Sample records for average brine constituents

  1. Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:InformationCaseType Jump

  2. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  4. acartia tonsa brine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also...

  5. Cathodic protection in oilfield brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turnipseed, S.P. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the use of cathodic protection (CP) to mitigate internal and corrosion-related failures that occur in the produced brine phase of oilfield tanks and production vessels is discussed. Unique considerations covered include brine properties, CP system selection, installation details, monitoring, and coatings.

  6. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  7. CHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, O.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemistry of silica in Cerro Prieto brine may profitably be14 mg·l-1 AND SYNTHFTIC CERRO PRIETO BRINES High Ca We112Q.by the CFE Laboratory at Cerro Prieto and kindly provided to

  8. Brining studies at Pepper Products Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoro, John Daniel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department) A. B. Childers (Member) V. E. Sweat (Member) December 1988 Abstract Optimum brining conditions, causes of secondary fermentation, and salt fluctuation were investigated. Jalapeno peppers held in brine solution undergo lactic acid... fermentation, controlled by level of acidification and concentration of salt. Only brining at 7. 5% NaCl, with no added acetic acid, resulted in loss of all fermentable sugars. However, salt concentration fluctuated widely in this sample. Brining in 25...

  9. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  10. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Operations Hypersaline...

  11. Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, Oleh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-10166 CERRO-PRIETO-12 XICAN-AMERICANCOOPERATIVE' PROGRAM T THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL FIELD ICHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES Oleh Weres Leon

  12. Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, O.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-10166 CERRO-PRIETO-12 XICAN-AMERICANCOOPERATIVE' PROGRAM T THE CERRO PRIETO GEOTHERMAL FIELD ICHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES Oleh Weres Leon

  13. THE MECHANISM OF INTRAGRANULAR MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machiels, A.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Brine Inclusions in a Salt Repository", ORM. -5526 (JulyOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT A.J. Machiels, S. Yagnik, D.R.OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by A.J. Machiels S. Yagnik D.R.

  14. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  15. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  16. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT Suresh K. Yagnik February 1982 TOF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT by Suresh K. Yagnik Materialsb u i l t in future. The salt deposits, however, are known

  17. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  18. Batteries from Brine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries from Brine March 31, 2014

  19. Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Ferrantelli; Paul Melóis; Miska Räikkönen; Martti Viljanen

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is the first in a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we adopt an analytical method, called functional optimization, to find which design and operating conditions maximize the Coefficient Of Performance of the entire cooling system (brine pumps and cooling tower), which we call ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. This is addressed as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. By maximizing such function, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can thus be determined accurately and rigorously. We investigate the importance of pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia) for average-sized ice rinks. An optimal brine density is found, and we compute the weight of the electric consumption of the brine pumps on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our formulas are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the program COMSOL Multiphysics. The multivariable approach here discussed is general, and can be applied to the rigorous preliminary study of diverse situations in building physics and in many other areas of interest.

  20. PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

  1. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of /sup 3/H, /sup 95m/Tc, and /sup 85/Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for /sup 85/Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for /sup 85/Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta.

  2. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  3. Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T.P.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

  4. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average number of Si-0 bonds per silica tetrahedron) than the synthetic samples, but a comparable degree of hydrogen bonding of the surface silanol sites.

  5. Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

  6. The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spongberg, Martin Edward

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    feasibility. The methodology is utilized to make a preliminary evaluation of a proposed brine injection project in the Dove Creek area of King and Stonewall Counties, North Central Texas. Four known deep aquifers are modeled, using the SWIFT/486 software...

  7. Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Accompanying Acidic CO2-Saturated Brine Flow in Sandstone Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    1 Up-Scaling Geochemical Reaction Rates Accompanying Acidic CO2-Saturated Brine Flow in Sandstone models. As a step toward this, network flow models were used to simulate the flow of CO2-saturated brine

  8. Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing a 1...

  9. Gas Content of Gladys McCall Reservoir Brine A Topical Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas t o brine ratio. This w i l l result i n cubic feet of methane, ethane, propane, etc. per barrel of brine, Then, the contributions from sample points are added until...

  10. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. formation water isotopes Marcellus Shale

  11. Constraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winckler, Gisela

    Constraints on origin and evolution of Red Sea brines from helium and argon isotopes Gisela November 2000 Abstract Brines from three depressions along the axis of the Red Sea, the Atlantis II II and the Discovery brines originating from locations in the central Red Sea show 4 He

  12. Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake lineae (RSL), thought to represent seasonal brines, has sparked interest in analogous environments watershed and show that this, together with small amounts of meltwater, are capable of generating brines

  13. Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems Fabrice J. Fontaine1 and brine phases. Time series of vent temperature and salinity (chlorinity) show that some black-smoker vent below seawater for over a decade, which raises important questions concerning the fate of brines

  14. of brine heterogeneity in modern sedimentary basins (6) imply inefficiency of mixing and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, C. Kevin

    of brine heterogeneity in modern sedimentary basins (6) imply inefficiency of mixing and the potential for preservation of individual, metal- charged brine reservoirs that could be tapped at some later. The observation that the texturally later brines have higher metal contents is consistent with this model

  15. Brine fluxes from growing sea ice A. J. Wells,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wettlaufer, John S.

    Brine fluxes from growing sea ice A. J. Wells,1,2 J. S. Wettlaufer,1,2,3 and S. A. Orszag2] It is well known that brine drainage from growing sea ice has a controlling influence on its mechanical oceans. When the ice has exceeded a critical thickness the drainage process is dominated by brine

  16. On the Reliability of Numerical Solutions of Brine Transport in Groundwater: Analysis of In ltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergamaschi, Luca

    On the Reliability of Numerical Solutions of Brine Transport in Groundwater: Analysis of In#12, brine transport List of symbols c normalized salt concentration c k l value of concentration on triangle:37; p.2 #12; Reliability of Numerical Simulations of Brine Transport in Groundwater 3 equivalent

  17. Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Chen

    Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines Zhenhao mineral solubility in H2S saturated brines. An example calculation for galena solubility is given. 1 gasification process.5,6 Sequestration of the gases into geological brine formation is one of the promising

  18. WERE AQUEOUS RIPPLES ON MARS FORMED BY FLOWING BRINES? MICHAEL P. LAMB, JOHN P. GROTZINGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WERE AQUEOUS RIPPLES ON MARS FORMED BY FLOWING BRINES? MICHAEL P. LAMB, JOHN P. GROTZINGER are not observed. Recent thermodynamic modeling indicates that these brines could have had higher densities (by up whether ripples could have been stable bed forms under flowing Martian brines. To this end, we compiled

  19. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Energy Science and Technology Div.; Bajsarowicz, V. [CET Environmental Services, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); McCloud, M. [C.E. Holt/California Energy, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

  20. Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Suzanne Rene

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution reduced the 41 120 100 0 0 80 E CL CL CV g 60 CL 40 20 ? ~ 0:23, CaCI2. NaCI ? ? & 5:18, Caclz. NaCI ? ? 0 8:15, CaCI2. NaCI 0 4 6 Days on Ice 10 Figure 13-Residual sulfur dioxide on thawed brine frozen shrimp frozen... freezing for two trials. 34 13-Residual sulfur dioxide on thawed brine frozen shrimp frozen in different brine immersion media 41 Figure 14- Black spot development on thawed brine frozen shrimp frozen in different brine immersion media Page 42...

  1. Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.M.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

  2. 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    44 2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE of imbibition or oil production rate, particularly after seven days or more aging time with oil. However in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine

  3. A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

  4. Apparatus and method for separating constituents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

  5. Foot-conditioned phonotactics and prosodic constituency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Ryan Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    constituency by Ryan T. Bennett There has been a recurrentin LINGUISTICS by Ryan T. Bennett September 2012 TheDissertation of Ryan T. Bennett is approved: Professor Junko

  6. Pressure Buildup and Brine Migration During CO2 Storage in Multilayered Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    . Introduction Carbon dioxide capture combined with geologic stor- age (CCS) in suitable subsurface formations-6584.2012.00972.x potentially creating far-ranging pressure buildup and brine displacement in deep CO2 storage of resident brine caused by CCS operations require modeling/analysis tools of considerable complexity (Celia

  7. Conservative behavior of uranium vs. salinity in Arctic sea ice and brine Christelle Not a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Available online 23 December 2011 Keywords: Uranium Salinity Sea ice Brine Seawater Arctic UraniumConservative behavior of uranium vs. salinity in Arctic sea ice and brine Christelle Not a, ,1 disequilibrium The conservative behavior of uranium (U) with respect to salinity in open ocean waters is widely

  8. RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØ-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment project. Abstract. A mathematical model for the brine migration in rock salt around an infinite line heat source is set up. The tempera- ture field around the time dependent heat source is calculated by use

  9. Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    -concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data, significantly less ex- perimental research has been conducted to investigate high-concentration (e.g., brine

  10. PII S0016-7037(01)00901-2 Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grottoli, Andréa G.

    PII S0016-7037(01)00901-2 Effect of light and brine shrimp on skeletal 13 C in the Hawaiian coral, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. Decreases in light from 100% resulted in significant decreases. Increases in brine shrimp concentrations resulted in increased skeletal 13 C levels. This unexpected outcome

  11. Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine rejection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Dense water formation on the northwestern shelf of the Okhotsk Sea: 1. Direct observations of brine 2004; accepted 21 April 2004; published 1 July 2004. [1] Dense Shelf Water (DSW) formation due to brine this period. The density increase terminated abruptly in late February, while the active brine rejection

  12. PII S0016-7037(01)00579-8 The origin and evolution of base metal mineralising brines and hydrothermal fluids,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, David

    PII S0016-7037(01)00579-8 The origin and evolution of base metal mineralising brines are the source of the mineralising fluids. Cl and Br systematics suggest that the brines were formed either cation composition (Na, Ca, K, Mg) of the brines is not consistent solely with evaporation processes

  13. Probing the Constituent Structure of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lukas Gruending; Stefan Hofmann; Sophia Müller; Tehseen Rug

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the cross section for scattering processes between graviton emitters on the near side of a Schwarzschild surface and absorbers on its far side, that is black hole constituents. We show that these scatterings allow to directly extract structural observables such as the momentum distribution of black hole constituents. For this we employ a quantum bound state description originally developed in quantum chromodynamics and recently applied to general relativity that allows to consider black holes in a relativistic Hartree like framework.

  14. Hazardous constituent source term. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has several facilities that either generate and/or store transuranic (TRU)-waste from weapons program research and production. Much of this waste also contains hazardous waste constituents as regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Toxicity characteristic metals in the waste principally include lead, occurring in leaded rubber gloves and shielding. Other RCRA metals may occur as contaminants in pyrochemical salt, soil, debris, and sludge and solidified liquids, as well as in equipment resulting from decontamination and decommissioning activities. Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) contaminate many waste forms as a residue adsorbed on surfaces or occur in sludge and solidified liquids. Due to the presence of these hazardous constituents, applicable disposal regulations include land disposal restrictions established by Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The DOE plans to dispose of TRU-mixed waste from the weapons program in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by demonstrating no-migration of hazardous constituents. This paper documents the current technical basis for methodologies proposed to develop a post-closure RCRA hazardous constituent source term. For the purposes of demonstrating no-migration, the hazardous constituent source term is defined as the quantities of hazardous constituents that are available for transport after repository closure. Development of the source term is only one of several activities that will be involved in the no-migration demonstration. The demonstration will also include uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of contaminant transport.

  15. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol. Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning...

  16. Seizing a species : the story of the Great Salt Lake brine shrimp harvest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wotipka, Samuel Alex

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1950s, C.C. "Sparkplug" Sanders began harvesting brine shrimp from Utah's Great Salt Lake. Sanders built up a small business selling their eggs, called "cysts, to aquarium stores across the country. During the ...

  17. Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin, Algerian. The chemical and mineralogical specificity of this hyperarid ecosystem has been compared to other areas under

  18. Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

  19. New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water contaminated with hydrocarbons often results during the production of oil. The polluted water, which may be naturally occurring or a result of water or steam flooding operations, must be cleaned before disposal or re-injection. These brines...

  20. Pathogenicity of a pseudomonad bacterium to larvae of penaeid and brine shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Chu-Liang

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Veterinary Microbiology PATHOGENICITY OF A PSEUDOMONAD BACTERIUM TO LARVAE OF PENAEID AND BRINE SHRIMP A Thesis by CHU-LIANG HUANG Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member...) (Member) (Head of Department) August 1982 ABSTRACT Pathogenicity of a Pseudomonad Bacterium to Larvae of Penaeid and Brine Shrimp (August 1982) Chu-Liang Huang, B. S , National Taiwan University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Donald H. Lewis A...

  1. Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olander, D.R.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

  2. Hard-bottom macrofauna of the East Flower Garden brine seep: impact of a long term, point-source brine discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gittings, Stephen Reed

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    canyon transect were sta- tions R6 and R7, both of which were on top of Cottonwick Rock, ap- proximately 2 m above the canyon floor. Figure 5 (p. 12) shows that salinity and sulfide at these stations were at normal marine levels. Though the total...HARD-BOT1'OM MACROFAUNA OF THE EAST FLOWER GARDEN BRINE SEEP: IMPACT OF A LONG TERM, POINT-SOURCE BRINE DISCHARGE A Thesis by STEPHEN REED GITTINGS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  3. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  4. Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

  5. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

  6. Sorption of cesium and strontium from concentrated brines by backfill barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winslow, C D

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption of radionuclides from potentially intruding groundwater at a nuclear waste repository is a major chemical function of backfill barriers. In this study, various materials (including clays, zeolites and an inorganic ion exchanger) were screened for the sorption of the fission products cesium and strontium in concentrated brines. Representative brines A and B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed radioactive waste repository and test facility in bedded salt were used. Sorption properties were quantified using empirical distribution coefficients, k/sub d/. Of the materials examined, sodium titanate had the highest k/sub d/ for the sorption of Sr(II) in both brine A (k/sub d/ = 125 ml/g) and brine B(k/sub d/ = 500 to 600 ml/g). A mordenite-type zeolite was the most effective getter for Cs(I) in brine A (k/sub d = 27 ml/g), while illite yielded the highest k/sub d/ for Cs(I) in brine B (k/sub d/ = 115 ml/g). The relative merit of these k/sub d/ values is evaluated in terms of calculated estimates of breakthrough times for a backfill barrier containing the getter. Results show that a backfill mixture containing these getters is potentially an effective barrier to the migration of Sr(II) and Cs(I), although further study (especially for the sorption of cesium from brine A) is recommended. Initial mechanistic studies revealed competing ion effects which would support an ion exchange mechanism. K/sub d/'s were constant over a Sr(II) concentration range of 10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -5/ M and a Cs(I) concentration range of 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -5/ M, supporting the choice of a linear sorption isotherm as a model for the results. Constant batch composition was shown to be attained within one week.

  7. Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with supercritical CO2 and brine: Pore-scale studies in micromodels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Y.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accumulation of residual water in pendular structuresAfter drainage, the residual water remained as thick filmsdisplaced brine), the residual water was initially retained

  8. Calculation of size for bound-state constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanislaw D. Glazek

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elements are given of a calculation that identifies the size of a proton in the Schroedinger equation for lepton-proton bound states, using the renormalization group procedure for effective particles (RGPEP) in quantum field theory, executed only up to the second order of expansion in powers of the coupling constant. Already in this crude approximation, the extraction of size of a proton from bound-state observables is found to depend on the lepton mass, so that the smaller the lepton mass the larger the proton size extracted from the same observable bound-state energy splitting. In comparison of Hydrogen and muon-proton bound-state dynamics, the crude calculation suggests that the difference between extracted proton sizes in these two cases can be a few percent. Such values would match the order of magnitude of currently discussed proton-size differences in leptonic atoms. Calculations using the RGPEP of higher order than second are required for a precise interpretation of the energy splittings in terms of the proton size in the Schroedinger equation. Such calculations should resolve the conceptual discrepancy between two conditions: that the renormalization group scale required for high accuracy calculations based on the Schroedinger equation is much smaller than the proton mass (on the order of a root of the product of reduced and average masses of constituents) and that the energy splittings due to the physical proton size can be interpreted ignoring corrections due to the effective nature of constituents in the Schr\\"odinger equation.

  9. Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

    2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

  10. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

  11. Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an ``ice-sealed'' east

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priscu, John C.

    Formation and character of an ancient 19-m ice cover and underlying trapped brine in an ``ice bed year-round. New ice-core analysis and tempera- ture data show that beneath 19 m of ice is a water°C. The ice cover thickens at both its base and surface, sealing concentrated brine beneath. The ice

  13. Repassivation of 13% Cr steel dependent on brine pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skogsberg, J.W.; Walker, M.L.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A joint laboratory project, involving an oil production and oil well service company, investigated repassivation of martensitic 13% Cr steel. The rate at which this alloy is repassivated after losing its protective passive oxide layer to hydrochloric acid (HCI) depended on the pH of the spent acid returns. Test samples of 13% Cr cut from oilfield tubing were subjected to a fluid sequence of (1) initial brine, (2) HCI, (3) spent acid, and (4) final brine. In 9 days, the samples regained their passive oxide layers. When spent acid was taken out of the fluid sequence, the samples regained passive oxide layers in 3 days.

  14. Brine transport studies in the bedded salt of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McTigue, D.F.; Nowak, E.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brine flow has been measured to unheated boreholes for periods of a few days and to heated holes for two years in the WIPP facility. It is suggested that Darcy flow may dominate the observed influx of brine. Exact solutions to a linearized model for one-dimensional, radial flow are evaluated for conditions approximating the field experiments. Flow rates of the correct order of magnitude are calculated for permeabilities in the range 10/sup -21/ to 10/sup -20/ m/sup 2/ (1 to 10 nanodarcy) for both the unheated and heated cases. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, James Cannon

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1971 Major Subject: Food Technology ENZYMATIC SOLUBILIZATION OF NITROGENOUS CONSTITUENTS OF CARROTS A Thesis by James Cannon Curry Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o ittee) (Head of Department) (Member) ( Member) (Mem r) May... is extended to the Intensified Food Crop Produc- tion Group of the Nuplex Program at Texas ARM University for thei r assistance. Also, appreciation is expressed to Miles Laboratories, Inc. and Rohm and Haas, Inc. for thei r kindness i n providing...

  16. Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

  17. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient...

  18. Brine release based on structural calculations of damage around an excavation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Jensen, A.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a large in situ experimntal circular room, brine inflow was measured over 5 years. After correcting for evaporation losses into mine ventilation air, the measurements gave data for a period of nearly 3 years. Predicted brine accumulation based on a mechanical ``snow plow`` model of the volume swept by creep-induced damage as calculated with the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model was found to agree with experiment. Calculation suggests the damage zone at 5 years effectively exends only some 0.7 m into the salt around the room. Also, because the mecahnical model of brine release gives an adequate explanation of the measured data, the hydrological process of brine flow appears to be rapid compared to the mechanical process of brine release.

  19. Instantons and Constituent Monopoles, nine years later Pierre van Baal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Baal, Pierre

    -called holon- omy) is non-trivial. They reveal more clearly the monopole constituent nature of these calorons

  20. Ambient methods and apparatus for rapid laser trace constituent analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Stuart C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Partin, Judy K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jeffery, Charles L. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring trace amounts of constituents in samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence under ambient conditions. The laser induced fluorescence is performed at a selected wavelength corresponding to an absorption state of a selected trace constituent. The intensity value of the emission decay signal which is generated by the trace constituent is compared to calibrated emission intensity decay values to determine the amount of trace constituent present.

  1. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  2. PII S0016-7037(00)00369-0 Ra isotopes and Rn in brines and ground waters of the Jordan-Dead Sea Rift Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yehoshua, Kolodny

    PII S0016-7037(00)00369-0 Ra isotopes and Rn in brines and ground waters of the Jordan-Dead Sea Valley waters being mixtures of fresh water with saline brines. Ra is efficiently extracted from surrounding rocks into the brine end member. 228 Ra/226 Ra ratios are exceptionally low 0.07 to 0.9, mostly

  3. PII S0016-7037(99)00441-X Sub sea floor boiling of Red Sea Brines: New indication from noble gas data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winckler, Gisela

    PII S0016-7037(99)00441-X Sub sea floor boiling of Red Sea Brines: New indication from noble gas in revised form December 8, 1999) Abstract--Hydrothermal brines from the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea, have been depressions filled by highly saline brines (Hartmann et al., 1998a). The Atlantis II Deep, located

  4. Brine-assisted anatexis: Experimental melting in the system haplograniteH2ONaClKCl at deep-crustal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    Brine-assisted anatexis: Experimental melting in the system haplogranite­H2O­NaCl­KCl at deep2O ¼ 0:34 it is 0.55. This "brine trend" is similar to, but more pronounced than, the trend-rich granites. Minimum-melting curves in the presence of brines of constant XH2O have strongly positive d

  5. NOBOB-S: Salinity/Brine Exposure as a Biocide for Application to NOBOB Residuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , eggs and spores of many taxa within the sediments and residual water of their ballast tanks (Niimi a voluntary "best management practices" approach for residual ballast water and sediment for NOBOB vesselsNOBOB-S: Salinity/Brine Exposure as a Biocide for Application to NOBOB Residuals Primary

  6. Nonlinear Thermal Transport and Brine Convection in First Year Sea Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonlinear Thermal Transport and Brine Convection in First Year Sea Ice M.J. McGuinness \\Lambda , H a programme recently set up to directly measure the thermal conductivity of young sea ice. An array of thermistors frozen into first­year Antarctic sea ice provides temperature against depth data, which is fitted

  7. Selenium Biotransformations in an Engineered Aquatic Ecosystem for Bioremediation of Agricultural Wastewater via Brine Shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selenium Biotransformations in an Engineered Aquatic Ecosystem for Bioremediation of Agricultural Wastewater via Brine Shrimp Production Radomir Schmidt,, Prapakorn Tantoyotai, Sirine C. Fakra, Matthew A, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2, Canada United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, SJVASC

  8. Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furrow, Brendan Eugene

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods...

  9. Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almasri, Dema A

    2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate is one of the most problematic ions present in reject brine in desalination systems due to its high potential of scale formation and membrane fouling; making it an obstacle in the application of zero liquid discharge. The ultra-high lime...

  10. Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost Effectiveness Stephen J in Method? #12;Deicing and Anti-icing Treatments ·Sodium Chloride (NaCl) ·Cargill, NA Salt ·Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger

  11. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

  12. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  13. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  14. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2283­2300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 ­ Accepted: 9 March 2004 ­ Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  15. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greensite, Jeff

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  16. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeff Greensite; Adam P. Szczepaniak

    2015-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  17. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO/sub 4/ values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines.

  18. West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.) [eds.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  19. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  20. Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

  1. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  2. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  3. Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almasri, Dema A

    2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    SULFATE REMOVAL FROM REJECT BRINED IN INLAND DESALINATION WITH ZERO LIQUID DISCHARGE A Thesis by DEMA ALMASRI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and help. I am thankful for my colleagues for their inspiration and assistance throughout the years in Texas A&M at Qatar. I am also grateful to my exceptional friends that were always there during my ups and downs. I am thankful for my irreplaceable...

  4. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  5. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO?-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore »proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO?. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO? will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO? driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir conditions. Our research has shown that the REE signature imparted to the formation fluid by the introduction of CO? to the formation, can be measured and tracked as part of an MMV program. Additionally, this REE fingerprint may serve as an ideal tracer for fluid migration, both within the CCS target formation, and should formation fluids migrate into overlying aquifers. However application of REE and other trace elements to CCS system is complicated by the high salt content of the brines contained within the target formations. In the United States by regulation, in order for a geologic reservoir to be considered suitable for carbon storage, it must contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) > 10,000 ppm, and in most cases formation brines have TDS well in excess of that threshold. The high salinity of these brines creates analytical problems for elemental analysis, including element interference with trace metals in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) (i.e. element mass overlap due to oxide or plasma phenomenon). Additionally, instruments like the ICP-MS that are sensitive enough to measure trace elements down to the parts per trillion level are quickly oversaturated when water TDS exceeds much more than 1,000 ppm. Normally this problem is dealt with through dilution of the sample, bringing the water chemistry into the instruments working range. However, dilution is not an option when analyzing these formation brines for trace metals, because trace elements, specifically the REE, which occur in aqueous solutions at the parts per trillion levels. Any dilution of the sample would make REE detection impossible. Therefore, the ability to use trace metals as in situ natural tracers in high TDS brines environments requires the development of methods for pre-concentrating trace elements, while reducing the salinity and associated elemental interference such that the brines can be routinely analyzed by standard ICP-MS methods. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL-CAES has developed a rapid, easy to use proces

  6. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  7. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and for three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Uchiyama, Masanori; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system of benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and its constituent binary systems of benzene + cyclohexane, cyclohexane + 1-propanol, and benzene + 1-propanol at 323.15 and 333.15 K, using the apparatus proposed in a previous study. The experimental binary data were correlated using the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters. The average absolute percent deviations between the predicted and experimental ternary total pressures are 0.5% at 323.15 K and 0.4% at 333.15 K.

  8. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  9. Relating polymer matrix composite delamination behavior to constituent properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, Jeremy R. (Jeremy Ryan), 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing predictive capabilities of composite material behavior from constituent properties is an important component of accelerating materials insertion. Many models exist that accomplish this objective for a range of ...

  10. Nature and Chlorine Reactivity of Organic Constituents from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    degradation, N-acetyl amino sugars and proteins from bacterial activity, and natural fulvic acid, whereas DOM area. Two particular concerns are lack of characterization of organic constituents in reclaimed water

  11. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soung, Wen Y. (Houston, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  12. Development of a flow injection analysis method for the determination of acrylamide copolymers in oilfield brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.C.; Burke, R.A.; Schramm, L.L. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated method for the determination of acrylamide polymers by flow injection analysis (FIA) has been developed and optimized for routine use. The method has been extensively tested for interferences common in oilfield brines. Potential interferences were examined from Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Zr{sup 3+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, sample coloration, and commonly used surfactants. The analysis is specific for amides, and the sensitivity to concentration of amide groups in the polymer was shown to be constant as the degree of polymer hydrolysis was varied. The range of the method is 0.1 to 100 mg/L. Sample throughput is 30 samples/h with triplicate analysis. Relative standard deviations of 0.2% are readily obtained from standard solutions and 0.5% from complex samples (at 50 mg/L). The method is applicable to the determination of aqueous, acrylamide-based polymers in process streams, surface waters and oilfield brines.

  13. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  14. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  15. Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

  16. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

  17. Barton, M.D.and Johnson, D.A., 2000 -Alternative Brine Sources for Fe-Oxide (-Cu-Au) Systems: Implications for Hydrothermal Alteration and Metals; in Porter, T.M. (Ed.),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Mark D.

    Barton, M.D.and Johnson, D.A., 2000 -Alternative Brine Sources for Fe-Oxide (-Cu-Au) Systems-Gold &Related Deposits: AGlobal Perspective, Australian Mineral Foundation, Adelaide, pp 43-60 ALTERNATIVE BRINE, and the broader geologic setting(s). Geologic and geochemical evidence show that the ore-forming fluids are brines

  18. Predicting PVT data for CO2brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    Predicting PVT data for CO2­brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage efficiency of the black-oil approach promote application of black-oil simulation for large-scale geological into geological formations has been considered as a potential method to mitigate climate change. Accurate

  19. Macro-and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing with Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Macro- and Microscale Waterflooding Performances of Crudes which form w/o Emulsions upon Mixing with Brines N. Rezaei and A. Firoozabadi*,, Reservoir Engineering Research Institute, 595 Lytton Avenue, Palo ABSTRACT: We study the micro- and macroscale waterflooding performances of unusual crudes which naturally

  20. 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    , followed by waterflooding, were performed at reservoir conditions to investigate rock wettability. A two Berea and Spraberry cores at reservoir conditions to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding- 31 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 STUDY OF WATERFLOODING PROCESS

  1. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  2. Unconventional gas sources. Executive summary. [Coal seams, Devonian shale, geopressured brines, tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long lead time required for conversion from oil or gas to coal and for development of a synthetic fuel industry dictates that oil and gas must continue to supply the United States with the majority of its energy requirements over the near term. In the interim period, the nation must seek a resource that can be developed quickly, incrementally, and with as few environmental concerns as possible. One option which could potentially fit these requirements is to explore for, drill, and produce unconventional gas: Devonian Shale gas, coal seam gas, gas dissolved in geopressured brines, and gas from tight reservoirs. This report addresses the significance of these sources and the economic and technical conditions under which they could be developed.

  3. Unnatural landscapes in ecology: Generating the spatial distribution of brine spills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Sublette, K. [University of Tulsa; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative tools are needed to evaluate the ecological effects of increasing petroleum production. In this article, we describe two stochastic models for simulating the spatial distribution of brine spills on a landscape. One model uses general assumptions about the spatial arrangement of spills and their sizes; the second model distributes spills by siting rectangular well complexes and conditioning spill probabilities on the configuration of pipes. We present maps of landscapes with spills produced by the two methods and compare the ability of the models to reproduce a specified spill area. A strength of the models presented here is their ability to extrapolate from the existing landscape to simulate landscapes with a higher (or lower) density of oil wells.

  4. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  5. A Simple Mixture Theory for ? Newtonian and Generalized Newtonian Constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael Joseph

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ] based on the following notations L(?) = gradv?(x, t) D(?) = 1 2 ( L(?) + L T (?) ) q = ?? ?=1 q? Q = 1 ?m ?? ?=1 ??Q? ? = 1 ?m ?? ?=1 ????(x, t) pi = ?pi1 = pi2 (2.39) 13 In which q is heat flux, Q is heat supply, ? and ?? are entropy densities... of the mixture and the constituents. We begin with the entropy inequality ?m D? Dt + div (q ? ) ? ? Q ? ? 0 (2.40) We have assumed that entropy due to heat flux q? is q? ? where ? is the common temperature of the constituents and the entropy due to heat supply Q?...

  6. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...

  7. Method for verification of constituents of a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baylor, L.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is comprised of a method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferable also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

  8. Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model with a Meson Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Y. Chen; Y. B. Dong; M. M. Giannini; E. Santopinto

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The results for the elastic nucleon form factors and the electromagnetic transition amplitudes to the Delta(1232) resonance, obtained with the Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model with the inclusion of a meson cloud correction are briefly presented. The pion cloud effects are explicitly discussed.

  9. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  10. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  11. CO2-Brine Surface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement Paul Emeka Eke, SPE, Mark Naylor, Stuart Haszeldine and Andrew Curtis, Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is capable of reducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases from coal or gas fired power plants or supercritical phase, as water-alternating gas cycles, or as carbonated brine. These result in different

  12. Effects of a sulfide system produced by a natural brine seep on sandy-bottom community structure at the East Flower Garden Bank, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Edward Andrew

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    30%. Videophotography and doppler-based rangefinder measurements were used to map the seep area. Current measurements of the brine stream were made using a Savonius rotor attached to the manipulator Analysis of data was carried out using...

  13. Benefits and costs of brine extraction for increasing injection efficiency in geologic CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).

  14. Determination of imidazoline and amido-amine type corrosion inhibitors in both crude oil and produced brine from oilfield production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matherly, R.M.; Jiao, J. [Baker Performance Chemicals, Houston, TX (United States); Blumer, D.J. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Ryman, J.S. [Baker Performance Chemicals, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical method for the determination of corrosion inhibitors in oilfield brines is the dye transfer method. Within this method are many variations which the analyst may use to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor in either water or crude oil. These methods, however, suffer from many interferences which result in both false positive and negatives for corrosion inhibitor content. These methods essentially detect all amines as corrosion inhibitors. Improved high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been developed for the analysis of quaternary salt type corrosion inhibitors in brine waters, however, these methods do not appear to work in crude oil or for other forms of corrosion inhibitors such as the imidazolines, and amido-amines. This paper presents a method for the quantitative analysis of the imidazoline and amido-amine type corrosion inhibitors in both oilfield water and crude oil samples by HPLC. The corrosion inhibitor of interest is first separated from the matrix on a small column, then derivatized to form a product which is both sensitive and selective on a fluorescence detector. Detection limits for imidazolines are around 0.2 mg/L, amides and amines are similar. The advantage of this procedure is it can be used to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor in both oil and brine water phases as well as on solid surfaces.

  15. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  16. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  17. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  18. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  19. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  20. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  1. Problems #3, Math 204, Dr. M. Bohner. Sep 10, 2003. Due Sep 15, 11 am. 12. A tank has ten gallons of water in which two pounds of salt has been dissolved. Brine with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohner, Martin

    of water in which two pounds of salt has been dissolved. Brine with 1.5 pound of salt per gallon enters

  2. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  3. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  4. Effect of debonded interfaces on corrosion of mild steel composites in supercritical CO2-saturated brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} is a proposed method to limit greenhouse gas emissions and has been the subject of many studies in the last decade. Wellbore systems achieve isolation of the storage reservoir through a combination of steel (generally carbon steel) and Portland cement. CO{sub 2} leakage along the steel-cement interface has the potential to accelerate corrosion. We conduct experiments to assess the corrosion risk at cement-steel interface under in situ wellbore conditions. Wellbore interfaces were simulated by assemblies constructed of J55 mild steel and Portland class G (Epoxy was used in this study to separate) cement and corrosion was investigated in supercritical CO{sub 2} saturated brines, (NaCl = 1 wt%) at T = 50 C, pCO{sub 2} = 1200 psi with interface gap size = 100 {micro}m and {infinity} (open surface). The experiments were carried out in a high-pressure, 1.8 L autoclave. The corrosion kinetics were measured employing electrochemical techniques including linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The corrosion scales were analyzed using secondary electron microscopy, back scattering electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Corrosion rates decreased as time with or without interface gap. In this case corrosion rates are controlled by scale protectivity through the interface gap. Scaled steel corrosion rates were two orders of magnitude less compared with fresh steel. The corrosion scale is pseudo crystalline at the open interface. Well-crystallized scale was observed at interface gap sizes 100 {micro}m. All corrosion scales were composed of iron carbonates.

  5. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  6. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  7. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  8. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessments for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Direct brine release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STOELZEL,D.M.; O'BRIEN,D.G.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SCOTT,L.N.

    2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The following topics related to the treatment of direct brine releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented analyses indicate that direct brine releases do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for direct brine releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (4O CFR 191.40 CFR 194).

  9. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO{sub 2}-Acidified Brine Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel ternary segmentation method was devised to handle the degraded zones, allowing for a bounding analysis of the effects on hydraulic properties. We found that the degraded zones account for less than 15% of the fracture volume, but cover 70% to 80% of the fracture surface. When the degraded zones are treated as part of the fracture, the fracture transmissivities are two to four times larger because the fracture surfaces after reaction are not as rough as they would be if one considers the degraded zone as part of the rock. Therefore, while degraded zones created during geochemical reactions may not significantly increase mechanical aperture, this type of feature cannot be ignored and should be treated with prudence when predicting fracture hydrodynamic properties.

  10. Calcite dissolution kinetics and solubility in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl brines of geologically relevant composition at 0.1 to 1 bar pCO2 and 25 to 80°C 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gledhill, Dwight Kuehl

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    injection of CO2. This study measured calcite solubility and dissolution rates in geologically relevant Na-Ca-Mg-Cl synthetic brines (35 to 200 g L-1 TDS). In brines < 50 g L-1 TDS, the EQPITZER calculated calcium carbonate ion activity product (IAP...

  11. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

  12. Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Morrow, N.R.; Ma, S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) and related ensembles showed that wettability and its effect on oil recovery depend on numerous complex interactions. In the present work, the wettability of COBR ensembles prepared using Prudhoe Bay crude oil, a synthetic formation brine, and Berea Sandstone was varied by systematic change in initial water saturation and length of aging time at reservoir temperature (88 C). All displacement tests were run at ambient temperature. Various degrees of water wetness were achieved and quantified by a modified Amott wettability index to water, the relative pseudo work of imbibition, and a newly defined apparent advancing dynamic contact angle. Pairs of spontaneous imbibition (oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of water) and waterflood (oil recovery vs. pore volumes of water injected) curves were measured for each of the induced wetting states. Several trends were observed. Imbibition rate, and hence water wetness, decreased with increase in aging time and with decrease in initial water saturation. Breakthrough recoveries and final oil recovery by waterflooding increased with decrease in water wetness. Correlations between water wetness and oil recovery by waterflooding and spontaneous imbibition are presented.

  13. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  14. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Flagan, R.C. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Sarofim, A.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical objectives of this project are: (a) To (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; (b) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (c) To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the distribution and nature of products. This report represents work accomplished in the tenth quarter of performance on the contract. The authors specifically highlight work accomplished: at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on developing and constructing a thermophoretic sampling probe, for submicron fume particle sampling; at MIT on (1) completion of the baseline ash particle size distribution measurements for seven program coals (five US and two Australian), and (2) analysis of the fragmentation model results in terms of a closed-form solution for a simplified case; at the University of Arizona, on obtaining detailed ash particle and submicron fume chemistry for four program coals; and at PSI Technology Company (PSIT) on concluding data analysis and describing mineral interaction trends observed during combustion of two program coals. Individual progress reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  16. Client perceptions of university computing services from the faculty computing skills constituency perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claybourn, C. Kay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlation matrix of constituencies and informal computer experience items. 71 xiv LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE Page 21 Correlation matrix of constituencies and expectations of the work situation. . employees computing . . 74 fectiveness of 22... refer to the sociological definition of groups, two or more people who have a high degree of common identity and who interact on a regular basis (Macionis, 1 989). Computer users can be divided into groups, or constituencies (Connolly, Conlon...

  17. The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

    1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    586-914-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 169 SEPTEMBER, 19I4 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluble Constituents of Feedstuffs BY J. B. RATHER Assistant Chemist POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION............................................................................................................. 5 An Improved Method for the Determination of Total Fatty Acids and Other Constituents of Ether Extracts................................... 7 A New Method for the Extraction of Total Fatty Acids and Other Constituents of Feed Stuffs...

  18. Client perceptions of university computing services from the faculty computing skills constituency perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claybourn, C. Kay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlation matrix of constituencies and informal computer experience items. 71 xiv LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE Page 21 Correlation matrix of constituencies and expectations of the work situation. . employees computing . . 74 fectiveness of 22... refer to the sociological definition of groups, two or more people who have a high degree of common identity and who interact on a regular basis (Macionis, 1 989). Computer users can be divided into groups, or constituencies (Connolly, Conlon...

  19. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  20. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  1. Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate Arnaud Réveillère, Jérémy Rohmer, Frédéric Wertz / contact the leak, and of CO2,g as a first approach. Compared to the state of the art, it adds the possibility

  2. New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool via in situ mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girguis, Peter R.

    , likely exceeding reserves of conventional oil and gas (Collett and Kuuskraa, 1998). In deep-ocean regionsNew constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico Keywords: Methane flux Mass spectrometer Brine pool Methane oxidation Gulf of Mexico a b s t r a c t Deep

  3. (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine in the United States was a brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only commercially active lithium mine in the United States was a brine operation in Nevada. The mine's production capacity was expanded in 2012, and a new lithium hydroxide plant opened in North

  4. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  5. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  6. 1. Constituents of rainwater 2. pH and pKa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Acid Rain Outline: 1. Constituents of rainwater 2. pH and pKa 3. Sources of acid rain 4. Adverse e#11;ects of acid rain 5. Controls 1: Constituents of rainwater #15; Gases are soluble in water: Henry. Strong acids formed upon dissolving: H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 3 . #12; Chemistry of Acid Rain #15; NO 2

  7. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of egg production and some constituents of blood serum in Fayoumi layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Genetic and phenotypic parameters of egg production and some constituents of blood serum in Fayoumi (i) egg production beside the following blood serum constituents: (2) inorganic phosphorus, (3 the daughters of 40 sires and 241 dams. Blood serum analyses were done using the Sequential Multiple Auto

  8. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  9. How Likely are Constituent Quanta to Initiate Inflation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berezhiani, Lasha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an intuitive framework for studying the problem of initial conditions in slow-roll inflation. In particular, we consider a universe at high, but sub-Planckian energy density and analyze the circumstances under which it is plausible for it to become dominated by inflated patches at late times, without appealing to the idea of self-reproduction. Our approach is based on defining a prior probability distribution for the constituent quanta of the pre-inflationary universe. To test the idea that inflation can begin under very generic circumstances, we make specific -- yet quite general and well grounded -- assumptions on the prior distribution. As a result, we are led to the conclusion that the probability for a given region to ignite inflation at sub-Planckian densities is extremely small. Furthermore, if one chooses to use the enormous volume factor that inflation yields as an appropriate measure, we find that the regions of the universe which started inflating at densities below the self-reproductive...

  10. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  11. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  12. Using a multiphase flow code to model the coupled effects of repository consolidation and multiphase brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A. [INTERA Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term repository assessment must consider the processes of (1) gas generation, (2) room closure and expansions due to salt creep, and (3) multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the complex coupling between these three processes. The mechanical creep closure code SANCHO was used to simulate the closure of a single, perfectly sealed disposal room filled with water and backfill. SANCHO uses constitutive models to describe salt creep, waste consolidation, and backfill consolidation, Five different gas-generation rate histories were simulated, differentiated by a rate multiplier, f, which ranged from 0.0 (no gas generation) to 1.0 (expected gas generation under brine-dominated conditions). The results of the SANCHO f-series simulations provide a relationship between gas generation, room closure, and room pressure for a perfectly sealed room. Several methods for coupling this relationship with multiphase fluid flow into and out of a room were examined. Two of the methods are described.

  13. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  14. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  15. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  16. Texas County Extension Agents Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Using Facebook to Communicate with Constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Lacey

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and perceptions using social media, Facebook in particular, to communicate with constituents. The participants in the study were a randomly selected group of Texas extension agents. A web-based questionnaire was used to measure the perceived level of confidence...

  17. Method and apparatus for the removal of bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Timothy (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  18. Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

  19. Texas County Extension Agents Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Using Facebook to Communicate with Constituents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Lacey

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and perceptions using social media, Facebook in particular, to communicate with constituents. The participants in the study were a randomly selected group of Texas extension agents. A web-based questionnaire was used to measure the perceived level of confidence...

  20. Evaluation of experimentally measured and model-calculated pH for rock-brine-CO2 systems under geologic CO2 sequestration conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, Christopher J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pH is an essential parameter for understanding the geochemical reactions that occur in rock-brine-CO2 systems when CO2 is injected into deep geologic formations for long-term storage. Due to a lack of reliable experimental methods, most laboratory studies conducted under geological CO2 sequestration (GCS) conditions have relied on thermodynamic modeling to estimate pH. The accuracy of these model predictions is typically uncertain. In our previous work, we have developed a method for pH determination by in-situ spectrophotometry. In the present work, we expanded the applicable pH range for this method and measured the pH of several rock-brine-CO2 systems at GCS conditions for five rock samples collected from ongoing GCS demonstration projects. Experimental measurements were compared with pH values calculated using several geochemical modeling approaches. The effect of different thermodynamic databases on the accuracy of model prediction was evaluated. Results indicate that the accuracy of model calculations is rock-dependent. For rocks comprised of carbonate and sandstone, model results generally agreed well with experimentally measured pH; however, for basalt, significant differences were observed. These discrepancies may be due to the models’ failure to fully account for certain reaction occurring between the basalt minerals the CO2-saturated brine solutions.

  1. Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Doughty, C.A.

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Crosswell CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring) data was acquired as part of the Frio-II brine pilot CO{sub 2} injection experiment. To gain insight into the CO{sub 2} plume evolution, we have integrated the 3D multiphase flow modeling code TOUGH2 with seismic simulation codes via a petrophysical model that predicts seismic velocity for a given CO{sub 2} saturation. Results of forward seismic modeling based on the CO{sub 2} saturation distribution produced by an initial TOUGH2 model compare poorly with the CASSM data, indicating that the initial flow model did not capture the actual CO{sub 2} plume dynamics. Updates to the TOUGH2 model required to better match the CASSM field data indicate vertical flow near the injection well, with increased horizontal plume growth occurring at the top of the reservoir sand. The CASSM continuous delay time data are ideal for constraining the modeled spatiotemporal evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume and allow improvement in reservoir model and estimation of CO{sub 2} plume properties.

  2. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  3. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  4. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  5. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  6. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  7. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  8. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  9. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  10. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  11. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  12. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  13. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  14. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  15. Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  16. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

  17. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  18. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  19. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  20. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  1. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  2. Constituent quark masses obtained from hadron masses with contributions of Fermi-Breit and Glozman-Riska hyperfine interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borka Jovanovic, V.; Borka, D. [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Ignjatovic, S. R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Banja Luka, Mladena Stojanovica 2, 78000 Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Jovanovic, P. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the color-spin and flavor-spin interaction Hamiltonians with SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking to obtain meson and baryon mass formulas. Adjusting these masses with experimental masses we determine the constituent quark masses. We discuss the constituent quark masses obtained from meson and baryon mass fits. The results for constituent quark masses are very similar in the case of two different phenomenological models: Fermi-Breit and Glozman-Riska hyperfine interactions.

  3. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure and constituent concentrations of a body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1984-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure and constituent concentrations in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure or the spatial constituent concentrations at regions of interest within the object.

  4. Brine contamination of ground water and streams in the Baxterville Oil Field Area, Lamar and Marion Counties, Mississippi. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report defines the extent of oil-field-brine contamination in ground water and streams in the Baxterville oil field area. The report is based largely on data collected during the period October 1984 through November 1985. Water samples were collected from streams and wells in the study area. Data from a previous study conducted in the vicinity of the nearby Tatum Salt Dome were used for background water-quality information. Natural surface-water quality was determined by sampling streamflow from a nearby basin having no oil field activities and from samples collected in an adjacent basin during a previous study.

  5. Responses in Milk Constituents to Intravascular Administration of Two Mixtures of Amino Acids to Dairy Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bequette, Brian J.

    to inves- tigate the effects of intravascular infusions of AA mixtures on milk constituents. Cows were infusion, followed by a 5-djugular infusion of a mixture of AA. Two mixtures of AA were used in a crossover (total AA); this mixture was infused at 400 g of M d . The other mixture represented the essential AA

  6. Constituent Particle Break-up during Hot Rolling of AA 5182 Nicolas Moulin(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Constituent Particle Break-up during Hot Rolling of AA 5182 Nicolas Moulin(1) , Estelle Parra hot reversible rolling of AA5182 alloy sheets has been analysed. The sizes and shapes of intermetallic particles in as-cast and industrially hot rolled AA5182 alloys sheets were characterized by 3D X ray

  7. Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti-Parasitic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coley, Phyllis

    Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 Abstract Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus­6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 g/mL. Keywords Endophytic fungus

  8. Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    Air Pollution: History Air Pollution: Any atmospheric constituent present as a result, or materials. Before 1200 AD · Air pollution results from wood burning, tanning, decaying trash, smelting with carbon PbO + C -> Pb + CO Pollutants Produced: CO, SO2 ·Hong, et al., Greenland ice evidence

  9. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  10. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  11. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  12. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  13. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  14. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  15. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  16. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  17. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  18. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  19. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  20. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  1. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  2. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  3. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  4. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  5. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  6. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  7. Evaluations of Radionuclides of Uranium, Thorium, and Radium Associated with Produced Fluids, Precipitates, and Sludges from Oil, Gas, and Oilfield Brine Injection Wells in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericksen, R.L.

    1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an unsurpassed lack of scientific data with respect to the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium, thorium, and radium in the produced formation fluids (brine), precipitates, and sludges generated with the operation of oil and gas wells in Mississippi. These radioactive elements when contained in the formation fluids have been given the term NORM, which is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials. When they are technologically enhanced during oil and gas production activities resulting in the formation of scale (precipitates) and sludges they are termed TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials). As used in this document, NORM and TENORM will be considered equivalent terms and the occurrence of NORM in the oilfield will be considered the result of production operations. As a result of the lack of data no scientifically sound theses may be developed concerning the presence of these radionuclides in the fluid brine, precipitate (scale), or sludge phases. Over the period of just one year, 1997 for example, Mississippi produced over 39,372,963,584 liters (10,402,368,186 gallons or 247,675,433 barrels) of formation water associated with hydrocarbon production from 41 counties across the state.

  8. Chemistry of fluid inclusions in halite from the Salina group of the Michigan basin: Implications for Late Silurian seawater and the origin of sedimentary brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, N.; Horita, J.; Holland, H.D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid was extracted from 18 fluid inclusions in halite of the Late Silurian Salina Group exposed in the Crystal Mine on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan. Compared with modern seawater evaporated to the same degree, the inclusion fluids are severely depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, somewhat depleted in Na{sup +} and Mg{sup +2}, and greatly enriched in Ca{sup +2}. The composition of the inclusion fluids can be derived from Silurian seawater with a composition close to that of modern seawater, if it is assumed that the composition of the Silurian seawater was modified by dolomitizing CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediments and by albitizing silicate minerals during its evolution into evaporite brines. Since the evolution of the brines involved a number of chemical reactions, it is impossible to recover the initial concentration of all of the major ions in the parent Silurian seawater from the composition of the inclusion fluids alone. It is likely, however, that the m{sub K+}/m{sub Br-} ratio and the functions in Late Silurian seawater had values close to those of modern seawater. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur and of Sr in anhydrite within and associated with the halite host of the fluid inclusions are consistent with previous measurements of {delta}{sup 34}S in Silurian marine anhydrites and with the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of Late Silurian marine carbonates.

  9. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Myint; Y. Hao; A. Firoozabadi

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi, and the CO$_2$ activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO$_2$, pure water, and both CO$_2$-rich and aqueous (H$_2$O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Sun's model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO$_2$. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H$_2$O-CO$_2$-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.

  10. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  11. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite sorption sites proving to be of secondary importance. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM was developed using nonlinear regression to fit the response surface with a quadratic polynomial. The goodness of fit was excellent for the CO2 flux to the atmosphere, and very good for predicting the volumes of groundwater exceeding the pH, TDS, As, Cd and Pb threshold values.

  12. An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and temporal flow variations in CO2/brine/rock systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Generate and characterize mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions in supercritical CO2/brine/rock systems under pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions resembling CO2injection into EGS. Characterize three-dimensional spatial and temporal distributions of rock structures subject to mineral dissolution/precipitation processes by X-ray tomography, SEM imaging, and Microprobe analysis.

  13. (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only active lithium carbonate plant in the United States was a brine operation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    94 LITHIUM (Data in metric tons of lithium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The only active lithium carbonate plant in the United States was a brine operation in Nevada. Two companies produced a large array of downstream lithium compounds in the United States from domestic or South

  14. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water and the three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Nakamichi, Mikiyoshi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methanol + ethanol + water and its three constituent binary systems methanol + ethanol, ethanol + water, and methanol + water were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system methanol + ethanol + water was predicted by means of the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  15. Supporting Nepal’s Peace Process: From Conflict to Constituent Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ian

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Supporting Nepal’s Peace Process: From Conflict to Constituent Assembly a special evening talk by Ian Martin chaired by Professor Surya Subedi, OBE 7-9pm, room B102 at SOAS Thursday, 18 March, 2010 Nepal’s political... FOCUSED MISSION: NOT SO LIMITED DURATION 4 complicated by persistent delays of the election as well as ambivalence surrounding the extent to which Nepali in- terlocutors required the technical assistance that UNMIN provided. Like UNMIN’s office of civil...

  16. Characterization and fate of vapor-phase organic constituents from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustors (AFBC): East Stroudsburg University AFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Newton, G.J.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Very little research has been devoted to the characterization of vapor-phase organic compounds in gaseous streams. Because of the concerns that gaseous organic compounds from FBCs may include potentially toxic and/or mutagenic materials. We will measure vapor-phase hydrocarbon concentrations in the process streams of operating FBCs. This report describes our field sampling results on the atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at the East Stroudsburg University during its normal operation for supplying heat and hot water to the campus. This AFBC has a bed size of 36 ft/sup 2/ and was burning anthracite culm. The culm consumption rates during the week of our sampling period were 1600 to 3000 lb/hr. Emphasis was placed on characterization of process stream effluents, including particles and vapor-phase organic constituents. Results indicated that the mass concentration (or loading) of particulate matter within the effluent stream was similar to other FBCs that have been studied. The particulate mass concentration measured after the baghouse location was 0.0048 g/m/sup 3/ (0.0047 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu). This was equivalent to a total of 35 g/hr of particulate emissions. The fraction of particulate material presented as organics (extractable fraction) was, on the average, less than 2% of total mass of particulate emissions. The vapor-phase organic contents indicated that the quantities of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were low, being less than 2.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for any individual sample. Most of the PAHs detected were low boiling compounds such as naphthalene or phenanthrene, with trace amounts of pyrene. 22 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Initial eccentricity and constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow in ideal and viscous dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Israel-Stewart's theory of dissipative hydrodynamics, we study the scaling properties elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions. Initial energy density of the fluid was fixed to reproduce STAR data on $\\phi$ meson multiplicity in 0-5% Au+Au collisions, such that irrespective of fluid viscosity, entropy at the freeze-out is similar in ideal or in viscous evolution. Initial eccentricity or constituent quark number scaling is only approximate in ideal or minimally viscous ($\\eta/s=1/4\\pi$) fluid. Eccentricity scaling become nearly exact in more viscous fluid ($\\eta/s \\geq$0.12). However, in more viscous fluid, constituent quark number scaled elliptic flow for mesons and baryons split into separate scaling functions. Simulated flows also do not exhibit 'universal scaling' i.e. elliptic flow scaled by the constituent quark number and charged particles $v_2$ is not a single function of transverse kinetic energy scaled by the quark number. From a study of violation of universal scaling, we obtain an estimate of QGP viscosity, $\\eta/s=0.12 \\pm 0.03$.

  18. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)] [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)] [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  19. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  20. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  1. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  2. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  3. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  4. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  5. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  6. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  7. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  8. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  9. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  10. A Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals and Austenitic Alloys in Synthetic Brines at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Several hard, corrosion-resistant and neutron-absorbing iron-based amorphous alloys have now been developed that can be applied as thermal spray coatings. These new alloys include relatively high concentrations of Cr, Mo, and W for enhanced corrosion resistance, and substantial B to enable both glass formation and neutron absorption. The corrosion resistances of these novel alloys have been compared to that of several austenitic alloys in a broad range of synthetic brines, with and without nitrate inhibitor, at elevated temperature. Linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used for in situ measurement of corrosion rates for prolonged periods of time, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been used for ex situ characterization of samples at the end of tests. The application of these new coatings for the protection of spent nuclear fuel storage systems, equipment in nuclear service, steel-reinforced concrete will be discussed.

  11. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, P C; Firoozabadi, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO$_2$) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi, and the CO$_2$ activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO$_2$, pure water, and both CO$_2$-rich and aqueous (H$_2$O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spy...

  12. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  13. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  14. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  15. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  16. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

  17. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  18. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  19. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  20. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  1. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  2. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  3. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  4. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  5. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  6. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  7. 24/02/2012 12:49SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction -CO2/Brine Surface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement Page 1 of 1http://www.spe.org/ejournals/jsp/journalapp.jsp?pageType=Preview&jid=EFC&pdfChronicleId=090147628022501b&mid=SPE-12471

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    24/02/2012 12:49SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction - CO2/Brine Surface Dissolution of Petroleum Engineers SPE Projects, Facilities & Construction Volume 6, Number 1, March 2011, pp. 41-53 SPE

  8. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  9. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  10. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  11. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  12. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  13. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  14. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.

  15. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  16. Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

  17. Method and apparatus for maintaining condensable constituents of a gas in a vapor phase during sample transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry Gordon; Farthing, William Earl; Irvin, James Hodges; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for fluid transport at elevated temperatures having a conduit having a fluid inlet end and a fluid outlet end and at least one heating element disposed within the conduit providing direct heating of a fluid flowing through the conduit. The system is particularly suited for preventing condensable constituents of a high temperature fluid from condensing out of the fluid prior to analysis of the fluid. In addition, operation of the system so as to prevent the condensable constituents from condensing out of the fluid surprisingly does not alter the composition of the fluid.

  18. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  19. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  20. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  2. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  3. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its constituent three binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tochigi, Katsumi; Akimoto, Kentarou; Ochi, Kenji [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Liu, Fangyhi; Kawase, Yasuhito [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Nippon Refine Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system water + 2-aminoethanol + dimethyl sulfoxide and its three constituent binary mixtures at 363.15 K. The apparatus used was a modified Rogalski-Malanoski equilibrium still. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  4. Groupe de travail "Ecomateriaux" Amac/Mecamat, Lyon, 30.06.11 PHOTODEGRADATION DE COMPOSITES CONSTITUES DE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONSTITUES DE POLYETHYLENE HAUTE DENSITE ET DE BAGASSE DELIGNIFIEE Peyvand DARABI1,2,3 , Marie, la bagasse, etc. Au cours des dernières décennies le bois composite a trouvé sa propre place dans les expliqué dans la littérature [2]. Dans cette étude, la bagasse et la bagasse délignifiée ont été utilisées

  5. {gamma}-Radiolysis of NaCl Brine in the Presence of UO{sub 2}(s): Effects of Hydrogen and Bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, Volker; Bohnert, Elke; Kelm, Manfred; Schild, Dieter; Kienzler, Bernhard [Institute for Radioactive Waste Disposal (FZK-INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe / Research Center Karlsruhe, Helmholtz-Platz, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, D-76344 (Germany); Reinhardt, Juergen; Buchmeiser, Michael R. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, IOM, Permoserstr. 15, Leipzig, D-04318 (Germany)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentrated NaCl solution was {gamma}-irradiated in autoclaves under a pressure of 25 MPa. A set of experiments were conducted in 6 mol (kg H{sub 2}O){sup -1} NaCl solution in the presence of UO{sub 2}(s) pellets; in a second set of experiments, {gamma}-radiolysis of the NaCl brine was studied without UO{sub 2}(s). Hydrogen, oxygen and chlorate were formed as long-lived radiolysis products. Due to the high external pressure, all radiolysis products remained dissolved. H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} reached steady state concentrations in the range of 5.10{sup -3} to 6.10{sup -2} mol (kg H{sub 2}O){sup -1} corresponding to a partial gas pressure of {approx}2 to {approx}20 MPa. Radiolytic formation of hydrogen and oxygen increased with the concentration of bromide added to solution. Both, in the presence of bromide, resulting in a relatively high radiolytic yield, and in the absence of bromide surfaces of the UO{sub 2}(s) samples were oxidized, and concentration of dissolved uranium reached the solubility limit of the schoepite / NaUO{sub 2}O(OH)(cr) transition. At the end of the experiments, the pellets were covered by a surface layer of a secondary solid phase having a composition close to Na{sub 2}U{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The experimental results demonstrate that bromide counteracts an H{sub 2} inhibition effect on radiolysis gas production, even at a concentration ratio of [H{sub 2}] / [Br{sup -}] > 100. The present observations are related to the competitive reactions of OH radicals with H{sub 2}, Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -}. A similar competition of hydrogen and bromide, controlling the yield of {gamma}-radiolysis products, is expected for solutions of lower Cl{sup -} concentration. (authors)

  6. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  7. Higher twists in polarized DIS and the size of the constituent quark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander Sidorov; Christian Weiss

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry implies the presence of a short-distance scale in the QCD vacuum, which phenomenologically may be associated with the ''size'' of the constituent quark, rho {approx} 0.3 fm. We discuss the role of this scale in the matrix elements of the twist-4 and 3 quark-gluon operators determining the leading power (1/Q{sup 2}-) corrections to the moments of the nucleon spin structure functions. We argue that the flavor-nonsinglet twist-4 matrix element, f{sub 2}{sup u-d}, has a sizable negative value of the order rho{sup -2}, due to the presence of sea quarks with virtualities {approx} rho{sup -2} in the proton wave function. The twist-3 matrix element, d{sub 2}, is not related to the scale rho{sup -2}. Our arguments support the results of previous calculations of the matrix elements in the instanton vacuum model. We show that this qualitative picture is in agreement with the phenomenological higher-twist correction extracted from an NLO QCD fit to the world data on g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n}, which include recent data from the Jefferson Lab Hall A and COMPASS experiments. We comment on the implications of the short-distance scale rho for quark-hadron duality and the x-dependence of higher-twist contributions.

  8. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  9. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  10. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  11. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  12. Stability of SiC-Matrix Microencapsulated Fuel Constituents at Relevant LWR Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL] [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL] [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Perez-Bergquist, Alex G [ORNL] [ORNL; Silva, Chinthaka M [ORNL] [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses certain key feasibility issues facing the application of SiC-matrix microencapsulated fuels for light water reactor application. Issues addressed are the irradiation stability of the SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix under LWR-relevant irradiation conditions, the presence or extent of reaction of the SiC matrix with zirconium-based cladding, the stability of the inner and outer pyrolytic graphite layers of the microencapsulated (TRISO) particle at this uncharacteristically low irradiation temperature, and the state of the particle-matrix interface following irradiation which could possibly effect thermal transport. In the process of determining these feasibility issues microstructural evolution and change in dimension and thermal conductivity was studied. As a general finding the SiC matrix was found to be quite stable with behavior similar to that of CVD SiC. In magnitude the irradiation-induced swelling of the matrix material was slightly higher and irradiation-degraded thermal conductivity was slightly lower as compared to CVD SiC. No significant reaction of this SiC-based nano-powder ceramic matrix material with Zircaloy was observed. Irradiation of the TRISO in the 320-360 C range to a maximum dose of 7.7 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) did not have significant negative impact on the constituent layers of the TRISO fuel. At the highest dose studied layer structure and interface integrity remained essentially unchanged with good apparent thermal transport through the microsphere to the surrounding matrix.

  13. Groundwater transport modeling of constituents originating from the Burial Grounds Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, P.F.; Shupe, M.G.; Spalding, C.P. [GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (US)

    1992-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operates a number of sites for the land disposal of various leachable radionuclide, organic, and inorganic wastes. Located within the General Separations Area (GSA) of SRS are the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) and the Old Burial Ground (OBG). A portion of the LLRWDF has been designated as the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF). The OBG began receiving waste in 1952 and was closed in 1974. Various wastes, including transuranic, intermediate and low level beta-gamma, and solvents, were received during this period of operation. In 1969, prior to the closing of the OBG, a portion of the MWMF/LLRWDF (the MWMF) began receiving waste. GeoTrans, Inc. was contracted by WSRC to conduct a numerical modeling study to assess groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vicinity of the MWMF in support of an Alternate Concentration Limits demonstration for the Part B permit. The project was divided into two phases: development of a groundwater flow model of the hydrogeologic system underlying the MWMF which includes the entire GSA, and development of a solute transport model to assess migration of 19 designated constituents of concern (COCs) over a period 30 years into the future. The first phase was completed in May of 1992 and the results documented in GeoTrans (1992). That report serves as the companion volume to the present contaminant transport modeling report. The transport study is intended to develop predictions of concentration and mass flux of the 19 COCs at downgradient exposure points over the 30 year period of interest. These results are to be used in human health and ecological risk assessments which are also being performed in support of the Part B permit.

  14. Effect of humic constituents on the transformation of chlorinated phenols and anilines in the presence of oxidoreductive enzymes or birnessite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.W.; Dec, J.; Bollag, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Kim, J.E. (Kyngpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry)

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chlorinated phenols and anilines are transformed and detoxified in soil through oxidative coupling reactions mediated by enzymes or metal oxides. The reactions may be influences by humic constituents, such as syringaldehyde or catechol, that originate from lignin decomposition and are also subject to oxidative coupling. In this study, the effect of humic constituents on xenobiotic transformation was evaluated in vitro based on the determination of unreacted chlorophenols and chloroanilines. In experiments with peroxidase, laccase, and birnessite, the transformation of most chlorophenols was considerably enhanced by the addition of syringaldehyde. Less enhancement was observed using 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and the addition of catechol resulted in a reduction of most transformations. The opposite was observed in experiments with tyrosinase, in which case catechol caused considerable enhancement of chlorophenol transformation. The varying effect of catechol can be explained by different transformation mechanisms involving either o-quinone coupling or free radical coupling. Regardless of the agent used to mediate the reactions, chloroanilines seemed to undergo nucleophilic addition to quinone oligomers, which resulted from coupling of the humic constituents. Catechol, which readily forms quinones and quinone oligomers, was most efficient in enhancing these reactions.

  15. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  16. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  18. Please cite this article in press as: Birkholzer, J.T., et al., Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.01.003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static carbon sequestration (GCS) has drawn increasing con- sideration as a promising method to mitigate

  19. Dynamics of a relativistic Rankine vortex for a two-constituent superfluid in a weak perturbation of cylindrical symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Boisseau

    1999-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    From a recent study of a stationary cylindrical solution for a relativistic two-constituent superfluid at low temperature limit, we propose to specify this solution under the form of a relativistic generalisation of a Rankine vortex (Potential vortex whose the core has a solid body rotation).Then we establish the dynamics of the central line of this vortex by supposing that the deviation from the cylindrical configuration is weak in the neighbourhood of the core of the vortex. In "stiff" material the Nambu-Goto equations are obtained.

  20. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  1. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  2. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  3. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  4. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  5. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  6. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  7. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  8. Physica B 394 (2007) 357362 Complex bounds and microstructural recovery from measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sea ice is a porous composite of pure ice with brine, air, and salt inclusions. The polar sea ice. The sea ice is assumed to be a two phase composite of ice and brine with known constituent permittivities. The first set of bounds assumes only knowledge of the brine volume fraction or porosity, and the second set

  9. A model of reduced kinetics for alkane oxidation using constituents and species: Proof of concept for n-heptane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harstad, Kenneth; Bellan, Josette [4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 125-109, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for deriving a reduced kinetic mechanism for alkane oxidation is described and applied to n-heptane. The model is based on partitioning the species of the skeletal kinetic mechanism into lights, defined as those having a carbon number smaller than 3, and heavies, which are the complement in the species ensemble. For modeling purposes, the heavy species are mathematically decomposed into constituents, which are similar but not identical to groups in the group additivity theory. From analysis of the LLNL skeletal mechanism in conjunction with CHEMKIN II, it is shown that a similarity variable can be formed such that the appropriately scaled global constituent molar density exhibits a self-similar behavior over a very wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressures and initial temperatures that is of interest for predicting n-heptane oxidation. Furthermore, the oxygen and water molar densities are shown to display a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the similarity variable. The light species ensemble is partitioned into quasi-steady and unsteady species. The concept is tested by using tabular information from the LLNL skeletal mechanism in conjunction with CHEMKIN II. The test reveals that the similarity concept is indeed justified and that the combustion temperature is well predicted, but that the ignition time is overpredicted. To palliate this deficiency, functional modeling is incorporated into our conceptual reduction. Due to the reduction process, models are also included for the global constituent molar density, the kinetics-induced enthalpy evolution of the heavy species, the contribution to the reaction rate of the unsteady lights from the heavies, the molar density evolution of oxygen and water, the mole fractions of the quasi-steady light species and the mean molar heat capacity of the heavy species. The model is compact in that there are only nine species-related progress variables. Results are presented comparing the performance of the model for predicting the temperature and species evolution with that of the skeletal mechanism. The model reproduces the ignition time over a wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressure and initial temperature. (author)

  10. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  11. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  12. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  13. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  14. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  15. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  16. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  18. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  19. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  20. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill (£¥¤§¦¨¦© ¡ ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  1. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  2. Molecular Characterization of S- and N-containing Organic Constituents in Ambient Aerosols by negative ion mode High-Resolution Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: CalNex 2010 field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Rachel E.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Rubitschun, Caitlin L.; Surratt, Jason D.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of ambient aerosols from the 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field study were analyzed using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (nano-DESI/MS). Four samples per day were collected in Bakersfield, CA on June 20-24 with a collection time of 6 hours per sample. Four characteristic groups of organic constituents were identified in the samples: compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only (CHO), sulfur- (CHOS), nitrogen-(CHON), and both nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organics (CHONS). Within the groups, organonitrates, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates were assigned based on accurate mass measurements and elemental ratio comparisons. Changes in the chemical composition of the aerosol samples were observed throughout the day. The number of observed CHO compounds increased in the afternoon samples, suggesting regional photochemical processing as a source. The average number of CHOS compounds had the smallest changes throughout the day, consistent with a more broadly distributed source. Both of the nitrogen-containing groups (CHON and CHONS) had greater numbers of compounds in the night and morning samples, indicating that nitrate radical chemistry was likely a source for those compounds. Most of the compounds were found in submicron particles. The size distribution of CHON compounds was bimodal. We conclude that the majority of the compounds observed were secondary in nature with both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  3. Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    , California 92617, United States Chemical and Materials Sciences Division and § Environmental Molecular. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive (+) and negative identification of the aerosol constituents. INTRODUCTION Due to the molecular complexity inherent to secondary

  4. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  5. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  6. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  7. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF LEACHXS/ORCHESTRA CAPABILITIES BY SIMULATING CONSTITUENT RELEASE FROM A CEMENTITIOUS WASTE FORM IN A REINFORCED CONCRETE VAULT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Meeussen, J.; Sloot, H.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work described in this report is to demonstrate the capabilities of the current version of LeachXS{trademark}/ORCHESTRA for simulating chemical behavior and constituent release processes in a range of applications that are relevant to the CBP. This report illustrates the use of LeachXS{trademark}/ORCHESTRA for the following applications: (1) Comparing model and experimental results for leaching tests for a range of cementitious materials including cement mortars, grout, stabilized waste, and concrete. The leaching test data includes liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH and release rates based on laboratory column, monolith, and field testing. (2) Modeling chemical speciation of constituents in cementitious materials, including liquid-solid partitioning and release rates. (3) Evaluating uncertainty in model predictions based on uncertainty in underlying composition, thermodynamic, and transport characteristics. (4) Generating predominance diagrams to evaluate predicted chemical changes as a result of material aging using the example of exposure to atmospheric conditions. (5) Modeling coupled geochemical speciation and diffusion in a three layer system consisting of a layer of Saltstone, a concrete barrier, and a layer of soil in contact with air. The simulations show developing concentration fronts over a time period of 1000 years. (6) Modeling sulfate attack and cracking due to ettringite formation. A detailed example for this case is provided in a separate article by the authors (Sarkar et al. 2010). Finally, based on the computed results, the sensitive input parameters for this type of modeling are identified and discussed. The chemical speciation behavior of substances is calculated for a batch system and also in combination with transport and within a three layer system. This includes release from a barrier to the surrounding soil as a function of time. As input for the simulations, the physical and chemical properties of the materials are used. The test cases used in this demonstration are taken from Reference Cases for Use in the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (Langton et al. 2009). Before it is possible to model the release of substances from stabilized waste or radioactive grout through a cement barrier into the engineered soil barrier or natural soil, the relevant characteristics of such materials must be known. Additional chemical characteristics are needed for mechanistic modeling to be undertaken, not just the physical properties relevant for modeling of transport. The minimum required properties for modeling are given in Section 5.0, 'Modeling the chemical speciation of a material'.

  9. Averaged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R. K. Mofrad*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    , in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic dragAveraged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments Preethi L. Chandran and Mohammad R 2009; published 26 March 2010 We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model

  10. ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    ATOC 3500 Thursday, Feb. 18, 2010 Hand back Midterm Exams (average = 89) Interaction of atmospheric and efflorescence equate to a change in state from solid to liquid as the relative humidity (RH) changes. RH can change due to an increase in the mixing ratio of water vapor ­ (equating to more collisions of water

  11. Power Control for Block-Fading Channels with Peak-to-Average Power Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert

    .nguyen@postgrads.unisa.edu.au Albert Guill´en i F`abregas Engineering Department University of Cambridge Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK guillen@ieee.org Lars K. Rasmussen Institute for Telecommunications Research University of South Australia Mawson Lakes SA 5095 lars.rasmussen@unisa.edu.au Abstract-- Power allocation with peak-to-average power con

  12. Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM based on transformation of partial transmit sequences number, but T-PTS is less complex. Introduction: To avoid the occurrence of large peak power of signals G. Lu, P. Wu and C. Carlemalm-Logothetis A novel scheme (transformation of partial transmit

  13. ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM GUILLAUME BAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bal, Guillaume

    ON THE SELF-AVERAGING OF WAVE ENERGY IN RANDOM MEDIA GUILLAUME BAL Abstract. We consider transport equations for arbitrary statistical moments of the wave field is used to show that wave energy initial energy distributions. We show that wave energy is not stable, and instead scintillation is created

  14. Average-case analysis of perfect sorting by reversals Mathilde Bouvel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    genomics, is the process of sorting a signed permutation to either the identity or to the reversed identity example here: we perform an average case analysis of a sorting algorithm from computational genomics by generating function analysis of a family of trees. Motivation: a computational genomics problem

  15. Neurocomputing 69 (2006) 10621065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstner, Wulfram

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Spike-triggered voltage; h-current; Damped voltage oscillations 1 oscillations. The model comprises a variable v for the membrane voltage, with time-scale tv and a secondNeurocomputing 69 (2006) 1062­1065 Dependence of the spike-triggered average voltage on membrane

  16. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  17. WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WAVELET ESTIMATION IN HOMOMORPHIC DOMAIN BY SPECTRAL AVERAGING, FOR DECONVOLUTION OF SEISMIC DATA M In geophysics, a homomorphic system is used to modelize the convolution of an emitted wavelet (source) with the impulse response of the earth into the sum of the log spectra of the wavelet and the earth's response

  18. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  19. Asymptotic scaling corrections in QCD with Wilson fermions from the 3-loop average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alles; A. Feo; H. Panagopoulos

    1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the 3-loop perturbative expansion of the average plaquette in lattice QCD with N_f massive Wilson fermions and gauge group SU(N). The corrections to asymptotic scaling in the corresponding energy scheme are also evaluated. We have also improved the accuracy of the already known pure gluonic results at 2 and 3 loops.

  20. Expansion and Growth of Structure Observables in a Macroscopic Gravity Averaged Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijenayake, Tharake

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of averaging inhomogeneities on expansion and large-scale structure growth observables using the exact and covariant framework of Macroscopic Gravity (MG). It is well-known that applying the Einstein's equations and spatial averaging do not commute and lead to the averaging problem. For the MG formalism applied to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric, this gives an extra dynamical term encapsulated as an averaging density parameter denoted $\\Omega_A$. An exact isotropic cosmological solution of MG for the flat FLRW metric is already known in the literature, we derive here an anisotropic exact solution. Using the isotropic solution, we compare the expansion history to current data of distances to supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, CMB last scattering surface, and Hubble constant measurements, and find $-0.05 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.07$ (at the 95% CL). For the flat metric case this reduces to $-0.03 \\le \\Omega_A \\le 0.05$. We also find that the inclusion of this ter...

  1. Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haran, Murali

    Climate Projections Using Bayesian Model Averaging and Space-Time Dependence K. Sham Bhat, Murali Haran, Adam Terando, and Klaus Keller. Abstract Projections of future climatic changes are a key input to the design of climate change mitiga- tion and adaptation strategies. Current climate change projections

  2. Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Bradley S.

    Plio-Pleistocene time-averaged field in southern Patagonia recorded in lava flows V. Mejia and N. D of 53 lava flows from southern Patagonia (latitudes 49.5°­52.1°S) that include the Pali-Aike volcanic, 7 figures, 3 tables. Keywords: paleomagnetic secular variation; Patagonia; Pali-Aike Volcanic Field

  3. POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    POLYMER END-GROUP ANALYSIS: THE DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT Background reading. 11. Skoog, West, Holler and Crouch, 7th ed., Chap. 14. Introduction Polymers Polymers are a special in this experiment, or may be of different types. Polymers are very important in biological systems. For example

  4. Is Average Run Length to False Alarm Always an Informative Criterion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Yajun

    applications, including statistical process control (SPC), industrial quality control, target or signal- point detection. A partial list includes cumulative sum (CUSUM), Shewhart's control chart, exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, Shiyayev-Roberts proce- dures, window-limited control charts, and scan

  5. Average Consensus in the Presence of Delays in Directed Graph Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    @kth.se. #12;directed interconnection topology (digraph). The objective of a consensus problem is to have all values that the nodes initially posses (initial values). When the agents (asymptotically) reach agreement shown in [4] that, under a fixed interconnection topology, average consensus can be reached

  6. ILP and Iterative LP Solutions for Peak and Average Power Optimization in HLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanujam, J. "Ram"

    . Ramanujam2 1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Assiut University, Egypt 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering as average power and energy consumptions. As the design problem becomes large, exact solution takes-flow graph (DFG) executes. We define Scheduling for Low Power and Energy (SLoPE) in high-level synthesis

  7. Effects of nuclear structure on average angular momentum in subbarrier fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Balantekin; J. R. Bennett; S. Kuyucak

    1994-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of nuclear quadrupole and hexadecapole couplings on the average angular momentum in sub-barrier fusion reactions. This quantity could provide a probe for nuclear shapes, distinguishing between prolate vs. oblate quadrupole and positive vs. negative hexadecapole couplings. We describe the data in the O + Sm system and discuss heavier systems where shape effects become more pronounced.

  8. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  9. Seminario de Estadstica e Investigacin Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tradacete, Pedro

    Seminario de Estadística e Investigación Operativa "Tree, web and average web value for cycle solution concepts, called web values, are introduced axiomatically, each one with respect to some specific recursive algorithms to calculate them. Additionally the efficiency and stability of web values are studied

  10. Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis for the reduction of total power and power fluctuation dur- ing behavioral synthesis. We consider resources of dual component library which is then used during behavioral synthesis. The formulated multi-objective cost

  11. Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Why should I recycle? The average American generates 4.5 pounds of waste daily. Instead of throwing paper and containers in the trash,recycle them in single-stream receptacles conveniently located throughout campus.These guidelines will help you recycle more and waste less. What's recyclable? · Mixed

  12. S79JUNE 2006STATE OFTHE CLIMATE IN 2005 | FIG. 6.28. European average temperature anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­90 average. Romania and Bulgaria received significant rainfall excesses during the year, with August totals above average in Romania (Fig. 6.29). A warm January, with areas of eastern Ukraine more than 5°C above

  13. New determination of the D0?K??+?0 and D0?K??+?+?? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libby, J.; Malde, S.; Powell, A.; Wilkinson, G.; Asner, David M.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Briere, R. A.; Gershon, T.; Naik, P.; Pedlar, Todd K.; Rademacker, J.; Ricciardi, S.; Thomas, C.

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    New determination of the D0!K?!+!0 and D0!K?!+!+!? coherence factors and average strong-phase differences

  14. Elastic free-energy of the edge of an open lipid bilayer based on the interactions of its constituent molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisam Asgari; Aisa Biria

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lipid-bilayers are the fundamental constituents of the walls of most living cells and lipid vesicles, giving them shape and compartment. The formation and growing of pores in a lipid bilayer have attracted considerable attention from an energetic point of view in recent years. Such pores permit targeted delivery of drugs and genes to the cell, and regulate the concentration of various molecules within the cell. The formation of such pores is caused by various reasons such as changes in cell environment, mechanical stress or thermal fluctuations. Understanding the energy and elastic behaviour of a lipid-bilayer edge is crucial for controlling the formation and growth of such pores. In the present work, the interactions in the molecular level are used to obtain the free energy of the edge of an open lipid bilayer. The resulted free-energy density includes terms associated with flexural and torsional energies of the edge, in addition to a line-tension contribution. The line tension, elastic moduli, and spontaneous normal and geodesic curvatures of the edge are obtained as functions of molecular distribution, molecular dimensions, cutoff distance, and the interaction strength. These parameters are further analyzed by implementing a soft-core interaction potential in the microphysical model. The dependence of the elastic free-energy of the edge to the size of the pore is reinvestigated through an illustrative example, and the results are found to be in agreement with the previous observations.

  15. Free energy of the edge of an open lipid bilayer based on the interactions of its constituent molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisam Asgari; Aisa Biria

    2015-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Lipid-bilayers are the fundamental constituents of the walls of most living cells and lipid vesicles, giving them shape and compartment. The formation and growing of pores in a lipid bilayer have attracted considerable attention from an energetic point of view in recent years. Such pores permit targeted delivery of drugs and genes to the cell, and regulate the concentration of various molecules within the cell. The formation of such pores is caused by various reasons such as changes in cell environment, mechanical stress or thermal fluctuations. Understanding the energy and elastic behaviour of a lipid-bilayer edge is crucial for controlling the formation and growth of such pores. In the present work, the interactions in the molecular level are used to obtain the free energy of the edge of an open lipid bilayer. The resulted free-energy density includes terms associated with flexural and torsional energies of the edge, in addition to a line-tension contribution. The line tension, elastic moduli, and spontaneous normal and geodesic curvatures of the edge are obtained as functions of molecular distribution, molecular dimensions, cutoff distance, and the interaction strength. These parameters are further analyzed by implementing a soft-core interaction potential in the microphysical model. The dependence of the elastic free-energy of the edge to the size of the pore is reinvestigated through an illustrative example, and the results are found to be in agreement with the previous observations.

  16. Mineralogical and physical considerations related to the separation and recovery of constituents from aluminum smelter by-products and wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plumpton, A.J.; Wilhelmy, J.F.; Blackburn, D.; Caouette, J.L. [Centre de Recherches Minerales, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several by-products and waste products of aluminum smelting were characterized mineralogically and physically, in order to evaluate the potential for their decontamination or separation and recovery into valuable products using mineral processing techniques. The test samples were selected from among Bayer process red mud, bath-alumina mixture, cleaned anode butts, anode recycle residues, spent potlining, saltcake and fluorogypsum. Several of these materials were shown to be composed either of highly liberated, potentially separable mineral phases, or of locked minerals which could be partially liberated by grinding to smaller but practical particle sizes. An analysis of specific physical properties of the liberated constituent mineral phases was accompanied by preliminary experimental evaluation of their separability. An assessment was made of potential mineral processing techniques including size and form differentiation, gravitational and magnetic field separation, flotation, separation based on surface charging phenomena or work function, and pneumatic tabling. The results confirmed the suitability of low-cost physical separation techniques for the treatment of some by-products and wastes. This paper presents results of a preliminary evaluation of two smelter products. The conference paper will analyze and discuss in more detail the potential for the mineral processing of these and other smelter by-products and wastes.

  17. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recovery, transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products. 7 figs.

  18. Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal mircrobalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recover transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products.

  19. Renormalization, averaging, conservation laws and AdS (in)stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Craps; Oleg Evnin; Joris Vanhoof

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our analytic investigations of non-linear spherically symmetric perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background in gravity-scalar field systems, and focus on conservation laws restricting the (perturbatively) slow drift of energy between the different normal modes due to non-linearities. We discover two conservation laws in addition to the energy conservation previously discussed in relation to AdS instability. A similar set of three conservation laws was previously noted for a self-interacting scalar field in a non-dynamical AdS background, and we highlight the similarities of this system to the fully dynamical case of gravitational instability. The nature of these conservation laws is best understood through an appeal to averaging methods which allow one to derive an effective Lagrangian or Hamiltonian description of the slow energy transfer between the normal modes. The conservation laws in question then follow from explicit symmetries of this averaged effective theory.

  20. A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

  1. A gradient system on the quantum information space realizing the averaged learning equation of Hebb type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshio Uwano; Hiromi Yuya

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The averaged learning equation (ALEH) applicable to the principal component analyzer is studied from both quantum information geometry and dynamical system viewpoints. On the quantum information space (QIS), the space of regular density matrices endowed with the quantum SLD-Fisher metric, a gradient system is given as an extension of the ALEH; on the submanifold, consisting of the diagonal matrices, of the QIS, the gradient flow coincides with the ALEH up to a local diffeomorphism.

  2. Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sellers, D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Utility Bills and Average Daily Energy Consumption to Target Commissioning Efforts and Track Building Performance By: David Sellers, Senior Engineer, Portland Energy Conservation Inc, Portland, Oregon ABSTRACT This paper discusses using basic... by contacting the author at: Dsellers@peci.org www.peci.org Phone: - 503-248-4636 extension 224 Mailing address through August 3, 2001 Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 921 SW Washington Street Suite 312 Portland, Oregon 97205 Mailing address after August 3...

  3. Average balance equations, scale dependence, and energy cascade for granular materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Artoni; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new averaging method linking discrete to continuum variables of granular materials is developed and used to derive average balance equations. Its novelty lies in the choice of the decomposition between mean values and fluctuations of properties which takes into account the effect of gradients. Thanks to a local homogeneity hypothesis, whose validity is discussed, simplified balance equations are obtained. This original approach solves the problem of dependence of some variables on the size of the averaging domain obtained in previous approaches which can lead to huge relative errors (several hundred percentages). It also clearly separates affine and nonaffine fields in the balance equations. The resulting energy cascade picture is discussed, with a particular focus on unidirectional steady and fully developed flows for which it appears that the contact terms are dissipated locally unlike the kinetic terms which contribute to a nonlocal balance. Application of the method is demonstrated in the determination of the macroscopic properties such as volume fraction, velocity, stress, and energy of a simple shear flow, where the discrete results are generated by means of discrete particle simulation.

  4. Average discharge rate representation of voice onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinex, D.G.; McDonald, L.P.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to synthesized stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT) were obtained. The syllables, heard as /ga/--/ka/ or /da/--/ta/, were similar to those previously used by others in psychophysical experiments with human and with chinchilla subjects. Average discharge rates of neurons tuned to the frequency region near the first formant generally increased at the onset of voicing, for VOTs longer than 20 ms. These rate increases were closely related to spectral amplitude changes associated with the onset of voicing and with the activation of the first formant; as a result, they provided accurate information about VOT. Neurons tuned to frequency regions near the second and third formants did not encode VOT in their average discharge rates. Modulations in the average rates of these neurons reflected spectral variations that were independent of VOT. The results are compared to other measurements of the peripheral encoding of speech sounds and to psychophysical observations suggesting that syllables with large variations in VOT are heard as belonging to one of only two phonemic categories.

  5. Modeling CO{sub 2}-Brine-Rock Interaction Including Mercury and H{sub 2}S Impurities in the Context of CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spycher, N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m{sup 3}CO{sub 2}), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensation to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO{sub 2} is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H{sub 2}O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO{sub 2} sweeps through, volatilizing both H{sub 2}O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO{sub 2}-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO{sub 2} reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106°C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H{sub 2}S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about ±0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity ±0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily precipitate from the CO{sub 2} as cinnabar in a zone mostly matching the single-phase CO{sub 2} plume. The precipitation of minerals other than cinnabar, however, dominates the evolution of porosity. Main reactions include the replacement of primarily Fe-chlorite by siderite, of calcite by dolomite, and of K-feldspar by muscovite. Chalcedony is also predicted to precipitate from the dissolution of feldspars and quartz. Although the range of predicted porosity change is quite small, the amount of dissolution and precipitation predicted for these individual minerals is not negligible. These reactive transport simulations assume that Hg gas behaves ideally. To examine effects of non-ideality on these simulations, approximate calculations of the fugacity coefficient of Hg in CO{sub 2} were made. Results suggest that Hg condensation could be significantly overestimated when assuming ideal gas behavior, making our simulation results conservative with respect to impacts on injectivity. The effect of pressure on Henry’s constant for Hg is estimated to yield Hg solubilities about 10% lower than when this effect is not considered, a change that is considered too small to affect the conclusions of this report. Although all results in this study are based on relatively mature data and modeling approaches, in the absence of experimental data and more detailed site-specific information, it is not possible to fully validate the results and conclusions.

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria of n-hexane + cyclohexane + n-heptane and the three constituent binary systems at 101. 0 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan, D.S.; Shiau, H.Y.; Tsai, F.N. (National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the title ternary system and the three constituent binary systems have been measured at 101.0 kPa by using a dynamic equilibrium still. The binary data were tested for thermodynamic consistency and were correlated by the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations. Predictions for the ternary system by these equations have been compared with the experimental data.

  7. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  8. Limit Distribution of Averages over Unstable Periodic Orbits Forming Chaotic Attractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Goldobin

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the question of representativeness of a single long unstable periodic orbit for properties of the chaotic attractor it is embedded in. Y. Saiki and M. Yamada [Phys. Rev. E 79, 015201(R) (2009)] have recently suggested the hypothesis that there exist a limit distribution of averages over unstable periodic orbits with given number of loops, N, which is not a Dirac delta-function for infinitely long orbits. In this paper we show that the limit distribution is actually a delta-function and standard deviations decay as 1/sqrt(N) for large enough N.

  9. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  10. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5: March 22, 2010 Average

  11. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  12. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  13. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  14. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  15. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of0023

  16. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices

  17. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices4

  18. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices44

  19. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices445

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West AverageMexico"

  1. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment ActivitiesAge Refining Air1,D O E /drivers toAverage

  2. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average Price

  3. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average

  4. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average

  5. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data1.30. Total6. Average.

  6. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices of

  7. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal"1" "Shell1. Average Prices

  8. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

  9. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  10. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  11. Conditional averaging on volumetric velocity fields for analysis of the pseudo-periodic organization of jet-in-crossflow vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambonie, Tristan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volumetric velocimetry measurements have been performed on a round jet in crossflow (JICF). Two kind of conditional averaging process are presented : a global conditional average (GCA) and a local conditional average (LCA). Vortices crossing the JICF symmetry plane are used to quantify the jet pseudo-periodicity leading to the GCA and LCA definitions. Because they make possible to improve the velocity field resolution as well as to significantly reduce the experimental noise, these conditional averages are an interesting and efficient way to study the instantaneous swirling structures of this instantaneous flow.

  12. Statistical Model Analysis of (n,p) Cross Sections and Average Energy For Fission Neutron Spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odsuren, M.; Khuukhenkhuu, G. [Nuclear Research Center, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of charged particle emission reaction cross sections for fast neutrons is important to both nuclear reactor technology and the understanding of nuclear reaction mechanisms. In particular, the study of (n,p) cross sections is necessary to estimate radiation damage due to hydrogen production, nuclear heating and transmutations in the structural materials of fission and fusion reactors. On the other hand, it is often necessary in practice to evaluate the neutron cross sections of the nuclides for which no experimental data are available.Because of this, we carried out the systematical analysis of known experimental (n,p) and (n,a) cross sections for fast neutrons and observed a systematical regularity in the wide energy interval of 6-20 MeV and for broad mass range of target nuclei. To explain this effect using the compound, pre-equilibrium and direct reaction mechanisms some formulae were deduced. In this paper, in the framework of the statistical model known experimental (n,p) cross sections averaged over the thermal fission neutron spectrum of U-235 are analyzed. It was shown that the experimental data are satisfactorily described by the statistical model. Also, in the case of (n,p) cross sections the effective average neutron energy for fission spectrum of U-235 was found to be around 3 MeV.

  13. A Multi-chain Measurements Averaging TDC Implemented in a 40 nm FPGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi Shen; Shubin Liu; Binxiang Qi; Qi An; Shengkai Liao; Chengzhi Peng; Weiyue Liu

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high precision and high resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a 40 nm fabrication process Virtex-6 FPGA is presented in this paper. The multi-chain measurements averaging architecture is used to overcome the resolution limitation determined by intrinsic cell delay of the plain single tapped-delay chain. The resolution and precision are both improved with this architecture. In such a TDC, the input signal is connected to multiple tapped-delay chains simultaneously (the chain number is M), and there is a fixed delay cell between every two adjacent chains. Each tapped-delay chain is just a plain TDC and should generate a TDC time for a hit input signal, so totally M TDC time values should be got for a hit signal. After averaging, the final TDC time is obtained. A TDC with 3 ps resolution (i.e. bin size) and 6.5 ps precision (i.e. RMS) has been implemented using 8 parallel tapped-delay chains. Meanwhile the plain TDC with single tapped-delay chain yields 24 ps resolution and 18 ps precision.

  14. LITHIUM--2002 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    domestic producer of lithium carbonate from brine is Chemetall Foote's operation in Nevada. Nevada brines enriched in lithium chloride, which averaged about 300 parts per million (ppm) when Foote Mineral Co. (the

  15. Coastal Dynamics 2013 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Coastal Dynamics 2013 1915 A 3-D PHASE-AVERAGED MODEL FOR SHALLOW WATER FLOW WITH WAVES in coastal vegetated waters with short waves. The model adopts the 3-D phase-averaged shallow water flow mesh in the vertical direction. The flow model is coupled with a spectral wave deformation model called

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2002 1535 Error Statistics for Average Power Measurements in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Shuangqing

    for Average Power Measurements in Wireless Communication Systems Shuangqing Wei, Student Member, IEEE, and Dennis L. Goeckel, Member, IEEE Abstract--The measurement of the average received power is essential for power control and dynamic channel allocation in wireless communication systems. However, due

  17. New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    New bounds on the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of a planar convex body Adrian Dumitrescu Minghui Jiang Csaba D. T´oth March 14, 2011 Abstract The Fermat-Weber center of a planar body Q that for any convex body Q in the plane, the average distance from the Fermat-Weber center of Q to the points

  18. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  19. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER, ADRIAN E. RAFTERY, TILMANN GNEITING, AND CHRIS FRALEY Department of Statistics, University of precipitation (PoP) forecasts using this approach. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) was introduced by Raftery et

  20. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  1. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  2. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  3. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  4. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  5. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  6. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  7. CHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, O.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lfuen operated w:l.thout sludge recirculation, this pilotcould lead to problems with sludge accumulation there. Ifby recirculation of part of the sludge coming out of the

  8. Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, Oleh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

  9. Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weres, O.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

  10. 6, 70757091, 2006 precipitation in brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be produced on the frozen surface of sea ice (Adams et al., 2002), this source would quickly be exhausted in polar regions over recently formed sea ice, we can model successfully the transformation of inert sea of already activated bromine (Borken, 1996; Sander et al., 1997), or artificially acidified the model aerosol

  11. Batteries from Brine | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRAM-04-07 Audit Report: OAS-M-04-07BUDGET DETAILS BOOKBarton V.Batteries

  12. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision hasda62829c05bGabbs Type Termciting TypeCounty,

  13. Area-preserving maps models of gyro-averaged ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. da Fonseca; D. del-Castillo-Negrete; I. L. Caldas

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrete maps have been extensively used to model 2-dimensional chaotic transport in plasmas and fluids. Here we focus on area-preserving maps describing finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects on ${\\bf E} \\times {\\bf B}$ chaotic transport in magnetized plasmas with zonal flows perturbed by electrostatic drift waves. FLR effects are included by gyro-averaging the Hamiltonians of the maps which, depending on the zonal flow profile, can have monotonic or non-monotonic frequencies. In the limit of zero Larmor radius, the monotonic frequency map reduces to the standard Chirikov-Taylor map, and, in the case of non-monotonic frequency, the map reduces to the standard nontwist map. We show that in both cases FLR leads to chaos suppression, changes in the stability of fixed points, and robustness of transport barriers. FLR effects are also responsible for changes in the phase space topology and zonal flow bifurcations. Dynamical systems methods based on recurrence time statistics are used to quantify the dependence on the Larmor radius of the threshold for the destruction of transport barriers.

  14. Optimal Heisenberg-style bounds for the average performance of arbitrary phase estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominic W. Berry; Michael J. W. Hall; Marcin Zwierz; Howard M. Wiseman

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate bound to the accuracy of phase estimates is often assumed to be given by the Heisenberg limit. Recent work seemed to indicate that this bound can be violated, yielding measurements with much higher accuracy than was previously expected. The Heisenberg limit can be restored as a rigorous bound to the accuracy provided one considers the accuracy averaged over the possible values of the unknown phase, as we have recently shown [Phys. Rev. A 85, 041802(R) (2012)]. Here we present an expanded proof of this result together with a number of additional results, including the proof of a previously conjectured stronger bound in the asymptotic limit. Other measures of the accuracy are examined, as well as other restrictions on the generator of the phase shifts. We provide expanded numerical results for the minimum error and asymptotic expansions. The significance of the results claiming violation of the Heisenberg limit is assessed, followed by a detailed discussion of the limitations of the Cramer-Rao bound.

  15. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  16. Method for the evaluation of a average glandular dose in mammography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State (Nigeria)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns a method for accurate evaluation of average glandular dose (AGD) in mammography. At different energies, the interactions of photons with tissue are not uniform. Thus, optimal accuracy in the estimation of AGD is achievable when the evaluation is carried out using the normalized glandular dose values, g(x,E), that are determined for each (monoenergetic) x-ray photon energy, E, compressed breast thickness (CBT), x, breast glandular composition, and data on photon energy distribution of the exact x-ray beam used in breast imaging. A generalized model for the values of g(x,E) that is for any arbitrary CBT ranging from 2 to 9 cm (with values that are not whole numbers inclusive, say, 4.2 cm) was developed. Along with other dosimetry formulations, this was integrated into a computer software program, GDOSE.FOR, that was developed for the evaluation of AGD received from any x-ray tube/equipment (irrespective of target-filter combination) of up to 50 kVp. Results are presented which show that the implementation of GDOSE.FOR yields values of normalized glandular dose that are in good agreement with values obtained from methodologies reported earlier in the literature. With the availability of a portable device for real-time acquisition of spectra, the model and computer software reported in this work provide for the routine evaluation of AGD received by a specific woman of known age and CBT.

  17. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  18. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  19. Study of the relationship between indoor daylight environments and patient average length of stay (ALOS) in healthcare facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Joon Ho

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates how indoor daylight environments affect patient Average Length of Stay (ALOS), by evaluating and analyzing daylight levels in patient rooms in comparison to their ALOS. The patient ALOS data were taken at one general hospital...

  20. Notes on Well-Posed, Ensemble Averaged Conservation Equations for Multiphase, Multi-Component, and Multi-Material Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray A. Berry

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the INL researchers and engineers routinely encounter multiphase, multi-component, and/or multi-material flows. Some examples include: Reactor coolant flows Molten corium flows Dynamic compaction of metal powders Spray forming and thermal plasma spraying Plasma quench reactor Subsurface flows, particularly in the vadose zone Internal flows within fuel cells Black liquor atomization and combustion Wheat-chaff classification in combine harvesters Generation IV pebble bed, high temperature gas reactor The complexity of these flows dictates that they be examined in an averaged sense. Typically one would begin with known (or at least postulated) microscopic flow relations that hold on the “small” scale. These include continuum level conservation of mass, balance of species mass and momentum, conservation of energy, and a statement of the second law of thermodynamics often in the form of an entropy inequality (such as the Clausius-Duhem inequality). The averaged or macroscopic conservation equations and entropy inequalities are then obtained from the microscopic equations through suitable averaging procedures. At this stage a stronger form of the second law may also be postulated for the mixture of phases or materials. To render the evolutionary material flow balance system unique, constitutive equations and phase or material interaction relations are introduced from experimental observation, or by postulation, through strict enforcement of the constraints or restrictions resulting from the averaged entropy inequalities. These averaged equations form the governing equation system for the dynamic evolution of these mixture flows. Most commonly, the averaging technique utilized is either volume or time averaging or a combination of the two. The flow restrictions required for volume and time averaging to be valid can be severe, and violations of these restrictions are often found. A more general, less restrictive (and far less commonly used) type of averaging known as ensemble averaging can also be used to produce the governing equation systems. In fact volume and time averaging can be viewed as special cases of ensemble averaging. Ensemble averaging is beginning to gain some notice, for example the general-purpose multi-material flow simulation code CFDLib under continuing developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory [Kashiwa and Rauenzahn 1994] is based on an ensemble averaged formulation. The purpose of this short note is to give an introduction to the ensemble averaging methodology and to show how ensemble averaged balance equations and entropy inequality can be obtained from the microscopic balances. It then details some seven-equation, two-pressure, two-velocity hyperbolic, well-posed models for two-phase flows. Lastly, a simple example is presented of a model in which the flow consists of two barotropic fluids with no phase change in which an equilibrium pressure equation is obtained in the spirit of pressure-based methods of computational fluid dynamics.

  1. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  2. The effect of averaging adjacent planes for artifact reduction in matrix inversion tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, Devon J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Page McAdams, H. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Physics, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Matrix inversion tomosynthesis (MITS) uses linear systems theory and knowledge of the imaging geometry to remove tomographic blur that is present in conventional backprojection tomosynthesis reconstructions, leaving in-plane detail rendered clearly. The use of partial-pixel interpolation during the backprojection process introduces imprecision in the MITS modeling of tomographic blur, and creates low-contrast artifacts in some MITS planes. This paper examines the use of MITS slabs, created by averaging several adjacent MITS planes, as a method for suppressing partial-pixel artifacts. Methods: Human chest tomosynthesis projection data, acquired as part of an IRB-approved pilot study, were used to generate MITS planes, three-plane MITS slabs (MITSa3), five-plane MITS slabs (MITSa5), and seven-plane MITS slabs (MITSa7). These were qualitatively examined for partial-pixel artifacts and the visibility of normal and abnormal anatomy. Additionally, small (5 mm) subtle pulmonary nodules were simulated and digitally superimposed upon human chest tomosynthesis projection images, and their visibility was qualitatively assessed in the different reconstruction techniques. Simulated images of a thin wire were used to generate modulation transfer function (MTF) and slice-sensitivity profile curves for the different MITS and MITS slab techniques, and these were examined for indications of partial-pixel artifacts and frequency response uniformity. Finally, mean-subtracted, exposure-normalized noise power spectra (ENNPS) estimates were computed and compared for MITS and MITS slab reconstructions, generated from 10 sets of tomosynthesis projection data of an acrylic slab. The simulated in-plane MTF response of each technique was also combined with the square root of the ENNPS estimate to yield stochastic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information about the different reconstruction techniques. Results: For scan angles of 20 Degree-Sign and 5 mm plane separation, seven MITS planes must be averaged to sufficiently remove partial-pixel artifacts. MITSa7 does appear to subtly reduce the contrast of high-frequency 'edge' information, but the removal of partial-pixel artifacts makes the appearance of low-contrast, fine-detail anatomy even more conspicuous in MITSa7 slices. MITSa7 also appears to render simulated subtle 5 mm pulmonary nodules with greater visibility than MITS alone, in both the open lung and regions overlying the mediastinum. Finally, the MITSa7 technique reduces stochastic image variance, though the in-plane stochastic SNR (for very thin objects which do not span multiple MITS planes) is only improved at spatial frequencies between 0.05 and 0.20 cycles/mm. Conclusions: The MITSa7 method is an improvement over traditional single-plane MITS for thoracic imaging and the pulmonary nodule detection task, and thus the authors plan to use the MITSa7 approach for all future MITS research at the authors' institution.

  3. Bounds on the complex permittivity of matrix-article composites Romuald Sawicz and Kenneth Goldena)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    is assumed to consist of a pure ice matrix with random brine inclusions. Using experimental measurements of the average size and separation of the brine pockets, end points of the support of the measure can consists of a pure ice matrix with random brine and air inclusions. The effect of air inclusions on P

  4. Effects of buoyancy source composition on multiphase plume behavior in stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Aaron C. (Aaron Chunghin), 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments are performed where a dense multiphase plume is released vertically in a salinity stratified ambient. The constituent phase composition of the initial buoyancy flux can be dense brine, particles, or a mixture ...

  5. Implementation Shortfall One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has ruled the algorithmic trading world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in the fact that it does not require such cost predictions. VWAP vs. Arrival Price So how does arrival priceImplementation Shortfall ­ One Objective, Many Algorithms VWAP (Volume Weighted Average Price) has year toward using decision price, or implementation shortfall, algorithms. ITG®'s Hitesh Mittal

  6. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA’s High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  7. A STABILIZED VOLUME-AVERAGING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA AND BINARY ALLOY SOLIDIFICATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    A STABILIZED VOLUME-AVERAGING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA AND BINARY ALLOY of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 188 Frank H. T. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 algorithm is presented for the analysis of flow in porous media and in the solidification of binary alloys

  8. Quick Reference for Employers A paid internship benefitting both employer and graduate. The average term of the internship is 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    ;.................................................................................................................................. A paid internship benefitting both employer and graduate. The average term of the internship is 12 weeks that the internship will lead to a permanent position, and in many cases this occurs. However, there is no obligation to convert an internship into a permanent position and this programme gives you an ideal opportunity to trial

  9. 1428 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 23, NO. 3, MAY 2008 Digital Average Current-Mode Controller for DCDC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controls the output power, while an internal (fast) loop controls the current. This paper introduces a digital average current mode controller for dc power supplies in PVD applica- tions. The controller control loop enable opera- tion over wide ranges of output power and voltage. The proposed control

  10. Ph.D. Theses 1. M. Dasgupta Study of cross section and average angular momenta in fusion reactions of 28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Ph.D. Theses 1990-2013 1. M. Dasgupta Study of cross section and average angular momenta in fusion (TIFR, 1992) 2. Pragya Singh Spectroscopy of high spin nuclear states of 92,91,90 Mo excited by heavy collisions (TIFR, 1993) 6. A.K. Saxena Studies of neutron emission in heavy ion induced fusion

  11. Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maoz, Shahar

    35 Solar Energy With an average of over 300 sunny days a year, Israel is an ideal labo- ratory for testing one particularly promising alternative to fossil fuels: solar energy. In contrast to fossil fuels as much energy strikes the earth in the form of solar radiation as is used in a whole year throughout

  12. Econometric and Neural Network Analysis of the Labor Productivity and Average Gross Earnings Indices in the Romanian Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Econometric and Neural Network Analysis of the Labor Productivity and Average Gross Earnings and models that were used consist of several lag econometric models, ARIMA processes, as well as feed forward AGEI and LPI. Key-Words: - labor productivity, econometric model, ARIMA, VAR, neural network, forecast

  13. Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. Korn,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    Signal averaging x-ray streak camera with picosecond jitter A. Maksimchuk, M. Kim, J. Workman, G. The streak camera is operated at a sweep speed of up to 8 ps/mm, shot-to-shot jitter is less than 1 ps, but have an internal jitter more than a few tens of picoseconds. This jitter is due to the statistical

  14. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  15. A model of reduced oxidation kinetics using constituents and species: Iso-octane and its mixtures with n-pentane, iso-hexane and n-heptane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harstad, Kenneth; Bellan, Josette [California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 125-109, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously described methodology for deriving a reduced kinetic mechanism for alkane oxidation and tested for n-heptane is here shown to be valid, in a slightly modified version, for iso-octane and its mixtures with n-pentane, iso-hexane and n-heptane. The model is still based on partitioning the species into lights, defined as those having a carbon number smaller than 3, and heavies, which are the complement in the species ensemble, and mathematically decomposing the heavy species into constituents which are radicals. For the same similarity variable found from examining the n-heptane LLNL mechanism in conjunction with CHEMKIN II, the appropriately scaled total constituent molar density still exhibits a self-similar behavior over a very wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressures and initial temperatures in the cold ignition regime. When extended to larger initial temperatures than for cold ignition, the self-similar behavior becomes initial temperature dependent, which indicates that rather than using functional fits for the enthalpy generation due to the heavy species' oxidation, an ideal model based on tabular information extracted from the complete LLNL kinetics should be used instead. Similarly to n-heptane, the oxygen and water molar densities are shown to display a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the similarity variable, but here their slope variation is no longer fitted and instead, their rate equations are used with the ideal model to calculate them. As in the original model, the light species ensemble is partitioned into quasi-steady and unsteady species; the quasi-steady light species mole fractions are computed using the ideal model and the unsteady species are calculated as progress variables using rates extracted from the ideal model. Results are presented comparing the performance of the model with that of the LLNL mechanism using CHEMKIN II. The model reproduces excellently the temperature and species evolution versus time or versus the similarity variable, with the exception of very rich mixtures, where the predictions are still very good but the multivalued aspect of these functions at the end of oxidation is not captured in the reduction. The ignition time is predicted within percentages of the LLNL values over a wide range of equivalence ratios, initial pressures and initial temperatures. (author)

  16. Temperature-averaged and total free-free Gaunt factors for $\\kappa$ and Maxwellian distributions of electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Avillez, Miguel A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. Optically thin plasmas may deviate from thermal equilibrium and thus, electrons (and ions) are no longer described by the Maxwellian distribution. Instead they can be described by $\\kappa$-distributions. The free-free spectrum and radiative losses depend on the temperature-averaged (over the electrons distribution) and total Gaunt factors, respectively. Thus, there is a need to calculate and make available these factors to be used by any software that deals with plasma emission. Methods. We recalculated the free-free Gaunt factor for a wide range of energies and frequencies using hypergeometric functions of complex arguments and the Clenshaw recurrence formula technique combined with approximations whenever the difference between the initial and final electron energies is smaller than $10^{-10}$ in units of $z^2Ry$. We used double and quadruple precisions. The temperature- averaged and total Gaunt factors calculations make use of the Gauss-Laguerre integration with 128 nodes. Results. The temperature-av...

  17. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  18. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  19. Coarse-grained transport of a turbulent flow via moments of the Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramov, Rafail V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we introduce new coarse-grained variables for a turbulent flow in the form of moments of its Reynolds-averaged Boltzmann equation. With the exception of the collision moments, the transport equations for the new variables are identical to the usual moment equations, and thus naturally lend themselves to the variety of already existing closure methods. Under the anelastic turbulence approximation, we derive equations for the Reynolds-averaged turbulent fluctuations around the coarse-grained state. We show that the global relative entropy of the coarse-grained state is bounded from above by the Reynolds average of the fine-grained global relative entropy, and thus obeys the time decay bound of Desvillettes and Villani. This is similar to what is observed in the rarefied gas dynamics, which makes the Grad moment closure a good candidate for truncating the hierarchy of the coarse-grained moment equations. We also show that, under additional assumptions on the form of the coarse-grained collision terms, one a...

  20. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  1. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  2. Light hadron spectra in the constituent quark model with the Kobayashi-Kondo-Maskawa-'t Hooft effective U {sub A} (1) symmetry breaking interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitrasinovic, V. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro) and Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)]. E-mail: dmitrasin@yahoo.com; Toki, H. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We make a critical comparison of several versions of instanton-induced interactions present in the literature, all based on ITEP group's extension to three colours and flavours of 't Hooft's effective lagrangian, with the predictions of the phenomenological Kobayashi-Kondo-Maskawa (KKM) chiral quark lagrangian. We analyze the effects of all versions of the effective U {sub A} (1) symmetry breaking interactions on light hadron spectra in the non-relativistic constituent quark model. We show that the KKMT force, when used as a residual hyperfine interaction reproduces the correct ordering of pseudoscalar and vector mesons even without explicitly taking chiral symmetry into account. Moreover, the nucleon spectra are also correctly reproduced, only the Roper resonance remains too high, albeit lower than usual, at 1660 MeV. The latter's lower than expected mass is not due to a small excitation energy, as in the Glozman-Riska (GR) model, but to a combination of colour, flavour, and spatial wave function properties that enhance the relevant matrix elements. The KKMT interaction explicitly depends on flavour and spin of the quarks, but unlike the GR flavour-spin one it has a firm footing in QCD. In the process we provide several technical advances, in particular we show the first explicit derivation of the three-body Fierz transformation and apply it to the KKM interaction. We also discuss the ambiguities associated with the colour degree of freedom.

  3. Beating the Averages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ... didn't need to be secretive, because even if our competitors had known we were using Lisp, they wouldn't have understood why: “If they were that smart they'

  4. DOE Average Results

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | DepartmentIOffshore WindEnergy's FY2016Appoints DOE

  5. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91 8.10

  6. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47 8.91

  7. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.47

  8. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14 11.39

  9. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 9.472.14

  10. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06

  11. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.06 Monthly Annual

  12. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662 564

  13. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease Separation662

  14. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSame MonthLease3.01 12.33 11.85 10.97

  15. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket Module8.28

  16. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOil andMarket

  17. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal, E-mail: tejpalgupta@rediffmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Jalali, Rakesh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Goswami, Savita [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Unit, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Nair, Vimoj [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Moiyadi, Aliasgar [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Division of Neuro-Surgery, Department of Surgical Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Epari, Sridhar [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Pathology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India); Sarin, Rajiv [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer and Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  18. A relativistic constituent quark model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlumpf, F.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the predictive power of a relativistic quark model formulated on the light-front. The nucleon electromagnetic form factors, the semileptonic weak decays of the hyperons and the magnetic moments of both baryon octet and decuplet are calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with experiment.

  19. Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moskal, P; Silarski, M; Bednarski, T; Bia?as, P; Bu?ka, J; Czerwi?ski, E; Gajos, A; Kami?ska, D; Kap?on, L; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemie?, W; Kubicz, E; Nied?wiecki, Sz; Pa?ka, M; Raczy?ski, L; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Salabura, P; S?omski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wi?licki, W; Wochlik, I; Zieli?ski, M; Zo?, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a novel method of hit time and hit position reconstruction in long scintillator detectors. We take advantage of the fact that for this kind of detectors amplitude and shape of registered signals depends strongly on the position where particle hit the detector. The reconstruction is based on determination of the degree of similarity between measured and averaged signals stored in a library for a set of well-defined positions along the scintillator. Preliminary results of validation of the introduced method with experimental data obtained by means of the double strip prototype of the J-PET detector are presented.

  20. Burnup calculation by the method of first-flight collision probabilities using average chords prior to the first collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpushkin, T. Yu., E-mail: timka83@yandex.ru [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to calculate the burnup of materials of cells and fuel assemblies using the matrices of first-flight neutron collision probabilities rebuilt at a given burnup step is presented. A method to rebuild and correct first collision probability matrices using average chords prior to the first neutron collision, which are calculated with the help of geometric modules of constructed stochastic neutron trajectories, is described. Results of calculation of the infinite multiplication factor for elementary cells with a modified material composition compared to the reference one as well as calculation of material burnup in the cells and fuel assemblies of a VVER-1000 are presented.

  1. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  2. Hit time and hit position reconstruction in the J-PET detector based on a library of averaged model signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Moskal; N. G. Sharma; M. Silarski; T. Bednarski; P. Bia?as; J. Bu?ka; E. Czerwi?ski; A. Gajos; D. Kami?ska; L. Kap?on; A. Kochanowski; G. Korcyl; J. Kowal; P. Kowalski; T. Kozik; W. Krzemie?; E. Kubicz; Sz. Nied?wiecki; M. Pa?ka; L. Raczy?ski; Z. Rudy; O. Rundel; P. Salabura; A. S?omski; J. Smyrski; A. Strzelecki; A. Wieczorek; W. Wi?licki; I. Wochlik; M. Zieli?ski; N. Zo?

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a novel method of hit time and hit position reconstruction in long scintillator detectors. We take advantage of the fact that for this kind of detectors amplitude and shape of registered signals depends strongly on the position where particle hit the detector. The reconstruction is based on determination of the degree of similarity between measured and averaged signals stored in a library for a set of well-defined positions along the scintillator. Preliminary results of validation of the introduced method with experimental data obtained by means of the double strip prototype of the J-PET detector are presented.

  3. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and instrument data provided quantitative evidence to justify Level B.

  4. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA–

  5. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  6. Reconstruction of a time-averaged midposition CT scan for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients using deformable registration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolthaus, J. W. H.; Sonke, J.-J.; Herk, M. van; Damen, E. M. F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: lower lobe lung tumors move with amplitudes of up to 2 cm due to respiration. To reduce respiration imaging artifacts in planning CT scans, 4D imaging techniques are used. Currently, we use a single (midventilation) frame of the 4D data set for clinical delineation of structures and radiotherapy planning. A single frame, however, often contains artifacts due to breathing irregularities, and is noisier than a conventional CT scan since the exposure per frame is lower. Moreover, the tumor may be displaced from the mean tumor position due to hysteresis. The aim of this work is to develop a framework for the acquisition of a good quality scan representing all scanned anatomy in the mean position by averaging transformed (deformed) CT frames, i.e., canceling out motion. A nonrigid registration method is necessary since motion varies over the lung. Methods and Materials: 4D and inspiration breath-hold (BH) CT scans were acquired for 13 patients. An iterative multiscale motion estimation technique was applied to the 4D CT scan, similar to optical flow but using image phase (gray-value transitions from bright to dark and vice versa) instead. From the (4D) deformation vector field (DVF) derived, the local mean position in the respiratory cycle was computed and the 4D DVF was modified to deform all structures of the original 4D CT scan to this mean position. A 3D midposition (MidP) CT scan was then obtained by (arithmetic or median) averaging of the deformed 4D CT scan. Image registration accuracy, tumor shape deviation with respect to the BH CT scan, and noise were determined to evaluate the image fidelity of the MidP CT scan and the performance of the technique. Results: Accuracy of the used deformable image registration method was comparable to established automated locally rigid registration and to manual landmark registration (average difference to both methods <0.5 mm for all directions) for the tumor region. From visual assessment, the registration was good for the clearly visible features (e.g., tumor and diaphragm). The shape of the tumor, with respect to that of the BH CT scan, was better represented by the MidP reconstructions than any of the 4D CT frames (including MidV; reduction of 'shape differences' was 66%). The MidP scans contained about one-third the noise of individual 4D CT scan frames. Conclusions: We implemented an accurate method to estimate the motion of structures in a 4D CT scan. Subsequently, a novel method to create a midposition CT scan (time-weighted average of the anatomy) for treatment planning with reduced noise and artifacts was introduced. Tumor shape and position in the MidP CT scan represents that of the BH CT scan better than MidV CT scan and, therefore, was found to be appropriate for treatment planning.

  7. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnology (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A., E-mail: ferroelectrics@ya.ru [Brno University of Technology, SIX Research Centre (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  8. Predicting dissolution patterns in variable aperture fractures: 1. Development and evaluation of an enhanced depth-averaged computational model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, R L; Rajaram, H

    2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-rock interactions within variable-aperture fractures can lead to dissolution of fracture surfaces and local alteration of fracture apertures, potentially transforming the transport properties of the fracture over time. Because fractures often provide dominant pathways for subsurface flow and transport, developing models that effectively quantify the role of dissolution on changing transport properties over a range of scales is critical to understanding potential impacts of natural and anthropogenic processes. Dissolution of fracture surfaces is controlled by surface-reaction kinetics and transport of reactants and products to and from the fracture surfaces. We present development and evaluation of a depth-averaged model of fracture flow and reactive transport that explicitly calculates local dissolution-induced alterations in fracture apertures. The model incorporates an effective mass transfer relationship that implicitly represents the transition from reaction-limited dissolution to transport-limited dissolution. We evaluate the model through direct comparison to previously reported physical experiments in transparent analog fractures fabricated by mating an inert, transparent rough surface with a smooth single crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), which allowed direct measurement of fracture aperture during dissolution experiments using well-established light transmission techniques [Detwiler, et al., 2003]. Comparison of experiments and simulations at different flow rates demonstrate the relative impact of the dimensionless Peclet and Damkohler numbers on fracture dissolution and the ability of the computational model to simulate dissolution. Despite some discrepancies in the small-scale details of dissolution patterns, the simulations predict the evolution of large-scale features quite well for the different experimental conditions. This suggests that our depth-averaged approach to simulating fracture dissolution provides a useful approach for extending laboratory results that are often limited in scale to scales that are more representative of geologic processes of interest.

  9. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  10. Development of a 33 kV, 20 A long pulse converter modulator for high average power klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)] [Pulsed High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, M.P. (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Research, design, and development of high average power, long pulse modulators for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source are underway at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. With this objective, a prototype of long pulse modulator capable of delivering 33 kV, 20 A at 5 Hz repetition rate has been designed and developed. Three Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) based switching modules driving high frequency, high voltage transformers have been used to generate high voltage output. The IGBT based switching modules are shifted in phase by 120° with respect to each other. The switching frequency is 25 kHz. Pulses of 1.6 ms pulse width, 80 ?s rise time, and 70 ?s fall time have been achieved at the modulator output. A droop of ±0.6% is achieved using a simple segmented digital droop correction technique. The total fault energy transferred to the load during fault has been measured by conducting wire burn tests and is found to be within 3.5 J.

  11. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  12. Seismic Tomography Of Pg And Sg/lg And Its Use For Average Upper Crust Structure In Eurasia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steck, Lee K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, W Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, C A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, R J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, M L [MSU

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tomographic inversion oftravel times from first arriving compressional and shear waves for velocity structure has been applied with great success at all length scales, ranging from the laboratory bench-top to the entire Earth. Inversion of later arriving phases has seen a much more limited application. In this paper we present inversion results for regional Pg and Sg for the Eurasian continent to explore its use for understanding average upper crustal velocity structure. Inversion is performed using a damped, smoothed LSQR implementation that solves for site and event terms as well as for velocity along great circle paths between the source and receiver. Results are broadly consistent with published upper crustal velocities for the region. A spotcomparison of Vp/Vs from local and regional studies also compares well with the ratio of observed Pg to Sg velocities from our study where resolution is high. Resolution is determined through the use of checkerboard tests, and these suggest that in regions where data density is high we can resolve features down to at least 2 deg, with 4 deg possible over broader areas. RMS residual reductions are on the order of25% for Sg and 30% for Pg.

  13. Tidally averaged circulation in Puget Sound sub-basins: Comparison of historical data, analytical model, and numerical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Kim, Tae Yun; Roberts, Mindy

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Through extensive field data collection and analysis efforts conducted since the 1950s, researchers have established an understanding of the characteristic features of circulation in Puget Sound. The pattern ranges from the classic fjordal behavior in some basins, with shallow brackish outflow and compensating inflow immediately below, to the typical two-layer flow observed in many partially mixed estuaries with saline inflow at depth. An attempt at reproducing this behavior by fitting an analytical formulation to past data is presented, followed by the application of a three-dimensional circulation and transport numerical model. The analytical treatment helped identify key physical processes and parameters, but quickly reconfirmed that response is complex and would require site-specific parameterization to include effects of sills and interconnected basins. The numerical model of Puget Sound, developed using unstructured-grid finite volume method, allowed resolution of the sub-basin geometric features, including presence of major islands, and site-specific strong advective vertical mixing created by bathymetry and multiple sills. The model was calibrated using available recent short-term oceanographic time series data sets from different parts of the Puget Sound basin. The results are compared against (1) recent velocity and salinity data collected in Puget Sound from 2006 and (2) a composite data set from previously analyzed historical records, mostly from the 1970s. The results highlight the ability of the model to reproduce velocity and salinity profile characteristics, their variations among Puget Sound subbasins, and tidally averaged circulation. Sensitivity of residual circulation to variations in freshwater inflow and resulting salinity gradient in fjordal sub-basins of Puget Sound is examined.

  14. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafa, S. Molins; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Shen, C.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is comprised of high performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high resolution model is used to demonstrate that non-uniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  15. Comparison of Average Transport and Dispersion Among a Gaussian Model, a Two-Dimensional Model and a Three-Dimensional Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J A; Molenkamp, C R; Bixler, N E; Morrow, C W; Ramsdell, Jr., J V

    2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2) for regulatory purposes such as planning for emergencies and cost-benefit analyses. MACCS2 uses a straight-line Gaussian model for atmospheric transport and dispersion. This model has been criticized as being overly simplistic, although only expected values of metrics of interest are used in the regulatory arena. To test the assumption that averaging numerous weather results adequately compensates for the loss of structure in the meteorology that occurs away from the point of release, average MACCS2 results have been compared with average results from a state-of-the-art, 3-dimensional LODI (Lagrangian Operational Dispersion Integrator)/ADAPT (Atmospheric Data Assimilation and Parameterization Technique) and a Lagrangian trajectory, Gaussian puff transport and dispersion model from RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). The weather sample included 610 weather trials representing conditions for a hypothetical release at the Central Facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. The values compared were average ground concentrations and average surface-level air concentrations at several distances out to 100 miles (160.9 km) from the assumed release site.

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O`Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types.

  17. Electron Boltzmann kinetic equation averaged over fast electron bouncing and pitch-angle scattering for fast modeling of electron cyclotron resonance discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, Igor

    cyclotron resonance ECR heating. Typically, the operating gas pressures in ECR reactors range from 10 5Electron Boltzmann kinetic equation averaged over fast electron bouncing and pitch-angle scattering for fast modeling of electron cyclotron resonance discharge I. Kaganovich,1,* M. Misina,2, S. V. Berezhnoi

  18. " ... It is estimated that [since the early 1960s] accelerator science has influenced almost 1/3 of physicists and physics studies and on average contributed to physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    .9 years." Haussecker & Chao, Physics in Perspective 13, 146 (2011). Use of accelerators Water#12;" ... It is estimated that [since the early 1960s] accelerator science has influenced almost 1/3 of physicists and physics studies and on average contributed to physics Nobel Prize-winning research every 2

  19. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, established during the energy crises of the 1970s. Calls to increase fuel economy are usually met by a fierce debate on the effectiveness of the CAFE standards

  20. Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite altimeter data and modeled discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite for 21 ``virtual gauge stations'' located at the upper Negro River (Amazon Basin, Brazil). A virtual station can be defined as any crossing of water body surface (i.e., large rivers) by radar altimeter

  1. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Dense Water Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    .................................................................................................................... xix I. Direct Observations of Brine Rejection.1 Brine rejection

  2. TOUGHREACT Testing in High Ionic Strength Brine Sandstone Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tianfu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using the same kinetic expression as for dissolution. Forparameters used for the kinetic rate expression are given inunder kinetic conditions. A general form of rate expression

  3. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water  management  options,  including:  geothermal  energy   extraction,  desalination,  salt  and  mineral   harvesting,  

  4. CO2 - brine behavior using a Black - oil model + geomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathematical Model. The governing equations of coupled rock deformation and fluid flow are derived from mass conservation and momentum balance for both ...

  5. Laboratory studies of imbibition flooding using carbonated brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharif, Qamar Javaid

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and pressures was a major part of the phase II studies. A high pressure core holder was developed and set inside a temperature regulated in-house constructed oven for this purpose. The core face flushing method was developed for conducting imbibition... and the field for improving oil recovery. The most common techniques used to increase oil recovery include water injection, steam injection, in-situ combustion, carbon dioxide (CO&) injection, chemical flooding and caustic injection. Currently, however, due...

  6. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for  Geologic  Carbon  Sequestration. ”   International  of  Energy.  “Carbon  Sequestration  Atlas  of  the  Water  Extracted  from  Carbon  Sequestration  Projects."  

  7. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sequestration  (CCS)  has  the  potential  to  play  a  CCS  and   prior  research  has  focused  on  its  potential  of  CCS.  In  order  to  maximize  this   potential,  

  8. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solutions, Journal of nuclear technology 2008, 164:180– 35.Modeling and Analysis. Nuclear Technology 1993, 104: 418- 2.

  9. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in  power   plant  energy  demand.     where   ! !" !  is  to  incorporate  the   energy  demand  of  pumping  and  and  Power Cumulative  Energy  Demand Disinfection  By-­?

  10. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    prediction and interpretation of seismic property changesmodel for improved interpretation of seismic monitoring data

  11. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    model for improved interpretation of seismic monitoring dataprediction and interpretation of seismic property changes

  12. Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, H.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be managed early on. Carbon capture technology is water-,we believe that carbon capture technology will improve over

  13. Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Establishing the Technical Basis for Disposal of Heat-generating Waste in Salt Model Development and Analysis of the Fate and Transport of...

  14. THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yagnik, S.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    produced by the heat generating waste. The enhanced porosityimposed by the heat generating nuclear waste w i l l

  15. Risk division Semi-analytical model of brine leakage through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Canada: 508 wells in a 30km x 30 km area. from Bachu and Celia, 2009 hal-00658780,version1-18Jun2012 #12. (Pruess, 2006, for geothermal wells) · = > Thermal equilibrium (Oldenburg & Rinaldi 2011) > 8 Mt/y for 50 years > D=6.7 km from the injection to the abandonned well > Cement plug: 10 m high, weak

  16. Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    do not attempt to predict rock properties ab initio fromrecent refinements of our rock property formulation, boundsused to predict the properties of rocks partially saturated

  17. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guoxiang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis Preliminary calculations assuming pure CaCl 2 solutions were carried out to investigate relationships between salt concentration, HCl gas fugacity (? partial pressure), and condensate

  18. Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Future of CSP: ChallengesEnergy For PersonsBrightEnergy

  19. HIGH-PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED BRINES:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451DOE/SC0002390dVandHEATING DISTRIBUTIONS

  20. Physics 224A Solutions to Final Examination June 2007 The average score on the examination was 61.8, and the standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thouless, David

    .8, and the standard deviation 14.2 1. Average 15.6, standard deviation 5.4 A glass bottle weighs 0.50 kg when empty are the volumes of the glass of which the bottle is made, and of the water inside the full bottle? The difference represent the weight of water displaced by the glass bottle. The volume of the glass must therefore be 0