern's rotation can be characterized by a single angular pattern speed. This paper derives a generalized version of the Tremaine-Weinberg method for observationally determining pattern speeds, in which the pattern speed is allowed to vary arbitrarily with radius. The departures of the derived pattern speed from a constant then provides a simple metric of the lifetime of the spiral structure. Application of this method to CO observations of NGC 1068 reveal that the pattern speed of the spiral structure in this galaxy varies rapidly with radius, and that the lifetime of the spiral structure is correspondingly very short. If this result turns out to be common in grand-design spiral galaxies, then these features will have to be viewed as highly transient phenomena.

  12. New evaluation of neutron lifetime from UCN storage experiments and beam experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; A. K. Fomin

    2011-04-21

    The analysis of experiments on measuring neutron lifetime has been made. The latest most accurate result of measuring neutron lifetime [Phys. Lett. B 605, 72 (2005)] 878.5 \\pm 0.8 s differs from the world average value [Phys. Lett. B 667, 1 (2008)] 885.7 \\pm 0.8 s by 6.5 standard deviations. In view of this both the analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation of experiments [Phys. Lett. B 483, 15 (2000)] and [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 593 (1989)] have been performed. Systematic errors about -6 s have been found in both experiments. The table of results of neutron lifetime measurements is given after corrections and additions have been made. A new world average value of neutron lifetime makes up 880.0 \\pm 0.9 s. Here is also presented a separate analysis of experiments on measuring neutron lifetime with UCN and experiments on the beams. The average neutron lifetime for experiments with UCN is equal to 879.3(0.6) s, while for experiments on the beams it is equal to 889.1(2.9) s. The present difference of average values for both groups is (3.3 sigma) and needs consideration. The contribution of beam experiments into the world average value is not high, therefore it does not influence the above analysis. However, it is an independent problem to be solved. It seems desirable that the precision of beam experiments should be enhanced.

  13. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  14. Measurement of the Average Lifetime of Bhadrons produced in pp collisions at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    . Campbell, (16) A. Caner, (7) W. Carithers, (14) D. Carlsmith, (32) A. Castro, (20) Y. Cen, (21) F. Cervelli

  15. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for most cities for all measures). Combining many of the retuning measures revealed deep savings potential. Some of the more aggressive combinations revealed 35-75% reductions in annual HVAC energy consumption, depending on climate and building vintage.

  16. Solutions 1 Part B Statistical Lifetime-Models Oxford HT 2015 I B.1 Lifetime distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkel, Matthias

    withdrawal from service; lifetime of a lightbulb before burn-out; time a new employee spends at a firm before

  17. On the low carrier lifetime edge zone in multicrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Tingting; Yu, Xuegong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Xin; Yang, Deren, E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-01-07

    We have demonstrated the cause of low minority carrier lifetime corresponding to the edge zone of casting multicrystalline silicon ingots and its influence on the performance of solar cells. It is found that the concentration of substitutional carbon, interstitial oxygen, and dislocation density have no direct correlation with the low minority carrier lifetime in the edge zone. However, the distribution of interstitial iron exactly coincides with the minority carrier lifetime, indicating that iron contamination is mainly responsible for the lifetime degradation. After phosphorus diffusion gettering process, the low carrier lifetime region became narrower, and the concentration of interstitial iron is reduced by almost one order of magnitude. However, the carrier lifetime in the edge zone cannot be raised to average level. After celling process, the internal quantum efficiency map of the edge zone has a lower response to the long wavelength light, in accordance with the minority carrier lifetime distribution in this region. Therefore, the solar cells based on edge zones exhibit slightly lower efficiency than those conventional ones.

  18. Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Presented by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sensors still "max out" and the GDP is waiting on strain gauge drifters to be deployed for evaluation. #12Drogue and Transmitter Lifetime Evaluation Presented by: Erik Valdes Drifter Data Assembly Center lifetime Evaluation All manufacturers except Pacific Gyre have changed to tether strain by early 2010

  19. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  20. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01

    Systems, such as LEED, BREEAM, Green Globe, etc. became more and more popular during the last few years ? new systems, such as the German DGNB Certificate are under development. It is remarkable, that the driving mechanism to apply these rating systems...

  1. Spacetime Averaged Null Energy Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Urban; Ken D. Olum

    2010-06-13

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even if one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  2. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  3. He II Proximity Effect and the Lifetime of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khrykin, I S; McQuinn, M; Worseck, G

    2015-01-01

    The lifetime of quasars is fundamental for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes, and is an important ingredient in models of the reionization of the intergalactic medium. However, despite various attempts to determine quasar lifetimes, current estimates from a variety of methods are uncertain by orders of magnitude. This work combines cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and 1D radiative transfer to investigate the structure and evolution of the He II Ly$\\alpha$ proximity zones around quasars at $z \\simeq 3-4$. We show that the time evolution in the proximity zone can be described by a simple analytical model for the approach of the He II fraction $x_{\\rm HeII}\\left( t \\right)$ to ionization equilibrium, and use this picture to illustrate how the transmission profile depends on the quasar lifetime, quasar UV luminosity, and the ionization state of helium in the ambient IGM (i.e. the average He II fraction, or equivalently the metagalactic He II ionizing background). A significant degeneracy...

  4. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  5. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.

  6. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  7. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Lifetime Limitations: The Role of Electrocatalyst Degradation...

  8. Building Stones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    3). Photographs by the author. Building Stones, Harrell, UEEOxford Short Citation: Harrell, 2012, Building Stones. UEE.Harrell, James A. , 2012, Building Stones. In Willeke

  9. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The 2009 World Average of $?_s$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegfried Bethke

    2009-08-15

    Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha_s (Q)$, covering energy scales from $Q \\equiv \\mtau = 1.78$ GeV to 209 GeV, exactly follow the energy dependence predicted by QCD and therefore significantly test the concept af Asymptotic Freedom.

  11. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table R8.82p. Total and Average Primaary Consumption and Expenditures for All Major Energy Sources in Residential Buildings, 1982 Total Average RSE Row Fac- tors Expenditures...

  12. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table R8.90p. Total and Average Primary Consumption and Expenditures for All Major Energy Sources in Residential Buildings, 1990 Total Average RSE Row Fac- tors Expenditures...

  13. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table R8.81p. Total and Average Primary Consumption and Expenditures for All Major Energy Sources in Residential Buildings, 1981 Total Average RSE Row Fac- tors Expenditures...

  14. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table R8.84p. Total and Average Primary Consumption and Expenditures for All Major Energy Sources in Residential Buildings, 1984 Total Average RSE Row Fac- tors Expenditures...

  15. Buildings and Energy in the 1980's

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table R8.87p. Total and Average Primary Consumption and Expenditures for All Major Energy Sources in Residential Buildings, 1987 Total Average RSE Row Factors Expenditures (million...

  16. Quantum Averages of Weak Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakir Aharonov; Alonso Botero

    2005-08-23

    We re-examine the status of the weak value of a quantum mechanical observable as an objective physical concept, addressing its physical interpretation and general domain of applicability. We show that the weak value can be regarded as a \\emph{definite} mechanical effect on a measuring probe specifically designed to minimize the back-reaction on the measured system. We then present a new framework for general measurement conditions (where the back-reaction on the system may not be negligible) in which the measurement outcomes can still be interpreted as \\emph{quantum averages of weak values}. We show that in the classical limit, there is a direct correspondence between quantum averages of weak values and posterior expectation values of classical dynamical properties according to the classical inference framework.

  17. Touschek Lifetime Calculations for NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash,B.; Kramer, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Touschek effect limits the lifetime for NSLS-II. The basic mechanism is Coulomb scattering resulting in a longitudinal momentum outside the momentum aperture. The momentum aperture results from a combination of the initial betatron oscillations after the scatter and the non-linear properties determining the resultant stability. We find that higher order multipole errors may reduce the momentum aperture, particularly for scattered particles with energy loss. The resultant drop in Touschek lifetime is minimized, however, due to less scattering in the dispersive regions. We describe these mechanisms, and present calculations for NSLS-II using a realistic lattice model including damping wigglers and engineering tolerances.

  18. Measurement of the Omega0(c) lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iori, M.; Ayan, A.S.; Akgun, U.; Alkhazov, G.; Amaro-Reyes, J.; Atamantchouk, A.G.; Balatz, M.Y.; Blanco-Covarrubias, A.; Bondar, N.F.; Cooper, P.S.; Dauwe, L.J.; /Ball State U. /Bogazici U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Moscow, ITEP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Moscow State U. /St. Petersburg, INP

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a precise measurement of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} lifetime. The data were taken by the SELEX (E781) experiment using 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -}, {pi}{sup -} and p beams. The measurement has been made using 83 {+-} 19 reconstructed {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} in the {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup +} and {Omega}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} decay modes. The lifetime of the {Omega}{sub c}{sup 0} is measured to be 65 {+-} 13(stat) {+-} 9(sys) fs.

  19. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  20. Lifetime Ruin Minimization: Should Retirees Hedge Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Huaxiong

    - conomic inflation rate for the population. For example in the U.S. the Consumer Price Index (CPI) has happy, in the appendix we also solve the model by maximizing utility of lifetime consumption. Either way industry is shifting its attention from wealth accumulation to generating a sustainable retirement income

  1. APPLICATIONS RIE-induced carrier lifetime degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environmental impact [11,12]. However, RIE generates defects in the near-surface region of the semiconductor [13 in the fabrication of some types of solar cells to achieve a highly directional etch. However, cells fabricated using. Characterisation of the carrier lifetime in solar cells was conducted using the quasi steady state photoconductance

  2. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  3. Average-Atom Thomson Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Walter R.

    -Atom Approximation W. R. Johnson, Notre Dame J. Nilsen & K. T. Cheng, LLNL The cross section for Thomson scattering Average-Atom Model Divide plasma into WS cells with a nucleus and Z electrons p2 2 - Z r + V a(r) = a a(r) V(r) = VKS(n(r), r) n(r) = nb(r) + nc(r) 4r2nb(r) = nl 2(2l+1) 1+exp[( nl -µ)/kBT] Pnl(r)2 Z = r

  4. BUILDING NAMES AA Architecture Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    P18$ P16 BUILDING NAMES AA Architecture Building AC Recreation and Athletics Centre AH Alumni Hall AP Azrieli Pavillion AT Azrieli Theatre CB Canal Building CO Residence Commons DT Dunton Tower FH Interaction Building (HCI) HP Herzberg Laboratories IH Ice House LA Loeb Building LE Leeds House LH Lanark

  5. Achronal averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States) and Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science, and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    The averaged null energy condition (ANEC) requires that the integral over a complete null geodesic of the stress-energy tensor projected onto the geodesic tangent vector is never negative. This condition is sufficient to prove many important theorems in general relativity, but it is violated by quantum fields in curved spacetime. However there is a weaker condition, which is free of known violations, requiring only that there is no self-consistent spacetime in semiclassical gravity in which ANEC is violated on a complete, achronal null geodesic. We indicate why such a condition might be expected to hold and show that it is sufficient to rule out closed timelike curves and wormholes connecting different asymptotically flat regions.

  6. Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Photovoltaic Lifetime & Degradation Science Statistical Pathway Development: Acrylic Degradation, USA ABSTRACT In order to optimize and extend the life of photovoltaics (PV) modules, scientific photovoltaics. The statisti- cally significant relationships were investigated using lifetime and degradation

  7. Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Degradation Pathway Models for Photovoltaics Module Lifetime Performance Nicholas R. Wheeler, Laura data from Underwriter Labs, featuring measurements taken on 18 identical photovoltaic (PV) modules in modules and their effects on module performance over lifetime. Index Terms--photovoltaics, statistical

  8. Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Battery Lifetime-Aware Automotive Climate Control for Electric Vehicles Korosh Vatanparvar) optimization involves stringent con- straints on driving range and battery lifetime. Sophisticated embedded systems and huge number of computing resources have enabled re- searchers to implement advanced Battery

  9. Neutrinos and cosmology: a lifetime relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    We consider the example of neutrino decays to illustrate the profound relation between laboratory neutrino physics and cosmology. Two case studies are presented: In the first one, we show how the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the FIRAS instrument on board of COBE, when combined with Lab data, have greatly changed bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime. In the second case, we speculate on the consequence for neutrino physics of the cosmological detection of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a detection at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on some models of neutrino secret interactions.

  10. Improved Measurement of the Positive Muon Lifetime and Determination of the Fermi Constant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MuLan Collaboration; D. B. Chitwood; T. I. Banks; M. J. Barnes; S. Battu; R. M. Carey; S. Cheekatmalla; S. M. Clayton; J. Crnkovic; K. M. Crowe; P. T. Debevec; S. Dhamija; W. Earle; A. Gafarov; K. Giovanetti; T. P. Gorringe; F. E. Gray; M. Hance; D. W. Hertzog; M. F. Hare; P. Kammel; B. Kiburg; J. Kunkle; B. Lauss; I. Logashenko; K. R. Lynch; R. McNabb; J. P. Miller; F. Mulhauser; C. J. G. Onderwater; C. S. Ozben; Q. Peng; C. C. Polly; S. Rath; B. L. Roberts; V. Tishchenko; G. D. Wait; J. Wasserman; D. M. Webber; P. Winter; P. A. Zolnierczuk

    2008-02-08

    The mean life of the positive muon has been measured to a precision of 11 ppm using a low-energy, pulsed muon beam stopped in a ferromagnetic target, which was surrounded by a scintillator detector array. The result, tau_mu = 2.197013(24) us, is in excellent agreement with the previous world average. The new world average tau_mu = 2.197019(21) us determines the Fermi constant G_F = 1.166371(6) x 10^-5 GeV^-2 (5 ppm). Additionally, the precision measurement of the positive muon lifetime is needed to determine the nucleon pseudoscalar coupling g_P.

  11. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  12. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G.; Terrill, Edward R.; Borowczak, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  13. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  14. Building technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-14

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  15. Building technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jackson, Roderick

    2014-07-15

    After growing up on construction sites, Roderick Jackson is now helping to make buildings nationwide far more energy efficient.

  16. Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) - Building America Top Innovation House...

  17. Beardmore Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Priest River, ID Originally built in 1922 by Charles Beardmore, the building housed offices, mercantile shops, a ballroom and a theater. After decades of neglect under outside ownership, Brian Runberg, an architect and great-grandson of Charles Beardmore, purchased the building in 2006 and began an extensive whole building historic restoration.

  18. Accelerated stress rupture lifetime assessment for fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groves, S.E.; DeTeresa, S.J.; Sanchez, R.J.; Zocher, M.A.; Christensen, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    Objective was to develop a theoretical and experimental framework for predicting stress rupture lifetime for fiber polymer composites based on short-term accelerated testing. Originally a 3-year project, it was terminated after the first year, which included stress rupture experiments and viscoelastic material characterization. In principle, higher temperature, stress, and saturated environmental conditions are used to accelerate stress rupture. Two types of specimens were to be subjected to long-term and accelerated static tensile loading at various temperatures, loads in order to quantify both fiber and matrix dominated failures. Also, we were to apply state-of-the-art analytical and experimental characterization techniques developed under a previous DOE/DP CRADA for capturing and tracking incipient degradation mechanisms associated with mechanical performance. Focus was increase our confidence to design, analyze, and build long-term composite structures such as flywheels and hydrogen gas storage vessels; other applications include advanced conventional weapons, infrastructures, marine and offshore systems, and stockpile stewardship and surveillance. Capabilities developed under this project, though not completed or verified, are being applied to NIF, AVLIS, and SSMP programs.

  19. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael del Rio; Carmen Martinez; Hermann Schulz-Baldes

    2008-02-20

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  20. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

    2011-09-22

    In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  1. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Conservati...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as rowstubs in most detailed tables. Total buildings, total floorspace, and average building size for these categories are shown in Table B1. The PDF and spreadsheet data tables...

  2. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: Benzene–benzene vs benzene–rare gas atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.; Li, Zhiying

    2014-10-28

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atom–molecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atom–benzene calculations with those for benzene–benzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzene–benzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  3. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A. 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION...

  4. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation Neubauer, J. 25 ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY; LITHIUM-ION; STATIONARY ENERGY STORAGE; BLAST; BATTERY DEGRADATION;...

  5. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  6. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP (Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter) instrument on Spacelab 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.

    1988-10-01

    The flight of the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction-limited (0.5 arc second) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc second jitter RMS) and freedom from the distortion that plagues ground-based images. The solar 5 minute oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, the authors show that these dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When the oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 410 and 890 seconds, respectively, in quiet and magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are common. It is hard to find that neither explodes nor is unaffected by a nearby explosion. A significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Local correlation-tracking techniques are used to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the intensity field. In the quiet sun it is possible to detect both super- and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s quiet sun, and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions, horizontal velocities are much less, about 200 m/s. These flows effect the measured lifetime. A lower limit to the lifetime in quiet and magnetic sun is estimated to be 440 and 950 seconds respectively.

  7. Prediction of the Creep-Fatigue Lifetime of Alloy 617: An Application of Non-destructive Evaluation and Information Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek Agarwal; Richard Wright; Timothy Roney

    2014-08-01

    A relatively simple method using the nominal constant average stress information and the creep rupture model is developed to predict the creep-fatigue lifetime of Alloy 617, in terms of time to rupture. The nominal constant average stress is computed using the stress relaxation curve. The predicted time to rupture can be converted to number of cycles to failure using the strain range, the strain rate during each cycle, and the hold time information. The predicted creep-fatigue lifetime is validated against the experimental measurements of the creep-fatigue lifetime collected using conventional laboratory creep-fatigue tests. High temperature creep-fatigue tests of Alloy 617 were conducted in air at 950°C with a tensile hold period of up to 1800s in a cycle at total strain ranges of 0.3% and 0.6%. It was observed that the proposed method is conservative in that the predicted lifetime is less than the experimentally determined values. The approach would be relevant to calculate the remaining useful life to a component like a steam generator that might fail by the creep-fatigue mechanism.

  8. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  9. Lifetime Prediction for Supercapacitor-powered Wireless Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turau, Volker

    with a prediction of future incoming energy, e.g., obtained from a solar cell. II. RELATED WORK Several approachesLifetime Prediction for Supercapacitor-powered Wireless Sensor Nodes Christian Renner, J research direction for wireless sensor networks. It depends on accurate models for lifetime prediction

  10. Exploiting Sensor Spatial Redundancy to Improve Network Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    issues. Indeed, recharging or replacing the nodes' battery may be inconvenient, or even impossible- erage. While monitoring the area of interest, sensors gather information (i.e., images), and send battery lifetime should be maximized to maximize network lifetime, a fairly intuitive approach

  11. Lifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haenggi, Martin

    , battery depletion is emulated so that it becomes possible to actually measure the load balancingLifetime Benefits through Load Balancing in Homogeneous Sensor Networks Daniele Puccinelli network. The use of load balancing schemes can be expected to provide significant lifetime benefits

  12. Astroparticle physics, 2013 Problem 3: Lifetime of electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Martin Karl Wilhelm

    "the mean lifetime of electrons as function of their energy. The typical matter density in interstellar space is 1 hydrogen atom per cubic centimeter. b) Consider the energy dependence of the lifetime the energy-loss rate of relativistic electrons for bremsstrahlung a) Energy losses imply that high-energy

  13. Neutron lifetime measurements using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. P. Serebrov; V. E. Varlamov; A. G. Kharitonov; A. K. Fomin; Yu. N. Pokotilovski; P. Geltenbort; I. A. Krasnoschekova; M. S. Lasakov; R. R. Taldaev; A. V. Vassiljev; O. M. Zherebtsov

    2009-02-02

    Our experiment using gravitationally trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the neutron lifetime is reviewed. Ultracold neutrons were trapped in a material bottle covered with perfluoropolyether. The neutron lifetime was deduced from comparison of UCN losses in the traps with different surface-to-volume ratios. The precise value of the neutron lifetime is of fundamental importance to particle physics and cosmology. In this experiment, the UCN storage time is brought closer to the neutron lifetime than in any experiments before:the probability of UCN losses from the trap was only 1% of that for neutron beta decay. The neutron lifetime obtained,878.5+/-0.7stat+/-0.3sys s, is the most accurate experimental measurement to date.

  14. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  15. Optimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    policy the differ- ential cost is C1 on attractive control switching boundaries. Index Terms Average costOptimal Average Cost Manufacturing Flow Controllers: Convexity and Differentiability Michael H and differentiability of the differential cost function are investigated. It is proven that under an optimal control

  16. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  17. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roland Risser Director, Building Technologies Office Building Technologies Office Energy Efficiency Starts Here. 2 Building Technologies Office Integrated Approach: Improving...

  18. Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange Building America Expert Meeting: Transforming Existing Buildings through New Media--An Idea Exchange This report...

  19. Building America Residential Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting: July 2010 Building America Residential Buildings Energy Efficiency Meeting: July 2010 On this page, you may link to the summary report and...

  20. Building debris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahmen, Joseph (Joseph F. D.)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis relates architectural practices to intelligent use of resources and the reuse of derelict spaces. The initial investigation of rammed earth as a building material is followed by site-specific operations at the ...

  1. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  2. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  3. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  4. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  5. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  6. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  7. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  8. Average transmission probability of a random stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

    2009-07-31

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

  9. Lifetime of the phonons in the PLT ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barba-Ortega, J. Joya, M. R.; Londoño, F. A.

    2014-11-05

    The lifetimes at higher temperatures on lanthanum-modified lead titanate (PLT) are mainly due to the anharmonic decay of optical phonons into low-energy phonons. The temperature-independent contributions from inherent crystal defects and from boundary scattering become comparable to the phonon scattering contribution at lower temperatures. The thermal interaction is large at higher temperatures which decreases the phonon mean free path, and so the decay lifetime decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. This leads to the increased line width at higher temperatures. We made an estimate of the lifetimes for different concentrations and temperatures in PLT.

  10. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  11. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  12. Building Technologies Office Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Building Technologies Office Overview Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  13. Building America System Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Residential Buildings Integration Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  14. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Energy Efficient Buildings HUB Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  15. The Lifetime of a beautiful and charming meson: B_c lifetime measured using the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; /Indiana U.

    2008-09-01

    Using approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the D0 detector between 2002 and 2006, the lifetime of the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} meson is studied in the B{sub c}{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}{mu}{sup {+-}} + X final state. Using an unbinned likelihood simultaneous fit to J/{psi} + {mu} invariant mass and lifetime distributions, a signal of 810 {+-} 80(stat.) candidates is estimated and a lifetime measurement made of: {tau}(B{sub c}{sup {+-}}) = 0.448{sub -0.036}{sup +0.038}(stat) {+-} 0.032(sys) ps.

  16. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    gas emissions over the full fuel cycle and vehicle lifetime.are estimated over the full fuel cycle and entire vehicleoperation and maintenance, full fuel-cycle air-pollutant and

  17. Quantitative Characterization of Filament Dynamics by Single-Molecule Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needleman, Daniel

    CHAPTER 29 Quantitative Characterization of Filament Dynamics by Single-Molecule Lifetime University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 Abstract I. Introduction to Cytoskeletal Filament Dynamics II III. Theoretical Foundations A. Equivalence to the First-Passage Time Problem B. Models of Filament

  18. Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, R., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch; Sigg, H., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frigerio, J.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Süess, M. J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (SCOPEM), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, R. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10

    The excess charge carrier lifetimes in Ge layers grown on Si or germanium-on-insulator are measured by synchrotron based pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. We observe that the lifetimes do not strongly depend on growth parameters and annealing procedure, but on the doping profile. The defect layer at the Ge/Si interface is found to be the main non-radiative recombination channel. Therefore, the longest lifetimes in Ge/Si (2.6?ns) are achieved in sufficiently thick Ge layers with a built-in field, which repels electrons from the Ge/Si interface. Longer lifetimes (5.3?ns) are obtained in overgrown germanium-on-insulator due to the absence of the defective interface.

  19. Office Buildings - Full Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PDF Office Buildings Although no one building type dominates the commercial buildings sector, office buildings are the most common and account for more than 800,000 buildings or 17...

  20. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  1. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  2. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  3. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekoon Lee

    2015-03-27

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  4. Buildings & Connective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Signage Program Complete New Signage, Wayfinding, Campus Identity Program 2 4 4 0 2 2 0 4 2 4 2 5 16 47 Sciences Greenway Interim Landscape New Green Pathway Connecting Parking, Building Entrances Courtyard 2 2 0 0 4 2 0 0 4 2 2 0 16 34 Ashland/Taylor Lot G/K Interim Green Gate Provide New Green

  5. Better Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neukomm, M.

    2012-01-01

    replicable programs/solutions. Emphasis on home energy improvement Federal Performance-based Contracting Challenge ?Leverage ARRA ?Overcome Barriers ?Drive Action/Change ?Grow Partnerships Better Buildings promotes energy efficiency as top... Senior Executive --Announce innovations/market solutions Take Action -Showcase project within 9 months -Organization wide plan, schedule and milestones within 9 months Report Results -Share information and implementation models -Share...

  6. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7. Building6.

  7. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7. Building6.8.

  8. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  9. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roland Risser Director, Building Technologies Office Building Technologies Office Overview Our Homes and Buildings Use 40% of Our Nation's Energy and 75% of Electricity Energy Use...

  10. Building Performance Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Y (2008). DeST—An integrated building simulation toolkit,Part ? : Fundamentals. Building Simulation, 1: 95 ? 110.Y (2008). DeST—An integrated building simulation toolkit,

  11. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rhode Island Building Code Standards Committee adopts, promulgates and administers the state building code. Compliance is determined through the building permit and inspection process by local...

  12. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime: Applications in Design and Health Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Neubauer, J.; Wood, E.; Jun, M.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation discusses models for battery reliability and lifetime and the Battery Ownership Model.

  13. Ultralong minority-carrier lifetime epitaxial GaAs by photon recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.; Dunlavy, D.J.; Keyes, B. (Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado 80401 (US)); Vernon, S.M.; Dixon, T.M.; Tobin, S.P. (Spire Corporation, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730); Miller, K.L.; Hayes, R.E. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303)

    1989-09-11

    The minority-carrier lifetime has been measured by time-resolved photoluminescence in epitaxial films of GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The measured lifetimes in thicker devices are 4 to 6 times the theoretical or radiative lifetime. These long lifetimes are the result of photon recycling or self-generation of the self-absorbed radiation.

  14. Accessible buildings Moderately accessible buildings*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Campus neighborhood map Moderately accessible paths** Accessible building entrance via parking lot to the University Park campus. This map, provided by UAC, is designed to assist persons with disabilities in finding accessibility. Your observations and suggestions regarding architectural For more information on UAC, you can

  15. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Kotikov

    2014-11-30

    We show the results in [1,2] for computing the QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new results came due a recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MSbar factorization scheme. They depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstandig problem of QCD. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, alphas(Mz)=0.1199 +- 0.0026 has been obtained in the MSbar scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln x terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q2 terms by the renormalization group. This result is in excellent agreement with the present world average.

  16. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Building Activity Comparison

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Activity Comparison Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity, 1999 Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity,...

  17. Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Scott

    Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

  18. TOUSCHEK LIFETIME CALCULATIONS AND SIMULATIONS FOR NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.; BENGTSSON, J.; NASH, B.

    2007-06-25

    The beam lifetime in most medium energy synchrotron radiation sources is limited by the Touschek effect, which describes the momentum transfer from the transverse into the longitudinal direction due to binary collisions between electrons. While an analytical formula exists to calculate the resulting lifetime, the actual momentum acceptance necessary to perform this calculation can only be determined by tracking. This is especially the case in the presence of small vertical apertures at insertion devices. In this case, nonlinear betatron coupling leads to beam losses at these vertical aperture restrictions. In addition, a realistic model of the storage ring is necessary for calculation of equilibrium beam sizes (particularly in the vertical direction) which are important for a self-consistent lifetime calculation.

  19. Buildings Interoperability Planning: Connected Buildings Interoperabil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vision Context Steve Widergren PNNL 11 March 2015 Topics Purpose of meeting Buildings automation in the transformative time of connectivity Interoperability - a connected buildings...

  20. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Rental Sample Control Buildings PSM Controls Rated BuildingsSample Control Buildings PSM Controls Appendix Table A2 (Sample Control Buildings PSM Controls Rated Buildings Sales

  1. Radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Pontus; Fritioff, Karin; Sandstroem, Joakim; Collins, Gerard; Hanstorp, Dag; Ellmann, Anna; Schef, Peter; Lundin, Peter; Mannervik, Sven; Royen, Peder; Froese Fischer, K. Charlotte; Oesterdahl, Fabian; Rostohar, Danijela; Pegg, David J.; Gibson, N. D.; Danared, Haakan; Kaellberg, Anders

    2006-03-15

    We present a technique for measuring the radiative lifetimes of metastable states of negative ions that involves the use of a heavy-ion storage ring. The method has been applied to investigate the radiative decay of the np{sup 3} {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} levels of Te{sup -}(n=5) and Se{sup -}(n=4) and the 3p{sup 3} {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -} for which the J=3/2 and 5/2 levels were unresolved. All of these states are metastable and decay primarily by emission of E2 and M1 radiation. Multi Configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations of rates for the transitions in Te{sup -} and Se{sup -} yielded lifetimes of 0.45 s and 4.7 s, respectively. The measured values agree well with these predicted values. In the case of the {sup 2}D state of Si{sup -}, however, our measurement was only able to set a lower limit on the lifetime. The upper limit of the lifetime that can be measured with our apparatus is set by how long the ions can be stored in the ring, a limit determined by the rate of collisional detachment. Our lower limit of 1 min for the lifetime of the {sup 2}D state is consistent with both the calculated lifetimes of 162 s for the {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} level and 27.3 h for the {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} level reported by O'Malley and Beck and 14.5 h and 12.5 h, respectively, from our Breit-Pauli calculations.

  2. Building Envelope Stakeholder Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is hosting a building envelope stakeholder workshop on behalf of the DOE Building Technologies Office.

  3. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet

    2009-05-07

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.

  4. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100Nationalquestionnaires 0serial codesReversingprovedReynolds-Averaged

  5. Measurement of the B?s lifetime in the flavor-specific decay channel B?s ? D?s ???X

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V.? M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.? S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J.? P.; Alexeev, G.? D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; et al

    2015-02-09

    We present an updated measurement of the B?s lifetime using the semileptonic decays B?s ? D?s ???X, with D?s ? ??? and ? ? K?K? (and the charge conjugate process). This measurement uses the full Tevatron Run II sample of proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV, comprising an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb?1. We find a flavor-specifc lifetime Tfs(B?s) = 1.479 ± 0.010 (stat) ± 0.021 (syst) ps. This technique is also used to determine the B? lifetime using the analogous B? ? D????X decay with D? ? ??? and ? ? K?K? , yielding T(B?) = 1.534 ±more »0.019 (stat) ± 0.021 (syst) ps. Both measurements are consistent with the current world averages, and the B?s lifetime measurement is one of the most precise to date. Taking advantage of the cancellation of systematic uncertainties, we determine the lifetime ratio Tfs(B?s)/T(B?) = 0.964 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst).« less

  6. Measurement of the B?s lifetime in the flavor-specific decay channel B?s ? D?s ???X

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V.? M. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Moscow (Russia); Abbott, B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Acharya, B.? S. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Adams, T. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Agnew, J.? P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Alexeev, G.? D. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russia); Alton, A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Askew, A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Atkins, S. [Louisiana Tech Univ., Ruston, LA (United States); Augsten, K. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic); Avila, C. [Univ. de los Andes, Bogota (Columbia); Badaud, F. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Clermont (France); Bagby, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Baldin, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bandurin, D.? V. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Banerjee, S. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J.? F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S.? B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P.? C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E.? E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X.? B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C.? P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B.? C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K.? M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S.? W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W.? E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S.? J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.? P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H.? T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P.? F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L.? V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V.? D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V.? N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H.? E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P.? H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J.? A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C.? E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P.? D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M.? W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J.? M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A.? P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M.? D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J.? D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J.? L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A.? S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M.? S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A.? W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y.? N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J.? M.; Kozelov, A.? V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V.? A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H.? S.; Lee, S.? W.; Lee, W.? M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q.? Z.; Lim, J.? K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V.? V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A.? L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V.? L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C.? L.; Meijer, M.? M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P.? G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N.? K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H.? A.; Negret, J.? P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H.? T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S.? K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.

    2015-02-01

    We present an updated measurement of the B?s lifetime using the semileptonic decays B?s ? D?s ???X, with D?s ? ??? and ? ? K?K? (and the charge conjugate process). This measurement uses the full Tevatron Run II sample of proton-antiproton collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV, comprising an integrated luminosity of 10.4 fb?1. We find a flavor-specifc lifetime Tfs(B?s) = 1.479 ± 0.010 (stat) ± 0.021 (syst) ps. This technique is also used to determine the B? lifetime using the analogous B? ? D????X decay with D? ? ??? and ? ? K?K? , yielding T(B?) = 1.534 ± 0.019 (stat) ± 0.021 (syst) ps. Both measurements are consistent with the current world averages, and the B?s lifetime measurement is one of the most precise to date. Taking advantage of the cancellation of systematic uncertainties, we determine the lifetime ratio Tfs(B?s)/T(B?) = 0.964 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst).

  7. 1 Zoology Building 2 Cruickshank Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    1 Zoology Building 2 Cruickshank Building 3 23 St Machar Drive 4 King's Museum (Old Town House) 5 The Hub 6 St Mary's 7 Fraser Noble Building 8 Elphinstone Road Halls 9 The Sir Duncan Rice Library 10 Meston Building 11 Chaplaincy Centre 12 Confucius Institute 13 Security Office/Mailroom 14 Counselling

  8. CA-TSL: Energy Adaptation for Targeted System Lifetime in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    are severely energy-constrained, and energy usage is one of the most common causes of failure. Although much work has focused on policies to reduce and regulate energy usage in fixed and dense networks lifetime in an intermittently connected system by adapting node energy usage to an estimated desired energy

  9. Precision measurement of the Lambda_b baryon lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LHCb collaboration; R. Aaij; B. Adeva; M. Adinolfi; C. Adrover; A. Affolder; Z. Ajaltouni; J. Albrecht; F. Alessio; M. Alexander; S. Ali; G. Alkhazov; P. Alvarez Cartelle; A. A. Alves Jr; S. Amato; S. Amerio; Y. Amhis; L. Anderlini; J. Anderson; R. Andreassen; J. E. Andrews; R. B. Appleby; O. Aquines Gutierrez; F. Archilli; A. Artamonov; M. Artuso; E. Aslanides; G. Auriemma; M. Baalouch; S. Bachmann; J. J. Back; C. Baesso; V. Balagura; W. Baldini; R. J. Barlow; C. Barschel; S. Barsuk; W. Barter; Th. Bauer; A. Bay; J. Beddow; F. Bedeschi; I. Bediaga; S. Belogurov; K. Belous; I. Belyaev; E. Ben-Haim; G. Bencivenni; S. Benson; J. Benton; A. Berezhnoy; R. Bernet; M. -O. Bettler; M. van Beuzekom; A. Bien; S. Bifani; T. Bird; A. Bizzeti; P. M. Bj\\ornstad; T. Blake; F. Blanc; J. Blouw; S. Blusk; V. Bocci; A. Bondar; N. Bondar; W. Bonivento; S. Borghi; A. Borgia; T. J. V. Bowcock; E. Bowen; C. Bozzi; T. Brambach; J. van den Brand; J. Bressieux; D. Brett; M. Britsch; T. Britton; N. H. Brook; H. Brown; I. Burducea; A. Bursche; G. Busetto; J. Buytaert; S. Cadeddu; O. Callot; M. Calvi; M. Calvo Gomez; A. Camboni; P. Campana; D. Campora Perez; A. Carbone; G. Carboni; R. Cardinale; A. Cardini; H. Carranza-Mejia; L. Carson; K. Carvalho Akiba; G. Casse; L. Castillo Garcia; M. Cattaneo; Ch. Cauet; R. Cenci; M. Charles; Ph. Charpentier; P. Chen; N. Chiapolini; M. Chrzaszcz; K. Ciba; X. Cid Vidal; G. Ciezarek; P. E. L. Clarke; M. Clemencic; H. V. Cliff; J. Closier; C. Coca; V. Coco; J. Cogan; E. Cogneras; P. Collins; A. Comerma-Montells; A. Contu; A. Cook; M. Coombes; S. Coquereau; G. Corti; B. Couturier; G. A. Cowan; D. C. Craik; S. Cunliffe; R. Currie; C. D'Ambrosio; P. David; P. N. Y. David; A. Davis; I. De Bonis; K. De Bruyn; S. De Capua; M. De Cian; J. M. De Miranda; L. De Paula; W. De Silva; P. De Simone; D. Decamp; M. Deckenhoff; L. Del Buono; N. Déléage; D. Derkach; O. Deschamps; F. Dettori; A. Di Canto; H. Dijkstra; M. Dogaru; S. Donleavy; F. Dordei; A. Dosil Suárez; D. Dossett; A. Dovbnya; F. Dupertuis; P. Durante; R. Dzhelyadin; A. Dziurda; A. Dzyuba; S. Easo; U. Egede; V. Egorychev; S. Eidelman; D. van Eijk; S. Eisenhardt; U. Eitschberger; R. Ekelhof; L. Eklund; I. El Rifai; Ch. Elsasser; A. Falabella; C. Färber; G. Fardell; C. Farinelli; S. Farry; D. Ferguson; V. Fernandez Albor; F. Ferreira Rodrigues; M. Ferro-Luzzi; S. Filippov; M. Fiore; C. Fitzpatrick; M. Fontana; F. Fontanelli; R. Forty; O. Francisco; M. Frank; C. Frei; M. Frosini; S. Furcas; E. Furfaro; A. Gallas Torreira; D. Galli; M. Gandelman; P. Gandini; Y. Gao; J. Garofoli; P. Garosi; J. Garra Tico; L. Garrido; C. Gaspar; R. Gauld; E. Gersabeck; M. Gersabeck; T. Gershon; Ph. Ghez; V. Gibson; L. Giubega; V. V. Gligorov; C. Göbel; D. Golubkov; A. Golutvin; A. Gomes; P. Gorbounov; H. Gordon; M. Grabalosa Gándara; R. Graciani Diaz; L. A. Granado Cardoso; E. Graugés; G. Graziani; A. Grecu; E. Greening; S. Gregson; P. Griffith; O. Grünberg; B. Gui; E. Gushchin; Yu. Guz; T. Gys; C. Hadjivasiliou; G. Haefeli; C. Haen; S. C. Haines; S. Hall; B. Hamilton; T. Hampson; S. Hansmann-Menzemer; N. Harnew; S. T. Harnew; J. Harrison; T. Hartmann; J. He; T. Head; V. Heijne; K. Hennessy; P. Henrard; J. A. Hernando Morata; E. van Herwijnen; A. Hicheur; E. Hicks; D. Hill; M. Hoballah; C. Hombach; P. Hopchev; W. Hulsbergen; P. Hunt; T. Huse; N. Hussain; D. Hutchcroft; D. Hynds; V. Iakovenko; M. Idzik; P. Ilten; R. Jacobsson; A. Jaeger; E. Jans; P. Jaton; A. Jawahery; F. Jing; M. John; D. Johnson; C. R. Jones; C. Joram; B. Jost; M. Kaballo; S. Kandybei; W. Kanso; M. Karacson; T. M. Karbach; I. R. Kenyon; T. Ketel; A. Keune; B. Khanji; O. Kochebina; I. Komarov; R. F. Koopman; P. Koppenburg; M. Korolev; A. Kozlinskiy; L. Kravchuk; K. Kreplin; M. Kreps; G. Krocker; P. Krokovny; F. Kruse; M. Kucharczyk; V. Kudryavtsev; T. Kvaratskheliya; V. N. La Thi; D. Lacarrere; G. Lafferty; A. Lai; D. Lambert; R. W. Lambert; E. Lanciotti; G. Lanfranchi; C. Langenbruch; T. Latham; C. Lazzeroni; R. Le Gac; J. van Leerdam; J. -P. Lees; R. Lefèvre; A. Leflat; J. Lefrançois; S. Leo; O. Leroy; T. Lesiak; B. Leverington; Y. Li; L. Li Gioi; M. Liles; R. Lindner; C. Linn; B. Liu; G. Liu; S. Lohn; I. Longstaff; J. H. Lopes; N. Lopez-March; H. Lu; D. Lucchesi; J. Luisier; H. Luo; F. Machefert; I. V. Machikhiliyan; F. Maciuc; O. Maev; S. Malde; G. Manca; G. Mancinelli; J. Maratas; U. Marconi; P. Marino; R. Märki; J. Marks; G. Martellotti; A. Martens; A. Martín Sánchez; M. Martinelli; D. Martinez Santos; D. Martins Tostes; A. Massafferri; R. Matev; Z. Mathe; C. Matteuzzi; E. Maurice; A. Mazurov; B. Mc Skelly; J. McCarthy; A. McNab; R. McNulty; B. Meadows; F. Meier; M. Meissner; M. Merk; D. A. Milanes; M. -N. Minard; J. Molina Rodriguez; S. Monteil; D. Moran; P. Morawski; A. Mordà; M. J. Morello; R. Mountain; I. Mous; F. Muheim; K. Müller; R. Muresan

    2013-07-31

    The ratio of the \\Lambda b baryon lifetime to that of the B0 meson is measured using 1.0/fb of integrated luminosity in 7 TeV center-of-mass energy pp collisions at the LHC. The \\Lambda b baryon is observed for the first time in the decay mode \\Lambda b -> J/\\psi pK-, while the B0 meson decay used is the well known B0 -> J/\\psi pi+K- mode, where the pi+ K- mass is consistent with that of the K*0(892) meson. The ratio of lifetimes is measured to be 0.976 +/- 0.012 +/- 0.006, in agreement with theoretical expectations based on the heavy quark expansion. Using previous determinations of the B0 meson lifetime, the \\Lambda b lifetime is found to be 1.482 +/- 0.018 +/- 0.012 ps. In both cases the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  10. Maximizing Static Network Lifetime of Wireless Broadcast Adhoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovendran, Radha

    of the important applications of wireless static adhoc net- works includes wireless sensor networks. The technology- cast routing over wireless static adhoc network where host mobility is not involved. We define the lifetime of a network as the dura- tion of time until the first node failure due to battery depletion. We

  11. Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krintz, Chandra

    Online Prediction of Battery Lifetime for Embedded and Mobile Devices Ye Wen, Rich Wolski, and compare it to two similar battery prediction technologies: ACPI and Smart Battery. We employ twenty is a critical resource for battery-powered embedded systems and mobile devices. As such, battery life must

  12. General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies Zhao Cheng, Mark Perillo, and Wendi B. Heinzelman, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In multihop wireless sensor to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required

  13. AIAA-2001-0025 SPECTRUM FATIGUE LIFETIME AND RESIDUAL STRENGTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a typical fiberglass laminate configuration turbine blade fiberglass material has been undertaken under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading for the development of refined design tools. Present at two or more load levels as well as a modified standard design tools for estimating lifetimes

  14. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    /ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, rangingThe millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 David Archer & Victor Brovkin Received: 19

  15. Environmental Aspects of Thin Film Module Production and Product Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    Impact #12;3 Thin-Film PV -The Triangle of SuccessThin-Film PV -The Triangle of Success Low Cost of Thin Film Module Production and Product Lifetime Vasilis Fthenakis PV Environmental Research Center@bnl.gov web: www.pv.bnl.gov www.clca.columbia.edu #12;2 PV Sustainability CriteriaPV Sustainability Criteria

  16. Fission life-time calculation using a complex absorbing potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Scamps; Kouichi Hagino

    2015-12-28

    A comparison between the semi-classical approximation and the full quantum calculation with a complex absorbing potential is made with a model of the fission of 258Fm. The potential barrier is obtained with the constrained Skyrme HF+BCS theory. The life-time obtained by the two calculations agree with each other the difference being only by 25%.

  17. Link Lifetimes and Randomized Neighbor Selection in DHTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Zhongmei

    }@cs.tamu.edu Abstract--Several models of user churn, resilience, and link lifetime have recently appeared of the failed zone in the DHT space. To understand neighbor churn in such networks, this paper proposes a simple peer-to-peer (P2P) networks under user churn has recently attracted significant attention and has

  18. LUMINESCENCE LIFETIME INSTRUMENTATION DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTI-DYE ANALYSIS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadfan, Adam

    2011-08-08

    . These probes, or dyes, were platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP) and palladium (II)- 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorphenyl)-porphyrin (PdTFPP). When oxygen has been purged from the dyes, the lifetimes of the dyes are approximately 90 ?s for Pt...

  19. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

  20. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  1. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard ErrorsYear Jan Feb MarA6. BuildingB7.

  2. Building America Building Science Translator

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy IndustrialofofBuilding Science Translator February

  3. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact 744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster...

  4. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cars are for gasoline cars only. Fuel economy average is the production-weighted harmonic mean. 2014 data are preliminary. Fact 849 Dataset Supporting Information Average...

  5. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been...

  6. The Average Mass Profile of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Carlberg; H. K. C. Yee; E. Ellingson; S. L. Morris; R. Abraham; P. Gravel; C. J. Pritchet; T. Smecker-Hane; F. D. A. Hartwick; J. E. Hesser; J. B. Hutchings; J. B. Oke

    1997-05-23

    The average mass density profile measured in the CNOC cluster survey is well described with the analytic form rho(r)=A/[r(r+a_rho)^2], as advocated on the basis on n-body simulations by Navarro, Frenk & White. The predicted core radii are a_rho=0.20 (in units of the radius where the mean interior density is 200 times the critical density) for an Omega=0.2 open CDM model, or a_rho=0.26 for a flat Omega=0.2 model, with little dependence on other cosmological parameters for simulations normalized to the observed cluster abundance. The dynamically derived local mass-to-light ratio, which has little radial variation, converts the observed light profile to a mass profile. We find that the scale radius of the mass distribution, 0.20<= a_rho <= 0.30 (depending on modeling details, with a 95% confidence range of 0.12-0.50), is completely consistent with the predicted values. Moreover, the profiles and total masses of the clusters as individuals can be acceptably predicted from the cluster RMS line-of-sight velocity dispersion alone. This is strong support of the hierarchical clustering theory for the formation of galaxy clusters in a cool, collisionless, dark matter dominated universe.

  7. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building America's Top Innovations Propel the Home Building Industry toward Higher Performance Building America Top...

  8. Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Building Science-Based Climate Maps - Building America Top Innovation Photo showing climate zone maps based on...

  9. Better Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings, Saves 730 Million on Energy Bills Better Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings, Saves...

  10. Lifetime-dependent Battery Usage Optimization for Grid-Connected Residential Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    utility energy prices. Our approach enables us determine the true operational cost and lifetimeLifetime-dependent Battery Usage Optimization for Grid-Connected Residential Systems Jagannathan Venkatesh# , Shengbo Chen* , Peerapol Tinnakornsrisuphap*, Tajana Simunic Rosing# # University of California

  11. Investigations of Game of Life cellular automata rules on Penrose Tilings: lifetime and ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    Investigations of Game of Life cellular automata rules on Penrose Tilings: lifetime and ash; section 6 reports the statistics of lifetimes, ash densities, and growth of the region of activity. 2

  12. ISOTOPE, ELECTRIC FIELD, AND VIBRATIONAL STATE DEPENDENCE OF SINGLE ROTATIONAL LEVEL LIFETIMES OF S1 FORMALDEHYDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisshaar, James C.

    2012-01-01

    LEVEL LIFETIMES OF s 1 FORMALDEHYDE James C. Weisshaar andLEVEL LIFETIMES OF S SI FORMALDEHYDE James C. Weisshaara anda long history of s formaldehyde life- 1 • 2 Discrepancies

  13. the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the average weight of Connecticut River fish was considerably less (Table 1). The difference in the Connecticut River basin. Fisheries (Bethesda) 7(6): 2-11. POTTER. I. C.· F. W. H. BEAMISH, AND B. G. H. Freshwater fishes of Connecticut. State Geol. Nat. Hist. Servo Conn.· Dep. Environ. Prot., Bull. 101, 134 p

  14. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample.

  15. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computervoluntary building-energy-performance guidelines. Recentlyrelated to building-energy-performance standards, guidelines

  16. Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Falco, A.; Krauss, T. F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Fratalocchi, A. [PRIMALIGHT, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-30

    In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.

  17. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Te Solar-cell Performance The thin-film CdTe solar cell (generally n-CdS/p-CdTe) is one of the leading, where the best CdTe cells are about 250 mV below the best GaAs cells when an appropriate adjustmentDISSERTATION IMPACT OF LIFETIME VARIATIONS AND SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CdTe SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE

  18. Argon metastable dynamics and lifetimes in a direct current microdischarge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovi?, Ilija; Kuschel, Thomas; Schröter, Sandra; Böke, Marc

    2014-09-21

    In this paper we study the properties of a pulsed dc microdischarge with the continuous flow of argon. Argon metastable lifetimes are measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and are compared with calculated values which yield information about excitation and de-excitation processes. By increasing the gas flow-rate about 5 times from 10 to 50 sccm, the Ar{sup m} lifetime increases from 1 to 5 ?s due to the reduction of metastable quenching with gas impurities. Optical emission spectroscopy reveals nitrogen and water molecules as the main gas impurities. The estimated N? density [N?]=0.1% is too low to explain the measured metastable lifetimes. Water impurity was found to be the main de-excitation source of argon metastable atoms due to high quenching coefficients. The water impurity level of [H?O]=0.15% to 1% is sufficient to bring calculated metastable lifetimes in line with experiments. The maximum value of water content in the discharge compared to the argon atoms is estimated to approximately 6%, due to the large surface to volume ratio of the microdischarge. The current pulse releases the water molecules from the electrode surface and they are either re-adsorbed in the time between 0.4 ms for [H?O]=1% and 2.6 ms for [H?O]=0.15% or pumped out of the discharge with the speed equal to the gas flow-rate. Depending on its partial pressure, the water impurity re-adsorption time is of the order of magnitude or less then the argon gas residence time.

  19. Building America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  20. Restrictions on the lifetime of sterile neutrinos from primordial nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruchayskiy, Oleg [Physics Department, Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ivashko, Artem, E-mail: oleg.ruchayskiy@epfl.ch, E-mail: ivashko@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    We analyze the influence of sterile neutrinos with the masses in the MeV range on the primordial abundances of Helium-4 and Deuterium. We solve explicitly the Boltzmann equations for all particle species, taking into account neutrino flavour oscillations and demonstrate that the abundances are sensitive mostly to the sterile neutrino lifetime and only weakly to the way the active-sterile mixing is distributed between flavours. The decay of these particles also perturbs the spectra of (decoupled) neutrinos and heats photons, changing the ratio of neutrino to photon energy density, that can be interpreted as extra neutrino species at the recombination epoch. We derive upper bounds on the lifetime of sterile neutrinos based on both astrophysical and cosmological measurements of Helium-4 and Deuterium. We also demonstrate that the recent results of Izotov and Thuan [1], who find 2? higher than predicted by the standard primordial nucleosynthesis value of Helium-4 abundance, are consistent with the presence in the plasma of sterile neutrinos with the lifetime 0.01–2 seconds.

  1. Office Buildings: Consumption Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Type of Office Building Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) Dollars per Million Btu All Office Buildings 1,089 1,475 90.5 16.32...

  2. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2006 Iowa enacted H.F. 2361, requiring the State Building Commissioner to adopt energy conservation requirements based on a nationally recognized building energy code. The State Building Code...

  3. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    platforms and  building automation systems (BAS), a including  basic  building  automation  control,  fault Smart building power management automation. Building

  4. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    United States and China, Energy and Buildings, 2013. Underin Singapore. Energy and Buildings, 37, 167-174. Eom, J. ,building operations. Energy and Buildings, 33, 783–791.

  5. Health Care Buildings: Equipment Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment Table Buildings, Size and Age Data by Equipment Types for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet)...

  6. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design, specification, and construction techniques. webinarventilationmultifamily...

  7. NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyerl, Albert

    NEUTRON LIFETIME EXPERIMENT USING UCN STORAGE IN AN `ACCORDION-LIKE' TRAP BY ASHISH M. DESAI determination of the neutron lifetime has an impact on particle physics and cosmology. We report progress towards a measurement of the neutron lifetime using an accordion-like storage trap. Ultracold neutrons

  8. Building Energy Asset Score: Building Owners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use.

  9. 4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4.0 RISK FROM URANIUM MINING WASTE IN BUILDING MATERIALS In general, building materials contain low levels of radioactivity. For example, the range of natural uranium concentrations may average as low as about 0.5 ppm (0.34 pCi/g or 13 Bq/kg) total uranium activity in sandstone building materials to as high

  10. Model Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency Building Performance Standards (EEBPS) are statewide minimum requirements that all new construction and additions to existing buildings must satisfy. Exceptions include...

  11. Building-Level Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Electricity Consumption",,,,,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand kWh)","per...

  12. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    ABORATORY Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, Stevenemployer. Building Scale DC Microgrids Chris Marnay, IEEEgenerally known as microgrids (or µgrids). The dominance of

  13. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State (ECCCNYS) requires that all government, commercial and residential buildings, including renovations involving building system replaceme...

  14. Building Energy Codes Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office Jeremy Williams, Project Manager Building Technologies Peer Review April 2014 Presentation Overview: * Introduction *...

  15. Building Energy Modeling Library

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    303-567-8609 April 2, 2013 Photo by : Dennis Schroeder, NREL 23250 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Project Overview Building Energy Modeling (BEM)...

  16. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, Russell; Ludwig, Peter; Maurer, Tessa

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution, and controls. The imbalance leads to tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity, and inefficient building operation. This research, conducted by Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61°F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1°F to 15.5°F.

  17. High Performance Sustainable Buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buildings Greening Transportation Green Purchasing & Green Technology Pollution Prevention Science Serving Sustainability ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at...

  18. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Business Models Guide, October 27, 2011.

  19. Positron lifetime spectrometer using a DC positron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Moxom, Jeremy

    2003-10-21

    An entrance grid is positioned in the incident beam path of a DC beam positron lifetime spectrometer. The electrical potential difference between the sample and the entrance grid provides simultaneous acceleration of both the primary positrons and the secondary electrons. The result is a reduction in the time spread induced by the energy distribution of the secondary electrons. In addition, the sample, sample holder, entrance grid, and entrance face of the multichannel plate electron detector assembly are made parallel to each other, and are arranged at a tilt angle to the axis of the positron beam to effectively separate the path of the secondary electrons from the path of the incident positrons.

  20. Phenomenology of Light Gauginos: I. Motivation, Masses, Lifetimes and Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glennys R. Farrar

    1995-08-14

    I explore an economical variant on supersymmetric standard models which may be indicated on cosmological grounds and is shown to have no SUSY-CP problem. Demanding radiative electroweak symmetry breaking suggests that the Higgs is light; other scalar masses may be ~ 100-200 GeV or less. In this case the gluino and photino, while massless at tree level, have 1-loop masses m(gluino) ~ 100 - 600 MeV and m(photino) ~ 100 - 1000 MeV. New hadrons with mass ~ 1 - 3 GeV are predicted and their lifetimes estimated. Existing experimental limits are discussed.

  1. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  2. Origin of the Anomalous Long Lifetime of 14C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Nam, Hai Ah [ORNL; Maris, Pieter [Iowa State University; Vary, J. P. [Iowa State University; Navratil, Petr [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ormand, W. Erich [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-01-01

    We report the microscopic origins of the anomalously suppressed beta decay of 14C to 14N using the ab initio no-core shell model with the Hamiltonian from the chiral effective field theory including three-nucleon force terms. The three-nucleon force induces unexpectedly large cancellations within the p shell between contributions to beta decay, which reduce the traditionally large contributions from the nucleon-nucleon interactions by an order of magnitude, leading to the long lifetime of 14C.

  3. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOEBattery Lifetime Analysis and

  4. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks...

  5. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...

  6. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first...

  7. Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M.; Feustel, H.E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.

  8. Averaging top quark results in Run 2 M. Strovink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strovink, Mark

    average (cont'd) The pie chart shows the relative weights of the five input measurements in the world

  9. Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North. (2015) Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging: the case of the North;Improving climate change detection through optimal seasonal averaging:1 the case of the North Atlantic jet

  10. Engineering Grads Earn The Most Major Average Salary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Engineering Grads Earn The Most Table Major Average Salary Offer Petroleum Engineering $86/Aeronautical/Astronautical Engineering $57,231 Information Sciences & Systems $54,038 Source: Winter 2010 Salary Survey, National was the fourth most lucrative degree, with graduates starting at $61,205 on average. The average salary

  11. Measurement of the Bs0 Lifetime in Fully and Partially Reconstructed Bs0 -> Ds- (phi pi-)X Decays in pp? Collisions at ?s = 1.96 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; et al

    2011-12-29

    The authors present a measurement of the Bs0 lifetime in fully and partially reconstructed Bs0 = Ds0(??-)X decays in 1.3 fb-1 collected in pp? collisions at ?s = 1.96 Tev by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They measure ?(Bs0) = 1.518 ± 0.041 (stat.) ± 0.027 (syst.) ps. The ratio of this result and the world average B0 lifetime yields ?(Bs0)/?(B0) = 0.99 ± 0.03, which is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions.

  12. Building Green in Greensburg: Business Incubator Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing SunChips Business Incubator building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  13. Building Green in Greensburg: City Hall Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster highlights energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable features of the high-performing City Hall building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  14. Building America Webinar: Building America Research Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar was held on March 18, 2015, and reviewed Building America Research Tools, including Field Test Best Practices, BEopt, and National Residential Efficiency Measures Database.

  15. Apparatus for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1999-07-27

    An apparatus for determining the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample includes a positioner for moving the sample relative to a coil. The coil is connected to a bridge circuit such that the impedance of one arm of the bridge circuit is varied as sample is positioned relative to the coil. The sample is positioned relative to the coil such that any change in the photoconductance of the sample created by illumination of the sample creates a linearly related change in the input impedance of the bridge circuit. In addition, the apparatus is calibrated to work at a fixed frequency so that the apparatus maintains a consistently high sensitivity and high linearly for samples of different sizes, shapes, and material properties. When a light source illuminates the sample, the impedance of the bridge circuit is altered as excess carriers are generated in the sample, thereby producing a measurable signal indicative of the minority carrier lifetimes or recombination rates of the sample. 17 figs.

  16. Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruch, R.; Ludwig, P.; Maurer, T.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  17. Average End Use Breakdown: Massachusetts General Hospital Gray...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exhaust Fans Pumps for Hot Water and Heat Recovery Chiller Plant (Allocated): Chillers, Cooling Tower Fans, and Cooling System Pumps Return to Gray Building information page....

  18. Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongling; Ogden, J; Delucchi, Mark

    2010-01-01

    move over a specified drive-cycle. All forces acting on thesecond scale over a specified drive cycle. The Federal Urbanis a relatively low speed drive cycle with average speed of

  19. Joseph Vance Building, The

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Seattle, WA In 2006, the Rose Smart Growth Investment Fund acquired the historic Joseph Vance Building with the purpose of transforming it into "the leading green and historic class B" building in the marketplace. The terra cotta Vance Building was constructed in 1929 and has 14 floors - 13 floors of offices over ground-floor retail with a basement for mechanical equipment and storage. In 2009 the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) awarded the Vance Building LEED for Existing Buildings (EB) Gold certification.

  20. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  1. Building America Webinar: Saving Energy in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Advanced Envelope Research for Factory-Built Housing Building America Webinar: Ventilation in...

  2. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt) Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building Energy Optimization...

  3. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile - Building America's Top Innovations Propel the Home Building Industry toward Higher Performance Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame...

  4. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Shell and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Practices > Building Shell & Lighting Conservation Features Building Shell and Lighting Conservation Features The 1999 CBECS collected information on two types of building shell...

  5. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

  6. Re-Assessing Green Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 22 GSA Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Rauch, Emily M.; Henderson, Jordan W.; Kora, Angela R.

    2010-06-01

    2nd report on the performance of GSA's sustainably designed buildings. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of measured whole building performance as it compares to GSA and industry baselines. The PNNL research team found the data analysis illuminated strengths and weaknesses of individual buildings as well as the portfolio of buildings. This section includes summary data, observations that cross multiple performance metrics, discussion of lessons learned from this research, and opportunities for future research. The summary of annual data for each of the performance metrics is provided in Table 25. The data represent 1 year of measurements and are not associated with any specific design features or strategies. Where available, multiple years of data were examined and there were minimal significant differences between the years. Individually focused post occupancy evaluation (POEs) would allow for more detailed analysis of the buildings. Examining building performance over multiple years could potentially offer a useful diagnostic tool for identifying building operations that are in need of operational changes. Investigating what the connection is between the building performance and the design intent would offer potential design guidance and possible insight into building operation strategies. The 'aggregate operating cost' metric used in this study represents the costs that were available for developing a comparative industry baseline for office buildings. The costs include water utilities, energy utilities, general maintenance, grounds maintenance, waste and recycling, and janitorial costs. Three of the buildings that cost more than the baseline in Figure 45 have higher maintenance costs than the baseline, and one has higher energy costs. Given the volume of data collected and analyzed for this study, the inevitable request is for a simple answer with respect to sustainably designed building performance. As previously stated, compiling the individual building values into single metrics is not statistically valid given the small number of buildings, but it has been done to provide a cursory view of this portfolio of sustainably designed buildings. For all metrics except recycling cost per rentable square foot and CBE survey response rate, the averaged building performance was better than the baseline for the GSA buildings in this study.

  7. Measurements of aperture and beam lifetime using movable beam scrapers in Indus-2 electron storage ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Ghodke, A. D.; Karnewar, A. K.; Holikatti, A. C.; Yadav, S.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Singh, G.; Singh, P.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the measurements of vertical and horizontal aperture which are available for stable beam motion in Indus-2 at beam energy 2.5 GeV using movable beam scrapers are presented. These beam scrapers are installed in one of the long straight sections in the ring. With the movement of beam scrapers towards the beam centre, the beam lifetime is measured. The beam lifetime data obtained from the movement of vertical and horizontal beam scrapers are analyzed. The contribution of beam loss due to beam-gas scattering (vacuum lifetime) and electron-electron scattering within a beam bunch (Touschek lifetime) is separated from the measured beam lifetime at different positions of the beam scrapers. Vertical and horizontal beam sizes at scrapers location are estimated from the scraper movement towards the beam centre in quantum lifetime limit and their values closely agree with measured value obtained using X-ray diagnostic beamline.

  8. The Building (First Amendment) Regulations 1965 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pannell, Charles

    1965-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1965 No. 2184 BUILDING AND BUILDINGS The Building (First Amendment) Regulations 1965

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more deta...

  10. Change in historic buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chien-Ni

    1992-01-01

    Change in historic buildings is inevitable. If these changes are not well-managed, the cityscape will be threatened because a city is composed of buildings. A good city should combine both growth and preservation. Controlling ...

  11. Better Buildings Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where Better Buildings partners, including AMO’s Better Plants Program partners, and leading organizations can exchange best practices and showcase...

  12. 2015 Better Buildings Summit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Summit is a national meeting where leading organizations across key sectors showcase solutions to cut energy intensity in their buildings portfolio...

  13. Building America Report Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Renewable Energy Prepared by Sam Rashkin Building Technologies Office 950 L'Enfant Building, 6 th floor Washington, DC 20024 May 2014 iii iv Table of Contents List of...

  14. Special Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A number of building types have specific energy uses and needs, and as such the renewable opportunities may be different from a typical office building. This section briefly discusses the following...

  15. Guam- Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  16. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri does not have a statewide building or energy code for private residential and commercial buildings, and there currently is no state regulatory agency authorized to promulgate, adopt, or...

  17. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2009 S.B. 1182 created the Oklahoma Uniform Building Code Commission. The 11-member Commission was given the power to conduct rulemaking processes to adopt new building codes. The codes adopted...

  18. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  19. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Much of the information presented in this summary is drawn from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program and the Building Codes Assistance Project (BCAP). For more...

  20. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prior to 1997, South Carolina's local governments adopted and enforced the building codes. In 1997, the law required statewide use of the most up-to-date building codes, which then required the...

  1. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Kentucky Building Code (KBC) is updated every three years on a cycle one year behind the publication year for the International Building Code. Any changes to the code by the state of Kentucky...

  2. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2012 IECC is in effect for all residential and commercial buildings, Idaho schools, and Idaho jurisdictions that adopt and enforce building codes, unless a local code exists that is more...

  3. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Florida Building Commission (FBC) is directed to adopt, revise, update, and maintain the Florida Building Code in accordance with Chapter 120 of the state statutes. The code is mandatory...

  4. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Act 093-0936 (Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings) was signed into law in August, 2004. The Illinois Energy Conservation Code for Commercial Buildings became effective...

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Board of Building Regulations and Standards has authority to promulgate the Massachusetts State Building Code (MSBC). The energy provisions in the MSBC were developed by the Boa...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code (USBC) is a statewide minimum requirement that local jurisdictions cannot amend. The code is applicable to all new buildings in the commonwealth. The...

  7. Building condition monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samouhos, Stephen V. (Stephen Vincent), 1982-

    2010-01-01

    The building sector of the United States currently consumes over 40% of the United States primary energy supply. Estimates suggest that between 5 and 30% of any building's annual energy consumption is unknowingly wasted ...

  8. Financing green buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Christopher John, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    An emerging trend in real estate is the development of sustainable buildings, partially due to the huge environmental impact of the design, construction and operation of commercial buildings. This thesis provides a brief ...

  9. Building America System Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America System Research Eric Werling, DOE Ren Anderson, NREL eric.werling@ee.doe.gov, 202-586-0410 ren.anderson@nrel.gov, 303-384-7443 April 2, 2013 Building America...

  10. Proton lifetime bounds from chirally symmetric lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Aoki; P. Boyle; P. Cooney; L. Del Debbio; R. Kenway; C. M. Maynard; A. Soni; R. Tweedie

    2008-06-05

    We present results for the matrix elements relevant for proton decay in Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). The calculation is performed at a fixed lattice spacing a^{-1}=1.73(3) GeV using 2+1 flavors of domain wall fermions on lattices of size 16^3\\times32 and 24^3\\times64 with a fifth dimension of length 16. We use the indirect method which relies on an effective field theory description of proton decay, where we need to estimate the low energy constants, \\alpha = -0.0112(25) GeV^3 and \\beta = 0.0120(26) GeV^3. We relate these low energy constants to the proton decay matrix elements using leading order chiral perturbation theory. These can then be combined with experimental bounds on the proton lifetime to bound parameters of individual GUTs.

  11. Measurements of ultracold neutron lifetimes in solid deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Morris; J. M. Anaya; T. J. Bowles; B. W. Filippone; P. Geltenbort; R. E. Hill; M. Hino; S. Hoedl; G. E. Hogan; T. M. Ito; T. Kawai; K. Kirch; S. K. Lamoreaux; C. -Y. Liu; M. Makela; L. J. Marek; J. W. Martin; R. N. Mortensen; A. Pichlmaier; A. Saunders; S. J. Seestrom; D. Smith; W. Teasdale; B. Tipton; M. Utsuro; A. R. Young; J. Yuan

    2001-09-28

    We present the first measurements of the survival time of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in solid deuterium SD2. This critical parameter provides a fundamental limitation to the effectiveness of superthermal UCN sources that utilize solid ortho-deuterium as the source material. Superthermal UCN sources offer orders of magnitude improvement in the available densities of UCNs, and are of great importance to fundamental particle-physics experiments such as searches for a static electric dipole moment and lifetime measurements of the free neutron. These measurements are performed utilizing a SD2 source coupled to a spallation source of neutrons, providing a demonstration of UCN production in this geometry and permitting systematic studies of the influence of thermal up-scatter and contamination with para-deuterium on the UCN survival time.

  12. Lifetime measurements of nuclei in few-electron ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faestermann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this review lifetime measurements of ions with at most two electrons are summarized. Such highly ionized systems have been studied - until now - only in the Experimental Storage Ring of the GSI in Darmstadt. Emphasis is put on decays via the weak interaction. The first observations of beta-decay into bound atomic states are described as well as its time mirrored counterpart, the electron-capture decay. In the latter case the decays of hydrogen- and helium-like ions are compared with a surprising result. Further on, the observation of sinusoidal modulations of the decay rate in two-body decays is summarized. As a possible cause an interference due to the emission of neutrinos with different rest mass is discussed.

  13. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    cost savings in energy efficient buildings. To test for thisrisk inherent in energy efficient buildings. Importantly,of energy-efficient and sustainable buildings through

  14. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    methodology for building energy data definition, collection,analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and9  A Standard Building Energy Data 

  15. The Economics of Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichholtz, Piet; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Benjamin. "Do LEED-Certified Buildings Save Energy? Yes,But,." Energy and Buildings, 2009, 41, pp. 897-905. Royalrating, and publicizing buildings along these dimensions (

  16. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Energy Conservation Features in FBSS Building in Federal Region 3, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1993 Total Floorspace Number of Buildings (thousand square feet) Any Any...

  17. Principal Building Activities--1995 CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Detailed Tables > Principal Building Activities Table Number of Buildings, Total Floorspace, and Total Site and Primary Energy Consumption for All Principal Building Activities,...

  18. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. LBNL (2012).Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. UNEP (2009).Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. Energy

  19. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressedimprovement of energy efficiency in buildings are brieflyimproving the energy efficiency of buildings in the U.S. New

  20. Advanced Building Systems & Architectural Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    primary research interests are whole building performance analysis, passive Advanced Building Systems & Architectural Design University with a Ph.D. in Building Performance and Diagnostics. Currently he

  1. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    exchange of building energy performance data difficult.  understand  building  energy  performance  and  improve to understanding building energy performance and supporting 

  2. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    exchange of building energy performance data difficult.  understand  building  energy  performance  and  improve Reliable  Building  Energy  Performance Characterization 

  3. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    I Figure 21. Sample building energy use label expressed inanalyses of actual buildings energy consumption data confirm1983. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS Leonard W. Wall

  4. Health Care Buildings: Subcategories Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Subcategories Table Selected Data by Type of Health Care Building Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet) Percent of Floorspace Square...

  5. Atomistic Fracture and Nano-Macro Transition for Strength and Lifetime Statistics of Quasibrittle Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    and lifetime distributions of quasibrittle structures. The theory is derived from the fracture mechanics materials, which include concrete, fiber composites, rocks, stiff cohesive soils, tough ceramics, rigid

  6. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  7. Kiowa County Commons Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This poster describes the energy efficiency features and sustainable materials used in the Kiowa County Commons Building in Greensburg, Kansas.

  8. Building Abbreviations Alumni Hall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    20A/B 44 20A/B 44 20A/B 44 58 17 17 88 34 25 Building Abbreviations Alumni Hall Campbell Dome Colden FitzGerald Gym Frese Hall G Building Gertz Center Goldstein Theatre Honors Hall GC GB GT HH MU KY KG KS KP PH I Building Jefferson Hall Kiely Hall King Hall Kissena Hall Klapper Hall Music Building

  9. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2013-01-01

    CHP, which can improve overall efficiency significantly. In many climates, using the waste heat to cool buildings

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2006, SB 459 was enacted to promote renewable energy and update the state's building energy codes.

  11. Building Operator Certification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilley, D.

    2013-01-01

    Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training CATEE December 18, 2013 – San Antonio, TX Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Building Operator Certification... Energy Efficiency through Operator Training What is Building Operator Certification? Industry-recognized credential in energy efficient building operation practices Created with 100 industry experts Launched in 1996 9,000 building engineers...

  12. Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brizard, A. J. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Duthoit, F.-X. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2009-10-15

    A general orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator suitable for the numerical analysis of transport processes in axisymmetric magnetized plasmas is presented. The orbit-averaged guiding-center operator describes transport processes in a three-dimensional guiding-center invariant space: the orbit-averaged magnetic-flux invariant {psi}, the minimum-B pitch-angle coordinate {xi}{sub 0}, and the momentum magnitude p.

  13. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  14. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  15. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  16. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  17. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  18. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  19. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  20. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  1. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  2. New methods for predicting lifetimes. Part 2 -- The Wear-out approach for predicting the remaining lifetime of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GILLEN,KENNETH T.; CELINA,MATHIAS C.

    2000-04-20

    The so-called Palmgren-Miner concept that degradation is cumulative, and that failure is therefore considered to be the direct result of the accumulation of damage with time, has been known for decades. Cumulative damage models based on this concept have been derived and used mainly for fatigue life predictions for metals and composite materials. The authors review the principles underlying such models and suggest ways in which they may be best applied to polymeric materials in temperature environments. The authors first consider cases where polymer degradation data can be rigorously time-temperature superposed over a given temperature range. For a step change in temperature after damage has occurred at an initial temperature in this range, they show that the remaining lifetime at the second temperature should be linearly related to the aging time prior to the step. This predicted linearity implies that it may be possible to estimate the remaining lifetime of polymeric materials aging under application ambient conditions by completing the aging at an accelerated temperature. They refer to this generic temperature-step method as the Wear-out approach. They then outline the expectations for Wear-out experiments when time-temperature superposition is invalid, specifically describing the two cases where so-called interaction effects are absent and are present. Finally, they present some preliminary results outlining the application of the Wear-out approach to polymers. In analyzing the experimental Wear-out results, they introduce a procedure that they refer to as time-damage superposition. This procedure not only utilizes all of the experimental data instead of a single point from each data set, but also allows them to determine the importance of any interaction effects.

  3. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  4. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  5. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL.buildings by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL,results from our buildings energy data bases. Actual energy

  6. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    The global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes, uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signal

  7. Morgantown Slightly Exceeds National Average for Cost of Living

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    (an index value of 100 reflects the national average). The index expresses the cost of living, health care, and miscellaneous goods and services. The index is designed to reflect the cost of living Relative to National Average by Category In Figure 2, we illustrate how the cost of living index has

  8. Commercial Building Asset Rating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

  9. Building Technologies | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems Biology Transportation Clean Energy Home | Science & Discovery | Clean Energy | Research Areas | Buildings SHARE Building Technologies Reducing the energy...

  10. Fission barrier heights and lifetimes for heavy and superheavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pomorski, Krzysztof

    and collective vibrations the nuclear deformation-energy surface plays a predominant role. It is then obvious energies will be calculated in a macroscopic-microscopic model with a dominant contribution of liquid the basic idea of Weizsacker and Bethe [3, 4] to describe the average nuclear energy in terms of volume

  11. About Singapore Green Building Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - friendly, energy efficiency building materials, design and architecture ­ reaching out to Green buildingAbout Singapore Green Building Council About SGBC Green Building Conference Conference Programme Green Building Conference In line with the mission of the Singapore Green Building Council (SGBC

  12. Throughput-Lifetime Tradeoffs in Multihop Wireless Networks under an SINR-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Catherine P.

    1 Throughput-Lifetime Tradeoffs in Multihop Wireless Networks under an SINR-based Interference crucial design objectives for a number of multihop wireless network applica- tions. As these two this tradeoff between the network throughput and lifetime, for the case of fixed wireless networks where link

  13. SCHEDULING ABOVE MAC TO MAXIMIZE BATTERY LIFETIME AND THROUGHPUT IN WLANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    SCHEDULING ABOVE MAC TO MAXIMIZE BATTERY LIFETIME AND THROUGHPUT IN WLANS Edoardo Regini, Daeseob Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 {eregini, dalim, tajana}@ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Maximizing battery lifetime. This is because in heavy traffic conditions, the chance of nodes to successfully transmit a packet decreases

  14. NEWS REPORT William L. Ogren was honored with a Lifetime Achievement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    is a brief description of the 2010 Lifetime Achievement Award received by William (Bill) L. Ogren from; William Lucas, University of California at Davis; Harald Paulsen, Johannes Gutenberg University MainzNEWS REPORT William L. Ogren was honored with a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Rebeiz Foundation

  15. Ris-R-1515(EN) Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1515(EN) Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries Henrik Bindner, Tom Cronin, Per Lundsager Baring-Gould Title: Lifetime Modelling of Lead Acid Batteries Department: VEA, VES Risø-R-1515 April 2005 storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries

  16. SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

  17. Minimizing Energy and Maximizing Network Lifetime Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Minimizing Energy and Maximizing Network Lifetime Multicasting in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Abstract-- Most mobile nodes in a wireless ad hoc network are powered by energy limited batteries, the limited battery lifetime imposes a constraint on the network performance. Therefore, energy efficiency

  18. Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy autofocusing, z-axis calibration, image sensors, fluorescence lifetime imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Prof. dr ir A. van den Bos, Technische Universiteit Delft Prof. dr H.J. Tanke, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden of ideas and concepts that other people have set out for you. Now it is your turn. You get to design lifetime calculation 124 Dual-lifetime estimators 127 Materials and methods 130 Calibration of the FLIM

  19. Vibrational Lifetimes and Spectral Shifts in Supercritical Fluids as a Function of Density: Experiments and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    (CO2) as a function of density from low density (well below the critical density) to high densityVibrational Lifetimes and Spectral Shifts in Supercritical Fluids as a Function of Density Vibrational lifetime and spectral shift data for the asymmetric CO stretching mode of W(CO)6 in supercritical

  20. Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-08-01

    By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.

  1. Building America Case Study: Balancing Hydronic Systems in Multifamily Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    In multifamily hydronic systems, temperature imbalance may be caused by undersized piping, improperly adjusted balancing valves, inefficient water temperature and flow levels, and owner/occupant interaction with the boilers, distribution and controls. The effects of imbalance include tenant discomfort, higher energy use intensity and inefficient building operation. This paper explores cost-effective distribution upgrades and balancing measures in multifamily hydronic systems, providing a resource to contractors, auditors, and building owners on best practices to improve tenant comfort and lower operating costs. The research was conducted by The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) in conjunction with Elevate Energy. The team surveyed existing knowledge on cost-effective retrofits for optimizing distribution in typical multifamily hydronic systems, with the aim of identifying common situations and solutions, and then conducted case studies on two Chicago area buildings with known balancing issues in order to quantify the extent of temperature imbalance. At one of these buildings a booster pump was installed on a loop to an underheated wing of the building. This study found that unit temperature in a multifamily hydronic building can vary as much as 61 degrees F, particularly if windows are opened or tenants use intermittent supplemental heating sources like oven ranges. Average temperature spread at the building as a result of this retrofit decreased from 22.1 degrees F to 15.5 degrees F.

  2. Lifetime measurements in {sup 63}Co and {sup 65}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijon, A.; Clement, E.; France, G. de; Van Isacker, P.; Rejmund, M.; Schmitt, C.; Goergen, A.; Obertelli, A.; Korten, W.; Dewald, A.; Hackstein, M.; Pissulla, Th.; Rother, W.; Zell, K. O.; Gadea, A.; Gaudefroy, L.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F.; Sahin, E.

    2011-06-15

    Lifetimes of the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} and 3/2{sub 1}{sup -} states in {sup 63}Co and the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 65}Co were measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift and the differential decay curve methods. The nuclei were populated by multinucleon transfer reactions in inverse kinematics. {gamma} rays were measured with the EXOGAM Ge array and the recoiling fragments were fully identified using the large-acceptance VAMOS spectrometer. The E2 transition probabilities from the 3/2{sub 1}{sup -} and 9/2{sub 1}{sup -} states to the 7/2{sup -} ground state could be extracted in {sup 63}Co as well as an upper limit for the 9/2{sub 1}{sup -}{yields}7/2{sub 1}{sup -} B(E2) value in {sup 65}Co. The experimental results were compared to large-scale shell-model calculations in the pf and pfg{sub 9/2} model spaces, allowing us to draw conclusions on the single-particle or collective nature of the various states.

  3. The Lovejoy Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, Oregon Originally built in 1910 as the stables for the Marshall-Wells Hardware Company, the Lovejoy Building is the home of Opsis Architects. The owner/architects purchased and renovated the historic building to house their growing business and to provide ground-floor office lease space and second-floor offices for their firm. Opsis wanted to use the building to experience and demonstrate the technologies and practices it promotes with clients.

  4. A Re-examination of the NBI LEED Building Energy Consumption Study John H. Scofield, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    use more energy per square foot than the average for all existing commercial buildings ­ a factA Re-examination of the NBI LEED Building Energy Consumption Study John H. Scofield, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH ABSTRACT A recent study by the New Buildings Institute looked at the energy

  5. Transamerica Pyramid Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 1 MW CCHP system at the Transamerica Pyramid Building in San Francisco, California.

  6. Residential Buildings Integration (RBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 RBI Priorities for FY15 and Beyond Integrating Advanced Technologies for Homes: * Building integrated renewables * IAQVentilation solutions * Integrated high performance...

  7. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  8. Buildings Performance Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distinguish between expected returns and performance risk Conduct performance risk analysis * Diversify risk by investing in a range of buildings and measures Support...

  9. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  10. Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the sponsor the government, utility or sponsored in-house. Energy Management and Control System Heating or cooling system monitored or controlled by a computerized building...

  11. Buildings Interoperability Proceedings

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for t he integration of intelligent, connected buildings equipment and automation s ystems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product...

  12. Building bridges for fish

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building-bridges-for-fish Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives...

  13. What is Building America?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-07-22

    DOE's Building America program is helping to bridge the gap between homes with high energy costs and homes that are healthy, durable, and energy efficient.

  14. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illuminance Assignments for CBECS Building Activity Categories Illuminance ranges were adopted from the 1987 Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) Lighting Handbook. The IES...

  15. Building Songs 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zla ba sgrol ma

    2009-10-28

    stream_source_info Sman_shad_building_song_7.doc.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2792 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Sman_shad_building_song_7.doc.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859... shad building song 7.WAV Length of track 00:09:57 Related tracks (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Building Songs 7 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Skar ma chos mdzin sings...

  16. building.ppt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarence Wilkerson

    Building Parenting Skills and Interactions with Kangaroo Care. Sharon A. Wilkerson, PhD, RN. Associate Professor of Nursing. Purdue University. West Lafayette ...

  17. ORISE: Capacity Building

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Building Because public health agencies must maintain the resources to respond to public health challenges, critical situations and emergencies, the Oak Ridge Institute...

  18. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from the engineering literature, based on CBECS building activity.) 4. Efficacy: an energy efficiency measure. Technically, the amount of light produced per unit of energy...

  19. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (CEC), March 1990. Advanced Lighting Technologies Application Guidelines (ALTAG), Building and Appliance Efficiency Office. 3. Dubin, F.S., Mindell, H.L., and Bloome, S., 1976....

  20. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    energy are presented in this section. Statistics are presented by subgroups based on building characteristics, and by subgroups based on lighting equipment. The three sets of...

  1. What is Building America?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-20

    DOE's Building America program is helping to bridge the gap between homes with high energy costs and homes that are healthy, durable, and energy efficient.

  2. Commercial Buildings Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL 2 Strategic Fit within...

  3. DOE Buildings Performance Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts: Example Applications of BPD * Local Benchmarking: - New York, San Francisco, and DC contribute data from local energy-disclosure ordinances - Allow local building owners...

  4. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) as "the applicable state standard" for commercial and industrial buildings. Enforcement is provided by local jurisdictions; t...

  5. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina State Building Code Council is responsible for developing all state codes. By statute, the Commissioner of Insurance has general supervision over the administration and...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Building Performance Standards (MBPS) are adopted by the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) Codes Administration. As required by legislation passed in...

  7. Public Assembly Buildings

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    as "primary energy," which includes the energy consumed during the generation and transmission of electricity. Public assembly buildings used 577 trillion Btu of primary...

  8. Building & Fire Assist Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buren Physical Safety (Electrical, Confined Space, Machinery, Fall Prevention) Construction & Remodel Design Review Lab / Shop Safety Surveys Regulated Building Materials Public Health (Food, Water, Pests

  9. Chapter 3: Building Siting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    : Building Siting Site Issues at LANL Site Inventory and Analysis Site Design Transportation and Parking LANL | Chapter 3 Site Issues at LANL Definitions and related documents...

  10. Building Technologies Office Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Roland Risser Director, Building Technologies Office National Energy Consumption 40% 60% Reducing consumption or improving performance calls for cutting-edge...

  11. Building America - IBACOS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America - IBACOS 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Duncan Prahl, dprahl@ibacos.com IBACOS, Inc. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: January 2013 Planned end date:...

  12. Building Emergency Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical Facilities

    2013-11-12

    Aug 30, 2013 ... the building for electricity to be restored, they can move near a window where there is natural light and access to a working telephone. During ...

  13. Whole Building Energy Simulation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Whole building energy simulation, also referred to as energy modeling, can and should be incorporated early during project planning to provide energy impact feedback for which design considerations...

  14. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain...

  15. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by computing the sales-weighted harmonic average of the targets applicable to each of the manufacturer's passenger cars and...

  16. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  17. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  18. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  19. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years fotw889web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent...

  20. Bounded Parameter Markov Decision Processes with Average Reward Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewari, Ambuj

    Bounded Parameter Markov Decision Processes with Average Reward Criterion Ambuj Tewari1 and Peter L, pp. 263­277, 2007. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007 #12;264 A. Tewari and P.L. Bartlett

  1. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  2. The Building Adapter: Towards Quickly Applying Building Analytics at Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weimer, Westley

    The Building Adapter: Towards Quickly Applying Building Analytics at Scale Dezhi Hong1 , Hongning}@virginia.edu, jjortiz@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT Building analytics can produce substantial energy savings in commercial buildings by automatically detecting waste- ful or incorrect operations. However, a new building's sens- ing

  3. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  4. New! Building Energy Standards Essentials for Plans Examiners & Building Inspectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New! Building Energy Standards Essentials for Plans Examiners & Building Inspectors Building energy energy savings. This new, hands-on course strives to provide plans examiners and building inspectors and nonresidential projects. Free Energy Code Training for Plans Examiners & Building Inspectors For more information

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory W76 Pit Tube Lifetime Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeln, Terri G.

    2012-04-25

    A metallurgical study was requested as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) W76-1 life-extension program (LEP) involving a lifetime analysis of type 304 stainless steel pit tubes subject to repeat bending loads during assembly and disassembly operations at BWXT/Pantex. This initial test phase was completed during the calendar years of 2004-2006 and the report not issued until additional recommended tests could be performed. These tests have not been funded to this date and therefore this report is considered final. Tubes were reportedly fabricated according to Rocky Flats specification P14548 - Seamless Type 304 VIM/VAR Stainless Steel Tubing. Tube diameter was specified as 0.125 inches and wall thickness as 0.028 inches. A heat treat condition is not specified and the hardness range specification can be characteristic of both 1/8 and 1/4 hard conditions. Properties of all tubes tested were within specification. Metallographic analysis could not conclusively determine a specified limit to number of bends allowable. A statistical analysis suggests a range of 5-7 bends with a 99.95% confidence limit. See the 'Statistical Analysis' section of this report. The initial phase of this study involved two separate sets of test specimens. The first group was part of an investigation originating in the ESA-GTS [now Gas Transfer Systems (W-7) Group]. After the bend cycle test parameters were chosen (all three required bends subjected to the same amount of bend cycles) and the tubes bent, the investigation was transferred to Terri Abeln (Metallurgical Science and Engineering) for analysis. Subsequently, another limited quantity of tubes became available for testing and were cycled with the same bending fixture, but with different test parameters determined by T. Abeln.

  6. New Tool Quantitatively Maps Minority-Carrier Lifetime of Multicrystalline Silicon Bricks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL's new imaging tool could provide manufacturers with insight on their processes. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have used capabilities within the Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL) to generate quantitative minority-carrier lifetime maps of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) bricks. This feat has been accomplished by using the PDIL's photoluminescence (PL) imaging system in conjunction with transient lifetime measurements obtained using a custom NREL-designed resonance-coupled photoconductive decay (RCPCD) system. PL imaging can obtain rapid high-resolution images that provide a qualitative assessment of the material lifetime-with the lifetime proportional to the pixel intensity. In contrast, the RCPCD technique provides a fast quantitative measure of the lifetime with a lower resolution and penetrates millimeters into the mc-Si brick, providing information on bulk lifetimes and material quality. This technique contrasts with commercially available minority-carrier lifetime mapping systems that use microwave conductivity measurements. Such measurements are dominated by surface recombination and lack information on the material quality within the bulk of the brick. By combining these two complementary techniques, we obtain high-resolution lifetime maps at very fast data acquisition times-attributes necessary for a production-based diagnostic tool. These bulk lifetime measurements provide manufacturers with invaluable feedback on their silicon ingot casting processes. NREL has been applying the PL images of lifetime in mc-Si bricks in collaboration with a U.S. photovoltaic industry partner through Recovery Act Funded Project ARRA T24. NREL developed a new tool to quantitatively map minority-carrier lifetime of multicrystalline silicon bricks by using photoluminescence imaging in conjunction with resonance-coupled photoconductive decay measurements. Researchers are not hindered by surface recombination and can look deeper into the material to map bulk lifetimes. The tool is being applied to silicon bricks in a project collaborating with a U.S. photovoltaic industry partner. Photovoltaic manufacturers can use the NREL tool to obtain valuable feedback on their silicon ingot casting processes.

  7. Advanced Models and Controls for Prediction and Extension of Battery Lifetime (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-02-01

    Predictive models of capacity and power fade must consider a multiplicity of degradation modes experienced by Li-ion batteries in the automotive environment. Lacking accurate models and tests, lifetime uncertainty must presently be absorbed by overdesign and excess warranty costs. To reduce these costs and extend life, degradation models are under development that predict lifetime more accurately and with less test data. The lifetime models provide engineering feedback for cell, pack and system designs and are being incorporated into real-time control strategies.

  8. Measurement of the B-cmeson lifetime in the decay B-c?J/???

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; et al

    2013-01-02

    The lifetime of the B-c meson is measured using 272 exclusive B-c?J/?(?????)?? decays reconstructed in data from proton-antiproton collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 6.7 fb?¹ recorded by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The lifetime of the B-cmeson is measured to be ?(B-c)=0.452±0.048(stat)±0.027(syst) ps. This is the first measurement of the B-c meson lifetime in a fully reconstructed hadronic channel, and it agrees with previous results and has comparable precision.

  9. Calculation of the extinction cross section and lifetime of a gold nanoparticle using FDTD simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhakrishnan, Archana, E-mail: anju.archana@gmail.com [B.Tech, Engineering Physics, National Institute Of Technology, Calicut (India); Murugesan, Dr V., E-mail: murugesh@serc.iisc.in [Assistant Professor, Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2014-10-15

    The electromagnetic theory of light explains the behavior of light in most of the domains quite accurately. The problem arises when the exact solution of the Maxwell's equation is not present, in case of objects with arbitrary geometry. To find the extinction cross-section and lifetime of the gold nanoparticle, the software FDTD solutions 8.6 by Lumerical is employed. The extinction cross-sections and lifetimes of Gold nanospheres of different sizes and arrangements are studied using pulse lengths of the order of femtoseconds. The decay constant and other properties are compared. Further, the lifetimes are calculated using frequency and time domain calculations.

  10. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasuhiro Yamada; Youhei Yamaji; Masatoshi Imada

    2015-02-25

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  11. Exciton Lifetime Paradoxically Enhanced by Dissipation and Decoherence - Toward Efficient Energy Conversion of Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Imada, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Energy dissipation and decoherence are at first glance harmful to acquiring long exciton lifetime desired for efficient photovoltaics. In the presence of both optically forbidden (namely, dark) and allowed (bright) excitons, however, they can be instrumental as suggested in photosynthesis. By simulating quantum dynamics of exciton relaxations, we show that the optimized decoherence that imposes a quantum-to-classical crossover with the dissipation realizes a dramatically longer lifetime. In an example of carbon nanotube, the exciton lifetime increases by nearly two orders of magnitude when the crossover triggers stable high population in the dark exciton.

  12. Building Technologies Research and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Impact of Buildings Centers of Excellence · 40% of total primary energy consumption · 74% of electricity consumption · 56% of natural gas consumption (including gas-generated electricity used in buildings) · 39 the nation accounts for its energy consumption, making the energy savings potential even greater. National

  13. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-20

    The guide supports DOE O 413.3A and provides useful information on the incorporation of high performance sustainable building principles into building-related General Plant Projects and Institutional General Plant Projects at DOE sites. Canceled by DOE G 413.3-6A. Does not cancel other directives.

  14. 200 Market Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Portland, Oregon The 200 Market Building is a high-rise built in 1973 and located in downtown Portland, Oregon. It was purchased in 1988 by its current owner, 200 Market Associates, primarily because of its optimal location in Portland's central business district. Since 1989 the building has undergone continuous improvements in multiple phases.

  15. Building Wings Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    & drawing ­ 15 minutes · Build wings ­ 120 minutes · Test wings in wind tunnel ­ 45 minutes Assessments · Screwdriver (the wind tunnel we used had a small screw to attach items to the testing platform) LessonBuilding Wings Mechanical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to the theory of Conservation

  16. Digitally Fabricated Building Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lab ­ Building Kit S 20 2Summer 2012 Integrated Systems ­ Programming Surfaces a) Exterior -Water production with integrated digital fabrication." Automation in Construction, Vol. 16, No. 3, 298­310, 2007Digitally Fabricated Building Delivery through Kitsthrough Kits Lawrence Sass Associate Professor

  17. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  18. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  19. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  20. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  1. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  2. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  3. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Midrise Apartment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  4. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  5. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  6. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  7. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  8. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  9. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Hospital

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  10. Generation and Recombination Carrier Lifetimes in 4H SiC Epitaxial Wafers , M. J. Loboda1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    Generation and Recombination Carrier Lifetimes in 4H SiC Epitaxial Wafers G. Chung1) , M. J. Loboda comparative studies of recombination and carrier lifetimes in SiC. For the first time, both generation-wafer structures. The ratio of the generation to recombination lifetime is much different in SiC compared to Si

  11. BUILDING PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING DURING CONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toole, T. Michael

    1 BUILDING PERFORMANCE ENGINEERING DURING CONSTRUCTION T. Michael Toole1 and Matthew Hallowell2 of building performance engineering tasks on design-bid-build projects are typically provided by entities building construction projects. Twenty four building performance engineering tasks were required

  12. NREL Buildings Research Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    Through research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed many strategies and design techniques to ensure both commercial and residential buildings use as little energy as possible and also work well with the surroundings. Here you will find a video that introduces the work of NREL Buildings Research, highlights some of the facilities on the NREL campus, and demonstrates these efficient building strategies. Watch this video to see design highlights of the Science and Technology Facility on the NREL campus?the first Federal building to be LEED® Platinum certified. Additionally, the video demonstrates the energy-saving features of NRELs Thermal Test Facility. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/about_research_text_version.html

  13. Technical Management for Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  14. AVERAGE INFLUENCE OF THRESHOLD BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS AND HETEROGENEOUS KAUFFMAN NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matache, Dora

    was to build upon previous research about other types of func- tions and their influence by developing a model it to model the influence and find the critical values for combinations of different types of Boolean recent research has focused on finding phase transitions for homogeneous network ensembles with just one

  15. The Building Standard (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 1964 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Michael

    1964-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1964 No. 802 (S. 50) BUILDING AND BUILDINGS The Building Standards (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 1964

  16. Sustainability in Existing Federal Buildings | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Sustainability in Existing Federal Buildings Sustainability in Existing Federal Buildings The General Services Administration...

  17. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Building Executive Definition.......................................................................3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS: Building Executive Definition.......................................................................3 Building Executives Areas of Responsibilities ...................................................................................5 Building Safety and Security Issues

  18. Building Emergency Action Plan Facility Name: _____________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    Building Emergency Action Plan (Template) Facility Name: _____________________ Date Prepared .....................................................................................................................................................3 2. Building Description..................................................................................................................................3 3. Building Emergency Personnel

  19. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    measured baseline building energy performance By comparingmeasured baseline building energy performance Water Systemmeasured baseline building energy performance. The physics-

  20. Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Presentation: Better Buildings Residential Program Solution Center Presentation: Better Buildings Residential...

  1. A Look at Principal Building Activities in Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Home > Commercial Buildings Home> Special Topics > 1995 Principal Building Activities Office Education Health Care Retail and Service Food Service Food Sales Lodging Religious...

  2. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings Trend Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Figure 2. 1989 to 1999 building trend with 95% confidence ranges...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solution Center PNNL set up the framework for the Building America Solution Center, a web tool connecting users to thousands of pieces of building science information developed...

  4. Building America Solution Center - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    America Top Innovation SCimagemale.jpg The Building America Solution Center is a Web-based tool connecting users to fast, free, and expert building science and energy...

  5. Building America Webinar: Building America: Research for Real...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America: Research for Real-World Results Building America Webinar: Building America: Research for Real-World Results This presentation was delivered on Dec. 17, 2014, by Eric...

  6. Better Buildings Neighborhood Initiative Upgrades 100,000 Buildings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building on President Obama's Climate Action Plan and the Administration's Better Buildings Initiative, the Energy Department announced today that the Department's Better...

  7. Commercial Building Energy Assest Score Overall Building Score

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Building Energy Asset Score: Pilot Findings & Program Update April 16, 2014 Joan Glickman, DOE Nora Wang, PNNL 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov 1) Asset...

  8. Sacrificial high-temperature phosphorus diffusion gettering for lifetime improvement of multicrystalline silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Stephanie Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Iron is among the most deleterious lifetime-limiting impurities in crystalline silicon solar cells. In as-grown material, iron is present in precipitates and in point defects. To achieve conversion efficiencies in excess ...

  9. Effective lifetimes exceeding 300 ?s in gettered p-type epitaxial kerfless silicon for photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, D. M.

    We evaluate defect concentrations and investigate the lifetime potential of p-type single-crystal kerfless silicon produced via epitaxy for photovoltaics. In gettered material, low interstitial iron concentrations (as low ...

  10. Volume163,number 4,5 CHEMICALPHYSICSLETTERS 17November 1989 EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIATIVE LIFETIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OF THE RADIATIVE LIFETIME OF NO+(X%+, v=l, 2 AND 3) C.-H. KUO, C.G. BEGGS, P.R. KEMPER, M.T. BOWERS ' Department

  11. Measurement of the ?[superscript 0 over subscript b] lifetime and mass in the ATLAS experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Frank E.

    A measurement of the ?[superscript 0 over subscript b] lifetime and mass in the decay channel ?[superscript 0 over subscript b]?J/?(?[superscript +]?[superscript -])?[superscript 0](p?[superscript -]) is presented. The ...

  12. The Application of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy to Quantitatively Map Mixing and Temperature in Microfluidic Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Emmelyn M

    2008-01-01

    The technique of Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been employed to quantitatively and spatially map the fluid composition and temperature within microfluidic systems. A molecular probe with a ...

  13. Lifetime measurements of high-lying short lived states in {sup 69}As

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matejska-Minda, M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Fornal, B.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Krzysiek, M.; Maj, A.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Angelis, G. de; Huyuk, T.; Michelagnoli, C.; Sahin, E.; Aydin, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Recchia, F.; Ur, C. A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 69}As have been measured using Doppler shift attenuation technique with the GASP and RFD setup. The determined transition probabilities indicate large deformation associated with some rotational bands in this nucleus.

  14. BUILDING STRONGSM 2008 AFEP Preliminary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUILDING STRONGSM 1 2008 AFEP Preliminary Research Results Northwest Power and Conservation Council Meeting March 2009 Boise, ID #12;BUILDING STRONGSM 2 Focus Today · Anadromous Fish Evaluation Program Purpose · Juvenile Fish Passage · Adult Fish · Predation ­ Avian ­ Pinniped · Lamprey #12;BUILDING

  15. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    energy efficiency. Intelligent Buildings, 3:43-46, 2011. InM. Bhandari. Comparison of Building Energy Use Data betweenand China, Energy and Buildings, 2013. Under reviewed. 5. T.

  16. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Seven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings areSeven recent energy-efficient U.S. office buildings areLaboratory (1982), "Energy Efficient Buildings Program FY

  17. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  18. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Breakdown of Total  Electricty Consumption ? Building A kWh/Breakdown of Total  Electricty Consumption ? Building B kWh/Breakdown of Total   Electricty Consumption ? Building C 

  19. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  20. Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    ALC) system. ALC is a building automation system, offering aModern digital building automation systems satisfy thesemore sophisticated building automation systems and building

  1. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    T. , (1998), Building Energy Measurement and PerformanceRating a building’s energy performance is becoming anrating of energy performance of buildings. Modern existing

  2. Health Care Buildings : Basic Characteristics Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Basic Characteristics Tables Buildings and Size Data by Basic Characteristics for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million...

  3. A portable time-domain LED fluorimeter for nanosecond fluorescence lifetime measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongtao; Salthouse, Christopher D., E-mail: salthouse@ecs.umass.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Qi, Ying; Mountziaris, T. J. [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States) [Center for Personalized Health Monitoring, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Fluorescence lifetime measurements are becoming increasingly important in chemical and biological research. Time-domain lifetime measurements offer fluorescence multiplexing and improved handling of interferers compared with the frequency-domain technique. In this paper, an all solid-state, filterless, and highly portable light-emitting-diode based time-domain fluorimeter (LED TDF) is reported for the measurement of nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes. LED based excitation provides more wavelengths options compared to laser diode based excitation, but the excitation is less effective due to the uncollimated beam, less optical power, and longer latency in state transition. Pulse triggering and pre-bias techniques were implemented in our LED TDF to improve the peak optical power to over 100 mW. The proposed pulsing circuit achieved an excitation light fall time of less than 2 ns. Electrical resetting technique realized a time-gated photo-detector to remove the interference of the excitation light with fluorescence. These techniques allow the LED fluorimeter to accurately measure the fluorescence lifetime of fluorescein down to concentration of 0.5 ?M. In addition, all filters required in traditional instruments are eliminated for the non-attenuated excitation/emission light power. These achievements make the reported device attractive to biochemical laboratories seeking for highly portable lifetime detection devices for developing sensors based on fluorescence lifetime changes. The device was initially validated by measuring the lifetimes of three commercial fluorophores and comparing them with reported lifetime data. It was subsequently used to characterize a ZnSe quantum dot based DNA sensor.

  4. An experimental study of spatial effects on mean neutron lifetime measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooke, William Bruce

    1966-01-01

    and Reactor Stability Analysis", USAEC Report ANL-6205, Argonne National Laboratory, May, 1960 Qazi, M. N. , "An Oscillator Measurement of the Prompt Neutron Lifetime in the Pennsylvania State University Reactor, ' Unpublished Masters Thesis, Pennsylvania... OF SCIENCE May, 1966 Major Subject Nuclear Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SPATIAL EFFECTS ON MEAN NEUTRON LIFETIME MEASUREMENT A Thesis By William Bruce Hooks Approved as to style and content by: airman o ommx tee ea o epar men e er e er e er...

  5. Ratio of D/sup 0/ and D/sup +/ lifetimes from their semileptonic decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    The conventional expectation for the decays of D mesons assumes that the charm quark decays in the presence of light, spectator quarks and thus the lifetimes of both charged and uncharged states are equal. In this article, evidence is presented from DELCO (at SPEAR) that the D lifetimes are quite different for neutral and charged mesons, and the results which have also become available from other experiments are reviewed.

  6. BETTER BUILDINGS ALLIANCE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial buildings—our offices, schools, hospitals, restaurants, hotels and stores—consume nearly 20% of all energy used in the United States. We spend more than $200 billion each year to power our country's commercial buildings. Unfortunately, much of this energy and money is wasted; a typical commercial building could save 20% on its energy bills simply by commissioning existing systems so they operate as intended. Energy efficiency is a cost-effective way to save money, support job growth, reduce pollution, and improve competitiveness.

  7. Building America House Simulation Protocols - Revised October 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This document was developed to track and manage progress toward multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent reference point. This report corrects editorial errors that were in the original publication.

  8. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Bhandari. Comparison of Building Energy Use Data between theUnited States and China, Energy and Buildings, 2013. Underand Analytics to Inform Energy Retrofit of High Performance

  9. Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisell, L.; Tetreault, T.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This guide offers a checklist for building design and construction to enable installation of solar photovoltaic and heating systems at some time after the building is constructed.

  10. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities in FBSS Buildings in Federal Region 3, 1993 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures Distribution of Building-Level...

  11. Chapter 9: Commissioning the Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the con- struction materials such as durability and VOC emission content. It can improve power quality for the overall building by verifying that electrical building support and...

  12. Bioengineering/Chemical Engineering Building,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogyo, Matthew

    BioE/ChemE Building Bioengineering/Chemical Engineering Building, Under Construction Lucile Packard Graduate Residences Sterling Quad Mirrielees Pearce Mitchell Houses Stanford Hospital Varsity Lot Jordan

  13. Better building: LEEDing new facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better building: LEEDing new facilities Better building: LEEDing new facilities We're taking big steps on-site to create energy efficient facilities and improve infrastructure....

  14. CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  15. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Natural Gas Consumption Natural Gas Expenditures Distribution of per per per per Building-Level Intensities Total Building Square Worker per per Thousand (cubic feetsquare...

  16. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    operation, maintenance, occupant behavior: U.S. buildingsoperation,  maintenance, occupant behavior: U.S.  buildings building operation and occupant behavior in both countries: 

  17. Building America Solution Center Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with fast, free and reliable building science and efficiency knowledge. At the heart of the Building America Solution Center are the guides -- a compilation of content...

  18. Buildings Interoperability Vision Technical Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and will provide input to future meetings for framing a buildings interoperability roadmap. Summary Buildings are an integral part of our nation's energy economy. The...

  19. Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2001-01-01

    Model For Infiltration Heat Recovery. Proceedings 21st AivcLBNL 47329 HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H.contribution because of heat recovery within the building

  20. Commercial Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Innovation Energy Efficiency Commercial Buildings Commercial Buildings At an estimated cost of 38 billion a year, lighting represents the largest source of...

  1. Building Random Trees from Blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... We have a finite collection of unlabeled, rooted, nonplanar building ... We use these as building blocks of an unlabeled, rooted, nonplanar tree.

  2. The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2006 #12;2 The HAPL team is developing the science, technology and architecture needed for a laser1 The High Average Power Laser Program 15th HAPL meeting Aug 8 & 9, 2006 General Atomics Scientific Inst 16. Optiswitch Technology 17. ESLI Electricity Generator Electricity Generator Reaction

  3. FOCI RESEARCH BENEFITS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT 1993 Recruitment Forecast -Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) advises the North Pacific Fisheries Management Council using a "stock data but addresses the autocorrelation of recruitment. In addition, it directly predicts recruitment to average 1991 year class, and a strong 1992 year class. In 1993 the transfer function model predicted

  4. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  5. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN 2011, in final form 26 May 2012) ABSTRACT Probabilistic forecasts of wind vectors are becoming critical with univariate quantities, statistical approaches to wind vector forecasting must be based on bivariate

  6. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc in the context of wind power, where under- forecasting and overforecasting carry different financial penal- ties, calibrated and sharp probabilistic forecasts can help to make wind power a more financially competitive alter

  7. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    information below. Supporting Information Average Vehicle Footprint, 2008-2010 Model Year Car Light Truck All Light Vehicles 2008 45.4 53.0 49.0 2009 45.2 52.7 48.2 2010 45.2 54.0...

  8. Prediction in moving average processes Anton Schick and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang

    Prediction in moving average processes Anton Schick and Wolfgang Wefelmeyer Abstract(y + (x1, . . . , xr)) dF(y) The research of A. Schick was partially supported by NSF Grant DMS0405791. 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER can be estimated at the "parametric" root-n rate

  9. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire adopted a mandatory statewide building code in 2002 based on the 2000 IECC. SB 81 was enacted in July 2007, and it upgraded the New Hampshire Energy Code to the 2006 IECC. In...

  11. DESIGN [fabrication] BUILD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rader, Nicolas Glen

    2006-01-01

    DESIGN [fabrication] BUILD proposes a new relationship among the architect, homeowner, and fabricator/assembler through the use of parametric software in order to create a truly customizable prefabricated home. This ...

  12. Portraits of buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alter, Robert H

    1981-01-01

    The photography of architecture is more than a simple tool to record facts about specific buildings. Photography can be used to communicate insights and perceptions about the role of architecture in society and our personal ...

  13. Personalized building comfort control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldmeier, Mark Christopher, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Creating an appropriate indoor climate is essential to worker productivity and personal happiness. It is also an area of large expenditure for building owners. And, with rising fuel costs, finding ways of reducing energy ...

  14. Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy created the Energy Efficient Buildings Hub in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to promote regional job creation and economic growth while also improving the energy...

  15. Building to Fall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spain, Mitchell Ross

    2015-05-31

    Abstract Building to Fall is an exploration of our experiences that establish ideas of balance, risk, and failure, testing theories about the physical and social world in which we exist. Throughout history we have encountered many failures...

  16. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ballast: See High-Efficiency Ballast. Btu: British thermal unit. A unit quantity of energy consumed by or delivered to a building. A Btu is defined as the amount of energy...

  17. Building Energy Efficient Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, J. D.; Estes, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many new school buildings consume only half the energy required by similar efficient structures designed without energy performance as a design criterion. These are comfortable and efficient while construction costs remain about the same as those...

  18. Building Energy Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 Vermont Commercial Building Energy Standards (CBES) took effect on March 1, 2015. The code is based on the 2015 IECC, with amendments to incorporate ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The new guidelines ...

  19. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Building Energy Code

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Indiana Residential Building Code is based on the 2003 IRC with state amendments (eff. 9/11/05). This code applies to 1 and 2 family dwellings and townhouses. During the adoption process,...

  1. High Performance Sustainable Building

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-11-09

    This Guide provides approaches for implementing the High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB) requirements of DOE Order 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. Supersedes DOE G 413.3-6.

  2. Small Building Material Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Applicants may borrow up to $100,000 for projects that improve the livability of a home, improve energy efficiency or expand space. The loan can be applied toward building materials, freight or...

  3. Wind Tunnel Building - 1 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    This paper describes a simple graphic tool that enables a building designer to evaluate the potential for wind induced ventilation cooling in several climate zones. Long term weather data were analyzed to determine the conditions for which available...

  4. Safety in Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Building codes are essentially sets of safety regulations in respect of structure, fire, and health. They were originally developed in response to frequently demonstrated hazards of structural collapse, catastrophic fires, ...

  5. Relationships in design build

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wampler, Charles Wilson

    2010-01-01

    As design build (DB) becomes more popular, different ways of writing contracts and forming relationships with the various parties are being considered. The main point of this paper is to look at the relationships between ...

  6. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Changes to the energy code are submitted to the Uniform Building Code Commission. The proposed change is reviewed by the Commission at a monthly meeting to decide if it warrants further...

  7. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The State Building Code Council revised the Washington State Energy Code (WESC) in February 2013, effective July 1, 2013. The WESC is a state-developed code based upon ASHRAE 90.1-2010 and the...

  8. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2011 the Nebraska Building Energy Code was updated to the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) standards.  As with the previous 2003 IECC standards, which had been in...

  9. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All new residential, commercial, and community-owned buildings constructed on or after January 1, 1992 that recieve financing from the Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) must comply with...

  10. Building Energy Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A mandatory energy code is not enforced at the state level. If a local energy code is adopted, it is enforced at the local level. Builders or sellers of new residential buildings (single-family or...

  11. Sustainable Building Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sustainable building design and operation strategies demonstrate a commitment to energy efficiency, and environmental stewardship. These approaches result in an optimal balance of energy, cost, environmental, and societal benefits, while still meeting the mission of a Federal agency and the function of the facility or infrastructure. For buildings and facilities, responsible resource management and the assessment of operational impacts encompass the principles of sustainability. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising future needs.

  12. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  13. Building operating systems services: An architecture for programmable buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    building campuses. It provides the core functionality of sensor and actuator access, access management, metadata,

  14. Building Operating Systems Services: An Architecture for Programmable Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    building campuses. It provides the core functionality of sensor and actuator access, access management, metadata,

  15. 3-100.1 Building Evacuation 1 Building Evacuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Kien A.

    3-100.1 Building Evacuation 1 SUBJECT: Building Evacuation Effective Date: 10-20-10 Policy Number and Safety APPLICABILITY/ACCOUNTABILITY: This policy applies to all individuals in all buildings on all University of Central Florida campuses. BACKGROUND INFORMATION: University buildings occasionally need

  16. 1 | Building America eere.energy.gov DOE's Building America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 | Building America eere.energy.gov DOE's Building America Low-E Storm Window Adoption Program Working Group #12;2 | Building America eere.energy.gov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory · Katie Cort, Larson Manufacturing Company Key Staff #12;3 | Building America eere.energy.gov Problem · Windows account

  17. The Ruskin Building 4.1 Building Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, E. Victor

    39 The Ruskin Building 04 #12;40 4.1 Building Condition TEACHING ROOMS STUDENT ANCILLARY ADMIN First Floor Plan Second Floor Plan Third Floor Plan 4.1 Building Condition This Section provides an overview of the condition of the existing buildings. Below is a series of plans identifying the present

  18. BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PL LDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PL LDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A R RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDIN T PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN BUILDING A RISK MANAGEM

  19. Two-Year and Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Versus 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Racquel E. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheets, Nathan C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Wheeler, Stephanie B. [Department of Health Policy and Management, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Nutting, Chris [Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Division of Clinical Studies, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Chera, Bhishamjit S., E-mail: bchera@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the cost-effectiveness of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) versus 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in the treatment of head-and neck-cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We used a Markov model to simulate radiation therapy-induced xerostomia and dysphagia in a hypothetical cohort of 65-year-old HNC patients. Model input parameters were derived from PARSPORT (CRUK/03/005) patient-level trial data and quality-of-life and Medicare cost data from published literature. We calculated average incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) from the US health care perspective as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained and compared our ICERs with current cost-effectiveness standards whereby treatment comparators less than $50,000 per QALY gained are considered cost-effective. Results: In the first 2 years after initial treatment, IMRT is not cost-effective compared with 3D-CRT, given an average ICER of $101,100 per QALY gained. However, over 15 years (remaining lifetime on the basis of average life expectancy of a 65-year-old), IMRT is more cost-effective at $34,523 per QALY gained. Conclusion: Although HNC patients receiving IMRT will likely experience reduced xerostomia and dysphagia symptoms, the small quality-of-life benefit associated with IMRT is not cost-effective in the short term but may be cost-effective over a patient's lifetime, assuming benefits persist over time and patients are healthy and likely to live for a sustained period. Additional data quantifying the long-term benefits of IMRT, however, are needed.

  20. An Analysis of Air Passenger Average Trip Lengths and Fare Levels in US Domestic Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Sheng-Chen Alex

    2000-01-01

    California at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger AverageCalifornia at Berkeley An Analysis of Air Passenger Average

  1. MEMS CHIP CO2 SENSOR FOR BUILDING SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton Carl Greenwald

    2005-09-14

    The objective of this research was to develop an affordable, reliable sensor to enable demand controlled ventilation (DCV). A significant portion of total energy consumption in the United States is used for heating or air conditioning (HVAC) buildings. To assure occupant safety and fresh air levels in large buildings, and especially those with sealed windows, HVAC systems are frequently run in excess of true requirements as automated systems cannot now tell the occupancy level of interior spaces. If such a sensor (e.g. thermostat sized device) were available, it would reduce energy use between 10 and 20% in such buildings. A quantitative measure of ''fresh air'' is the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) present. An inert gas, CO{sub 2} is not easily detected by chemical sensors and is usually measured by infrared spectroscopy. Ion Optics research developed a complete infrared sensor package on a single MEMS chip. It contains the infrared (IR) source, IR detector and IR filter. The device resulting from this DOE sponsored research has sufficient sensitivity, lifetime, and drift rate to meet the specifications of commercial instrument manufacturers who are now testing the device for use in their building systems.

  2. Anomalous transport and observable average in the standard map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lydia Bouchara; Ouerdia Ourrad; Sandro Vaienti; Xavier Leoncini

    2015-09-02

    The distribution of finite time observable averages and transport in low dimensional Hamiltonian systems is studied. Finite time observable average distributions are computed, from which an exponent $\\alpha$ characteristic of how the maximum of the distributions scales with time is extracted. To link this exponent to transport properties, the characteristic exponent $\\mu(q)$ of the time evolution of the different moments of order $q$ related to transport are computed. As a testbed for our study the standard map is used. The stochasticity parameter $K$ is chosen so that either phase space is mixed with a chaotic sea and islands of stability or with only a chaotic sea. Our observations lead to a proposition of a law relating the slope in $q=0$ of the function $\\mu(q)$ with the exponent $\\alpha$.

  3. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  4. Average Interpolating Wavelets on Point Clouds and Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rustamov, Raif M

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new wavelet transform suitable for analyzing functions on point clouds and graphs. Our construction is based on a generalization of the average interpolating refinement scheme of Donoho. The most important ingredient of the original scheme that needs to be altered is the choice of the interpolant. Here, we define the interpolant as the minimizer of a smoothness functional, namely a generalization of the Laplacian energy, subject to the averaging constraints. In the continuous setting, we derive a formula for the optimal solution in terms of the poly-harmonic Green's function. The form of this solution is used to motivate our construction in the setting of graphs and point clouds. We highlight the empirical convergence of our refinement scheme and the potential applications of the resulting wavelet transform through experiments on a number of data stets.

  5. Particle penetration through building cracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D L; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    advanced our knowledge, they have not fully elucidated the extent to which particles penetrate building envelopes.

  6. Archived Reference Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Building Emergency Plan Summer 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Emergency Plan Project Summer 2012 #12;Building Emergency Plan Project We will be going over: · Introductions · What a Building Emergency Plan (BEP) is · The project and goals · Why? · Gives instructions and guidance to building tenants · Lets tenants know what to do in any emergency

  8. Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Bell Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  9. Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Davis Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  10. CALIFORNIA ENERGY Large HVAC Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Large HVAC Building Survey Information Database of Buildings over 100 Energy Systems: Productivity and Building Science Program. This program was funded by the California of Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. Project Management: Cathy Higgins, Program Director for New Buildings

  11. AA Architecture Building AC Athletics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    $ AA Architecture Building AC Athletics AH Alumni Hall AP Azrieli Pavilion AT Azrieli Theatre CB Canal Building CC Colonel By Child Care Centre CO Residence Commons (Fenn Lounge) DH Dundas House DT Dunton Tower Interaction Building HP Herzberg Laboratories IH Ice House LA Loeb Building LE Leeds House LH Lanark House LS

  12. Bonner Hall Building Evacuation Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Bonner Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  13. KETTER HALL BUILDING EVACUATION PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    KETTER HALL BUILDING EVACUATION PROCEDURES General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all University buildings occupants to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from the closest

  14. Jarvis Hall Building Evacuation Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Jarvis Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  15. Furnas Hall Building Evacuation Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    Furnas Hall Building Evacuation Procedures General Procedures: It is the personal responsibility of all occupants of University buildings to immediately exit the building when the fire alarm is activated. Remaining in the building is unacceptable, regardless of the reason. Occupants should exit from

  16. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  17. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  18. Averaged equilibrium and stability in low-aspect-ratio stellarators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.

    1989-01-01

    The MHD equilibrium and stability calculations or stellarators are complex because of the intrinsic three-dimensional (3-D) character of these configurations. The stellarators expansion simplifies the equilibrium calculation by reducing it to a two-dimensional (2-D) problem. The classical stellarator expansion includes terms up to order epsilon/sup 2/, and the vacuum magnetic field is also included up to this order. For large-aspect-ratio configurations, the results of the stellarator expansion agree well with 3-D numerical equilibrium results. But for low-aspect-ratio configurations, these are significant discrepancies with 3-D equilibrium calculations. The main reason for these discrepancies is the approximation in the vacuum field contributions. This problem can be avoided by applying the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system. In this way, the exact vacuum magnetic field contribution is included and the results agree well with 3-D equilibrium calculations even for low-aspect-ratio configurations. Using the average method in a vacuum flux coordinate system also permit the accurate calculation of local stability properties with the Mercier criterion. The main improvement is in the accurate calculation of the geodesic curvature term. In this paper, we discuss the application of the average method in flux coordinates to the calculation of the Mercier criterion for low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  19. A procedure for analyzing energy and global warming impacts of foam insulation in U.S. commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a procedure for evaluating the energy and global warming impacts of alternative insulation technologies for US commercial building applications. The analysis is focused on the sum of the direct contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from a system and the indirect contribution of the carbon dioxide emission resulting from the energy required to operate the system over its expected lifetime. In this paper, parametric analysis was used to calculate building related CO{sub 2} emission in two US locations. A retail mail building has been used as a model building for this analysis. For the analyzed building, minimal R-values of insulation are estimated using ASHRAE 90.1 requirements.

  20. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Richard C; Sjoreen, Andrea L; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-06-01

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7 Radiation dose was calculated assuming complete release of the building inventory as information was lacking regarding the portion of the building inventory expected to be released. Thus the results are derived using an extremely conservative release as documented in the Preliminary Hazard Screening report.7 To more closely approximate the result of a release, one must estimate the fraction of the total inventory released and multiply the results described above by that fraction. An example of how this calculation is accomplished is provided. Should an actual uncontrolled release occur, the results of this modeling effort could only be used to establish a rough order-of-magnitude for the event.

  1. Impact of Minority Carrier Lifetime on the Performance of Strained Ge Light Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhdeo, David S; Birendra,; Dutt,; Nam, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the impact of the defect-limited carrier lifetime on the performance of germanium (Ge) light sources, specifically LEDs and lasers. For Ge LEDs, we show that improving the material quality can offer even greater enhancements than techniques such as tensile strain, the leading approach for enhancing Ge light emission. Even for Ge that is so heavily strained that it becomes a direct bandgap semiconductor, the ~1 ns defect-limited carrier lifetime of typical epitaxial Ge limits the LED internal quantum efficiency to less than 10%. In contrast, if the epitaxial Ge carrier lifetime can be increased to its bulk value, internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% become possible. For Ge lasers, we show that the defect-limited lifetime becomes increasing important as tensile strain is introduced, and that this defect-limited lifetime must be improved if the full benefits of strain are to be realized. We conversely show that improving the material quality supersedes much of the utility of n...

  2. Alignments Of Black Holes With Their Warped Accretion Disks And Episodic Lifetimes Of Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan-Rong Li; Jian-Min Wang; Cheng Cheng; Jie Qiu

    2015-03-02

    Warped accretion disks have attracted intensive attention because of their critical role on shaping the spin of supermassive massive black holes (SMBHs) through the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that leads to final alignments or anti-alignments between black holes and warped accretion disks. We study such alignment processes by explicitly taking into account the finite sizes of accretion disks and the episodic lifetimes of AGNs that delineate the duration of gas fueling onto accretion disks. We employ an approximate global model to simulate the evolution of accretion disks, allowing to determine the gravitomagnetic torque that drives the alignments in a quite simple way. We then track down the evolutionary paths for mass and spin of black holes both in a single activity episode and over a series of episodes. Given with randomly and isotropically oriented gas fueling over episodes, we calculate the spin evolution with different episodic lifetimes and find that it is quite sensitive to the lifetimes. We therefore propose that spin distribution of SMBHs can place constraints on the episodic lifetimes of AGNs and vice versa. Applications of our results on the observed spin distributions of SMBHs and the observed episodic lifetimes of AGNs are discussed, although both the measurements at present are yet ambiguous to draw a firm conclusion. Our prescription can be easily incorporated into semi-analytic models for black hole growth and spin evolution.

  3. Robust Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Allocation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paschalidis, Ioannis Ch.; Wu, Ruomin

    2012-01-01

    We consider the maximum lifetime routing problem in wireless sensor networks in two settings: (a) when nodes’ initial energy is given and (b) when it is subject to optimization. The optimal solution and objective value provide optimal flows and the corresponding predicted lifetime, respectively. We stipulate that there is uncertainty in various network parameters (available energy and energy depletion rates). In setting (a) we show that for specific, yet typical, network topologies, the actual network lifetime will reach the predicted value with a probability that converges to zero as the number of nodes grows large. In setting (b) the samemore »result holds for all topologies. We develop a series of robust problem formulations, ranging from pessimistic to optimistic. A set of parameters enable the tuning of the conservatism of the formulation to obtain network flows with a desirably high probability that the corresponding lifetime prediction is achieved. We establish a number of properties for the robust network flows and energy allocations and provide numerical results to highlight the tradeoff between predicted lifetime and the probability achieved. Further, we analyze an interesting limiting regime of massively deployed sensor networks and essentially solve a continuous version of the problem.« less

  4. Bagley University Classroom Building

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Duluth, MN, MN LEED PLATINUM CERTIFIED AND PASSIVHAUS ( certification pending) CLASSROOM BUILDING The Nature Preserve where this building is located is a contiguous natural area, 55 acres in size, deeded to the University in the 1950's for educational and recreational use. The site has hiking trails through old growth hard woods frequented by the university students as well as the public. We were charged with designing a facility to serve eight different departments for the nature portions of their teaching and study at a regional University.

  5. Re-Building Greensburg

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hewitt, Steven; Wallach, Daniel; Peterson, Stephanie;

    2013-05-29

    Greensburg, KS - A town that was devastated by a tornado in 2007, yet came back to be one of the Nation's most energy-efficient, sustainable communities. Civic leaders and entrepreneurs helped rally residents behind the idea of "greening" Greensburg, inspiring the construction of numerous energy-efficient buildings, some of which generate their own renewable power with solar panels and wind turbines. Many of the town's government buildings use cutting edge energy-saving technologies, saving the local taxpayers' money. Greensburg has demonstrated to the world that any city can reach its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals today using widely available technologies.

  6. Historic Building Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When a Federal agency undertakes a renovation to an historic building, the renovation team must consider not only the uses and needs of the facility, but also a range of issues related to historic preservation. Integrating renewable energy such as solar and wind into an historic renovation has been accomplished successfully by agencies; the design and placement of any renewable energy system must be closely integrated with the overall design plans. Any renewable energy additions must maintain the integrity and defining characteristics of the building.

  7. Buildings Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment|Marketing, LLCEfficiency | Department ofBuildingSync BuildingSync®

  8. Dependence of nuclear spin singlet lifetimes on RF spin-locking power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen J. DeVience; Ronald L. Walsworth; Matthew S. Rosen

    2012-01-06

    We measure the lifetime of long-lived nuclear spin singlet states as a function of the strength of the RF spin-locking field and present a simple theoretical model that agrees well with our measurements, including the low-RF-power regime. We also measure the lifetime of a long-lived coherence between singlet and triplet states that does not require a spin-locking field for preservation. Our results indicate that for many molecules, singlet states can be created using weak RF spin-locking fields: more than two orders of magnitude lower RF power than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that in many biomolecules, singlets and related states with enhanced lifetimes might be achievable in vivo with safe levels of RF power.

  9. Dependence of nuclear spin singlet lifetimes on RF spin-locking power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVience, Stephen J; Rosen, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    We measure the lifetime of long-lived nuclear spin singlet states as a function of the strength of the RF spin-locking field and present a simple theoretical model that agrees well with our measurements, including the low-RF-power regime. We also measure the lifetime of a long-lived coherence between singlet and triplet states that does not require a spin-locking field for preservation. Our results indicate that for many molecules, singlet states can be created using weak RF spin-locking fields: more than two orders of magnitude lower RF power than in previous studies. Our findings suggest that in many biomolecules, singlets and related states with enhanced lifetimes might be achievable in vivo with safe levels of RF power.

  10. Lifetime measurement of excited low-spin states via the $(p,p^{\\prime}\\gamma$) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennig, A; Mineva, M N; Petkov, P; Pickstone, S G; Spieker, M; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    In this article a method for lifetime measurements in the sub-picosecond regime via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM) following the inelastic proton scattering reaction is presented. In a pioneering experiment we extracted the lifetimes of 30 excited low-spin states of $^{96}$Ru, taking advantage of the coincident detection of scattered protons and de-exciting $\\gamma$-rays as well as the large number of particle and $\\gamma$-ray detectors provided by the SONIC@HORUS setup at the University of Cologne. The large amount of new experimental data shows that this technique is suited for the measurement of lifetimes of excited low-spin states, especially for isotopes with a low isotopic abundance, where $(n,n^{\\prime}\\gamma$) or - in case of investigating dipole excitations - ($\\gamma,\\gamma^{\\prime}$) experiments are not feasible due to the lack of sufficient isotopically enriched target material.

  11. Lifetime measurement of excited low-spin states via the $(p,p^{\\prime}?$) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Hennig; V. Derya; M. N. Mineva; P. Petkov; S. G. Pickstone; M. Spieker; A. Zilges

    2015-06-19

    In this article a method for lifetime measurements in the sub-picosecond regime via the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM) following the inelastic proton scattering reaction is presented. In a pioneering experiment we extracted the lifetimes of 30 excited low-spin states of $^{96}$Ru, taking advantage of the coincident detection of scattered protons and de-exciting $\\gamma$-rays as well as the large number of particle and $\\gamma$-ray detectors provided by the SONIC@HORUS setup at the University of Cologne. The large amount of new experimental data shows that this technique is suited for the measurement of lifetimes of excited low-spin states, especially for isotopes with a low isotopic abundance, where $(n,n^{\\prime}\\gamma$) or - in case of investigating dipole excitations - ($\\gamma,\\gamma^{\\prime}$) experiments are not feasible due to the lack of sufficient isotopically enriched target material.

  12. L Lab Building C-5 MEB Medical Examiner's Building C-10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    L Lab Building C-5 MEB Medical Examiner's Building C-10 MSI UConn Musculoskeletal Institute C-7 MUN LEGEND Abbr. Building Na me Grid A Academic Building D-4 ARC American Red Cross C-9 ASB Administrative Services Building C-7 B Building B D-4 B18 Building 18 C-7 B20 Building 20 D-4 C Clinic Building D-5 CCC

  13. Visualizing Energy Information in Commercial Buildings: A Study of Tools, Expert Users, and Building Occupants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehrer, David; Vasudev, Janani

    2011-01-01

    to improve buildings’ energy performance by offeringvisualizing the building’s energy performance, and reportshow often they view building energy or performance data, and

  14. Survey and Analysis of Weather Data for Building Energy Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, calibrated energy modeling of residential and commercial buildings has gained importance in a retrofit-dominated market. Accurate weather data plays an important role in this calibration process and projected energy savings. It would be ideal to measure weather data at the building location to capture relevant microclimate variation but this is generally considered cost-prohibitive. There are data sources publicly available with high temporal sampling rates but at relatively poor geospatial sampling locations. To overcome this limitation, there are a growing number of service providers that claim to provide real time and historical weather data for 20-35 km2 grid across the globe. Unfortunately, there is limited documentation from 3rd-party sources attesting to the accuracy of this data. This paper compares provided weather characteristics with data collected from a weather station inaccessible to the service providers. Monthly average dry bulb temperature; relative humidity; direct, diffuse and horizontal solar radiation; and wind speed are statistically compared. Moreover, we ascertain the relative contributions of each weather variable and its impact on building loads. Annual simulations are calculated for three different building types, including a closely monitored and automated energy efficient research building. The comparison shows that the difference for an individual variable can be as high as 90%. In addition, annual building energy consumption can vary by 7% while monthly building loads can vary by 40% as a function of the provided location s weather data.

  15. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings for Small Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Lane, Michael D.; Liu, Bing

    2010-04-30

    The Technical Support Document (TSD) for 50% energy savings in small office buildings documents the analysis and results for a recommended package of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) referred to as the advanced EEMs. These are changes to a building design that will reduce energy usage. The package of advanced EEMs achieves a minimum of 50% energy savings and a construction area weighted average energy savings of 56.6% over the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for 16 cities which represent the full range of climate zones in the United States. The 50% goal is for site energy usage reduction. The weighted average is based on data on the building area of construction in the various climate locations. Cost-effectiveness of the EEMs is determined showing an average simple payback of 6.7 years for all 16 climate locations. An alternative set of results is provided which includes a variable air volume HVAC system that achieves at least 50% energy savings in 7 of the 16 climate zones with a construction area weighted average savings of 48.5%. Other packages of EEMs may also achieve 50% energy savings; this report does not consider all alternatives but rather presents at least one way to reach the goal. Design teams using this TSD should follow an integrated design approach and utilize additional analysis to evaluate the specific conditions of a project.

  16. Nuclear matrix elements from direct lifetime or cross-section measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Hinton, M.; Ilie, G.; Radeck, D.

    2012-11-20

    The method of simultaneous lifetime and g factor measurements using a plunger device and the RDDS and TDRIV techniques is introduced. Results on lifetimes and hyperfine-interaction parameters for 2{sup +}{sub 1} states in {sup 104-108}Pd, {sup 96,98,104}Ru, and {sup 92,94}Zr, using a plunger device. Another method to obtain electromagnetic matrix elements is direct cross section measurements using NRF. The method is outlined, and some recent results on {sup 76}Se are shown.

  17. (Approximate) Low-Mode Averaging with a new Multigrid Eigensolver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunnar Bali; Sara Collins; Andreas Frommer; Karsten Kahl; Issaku Kanamori; Benjamin Müller; Matthias Rottmann; Jakob Simeth

    2015-09-23

    We present a multigrid based eigensolver for computing low-modes of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator. For the non-Hermitian case multigrid methods have already replaced conventional Krylov subspace solvers in many lattice QCD computations. Since the $\\gamma_5$-preserving aggregation based interpolation used in our multigrid method is valid for both, the Hermitian and the non-Hermitian case, inversions of very ill-conditioned shifted systems with the Hermitian operator become feasible. This enables the use of multigrid within shift-and-invert type eigensolvers. We show numerical results from our MPI-C implementation of a Rayleigh quotient iteration with multigrid. For state-of-the-art lattice sizes and moderate numbers of desired low-modes we achieve speed-ups of an order of magnitude and more over PARPACK. We show results and develop strategies how to make use of our eigensolver for calculating disconnected contributions to hadronic quantities that are noisy and still computationally challenging. Here, we explore the possible benefits, using our eigensolver for low-mode averaging and related methods with high and low accuracy eigenvectors. We develop a low-mode averaging type method using only a few of the smallest eigenvectors with low accuracy. This allows us to avoid expensive exact eigensolves, still benefitting from reduced statistical errors.

  18. Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleni-Alexandra Kontou

    2015-07-22

    The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a quantum inequality on a geodesic in a spacetime with small curvature, working to first order in the Ricci tensor and its derivatives. The last step is to derive a bound for the null-projected quantum inequality on a general timelike path. Finally we use that result to prove achronal ANEC in spacetimes with small curvature.

  19. Averaged null energy condition and quantum inequalities in curved spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC) states that the integral along a complete null geodesic of the projection of the stress-energy tensor onto the tangent vector to the geodesic cannot be negative. ANEC can be used to rule out spacetimes with exotic phenomena, such as closed timelike curves, superluminal travel and wormholes. We prove that ANEC is obeyed by a minimally-coupled, free quantum scalar field on any achronal null geodesic (not two points can be connected with a timelike curve) surrounded by a tubular neighborhood whose curvature is produced by a classical source. To prove ANEC we use a null-projected quantum inequality, which provides constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. Starting with a general result of Fewster and Smith, we first derive a timelike projected quantum inequality for a minimally-coupled scalar field on flat spacetime with a background potential. Using that result we proceed to find the bound of a qu...

  20. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.