Sample records for average absolute percent

  1. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalTheE. Great Basin Oil and Gas FieldsLiquids

  2. Absolute Percent Error Based Fitness Functions for Evolving Forecast Models AndyNovobilski,Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Absolute Percent Error Based Fitness Functions for Evolving Forecast Models Andy computfi~gas a methodof data mining,is its intrinsic ability to drive modelselection accordingto a mixedset of criteria. Basedon natural selection, evolutionary computing utilizes evaluationof candidatesolutions

  3. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home72 Home8 Water00Annual

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Decoherence at absolute zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supurna Sinha

    2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical study of the loss of quantum coherence at absolute zero. Our model consists of a harmonic oscillator coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators at absolute zero. We find that for an Ohmic bath, the offdiagonal elements of the density matrix in the position representation decay as a power law in time at late times. This slow loss of coherence in the quantum domain is qualitatively different from the exponential decay observed in studies of high temperature environments.

  7. Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume,234 0% 0% #12;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters

  8. "EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA-914 Production Weighted Response Rates, Percent" "Areas",38353,38384,38412,38443,38473,38504,38534,38565,38596,38626,38657,38687,38718,38749,38777,"application...

  9. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  10. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Joachim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), IEKP, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  11. Absolute Source Activity Measurement with a Single Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bikit, I.; Nemes, T.; Mrdja, D.; Forkapic, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper the activity of {sup 60}Co source was measured using the full absorption, sum and random coincidences (pile up) peaks and the total spectrum area in the gamma spectra. By the exact treatment of the chance coincidence and pile-up events, surprisingly good results were obtained. With the source on the detector end-cap (when the angular correlation effects are negligible), this simple method yields absolute activity values deviating from the reference activity for about 1 percent.

  12. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  13. have risen by about 15 percent. These increases, which tend to remain in the atmo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    States emitted 25 percent of the total global greenhouse gases. The largest contributors are electricity Warming Trend: How Climate Change Could Affect the Northwest W hile the debate over global warming global temperatures, that the earth is warm- ing. Over the last 100 years, the earth's average

  14. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  15. Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, R T

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Process Physics provides a new explanation of space as a quantum foam system in which gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of the quantum foam into matter. An analysis of various experiments demonstrates that absolute motion relative to space has been observed experimentally by Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Torr and Kolen, and by DeWitte. The Dayton Miller and Roland DeWitte data also reveal the in-flow of space into matter which manifests as gravity. The in-flow also manifests turbulence and the experimental data confirms this as well, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. The Einstein assumptions leading to the Special and General Theory of Relativity are shown to be falsified by the extensive experimental data. Contrary to the Einstein assumptions absolute motion is consistent with relativistic effects, which are caused by actual dynamical effects of absolute motion through the quantum foam, so that it is Lorentzian relativity that is seen to be essentially co...

  16. Absolute Motion and Gravitational Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill

    2003-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The new Process Physics provides a new explanation of space as a quantum foam system in which gravity is an inhomogeneous flow of the quantum foam into matter. An analysis of various experiments demonstrates that absolute motion relative to space has been observed experimentally by Michelson and Morley, Miller, Illingworth, Torr and Kolen, and by DeWitte. The Dayton Miller and Roland DeWitte data also reveal the in-flow of space into matter which manifests as gravity. The in-flow also manifests turbulence and the experimental data confirms this as well, which amounts to the observation of a gravitational wave phenomena. The Einstein assumptions leading to the Special and General Theory of Relativity are shown to be falsified by the extensive experimental data. Contrary to the Einstein assumptions absolute motion is consistent with relativistic effects, which are caused by actual dynamical effects of absolute motion through the quantum foam, so that it is Lorentzian relativity that is seen to be essentially correct.

  17. Compressor performance, absolutely! M. R. Titchener

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titchener, Mark R.

    Compressor performance, absolutely! M. R. Titchener Dept of CS, U. of Auck., N.Z. (Email: mark the absolute performance of existing string compressors may be measured. Kolmogorov (1958) recognised://tcode.auckland.ac.nz/~corpus has been used to evaluate the `absolute' performance of a series of popular compressors. The results

  18. An absolute Johnson noise thermometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Callegaro; Vincenzo D'Elia; Marco Pisani; Alessio Pollarolo

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed an absolute Johnson noise thermometer (JNT), an instrument to measure the thermodynamic temperature of a sensing resistor, with traceability to voltage, resistance and frequency quantities. The temperature is measured in energy units, and can be converted to SI units (kelvin) with the accepted value of the Boltzmann constant kb; or, conversely, it can be employed to perform measurements at the triple point of water, and obtain a determination of kb. The thermometer is composed of a correlation spectrum analyzer an a calibrated noise source, both constructed around commercial mixed-signal boards. The calibrator generates a pseudorandom noise, by digital synthesis and amplitude scaling with inductive voltage dividers; the signal spectrum is a frequency comb covering the measurement bandwidth. JNT measurements at room temperature are compatible with those of a standard platinum resistance thermometer within the combined uncertainty of 60 ppm. A path towards future improvements of JNT accuracy is also sketched.

  19. Convective and absolute instabilities in eccentric Taylor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Convective and absolute instabilities in eccentric Taylor Laboratoire de mécanique des fluides et d and absolute instabilities in Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow Benoît PIER Laboratoire de mécanique des fluides flow type often disrupt oil-well drilling By implementing a detailed instability analysis, the dynamics

  20. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  1. Absolute geopotential height system for Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedada, Tullu Besha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study used airborne gravity data, the 2008 Earth Gravity Model (EGM08) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data in a Remove-Compute-Restore process to determine absolute vertical reference ...

  2. Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny.

    Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

  3. Emission trading with absolute and intensity caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Jaemin

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kyoto Protocol introduced emission trading to help reduce the cost of compliances for the Annex B countries that have absolute caps. However, we need to expand the emission trading to cover developing countries in order ...

  4. Ways to Increase Percent Calf Crop in Beef Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly, John R.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in young heifers shows a marked increase in breeding efficiency. Work at the University of Arizona on rebreeding first calf heifers supports this data. Arizona work showed 79 percent pregnancy rates in heifers with calves early weaned and 46 percent... mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. Low level Angus 0 0 0 33 82 90100100 Hereford 0 11 22 33 38 50 100 100 Crossbreed 0 0 12 68 85 100 100 100 Setting some arbitrary age at which t heifers is not the solution. The outcome would largely on how...

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPrice (Percent)the

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPrice (Percent)theby

  7. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  8. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  9. A Model of Absolute Autonomy and Power: Toward Group Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hexmoor, Henry

    575 2420 fax:479 575 5339 Abstract. We present a model of absolute autonomy and power in agent systems present a model that approximates absolute autonomy and power in agent systems. This absolute sense1 A Model of Absolute Autonomy and Power: Toward Group Effects HENRY HEXMOOR Computer Science

  10. Multiverse Set Theory and Absolutely Undecidable Propositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vnnen, Jouko

    Multiverse Set Theory and Absolutely Undecidable Propositions Jouko Vaananen University of Helsinki and University of Amsterdam Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Background 4 3 The multiverse of sets 6 3.1 The one universe case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 The multiverse

  11. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Aprthe Price

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Minnesota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb MarPricethe

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb MarPricethethe

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan FebPricePricePriceby

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe PricePriceby the

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethe Price

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethe

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethethe

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPrice

  2. PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBGOperablePERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar AprPricePrice (Percent)the

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Marby the Price (Percent)

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb MarbyPrice (Percent)the Price

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb MarbyPrice (Percent)the

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePrice (Percent)the Price

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePrice (Percent)the

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Marby

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year JanthePriceby

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethe Price

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethe Pricethe

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricetheby the Price

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricetheby the

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricetheby

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethebythe Price

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) YearPricethe

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by the Price

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by the Priceby

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by the

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by thethe Price

  5. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan FebDecadeDecade21752 2,616 January 1996 January1996Percent

  6. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion Cubic Feet) U.S.Developmental WellsYear JanDeliveries (Percent)

  7. Absolute-magnitude distributions of supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Dean; Wright, John [Department of Physics, Xavier University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA 70125 (United States); Jenkins III, Robert L. [Applied Physics Department, Richard Stockton College, Galloway, NJ 08205 (United States); Maddox, Larry, E-mail: drichar7@xula.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA 70402 (United States)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The absolute-magnitude distributions of seven supernova (SN) types are presented. The data used here were primarily taken from the Asiago Supernova Catalogue, but were supplemented with additional data. We accounted for both foreground and host-galaxy extinction. A bootstrap method is used to correct the samples for Malmquist bias. Separately, we generate volume-limited samples, restricted to events within 100 Mpc. We find that the superluminous events (M{sub B} < 21) make up only about 0.1% of all SNe in the bias-corrected sample. The subluminous events (M{sub B} > 15) make up about 3%. The normal Ia distribution was the brightest with a mean absolute blue magnitude of 19.25. The IIP distribution was the dimmest at 16.75.

  8. Absolute absorption spectroscopy based on molecule interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Nimmrichter; Klaus Hornberger; Hendrik Ulbricht; Markus Arndt

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new method to measure the absolute photon absorption cross section of neutral molecules in a molecular beam. It is independent of our knowledge of the particle beam density, nor does it rely on photo-induced fragmentation or ionization. The method is based on resolving the recoil resulting from photon absorption by means of near-field matter-wave interference, and it thus applies even to very dilute beams with low optical densities. Our discussion includes the possibility of internal state conversion as well as fluorescence. We assess the influence of various experimental uncertainties and show that the measurement of absolute absorption cross sections is conceivable with high precision and using existing technologies.

  9. Absolute Magnitude Distribution And Light Curves Of Gamma-Ray Burst Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Richardson

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Photometry data were collected from the literature and analyzed for supernovae that are thought to have a gamma-ray burst association. There are several gamma-ray burst afterglow light curves that appear to have a supernova component. For these light curves, the supernova component was extracted and analyzed. A supernova light curve model was used to help determine the peak absolute magnitudes as well as estimates for the kinetic energy, ejected mass and nickel mass in the explosion. The peak absolute magnitudes are, on average, brighter than those of similar supernovae (stripped-envelope supernovae) that do not have a gamma-ray burst association, but this can easily be due to a selection effect. However, the kinetic energies and ejected masses were found to be considerably higher, on average, than those of similar supernovae without a gamma-ray burst association.

  10. Absolute intensity calibration of the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Zhao, H. L.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Han, X.; Ti, A.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of the in situ absolute intensity calibration for the 32-channel heterodyne radiometer on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak. The hot/cold load method is adopted, and the coherent averaging technique is employed to improve the signal to noise ratio. Measured spectra and electron temperature profiles are compared with those from an independent calibrated Michelson interferometer, and there is a relatively good agreement between the results from the two different systems.

  11. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyc, Tomas

    Absolute instruments and perfect imaging in geometrical optics Tomas Tyc, Lenka Herz symmetric absolute instruments that provide perfect imaging in the sense of geometrical optics. We derive to propose several new absolute instruments, in particular a lens providing a stigmatic image of an optically

  13. We report measurement of the equilibrium plasma current profiles in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experiment (LDX) that exhibit a peak beta in excess of 10 percent. The beta of an LDX plasma is calculated will be discussed along with the conditions that lead to the creation of high beta plasmas. #12;Outline · Magnetic · Average and peak beta Substantial analyses must be performed on the magnetic data to actually obtain

  14. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  15. Absolute Calibration of the Auger Fluorescence Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Bauleo; J. Brack; L. Garrard; J. Harton; R. Knapik; R. Meyhandan; A. C. Rovero; A. Tamashiro; D. Warner; for the Auger Collaboration

    2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute calibration of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors uses a light source at the telescope aperture. The technique accounts for the ombined effects of all detector components in a single measurement. The calibrated 2.5 m diameter light source fills the aperture, providing uniform illumination to each pixel. The known flux from the light source and the response of the acquisition system give the required calibration for each pixel. In the lab, light source uniformity is studied using CCD images and the intensity is measured relative to NIST-calibrated photodiodes. Overall uncertainties are presently 12%, and are dominated by systematics.

  16. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ACPD 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut fur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 Accepted: 9 March 2004 Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  17. Experiments for the absolute neutrino mass measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Steidl

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results and perspectives of different methods to measure the absolute mass scale of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. The mass sensitivities from cosmological observations, double beta decay searches and single beta decay spectroscopy differ in sensitivity and model dependance. Next generation experiments in the three fields reach the sensitivity for the lightest mass eigenstate of $m_1<0.2eV$, which will finally answer the question if neutrino mass eigenstates are degenerate. This sensitivity is also reached by the only model-independent approach of single beta decay (KATRIN experiment). For higher sensitivities on cost of model-dependance the neutrinoless double beta decay search and cosmological observation have to be applied. Here, in the next decade sensitivities are approached with the potential to test inverted hierarchy models.

  18. Absolute Maximal Entanglement and Quantum Secret Sharing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helwig, Wolfram; Riera, Arnau; Latorre, Jos I; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the existence of absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states in quantum mechanics and its applications to quantum information. AME states are characterized by being maximally entangled for all bipartitions of the system and exhibit genuine multipartite entanglement. With such states, we present a novel parallel teleportation protocol which teleports multiple quantum states between groups of senders and receivers. The notable features of this protocol are that (i) the partition into senders and receivers can be chosen after the state has been distributed, and (ii) one group has to perform joint quantum operations while the parties of the other group only have to act locally on their system. We also prove the equivalence between pure state quantum secret sharing schemes and AME states with an even number of parties. This equivalence implies the existence of AME states for an arbitrary number of parties based on known results about the existence of quantum secret sharing schemes.

  19. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  20. Absolute measurement of small-amplitude vibrations by time-averaged heterodyne holography with a dual local oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the radiofrequency (RF) content of an optical radiation field E in a sensor bandwidth by mixing it with a LO field camera, (Andor IXON 885+, readout rate S/(2) = 20 Hz). The main optical radiation field is provided

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called ??Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,? and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named ??Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.? This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: ? Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. ? Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. ? Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. ? Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. ? Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: ? Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. ? Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. ? Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. ? Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: ? Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. ? The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvemen

  3. Absolute dipole gamma-ray strength functions for /sup 176/Lu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have derived absolute dipole strength-function information for /sup 176/Lu from an average resonance capture study of /sup 175/Lu with 2-keV neutrons, and from neutron capture cross-section measurements with neutrons from 30 keV to about 1 MeV. We found that we needed to increase our previous estimate of the relative M1/E1 strengths near 5 MeV by a factor of 3, and to revise downward the absolute magnitude of our E1 strength function. We accomplished the latter, while still maintaining continuity with the photonuclear data, by adjusting the one free parameter in our line shape. The present E1 and M1 strengths now seem correct both near the neutron separation energy and also around 1 MeV.

  4. absolutely calibrated effective: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    identical to the Sun, to set the absolute zero point of the effective temperature scale to within few degrees. Our newly calibrated, accurate and precise temperature...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: high-precision absolute yaw encoder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-precision absolute yaw encoder Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production On April 7, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events,...

  6. absolute neutrino mass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    obtained in tritium beta decay experiments, cosmological observations and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Carlo Giunti 2005-11-10 3 Absolute neutrino mass from...

  7. absolute neutrino masses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    obtained in tritium beta decay experiments, cosmological observations and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Carlo Giunti 2005-11-10 3 Absolute neutrino mass from...

  8. absolute gamma ray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absolute gamma ray First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Absolute Branching Ratio of...

  9. Comparison of the percent recoveries of activated charcoal and Spherocarb after storage utilizing thermal desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stidham, Paul Emery

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between the two adsorbents. The parameters of storage in- cluded various durations of time, temperatures, and concentrations. Rather than the present conventional solvent desorption methods, thermal desorption was used in the analysis of samples... Duncan's Multiple Range Test For Variable Percent. 32 6 Mean Percent Recoveries For The Interaction Between Type Of Adsorbent And Storage Time . 7 Mean Percent Recoveries For The Interaction Between Sample Concentration And Storage Time. 39 40 8...

  10. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, B; Perley, R A; Stevens, J; Butler, B J; Rocha, G; Walter, B; Zacchei, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite's annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated VLA and ATCA observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 3.6% +- 1.0% below Planck values; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 6.2% +- 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  11. PRESS RELEASES OF SENATOR PETE DOMENICI Domenici Supports 12 Percent Increase for Nuclear Energy, Disputes Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRESS RELEASES OF SENATOR PETE DOMENICI Domenici Supports 12 Percent Increase for Nuclear Energy his support for a 12 percent increase in federal funding for nuclear energy research, but challenged of modern nuclear power plants. Domenici is chairman of the Energy and Water Development Appropriations

  12. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements must be created in pairs, the VIS channel is also stimulated. In this Metrologia, 1998, 35, 295-300 295

  13. absolute efficiency calibration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    good. This is used in a technique developed for the absolute calibration of ultra high energy cosmic ray fluorescence telescopes, and it can also be applied to imaging atmospheric...

  14. absolute radiometric calibration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are good. This is used in a technique developed for the absolute calibration of ultra high energy cosmic ray fluorescence telescopes, and it can also be applied to imaging...

  15. absolute calibration site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    good. This is used in a technique developed for the absolute calibration of ultra high energy cosmic ray fluorescence telescopes, and it can also be applied to imaging atmospheric...

  16. absolute intensity calibration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    good. This is used in a technique developed for the absolute calibration of ultra high energy cosmic ray fluorescence telescopes, and it can also be applied to imaging atmospheric...

  17. absolute solar transmission: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data were collected from Chang, Grace C. 7 January 1996 NREUfP-463-20619 Calibration of a Solar Absolute Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of Scientific and Technical Information...

  18. Comparative vs. Absolute Performance Assessment with Environmental Sustainability Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High, Karen

    Comparative vs. Absolute Performance Assessment with Environmental Sustainability Metrics Xun Jin Different goals and potential audiences determine that two types of environmental performance assessments metrics can be partitioned into two camps. One suite of metrics aim to assess the environmental

  19. Absolutely minimal Lipschitz extension of tree-valued mappings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naor, Assaf

    We prove that every Lipschitz function from a subset of a locally compact length space to a metric tree has a unique absolutely minimal Lipschitz extension (AMLE). We relate these extensions to a stochastic game called ...

  20. absolute transition probabilities: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Absolute entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation of transition...

  1. General Relativity and Spatial Flows: I. Absolute Relativistic Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Martin

    2000-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two complementary and equally important approaches to relativistic physics are explained. One is the standard approach, and the other is based on a study of the flows of an underlying physical substratum. Previous results concerning the substratum flow approach are reviewed, expanded, and more closely related to the formalism of General Relativity. An absolute relativistic dynamics is derived in which energy and momentum take on absolute significance with respect to the substratum. Possible new effects on satellites are described.

  2. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  3. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35...

  4. Effects of time constraint and percent defective on visual inspection performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Walter Edgar

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF TIME CONSTRAINT AND PERCENT DEFECTIVE ON VISUAL INSPECTION PERFORMANCE A Thesis by WALTER EDGAR GILMORE II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Industrial Engineering EFFECTS OF TIME CONSTRAINT AND PERCENT DEFECTIVE ON VISUAL INSPECTION PERFORMANCE A Thesis by WALTER EDGAR GILMORE II Approved as to sty1e and content by: Chairman of Committ e) (Memb r...

  5. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term,...

  6. Absolute Lineshifts - A new diagnostic for stellar hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainis Dravins

    2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    For hydrodynamic model atmospheres, absolute lineshifts are becoming an observable diagnostic tool beyond the classical ones of line-strength, -width, -shape, and -asymmetry. This is the wavelength displacement of different types of spectral lines away from the positions naively expected from the Doppler shift caused by stellar radial motion. Caused mainly by correlated velocity and brightness patterns in granular convection, such absolute lineshifts could in the past be studied only for the Sun (since the relative Sun-Earth motion, and the ensuing Doppler shift is known). For other stars, this is now becoming possible thanks to three separate developments: (a) Astrometric determination of stellar radial motion; (b) High-resolution spectrometers with accurate wavelength calibration, and (c) Accurate laboratory wavelengths for several atomic species. Absolute lineshifts offer a tool to segregate various 2- and 3-dimensional models, and to identify non-LTE effects in line formation.

  7. Absolute Lineshifts - A new diagnostic for stellar hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dravins, D

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For hydrodynamic model atmospheres, absolute lineshifts are becoming an observable diagnostic tool beyond the classical ones of line-strength, -width, -shape, and -asymmetry. This is the wavelength displacement of different types of spectral lines away from the positions naively expected from the Doppler shift caused by stellar radial motion. Caused mainly by correlated velocity and brightness patterns in granular convection, such absolute lineshifts could in the past be studied only for the Sun (since the relative Sun-Earth motion, and the ensuing Doppler shift is known). For other stars, this is now becoming possible thanks to three separate developments: (a) Astrometric determination of stellar radial motion; (b) High-resolution spectrometers with accurate wavelength calibration, and (c) Accurate laboratory wavelengths for several atomic species. Absolute lineshifts offer a tool to segregate various 2- and 3-dimensional models, and to identify non-LTE effects in line formation.

  8. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  9. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  10. Stability comparison of two absolute gravimeters: optical versus atomic interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillot, Pierre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Merlet, Sbastien

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the direct comparison between the stabilities of two mobile absolute gravimeters of different technology: the LNE-SYRTE Cold Atom Gravimeter and FG5X\\#216 of the Universit\\'e du Luxembourg. These instruments rely on two different principles of operation: atomic and optical interferometry. The comparison took place in the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics in Luxembourg, at the beginning of the last International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters, ICAG-2013. We analyse a 2h10 duration common measurement, and find that the CAG shows better immunity with respect to changes in the level of vibration noise, as well as a slightly better short term stability.

  11. Electron Cyclotron Emission Measurements on JET: Michelson Interferometer, New Absolute Calibration and Determination of Electron Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron Cyclotron Emission Measurements on JET: Michelson Interferometer, New Absolute Calibration and Determination of Electron Temperature

  12. Absolute Calibration of a Large-diameter Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brack, J T; Dorofeev, A; Gookin, B; Harton, J L; Petrov, Y; Rovero, A C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of absolute calibration for large aperture optical systems is presented, using the example of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors. A 2.5 m diameter light source illuminated by an ultra--violet light emitting diode is calibrated with an overall uncertainty of 2.1 % at a wavelength of 365 nm.

  13. Double Beta Decay and the Absolute Neutrino Mass Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Giunti

    2003-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    After a short review of the current status of three-neutrino mixing, the implications for the values of neutrino masses are discussed. The bounds on the absolute scale of neutrino masses from Tritium beta-decay and cosmological data are reviewed. Finally, we discuss the implications of three-neutrino mixing for neutrinoless double-beta decay.

  14. absolute standard hydrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absolute standard hydrogen First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Hydrogen Storage CODES &...

  15. Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, David Scott

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density/Ash Relationship . APPLICATION OF THE GAMMA-GAMMA DENSITY/PERCENT DRY ASH RELATIONSHIPS The Density/Ash Relationship of a South Texas Lignite Deposit Characterization of a South Texas Lignite Deposit CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 52 53 53 53... 58 64 67 6g 80 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Coal Classification by Rank. 2 Common Minerals in Coal. 3 Results of Linear Regression Analyses for a South Texas Lignite Deposit. 4 Variability of Geophysica11y-Derived Percent Dry Ash Values...

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPrice (Percent) Year

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPrice (Percent)

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) YearPricePrice (Percent)

  19. Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".9. Percent of

  20. Table B30. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspa

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".9. Percent of.0.

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Price (Percent)

  2. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  3. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  4. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor History of sales procedures Manufacturer Driven Procedures What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." It should

  5. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  6. The effective beta sensitivity to the incident neutron energy dependence of the absolute delayed neutron yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Angelo, A. (ENEA, Casaccia (Italy)); Filip, A. (Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty of the [sup 235]U, [sup 239]Pu, and [sup 238]U absolute delayed neutron yields v[sub d] is one of the principal sources of uncertainty in predicting the fission reactor reactivity scale [beta][sub eff]. The current uncertainties in the dependence of v[sub d] on incident neutron energy is investigated for significance in the evaluation of [beta][sub eff]. The uncertainty effects on the GODIVA, JEZEBEL, Zero Power Reactor, SNEAK, and Masurca benchmark facility calculations are analyzed using ENDF/B and JEF basic data. Different assumptions about the energy dependence result in variations of up to 5% in the reactor spectrum averaged values of v[sub d], and these would result in variations of up to [approximately] 2% in the value of [beta][sub eff] for a typical liquid-metal fast breeder reactor.

  7. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  8. Microstructural Evolution During Laser Resolidification of Fe-25 Atom Percent Ge Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    selection is discussed using competitive growth kinetics. I. INTRODUCTION TECHNIQUES of rapidly melting the process of laser resolidification. Third, the inti- mate contact of the surface-melted layerMicrostructural Evolution During Laser Resolidification of Fe-25 Atom Percent Ge Alloy KRISHANU

  9. POLICY STATEMENT ON PERCENT SALARY FOR PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS PAID EXCLUSIVELY FROM FEDERAL AWARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    POLICY STATEMENT ON PERCENT SALARY FOR PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS PAID EXCLUSIVELY FROM FEDERAL AWARDS awards, including federal flow through-funding. This Policy applies to all Principal Investigators whose salary is derived entirely from federal awards. This Policy does not apply to Principal Investigators who

  10. Reliability of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimating Whole-Fish Energy Density and Percent Lipids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reliability of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimating Whole-Fish Energy Density impedance analysis (BIA) as a nonlethal means of predicting energy density and percent lipids for three fish. Although models that combined BIA measures with fish wet mass provided strong predictions of total energy

  11. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harty, P. D., E-mail: Peter.Harty@arpansa.gov.au; Ramanathan, G.; Butler, D. J.; Johnston, P. N. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia)] [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Lye, J. E. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia)] [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085, Australia and Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Hall, C. J. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)] [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Stevenson, A. W. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton Sth Victoria 3169 (Australia)] [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton Sth Victoria 3169 (Australia)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. Methods: The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50?Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Results: Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3.9%. Conclusions: The good agreement of the graphite calorimeter and free-air chamber results indicates that both devices are performing as expected. Further investigations at higher dose rates than 50?Gy/s are planned. At higher dose rates, recombination effects for the free-air chamber are much higher and expected to lead to much larger uncertainties. Since the graphite calorimeter does not have problems associated with dose rate, it is an appropriate primary standard detector for the synchrotron IMBL x rays and is the more accurate dosimeter for the higher dose rates expected in radiotherapy applications.

  12. Correction due to finite speed of light in absolute gravimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correction due to finite speed of light is among the most inconsistent ones in absolute gravimetry. Formulas reported by different authors yield corrections scattered up to 8 $\\mu$Gal with no obvious reasons. The problem, though noted before, has never been studied, and nowadays the correction is rather postulated than rigorously proven. In this paper we investigate the problem from several prospectives, find the corrections for different types of absolute gravimeters, and establish relationships between different ways of implement them. The obtained results enabled us to analyze and understand the discrepancies in the results of other authors. We found that the correction derived from the Doppler effect is accountable only for $\\tfrac{2}{3}$ of the total correction due to finite speed of light, if no signal delays are considered. Another major source of inconsistency was found in the tacit use of simplified trajectory models.

  13. In Self-contradiction, Machian Geocentrism Entails Absolute Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Herbert I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luka Popov has attempted to advance Machian physics by maintaining that the heliocentric system must be replaced by Tycho Brahe's geocentric system. We show that while geocentrism relies on Mach's contention that accelerations are relative, this contention is untenable because, inter alia, the consequences of an acceleration of an object with respect to the fixed stars cannot be duplicated by acceleration of the stars with respect to this object and, if the universe and a co-rotating observer have the same angular velocity, this motion is detectable because they have different linear velocities. Also, geocentrism precludes the relativity of accelerations and leads to an absolute space while Mach argued against absolute space, Popov's result that the force exerted by the Earth on the Sun depends on the square of the Sun's mass but is independent of the Earth's mass is paradoxical, and the annual asymmetry of the Cosmic Microwave Background falsifies all geocentric or 'Tychonic/Brahean) systems.

  14. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  15. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  16. Comparison of analytical methods for percent phosphorus determination in electroless nickel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, W.W.; Sullivan, H.H.

    1982-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of five analytical methods for percent phosphorus determination and makes recommendations for the use of common methods to provide accurate and precise results in the field. The analytical methods are: (1) ASTM-E39 gravimetric method; (2) development colorimetric method; (3) independent colorimetric method; (4) UCC-ND alkalimetric method; (5) UCC-ND inductively coupled plasma method. Analysis of the data indicates the concentration of phosphorus in the electroless nickel plate sample to be approximately 12.1%. All of the methods evaluated demonstrated the capability of determining percent phosphorus accurately through the accumulation of a large number of readings. The primary difference among the methods is the precision capabilites of individual tests. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of todays CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  18. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  19. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of

  20. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  1. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of002

  2. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices of0023

  3. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices

  4. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices4

  5. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices44

  6. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West Average Prices445

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West AverageMexico"

  8. Absolute Efficiency Calibration of a Beta-Gamma Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Lidey, Lance S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract- Identification and quantification of nuclear events such as the Fukushima reactor failure and nuclear explosions rely heavily on the accurate measurement of radioxenon releases. One radioxenon detection method depends on detecting beta-gamma coincident events paired with a stable xenon measurement to determine the concentration of a plume. Like all measurements, the beta-gamma method relies on knowing the detection efficiency for each isotope measured. Several methods are commonly used to characterize the detection efficiency for a beta-gamma detector. The most common method is using a NIST certified sealed source to determine the efficiency. A second method determines the detection efficiencies relative to an already characterized detector. Finally, a potentially more accurate method is to use the expected sample to perform an absolute efficiency calibration; in the case of a beta-gamma detector, this relies on radioxenon gas samples. The complication of the first method is it focuses only on the gamma detectors and does not offer a solution for determining the beta efficiency. The second method listed is not similarly constrained, however it relies on another detector to have a well-known efficiency calibration. The final method using actual radioxenon samples to make an absolute efficiency determination is the most desirable, but until recently it was not possible to produce all four isotopically pure radioxenon. The production, by University of Texas (UT), of isotopically pure radioxenon has allowed the beta-gamma detectors to be calibrated using the absolute efficiency method. The first four radioxenon isotope calibration will be discussed is this paper.

  9. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  10. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  11. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  12. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: unattainability principle challenged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Kol?; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Robert Alicki; Gershon Kurizki

    2012-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator (QR), i.e. a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards the absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T->0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g. phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin-waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  13. Optimized replica gas estimation of absolute integrals and partition functions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minh, D. (Biosciences Division)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast with most Monte Carlo integration algorithms, which are used to estimate ratios, the replica gas identities recently introduced by Adib enable the estimation of absolute integrals and partition functions using multiple copies of a system and normalized transition functions. Here, an optimized form is presented. After generalizing a replica gas identity with an arbitrary weighting function, we obtain a functional form that has the minimal asymptotic variance for samples from two replicas and is provably good for a larger number. This equation is demonstrated to improve the convergence of partition function estimates in a two-dimensional Ising model.

  14. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  15. Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

  16. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  17. Absolute Values of Neutrino Masses: Status and Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Bilenky; C. Giunti; J. A. Grifols; E. Masso

    2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Compelling evidences in favor of neutrino masses and mixing obtained in the last years in Super-Kamiokande, SNO, KamLAND and other neutrino experiments made the physics of massive and mixed neutrinos a frontier field of research in particle physics and astrophysics. There are many open problems in this new field. In this review we consider the problem of the absolute values of neutrino masses, which apparently is the most difficult one from the experimental point of view. We discuss the present limits and the future prospects of beta-decay neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double-beta decay. We consider the important problem of the calculation of nuclear matrix elements of neutrinoless double-beta decay and discuss the possibility to check the results of different model calculations of the nuclear matrix elements through their comparison with the experimental data. We discuss the upper bound of the total mass of neutrinos that was obtained recently from the data of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and other cosmological data and we discuss future prospects of the cosmological measurements of the total mass of neutrinos. We discuss also the possibility to obtain information on neutrino masses from the observation of the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (beyond the GZK cutoff). Finally, we review the main aspects of the physics of core-collapse supernovae, the limits on the absolute values of neutrino masses from the observation of SN1987A neutrinos and the future prospects of supernova neutrino detection.

  18. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21YearThousandthePrice (Percent)

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayPrice

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Aprthe

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar AprthePrice

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb MarPrice

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan FebPrice

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan FebPricePrice

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan FebPricePricePrice

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Jan

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe Price

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe PricePrice

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe PricePriceby

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe PricePricebyPrice

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year Janthe

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePrice

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethe Pricethe

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethethe Price

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year JanthePricethethePrice

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent) Year

  2. Table B28. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar AprPrice (Percent) Decade

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar AprPrice (Percent)

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar AprPrice (Percent)Price

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Mar AprPricePrice (Percent)

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Marby the Price (Percent)the

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Marby the PricePrice (Percent)

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Marby thethe Price (Percent)

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arizona Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb Marby thethethePrice (Percent)

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb MarbyPrice (Percent) Decade

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb MarbyPrice (Percent)

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan Feb MarbyPrice (Percent)thePrice

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent) Decade Year-0

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent) Decade

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent) DecadePrice

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent)

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent)Price

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent)PricePrice

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPrice (Percent)PricePricePrice

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePrice (Percent) Decade

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePrice (Percent)

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePrice (Percent)thePrice

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePricePrice (Percent)

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear Jan FebPricePricePrice (Percent)Price

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan Febthe

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan Febthethe

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Jan

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Janthe Price

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year Janthe

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Year JanthePrice

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Yearthe Price

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Yearthe Pricethe

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) Yearthe

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) YearthePrice

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent) YearthePricePrice

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Price

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethe Pricethethe

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethe

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricetheby thethe

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricetheby thethethe

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)Pricethebythe

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPrice (Percent)PricethebythePrice

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) Year Jan Feb

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) Year Jan

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) Year JanPrice

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) Year

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent) YearPrice

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by thethe

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar AprYear JanPricePrice (Percent)by thethePrice

  13. U.S. Parking Facilities Cut Energy Use by 90 Percent, Switch 270 Million

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTestFeedEnergy Navy Moanalua TerracePercent | Department

  14. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  15. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  16. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

  17. Absolute Values of Neutrino Masses implied by the Seesaw Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, H

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is found that the seesaw mechanism not only explain the smallness of neutrino masses but also account for the large mixing angles simultaneously, once the unification of the neutrino Dirac mass matrix with that of up-quark sector is realized. We show that provided the Majorana masses have hierarchical structure as is seen in the up-quark sector, we can reduce the information about the absolute values of neutrino masses through the data set of neutrino experiments. The results for the light neutrino masses are $m_1:m_2:m_3\\approx 1:3:17$ $(m_1\\simeq m_2:m_3\\approx 1.2:1)$ in the case of normal mass spectrum (inverted mass spectrum), and the heaviest Majorana mass turns out to be $m_3^R=1\\times 10^{15}$ GeV which just corresponds to the GUT scale.

  18. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Landi, Enrico [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  19. The chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani I. Absolute dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Washuettl; K. G. Strassmeier; T. Granzer; M. Weber; K. Olh

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed determination of the astrophysical parameters of the chromospherically active binary star EI Eridani. Our new radial velocities allow to improve the set of orbital elements and reveal long-term variations of the barycentric velocity. A possible third-body orbit with a period of approximately 19 years is presented. Absolute parameters are determined in combination with the Hipparcos parallax. EI Eri's inclination angle of the rotational axis is confined to 56.0 plus/minus 4.5 degrees, its luminosity class IV is confirmed by its radius of 2.37 plus/minus 0.12 R_Sun. A comparison to theoretical stellar evolutionary tracks suggests a mass of 1.09 plus/minus 0.05 M_Sun and an age of approximately 6.15 Gyr. The present investigation is the basis of our long-term Doppler imaging study of its stellar surface.

  20. Conductance and absolutely continuous spectrum of 1D samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Bruneau; Vojkan Jaki?; Yoram Last; Claude-Alain Pillet

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We characterize the absolutely continuous spectrum of the one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operators $h=-\\Delta+v$ acting on $\\ell^2(\\mathbb{Z}_+)$ in terms of the limiting behavior of the Landauer-B\\"uttiker and Thouless conductances of the associated finite samples. The finite sample is defined by restricting $h$ to a finite interval $[1,L]\\cap\\mathbb{Z}_+$ and the conductance refers to the charge current across the sample in the open quantum system obtained by attaching independent electronic reservoirs to the sample ends. Our main result is that the conductances associated to an energy interval $I$ are non-vanishing in the limit $L\\to\\infty$ iff ${\\rm sp}_{\\rm ac}(h)\\cap I=\\emptyset$. We also discuss the relationship between this result and the Schr\\"odinger Conjecture.

  1. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F., E-mail: chengfe@hust.edu.cn; Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  2. Absolute Measurement Of Laminar Shear Rate Using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot Jenner; Brian D'Urso

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An absolute measurement of the components of the shear rate tensor $\\mathcal{S}$ in a fluid can be found by measuring the photon correlation function of light scattered from particles in the fluid. Previous methods of measuring $\\mathcal{S}$ involve reading the velocity at various points and extrapolating the shear, which can be time consuming and is limited in its ability to examine small spatial scale or short time events. Previous work in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy has involved only approximate solutions, requiring free parameters to be scaled by a known case, or different cases, such as 2-D flows, but here we present a treatment that provides quantitative results directly and without calibration for full 3-D flow. We demonstrate this treatment experimentally with a cone and plate rheometer.

  3. Absolute properties of the eclipsing binary star IM Persei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fekel, Francis C.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Southworth, John, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: matthew1@coe.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: astro.js@keele.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IM Per is a detached A7 eccentric eclipsing binary star. We have obtained extensive measurements of the light curve (28,225 differential magnitude observations) and radial velocity curve (81 spectroscopic observations) which allow us to fit orbits and determine the absolute properties of the components very accurately: masses of 1.7831 0.0094 and 1.7741 0.0097 solar masses, and radii of 2.409 0.018 and 2.366 0.017 solar radii. The orbital period is 2.25422694(15) days and the eccentricity is 0.0473(26). A faint third component was detected in the analysis of the light curves, and also directly observed in the spectra. The observed rate of apsidal motion is consistent with theory (U = 151.4 8.4 year). We determine a distance to the system of 566 46 pc.

  4. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  5. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  6. Absolute measurement of the viscosity of classical and quantum fluids by rotating-cylinder viscometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, R.J.; LaMar, M.M.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the use of rotating-cylinder viscometers to determine absolute shear viscosities of classical fluids and of helium II in the context of past and current knowledge of the stability and flow of these fluids between concentric cylinders. We identify a problem in measuring the absolute viscosity when the inner cylinder is rotating and the outer cylinder is at rest. We conclude by discussing the design of viscometers for absolute viscosity measurements in helium I and helium II.

  7. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  8. An estimated one of every six households (16.2 percent) in Texas lives in poverty. Research has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relevance An estimated one of every six households (16.2 percent) in Texas lives in poverty. Research has shown that individuals who live in poverty have dietary intakes that are not in agreement

  9. Analysis of farm-to-retail price spreads for whole and two percent milk in seven selected cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Marla Lashea

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of transmission for whole milk was from 0.37 (Hartford) to 2.54 (Dallas) and from 0.39 (Hartford) to 3.66 (Dallas) for two percent milk....

  10. Extraction of Plutonium into 30 Percent Tri-Butyl Phosphate from Nitric Acid Solution Containing Fluoride, Aluminum, and Boron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.

    2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This work consists of experimental batch extraction data for plutonium into 30 volume-percent tri-butyl phosphate at ambient temperature from such a solution matrix and a model of this data using complexation constants from the literature.

  11. Further Developments of a Robust Absolute Calibration Method Utilizing Beta/Gamma Coincidence Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Schrom, Brian T.; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a conference proceedings from the MARC conference. It discusses the research conducted into an alternative method of detector calibration and absolute activity measurement.

  12. absolute single-molecule entropies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A simulation method for calculating the absolute entropy and free energy of fluids: Application to Chemistry Websites Summary: A simulation method for...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute zero temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Gases Group Collection: Physics 47 Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from Summary: of...

  14. A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byington, Alonzo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CORRELATION OF WATER SOLUBILITY IN JET FUELS WITH API GRAVITY, ANILINE POINT PERCENT AROMATICS, AND TEMPERATURE A Thesis By ALONZO B YINGTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A CORRELATION OF MATER SOLUBILITT IH JET FUELS WITS API GEAVITT, ANILINE POINT, PERCENT ARONATICS, AND TENPERATURE A Thesis By ALOHZO BYIHGTOH Approved...

  15. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  16. Absolute Values of Neutrino Masses implied by the Seesaw Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Tsujimoto

    2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    It is found that the seesaw mechanism not only explain the smallness of neutrino masses but also account for the large mixing angles simultaneously, even if the unification of the neutrino Dirac mass matrix with that of up-type quark sector is realized. We show that provided the Majorana masses have hierarchical structure as is seen in the up-type quark sector and all mass matrices are real, we can reduce the information about the absolute values of neutrino masses through the data set of neutrino experiments. Especially for $\\theta_{13}=0$, we found that the neutrino masses are decided as $m_1:m_2:m_3\\approx 1:3:17$ or $1:50:250$ ($m_1\\simeq m_2:m_3\\approx 3:1$ or $12:1$) in the case of normal mass spectrum (inverted mass spectrum), and the greatest Majorana mass turns out to be $m_3^R=1\\times 10^{15}$ GeV which just corresponds to the GUT scale. Including the decoupling effects caused by three singlet neutrinos, we also perform a renormalization group analysis to fix the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix at low energy.

  17. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E. [University of Maryland, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550W 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Lubin, P. M. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mirel, P. [Wyle Informations Systems, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Singal, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: Michael.D.Seiffert@jpl.nasa.gov [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Divisao de Astrofisica, Caixa Postal 515, 12245-970-Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  18. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Key, W.S.; Sanders, A.J.; Earl, D.D.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a beam splitter''), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beam splitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention. 9 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Key, William S. (Knoxville, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

  20. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  1. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hearn, William E. (Berkeley, CA); Rondeau, Donald J. (El Sobrante, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  2. Over 30{percent} efficient InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamoto, T.; Ikeda, E.; Kurita, H. [Central Research Laboratory, Japan Energy Corporation, 3-17-35 Niizo-Minami, Toda, Saitama 335 (Japan)] [Central Research Laboratory, Japan Energy Corporation, 3-17-35 Niizo-Minami, Toda, Saitama 335 (Japan); Ohmori, M. [Japan Energy Research Center Company, Ltd., 1-11-9 Azabudai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 (Japan)] [Japan Energy Research Center Company, Ltd., 1-11-9 Azabudai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106 (Japan)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-terminal monolithic InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cell with a new efficiency record of 30.28{percent} is realized with a practical large area of 4 cm{sup 2} under one-sun air-mass 1.5 global illumination. We report improvements of the tandem cell performance by introducing a double-hetero (hereafter DH) structure InGaP tunnel junction, in which the InGaP layers are surrounded by high band gap AlInP barriers. The DH structure by AlInP barriers increase the peak current of InGaP tunnel junction. The AlInP barrier directly below the InGaP top cell, which takes the part of a back surface field (hereafter BSF) layer, is found to be considerably effective in reflecting minority carriers in the top cell. The AlInP BSF layer does not only form a high potential barrier but also prevents the diffusion of zinc from a high doped tunnel junction toward the top cell during epitaxial growth. Furthermore, an InGaP tunnel junction reduces the absorption loss, which exists in a GaAs tunnel junction, and increases the photogenerated current in the GaAs bottom cell. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. A simulation method for calculating the absolute entropy and free energy of fluids: Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    A simulation method for calculating the absolute entropy and free energy of fluids: Application is a general approach for calculating the absolute entropy and free energy by analyzing Boltzmann samples and the TIP3P model of water, and very good results for the free energy are obtained, as compared with results

  4. Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids for calculating the absolute entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte energy evaluation is a central issue in atomistic modeling.15 When the free energy is known, equilibrium

  5. Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical and radiocarbon methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 Bayesian modelling of an absolute chronology for Egypt's 18th Dynasty by astrophysical Egyptology, the establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt has been an ambition which has contained lists of the kings who reigned in Egypt. The Palermo Stone, the Abydos reliefs and the Turin Canon

  6. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  7. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  8. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  9. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

  10. Absolute frequency measurement of an SF6 two-photon line using a femtosecond optical comb and sum-frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Absolute frequency measurement of an SF6 two-photon line using a femtosecond optical comb and sum laser. The absolute frequency of a CO2 laser stabilized onto an SF6 two-photon line has been measured

  11. Absolute vs. Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission Control: Performance Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sue Wing, Ian.

    We elucidate the differences between absolute and intensity-based limits of CO2 emission when there is uncertainty about the future. We demonstrate that the two limits are identical under certainty, and rigorously establish ...

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute gamma ray Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: absolute gamma ray Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Characterizing the Memory Behavior of CompilerParallelized...

  13. Primary crossflow vortices, secondary absolute instabilities and their control in the rotating-disk boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Primary crossflow vortices, secondary absolute instabilities and their control in the rotating patterns of crossflow vortices are derived by employing asymptotic techniques. This approach accounts three-dimensional velocity profiles, are subject to inviscid crossflow in- stabilities and rapidly

  14. Absolute Measure of Local Chirality and the Chiral Polarization Scale of the QCD Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Alexandru; Terrence Draper; Ivan Horvth; Thomas Streuer

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of the absolute measure of local chirality is championed since it has a uniform distribution for randomly reshuffled chiral components so that any deviations from uniformity in the associated "X-distribution" are directly attributable to QCD-induced dynamics. We observe a transition in the qualitative behavior of this absolute X-distribution of low-lying eigenmodes which, we propose, defines a chiral polarization scale of the QCD vacuum.

  15. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  16. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  17. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  18. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  19. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  20. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  1. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  2. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  3. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  4. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  5. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  6. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  7. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions,

  8. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili, Lo`eve, Karhunen harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  9. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  10. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  11. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Jos

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  12. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  13. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  14. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  15. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  16. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  17. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  18. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  19. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  20. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  1. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  3. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  4. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  5. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  6. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  7. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  8. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  9. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  10. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2" "

  11. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  12. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  13. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and ngstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the ngstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  14. HC-1 Ideal Gas and Absolute Zero Name_______________________ Lab Worksheet Group member names__________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winokur, Michael

    that you always start with the same volume and pressure. 3) Compress the gas in the syringe as slowly as possible clicking at 5cm3 intervals and recording the volume. You can continue to slowly compress the gas reasoning. b) What do we call this process? #12;HC-1 Ideal Gas and Absolute Zero Name

  15. Increasing absolute mortality disparities by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1971e2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Increasing absolute mortality disparities by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden, 1971e2000 differences by education in Finland, Norway and Sweden over the period 1971 to 2000. Methods The age and the AIDs have increased since the 1970s in Norway and Sweden, and since the 1980s in Finland

  16. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  17. Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from Remote Thermal Abstract Determination of the internal temperature of a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) from remotelyRadiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction

  18. Absolute cross section for Si2 P... electron-impact excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savin, Daniel Wolf

    the excited ions was detected using an absolutely calibrated optical system. The fractional population such as qua- sars and active galactic nuclei. Modern space observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope 3-ray line intensities with detectors calibrated to a high degree of accuracy 7,8,6 , placing more demand

  19. A rapid multiple-sample approach to the determination of absolute paleointensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    an alternative approach to absolute paleointensity determination, one which involves exactly five heatings involves the simultaneous thermal treatment of several subspecimens sampled from different regions throughout the igneous rock unit under investigation. For inclusion of data in a given determination, self

  20. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating.Sjstrmc a Dept. of NetLab: IPTV, Video and Display Quality, Acreo AB, Sweden b Dept. of Image and Video at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated

  1. Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizenman, Michael [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Warzel, Simone [Zentrum Mathematik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

  2. The absolute and relative de Rham-Witt complexes Lars Hesselholt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -schemes to * *Z(p)-schemes. From this comparison, we derive a Gauss-Manin connection on the crystalline. There is a canonical surjective map Wn .X! Wn .X=S from the absolute de Rham of the canonical map f-1Wn* * 1S! Wn 1X. The graded pieces for the I-adic filtration are differential graded

  3. DIGITALVISION ltra-wideband (UWB) radios have relative bandwidths larger than 20% or absolute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    .S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allowed the use of unlicensed UWB communications [8]. The first bandwidths of more than 500 MHz. Such wide bandwidths offer a wealth of advan- tages for both communications ranging accuracy. For communications, both large relative and large absolute band- width alleviate small

  4. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  5. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  6. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  7. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  8. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  9. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  10. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  11. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at 20 using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  12. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  13. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  14. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  15. Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA 2 DepartmentAbsolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative;REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 83, 063901 (2012) Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy

  16. Absolute entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation of transition probabilities from local grand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Absolute entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation the absolute entropy and free energy from a Boltzmann sample generated by Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics for the free energy. We demonstrate that very good results for the entropy and the free energy can be obtained

  17. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  18. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  19. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; Lpez, O; Prlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  20. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fsica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Fsica, Pontificia Universidade Catlica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marqus de So Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fsica, Pontificia Universidade Catlica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marqus de So Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  1. The Roland De Witte 1991 Detection of Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, R T

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991 Roland De Witte carried out an experiment in Brussels in which variations in the one-way speed of RF waves through a coaxial cable were recorded over 178 days. The data from this experiment shows that De Witte had detected absolute motion of the earth through space, as had six earlier experiments, beginning with the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887. His results are in excellent agreement with the extensive data from the Miller 1925/26 detection of absolute motion using a gas-mode Michelson interferometer atop Mt.Wilson, California. The De Witte data reveals turbulence in the flow which amounted to the detection of gravitational waves. Similar effects were also seen by Miller, and by Torr and Kolen in their coaxial cable experiment. Here we bring together what is known about the De Witte experiment.

  2. The Roland De Witte 1991 Detection of Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill

    2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991 Roland De Witte carried out an experiment in Brussels in which variations in the one-way speed of RF waves through a coaxial cable were recorded over 178 days. The data from this experiment shows that De Witte had detected absolute motion of the earth through space, as had six earlier experiments, beginning with the Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887. His results are in excellent agreement with the extensive data from the Miller 1925/26 detection of absolute motion using a gas-mode Michelson interferometer atop Mt.Wilson, California. The De Witte data reveals turbulence in the flow which amounted to the detection of gravitational waves. Similar effects were also seen by Miller, and by Torr and Kolen in their coaxial cable experiment. Here we bring together what is known about the De Witte experiment.

  3. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  4. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  5. Absolute calibration of the Gamma Knife{sup } Perfexion and delivered dose verification using EPR/alanine dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hornbeck, Amaury, E-mail: amauryhornbeck@gmail.com, E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr; Garcia, Tristan, E-mail: amauryhornbeck@gmail.com, E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cuttat, Marguerite; Jenny, Catherine [Radiotherapy Department, Medical Physics Unit, University Hospital Piti-Salptrire, 75013 Paris (France)] [Radiotherapy Department, Medical Physics Unit, University Hospital Piti-Salptrire, 75013 Paris (France)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Elekta Leksell Gamma Knife{sup } (LGK) is a radiotherapy beam machine whose features are not compliant with the international calibration protocols for radiotherapy. In this scope, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and the Piti-Salptrire Hospital decided to conceive a new LKG dose calibration method and to compare it with the currently used one. Furthermore, the accuracy of the dose delivered by the LGK machine was checked using an end-to-end test. This study also aims to compare doses delivered by the two latest software versions of the Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The dosimetric method chosen is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of alanine. Dose rate (calibration) verification was done without TPS using a spherical phantom. Absolute calibration was done with factors calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-X). For end-to-end test, irradiations in an anthropomorphic head phantom, close to real treatment conditions, are done using the TPS in order to verify the delivered dose. Results: The comparison of the currently used calibration method with the new one revealed a deviation of +0.8% between the dose rates measured by ion chamber and EPR/alanine. For simple fields configuration (less than 16 mm diameter), the end-to-end tests showed out average deviations of ?1.7% and ?0.9% between the measured dose and the calculated dose by Gammaplan v9 and v10, respectively. Conclusions: This paper shows there is a good agreement between the new calibration method and the currently used one. There is also a good agreement between the calculated and delivered doses especially for Gammaplan v10.

  6. Absolute calibration of a charge-coupled device camera with twin beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meda, A.; Ruo-Berchera, I., E-mail: i.ruoberchera@inrim.it; Degiovanni, I. P.; Brida, G.; Rastello, M. L.; Genovese, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the absolute calibration of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera by exploiting quantum correlation. This method exploits a certain number of spatial pairwise quantum correlated modes produced by spontaneous parametric-down-conversion. We develop a measurement model accounting for all the uncertainty contributions, and we reach the relative uncertainty of 0.3% in low photon flux regime. This represents a significant step forward for the characterization of (scientific) CCDs used in mesoscopic light regime.

  7. Absolute calibration of photon-number-resolving detectors with an analog output using twin beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pe?ina, Jan, E-mail: jan.perina.jr@upol.cz [RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palack University and Institute of Physics AS CR, 17. listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Haderka, Ond?ej [Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palack University and Institute of Physics AS CR, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Allevi, Alessia [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Universit degli Studi dell'Insubria, I-22100 Como (Italy); Bondani, Maria [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-IFN, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for absolute calibration of a photon-number resolving detector producing analog signals as the output is developed using a twin beam. The method gives both analog-to-digital conversion parameters and quantum detection efficiency for the photon fields. Characteristics of the used twin beam are also obtained. A simplified variant of the method applicable to fields with high signal to noise ratios and suitable for more intense twin beams is suggested.

  8. Comment on 'Simultaneous gravity and gradient measurements from a recoil-compensated absolute gravimeter'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagornyi, V D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article (Niebauer et al. 2011 Metrologia 48 154-163) reports on the important innovations enhancing the ability of absolute gravimeter to measure vertical gravity gradient along with the gravity acceleration. This comment suggests experiments to further assess the improvements and the results obtained with the modified instrument, considers some limitations of non-linear models in metrology and ways to overcome them, and discusses possible applications of the described instrument.

  9. Comment on "Measurement of the speed-of-light perturbation of free-fall absolute gravimeters"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagornyi, V D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper (Rothleitner et al. 2014 Metrologia 51, L9) reports on the measurement of the speed-of-light perturbation in absolute gravimeters. The conclusion that the perturbation reaches only 2/3 of the commonly accepted value violates the fundamental limitation on the maximum speed of information transfer. The conclusion was deluded by unaccounted parasitic perturbations, some of which are obvious from the report.

  10. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ave, M.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Bohacova, M.; /Chicago U., EFI; Daumiller, K.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Di Carlo, P.; /INFN, Aquila; Di Giulio, C.; /INFN, Rome; Luis, P.Facal San; /Chicago U., EFI; Gonzales, D.; /Karlsruhe U., EKP; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab; Horandel, J.R.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Hrabovsky, M.; /Palacky U.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  11. Absolute pulse energy measurements of soft x-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tiedtke, K.; Sorokin, A. A.; Jastrow, U.; Jurani?, P.; Kreis, S.; Gerken, N.; Richter, M.; Arp, U.; Feng, Y.; Nordlund, D.; et al

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports novel measurements of x-ray optical radiation on an absolute scale from the intense and ultra-short radiation generated in the soft x-ray regime of a free electron laser. We give a brief description of the detection principle for radiation measurements which was specifically adapted for this photon energy range. We present data characterizing the soft x-ray instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) with respect to the radiant power output and transmission by using an absolute detector temporarily placed at the downstream end of the instrument. This provides an estimation of the reflectivity of all x-ray opticalmoreelements in the beamline and provides the absolute photon number per bandwidth per pulse. This parameter is important for many experiments that need to understand the trade-offs between high energy resolution and high flux, such as experiments focused on studying materials via resonant processes. Furthermore, the results are compared with the LCLS diagnostic gas detectors to test the limits of linearity, and observations are reported on radiation contamination from spontaneous undulator radiation and higher harmonic content.less

  12. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  13. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  14. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  15. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  16. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  17. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  18. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  19. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  20. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  1. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  2. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  3. Absolute cross sections for electron loss, electron capture, and multiple ionization in collisions of C{sup 3+} with noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Montenegro, E. C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970 (Brazil); Sigaud, G. M. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 38071, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22452-970 (Brazil); Melo, W. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Absolute charge-state-correlated cross sections for projectile electron loss, electron capture, and target multiple ionization in collisions between C{sup 3+} ions and noble gases have been measured for energies between 1.3 and 3.5 MeV. The data have been compared with other similar absolute cross sections existent in the literature for several projectiles. Calculations for the single-loss-multiple-ionization channel have been performed for the screening mode, using both an extended version of the classical-impulse free-collision model and the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA), and for the antiscreening mode within the PWBA. The energy dependence of the average number of target active electrons which contribute to the antiscreening has been described by means of a simple function, which is ''universal'' for noble gases but, in principle, projectile dependent. A method has been developed to obtain the number of active target electrons for each subshell in the high-velocity regime, which presented physically reasonable results. Analyses of the dependences of the single-capture and transfer-ionization (SC and TI, respectively) processes on the projectile charge states showed that, for He, equally charged bare and dressed projectiles have very similar cross sections; the latter thus acting as structureless point charges. A behavior similar to that in the SC has been observed for the pure single ionization of He by projectiles with different charge states and of the other noble gases by singly charged projectiles. It has been shown that the q{sup 2} dependence of the pure-single and total-ionization cross sections, predicted by first-order models, is only valid for high-collision velocities. For slower collisions, the electron capture process becomes more relevant and competes with the ionization channel, a feature which grows in importance as the projectile charge state increases.

  4. Absolute polarization standards at medium and high energies. [200 to 900 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNaughton, M.W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although measurement of a polarization asymmetry is rather easy, the normalization of the measurement to obtain the analyzing power requires an absolute knowledge of the beam polarization or comparison with a known standard analyzing power. Such calibration standards can be hard to find. This paper concentrates on medium and higher energies, and divides the techniques into four categories: double scattering, polarized target methods, polarized source methods, and theoretical methods. Secondary standards are also discussed, and earlier data are assessed. 52 references, 6 figures. (RWR)

  5. The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described.

  6. An absolute quantum energy inequality for the Dirac field in curved spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvin J. Smith

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Weak Energy Inequalities (QWEIs) are results which limit the extent to which the smeared renormalised energy density of a quantum field can be negative. On globally hyperbolic spacetimes the massive quantum Dirac field is known to obey a QWEI in terms of a reference state chosen arbitrarily from the class of Hadamard states; however, there exist spacetimes of interest on which state-dependent bounds cannot be evaluated. In this paper we prove the first QWEI for the massive quantum Dirac field on four dimensional globally hyperbolic spacetime in which the bound depends only on the local geometry; such a QWEI is known as an absolute QWEI.

  7. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  8. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  9. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  10. The Absolute Magnitude of RR Lyrae Stars Derived from the Hipparcos Catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takuji Tsujimoto; Masanori Miyamoto; Yuzuru Yoshii

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present determination of the absolute magnitude $M_V(RR)$ of RR Lyrae stars is twofold, relying upon Hipparcos proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes separately. First, applying the statistical parallax method to the proper motions, we find $=0.69\\pm0.10$ for 99 halo RR Lyraes with $$ =--1.58. Second, applying the Lutz-Kelker correction to the RR Lyrae HIP95497 with the most accurately measured parallax, we obtain $M_V(RR)$=(0.58--0.68)$^{+0.28}_{-0.31}$ at [Fe/H]=--1.6. Furthermore, allowing full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes as well for 125 RR Lyraes with -- 2.49$\\leq$[Fe/H]$\\leq$0.07, the maximum likelihood estimation yields the relation, $M_V(RR)$=(0.59$\\pm$0.37)+(0.20$\\pm$0.63)([Fe/H]+1.60), which formally agrees with the recent preferred relation. The same estimation yields again $$ = $0.65\\pm0.33$ for the 99 halo RR Lyraes. Although the formal errors in the latter three parallax estimates are rather large, all of the four results suggest the fainter absolute magnitude, $M_V(RR)$$\\approx$0.6--0.7 at [Fe/H]=--1.6. The present results still provide the lower limit on the age of the universe which is inconsistent with a flat, matter-dominated universe and current estimates of the Hubble constant.

  11. Variable Selection for Modeling the Absolute Magnitude at Maximum of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, S; Ikeda, Shiro; Maeda, Keiichi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss what is an appropriate set of explanatory variables in order to predict the absolute magnitude at the maximum of Type Ia supernovae. In order to have a good prediction, the error for future data, which is called the "generalization error," should be small. We use cross-validation in order to control the generalization error and LASSO-type estimator in order to choose the set of variables. This approach can be used even in the case that the number of samples is smaller than the number of candidate variables. We studied the Berkeley supernova database with our approach. Candidates of the explanatory variables include normalized spectral data, variables about lines, and previously proposed flux-ratios, as well as the color and light-curve widths. As a result, we confirmed the past understanding about Type Ia supernova: i) The absolute magnitude at maximum depends on the color and light-curve width. ii) The light-curve width depends on the strength of Si II. Recent studies have suggested to add more va...

  12. VSP members have nationwide access to low, cost-controlled pricing on all lens extras, for savings up to 20 percent.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    up to 20 percent. Patient Option Single Vision Multifocal Polycarbonate Lenses $25 $30 Polycarbonate Polycarbonate Ten times more impact-resistant than any other plastic lens, polycarbonate is the lens of choice, polycarbonate lenses also provide UV protection and scratch-resistance. Progressive Lenses Unlike traditional

  13. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  14. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  15. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  17. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  18. Can corner-cube absolute gravimeters sense the effects of Special Relativity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagornyi, V D; Zanimonskiy, Y Y

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic treatment of the finite speed of light correction in absolute gravimeters, as evolved by Rothleitner and Francis in Metrologia 2011, 48 442-445, following the initial publication in Metrologia 2011, 48 187-195, leads to spurious conclusions. The double Doppler shift implemented in the gravimeters obliterates the difference between its relativistic and non-relativistic formulation. Optical heterodyning used in Michelson-type interferometers makes the quadratic Lorenz-like term of the double Doppler shift discernable against the linear term, while in relativistic experiments the quadratic term has to be detected against the unit. The disturbance of the registered trajectory caused by the finite speed of light includes tracking signal delay as intrinsic part not reducible to the Doppler shifts.

  19. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Katz, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Magoon, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Shoup, M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Ulreich, J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energitics; Ashabranner, R. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carpenter, A. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Khater, H. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McKernan, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yeoman, M. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zacharias, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fletcher, K. [State Univ. of New York at Geneseo, NY (United States); Farrell, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jasion, D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Paguio, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

  20. Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bouchiat

    2003-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.

  1. The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; et al

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, iontemperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describesmoreab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.less

  2. The modified dynamics (MOND) predicts an absolute maximum to the acceleration produced by `dark halos'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael Brada; Mordehai Milgrom

    1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have recently discovered that the modified dynamics (MOND) implies some universal upper bound on the acceleration that can be contributed by a `dark halo'--assumed in a Newtonian analysis to account for the effects of MOND. Not surprisingly, the limit is of the order of the acceleration constant of the theory. This can be contrasted directly with the results of structure-formation simulations. The new limit is substantial and different from earlier MOND acceleration limits (discussed in connection with the MOND explanation of the Freeman law for galaxy disks, and the Fish law for ellipticals): It pertains to the `halo', and not to the observed galaxy; it is absolute, and independent of further physical assumptions on the nature of the galactic system; and it applies at all radii, whereas the other limits apply only to the mean acceleration in the system.

  3. Measurement of the Absolute Branching Fraction of D0 to K- pi+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, B.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Button-Shafer, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors measure the absolute branching fraction for D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +} using partial reconstruction of {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup +}X{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}} decays, in which only the charged lepton and the pion from the decay D*{sup +} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} are used. Based on a data sample of 230 million B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, they obtain {Beta}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.007 {+-} 0.037 {+-} 0.070)%, where the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic.

  4. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  5. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  6. Table 1. Number and Percent of Women Faculty in Science/Engineering by Department, 2000* Division/Department Women Men % Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    .2% Agricultural & Applied Economics 0.00 22.00 0.0% Life Sciences Communication 3.80 8.33 31.3% Rural Sociology 3 Communication 4.41 11.00 28.6% School of Library & Information Studies 4.00 2.00 66.7% #12;Political Science 8Table 1. Number and Percent of Women Faculty in Science/Engineering by Department, 2000* Division

  7. Table 1. Number and Percent of Women Faculty in Science/Engineering by Department, 2005 Division/Department Women Men % Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    223.20 366.73 37.8% Agricultural & Applied Economics 3.00 22.90 11.6% Life Sciences Communication 5 Communication 5.00 8.50 37.0% School of Library & Information Studies 7.00 0.50 93.3% Political Science 7.00 27Table 1. Number and Percent of Women Faculty in Science/Engineering by Department, 2005 Division

  8. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  9. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  10. Design and Synthesis of Visible Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags for the Absolute Quantification of Specific Proteins in Complex Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    for selective enrichment of tag peptides. Another cysteine peptide enrichment and isotope tagging scheme hasDesign and Synthesis of Visible Isotope-Coded Affinity Tags for the Absolute Quantification spectrometry is most useful when quantitative data is also obtained. We recently introduced isotope

  11. Absolute orientation-dependent anisotropic TiN,,111... island step energies and stiffnesses from shape fluctuation analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khare, Sanjay V.

    by alternating 110 steps, which form 100 and 110 nanofacets with the terrace. Relative step energiesAbsolute orientation-dependent anisotropic TiN,,111... island step energies and stiffnesses from of the island per unit TiN area. We find that for alternating S1 and S2 110 steps, the ratio 1 / 2 0.72 0

  12. A versatile thermoelectric temperature controller with 10 mK reproducibility and 100 mK absolute accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    A versatile thermoelectric temperature controller with 10 mK reproducibility and 100 mK absolute December 2009 We describe a general-purpose thermoelectric temperature controller with 1 mK stability, 10 m elements and thermoelectric modules to heat or cool in the 40 to 40 C range. A schematic of our controller

  13. Absolute Free Energy and Entropy of a Mobile Loop of the Enzyme Acetylcholinesterase Mihail Mihailescu and Hagai Meirovitch*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Absolute Free Energy and Entropy of a Mobile Loop of the Enzyme Acetylcholinesterase Mihail dissociation measurements suggest that the free-energy (F) penalty for the loop displacement is F ) Ffree contribution of water to the total free energy. Namely, for water densities close to the experimental value

  14. Setting Whole-Building Absolute Energy Use Targets for the K-12 School, Retail, and Healthcare Sectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper helps owners' efficiency representatives to inform executive management, contract development, and project management staff as to how specifying and applying whole-building absolute energy use targets for new construction or renovation projects can improve the operational energy performance of commercial buildings.

  15. Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

  16. Estimation of Absolute Free Energies of Hydration using Continuum Methods: Accuracy of Partial Charge Models and Optimization of Nonpolar Contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzo, Robert C.

    Estimation of Absolute Free Energies of Hydration using Continuum Methods: Accuracy of Partial, and Irwin D. Kuntz Supporting Information Table S1. Experimental Free Energies of Hydration (Ghyd) in kcal,2-dimethylcyclohexane 1.58 36 trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane 2.11 37 ethene 1.28 38 propene 1.32 39 but-1-ene 1.38 40

  17. Population effects on the red giant clump absolute magnitude The K-band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salaris, M; Salaris, Maurizio

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed analysis of the behaviour of the Red Clump K-band absolute magnitude (M(K,RC)) in simple and composite stellar populations, in light of its use as standard candle for distance determinations. The advantage of using M(K,RC), following recent empirical calibrations of its value for the solar neighbourhood, arises from its very low sensitivity to the extinction by interstellar dust. We provide data and equations which allow the determination of the K-band population correction Delta(M(K,RC)) (difference between the Red Clump brightness in the solar neighbourhood and in the population under scrutiny) for any generic stellar population. These data complement the results presented in Girardi & Salaris(2001) for the V- and I-band. We show how data from galactic open clusters consistently support our predicted Delta(M(V,RC)), Delta(M(I,RC)) and Delta(M(K,RC)) values. Multiband VIK population corrections for various galaxy systems are provided. They can be used in conjunction with the method ...

  18. In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

  19. Absolute frequency measurement of the In$^{+}$ clock transition with a mode-locked laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. von Zanthier; Th. Becker; M. Eichenseer; A. Yu. Nevsky; Ch. Schwedes; E. Peik; H. Walther; R. Holzwarth; J. Reichert; Th. Udem; T. W. Hnsch; P. V. Pokasov; M. N. Skvortsov; S. N. Bagayev

    2000-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The absolute frequency of the In$^{+}$ $5s^{2 1}S_{0}$ - $5s5p^{3}P_{0}$ clock transition at 237 nm was measured with an accuracy of 1.8 parts in $10^{13}$. Using a phase-coherent frequency chain, we compared the $^{1}S_{0}$ - $^{3}P_{0}$ transition with a methane-stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 $\\mu$m which was calibrated against an atomic cesium fountain clock. A frequency gap of 37 THz at the fourth harmonic of the He-Ne standard was bridged by a frequency comb generated by a mode-locked femtosecond laser. The frequency of the In$^{+}$ clock transition was found to be $1 267 402 452 899.92 (0.23)$ kHz, the accuracy being limited by the uncertainty of the He-Ne laser reference. This represents an improvement in accuracy of more than 2 orders of magnitude on previous measurements of the line and now stands as the most accurate measurement of an optical transition in a single ion.

  20. New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop on the Avidin/Biotin Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop energy and entropy. HSMD is extended here for the first time for calculating the absolute free energy change to the total free energy of binding is calculated here for the first time. Our result, A0 ) -24

  1. Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method: Application to liquid argon and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meirovitch, Hagai

    Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method The hypothetical scanning HS method is a general approach for calculating the absolute entropy S and free energy F to provide the free energy through the analysis of a single configuration. 2004 American Institute

  2. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP-3y and first MINOS results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Marrone; A. Melchiorri; A. Palazzo; P. Serra; J. Silk; A. Slosar

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and non-oscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m_beta); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m_2beta); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology (Sigma). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2-sigma) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses Sigma ranging from ~2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to ~0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2-sigma, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter sigma_8. We show how the partial degeneracy between Sigma and sigma_8 in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of sigma_8 pushes the upper bound of Sigma in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current Sigma and m_2beta constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

  3. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: Constraints and correlations from world neutrino data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Marrone; A. Melchiorri; A. Palazzo; P. Serra; J. Silk

    2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of three-flavor neutrino mixing, we present a thorough study of the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in Tritium beta decay (m_beta); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m_2beta); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology (Sigma). We discuss the correlations among these variables which arise from the combination of all the available neutrino oscillation data, in both normal and inverse neutrino mass hierarchy. We set upper limits on m_beta by combining updated results from the Mainz and Troitsk experiments. We also consider the latest results on m_2beta from the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, both with and without the lower bound claimed by such experiment. We derive upper limits on Sigma from an updated combination of data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite and the 2 degrees Fields (2dF) Galaxy Redshifts Survey, with and without Lyman-alpha forest data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), in models with a non-zero running of the spectral index of primordial inflationary perturbations. The results are discussed in terms of two-dimensional projections of the globally allowed region in the (m_beta,m_2beta,Sigma) parameter space, which neatly show the relative impact of each data set. In particular, the (in)compatibility between Sigma and m_2beta constraints is highlighted for various combinations of data. We also briefly discuss how future neutrino data (both oscillatory and non-oscillatory) can further probe the currently allowed regions.

  4. Absolute kinematics of radio source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Perez-Torres; J. M. Marcaide; J. C. Guirado; E. Ros

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed the thirteen extragalactic radio sources of the complete S5 polar cap sample at 15.4 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array, on 27 July 1999 (1999.57) and 15 June 2000 (2000.46). We present the maps from those two epochs, along with maps obtained from observations of the 2 cm VLBA survey for some of the sources of the sample, making a total of 40 maps. We discuss the apparent morphological changes displayed by the radio sources between the observing epochs. Our VLBA observations correspond to the first two epochs at 15.4 GHz of a program to study the absolute kinematics of the radio source components of the members of the sample, by means of phase delay astrometry at 8.4 GHz, 15.4 GHz, and 43 GHz. Our 15.4 GHz VLBA imaging allowed us to disentangle the inner milliarcsecond structure of some of the sources, thus resolving components that appeared blended at 8.4 GHz. For most of the sources, we identified the brightest feature in each radio source with the core. These identifications are supported by the spectral index estimates for those brightest features, which are in general flat, or even inverted. Most of the sources display core-dominance in the overall emission. We find that three of the sources have their most inverted spectrum component shifted with respect to the origin in the map, which approximately coincides with the peak-of-brightness at both 15.4 GHz and 8.4 GHz.

  5. A New Light-Speed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from a new experiment measuring the anisotropy of the one-way speed of EM waves in a coaxial cable, gives the speed of light as 300,000+/-400+/-20km/s in a measured direction RA=5.5+/-2hrs, Dec=70+/-10deg S, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the results from seven previous anisotropy experiments, particularly those of Miller (1925/26), and even those of Michelson and Morley (1887). The Miller gas-mode interferometer results, and those from the RF coaxial cable experiments of Torr and Kolen (1983), De Witte (1991) and the new experiment all reveal the presence of gravitational waves, as indicated by the last +/- variations above, but of a kind different from those supposedly predicted by General Relativity. The understanding of the operation of the Michelson interferometer in gas-mode was only achieved in 2002 and involved a calibration for the interferometer that necessarily involved Special Relativity effects and the refractive index of the gas in the light paths. The results demonstrate the reality of the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction as an observer independent relativistic effect. A common misunderstanding is that the anisotropy of the speed of light is necessarily in conflict with Special Relativity and Lorentz symmetry - this is explained. All eight experiments and theory show that we have both anisotropy of the speed of light and relativistic effects, and that a dynamical 3-space exists - that absolute motion through that space has been repeatedly observed since 1887. These developments completely change fundamental physics and our understanding of reality.

  6. Absolute calibration of image plates for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Hui; Back, Norman L.; Eder, David C.; MacPhee, Andrew G.; Ping Yuan; Song, Peter M.; Throop, Alan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bartal, Teresa; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Link, Anthony J.; Van Woerkom, Linn [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV and 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate photon stimulated luminescence per electron at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energy depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of our absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

  7. The earth's absolute gravitation potential function in the prospect 'gravitational potential metering' of geological objects and earthquake centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandr Fridrikson; Marina Kasatochkina

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct problem of the detection of the Earth's absolute gravitation potential maximum value (MGP) was solved. The inverse problem finding of the Earth maximum gravitation (where there is a maximum of gravitation field intensity and a potential function has a 'bending point') with the help of MGP was solved as well. The obtained results show that the revealed Earth maximum gravitation coincides quite strictly with the cseismic D" layer on the border of the inner and outer (liquid) core. The validity of the method of an absolute gravitation potential detection by the equal- potential velocity was proved as 'gravitation potential measurement' or 'Vs-gravity method'. The prospects of this method for detecting of low-power or distant geological objects with abnormal density and the possible earthquakes with low density was shown.

  8. Telescope Spectrophotometric and Absolute Flux Calibration, and National Security Applications, Using a Tunable Laser on a Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin Albert; William Burgett; Jason Rhodes

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a tunable laser-based satellite-mounted spectrophotometric and absolute flux calibration system, to be utilized by ground- and space-based telescopes. As spectrophotometric calibration may play a significant role in the accuracy of photometric redshift measurement, and photometric redshift accuracy is important for measuring dark energy using SNIa, weak gravitational lensing, and baryon oscillations, a method for reducing such uncertainties is needed. We propose to improve spectrophotometric calibration, currently obtained using standard stars, by placing a tunable laser and a wide-angle light source on a satellite by early next decade (perhaps included in the upgrade to the GPS satellite network) to improve absolute flux calibration and relative spectrophotometric calibration across the visible and near-infrared spectrum. As well as fundamental astrophysical applications, the system proposed here potentially has broad utility for defense and national security applications such as ground target illumination and space communication.

  9. Absolute infrared vibrational band intensities of molecular ions determined by direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keim, E.R.; Polak, M.L.; Owrutsky, J.C.; Coe, J.V.; Saykally, R.J. (Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of direct laser absorption spectroscopy in fast ion beams has been employed for the determination of absolute integrated band intensities ({ital S}{sup 0}{sub {ital v}}) for the {nu}{sub 3} fundamental bands of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and NH{sup +}{sub 4}. In addition, the absolute band intensities for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamental bands of HN{sup +}{sub 2} and HCO{sup +} have been remeasured. The values obtained in units of cm{sup {minus}2} atm{sup {minus}1} at STP are 1880(290) and 580(90) for the {nu}{sub 1} fundamentals of HN{sup +}{sub 2} and HCO{sup +}, respectively; and 4000(800) and 1220(190) for the {nu}{sub 3} fundamentals of H{sub 3}O{sup +} and NH{sup +}{sub 4}, respectively. Comparisons with {ital ab} {ital initio} results are presented.

  10. Absolute frequency measurements of 85Rb nF7/2 Rydberg states using purely optical detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. M. Johnson; H. O. Majeed; B. Sanguinetti; Th. Becker; B. T. H. Varcoe

    2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-step laser excitation scheme is used to make absolute frequency measurements of highly excited nF7/2 Rydberg states in 85Rb for principal quantum numbers n=33-100. This work demonstrates the first absolute frequency measurements of rubidium Rydberg levels using a purely optical detection scheme. The Rydberg states are excited in a heated Rb vapour cell and Doppler free signals are detected via purely optical means. All of the frequency measurements are made using a wavemeter which is calibrated against a GPS disciplined self-referenced optical frequency comb. We find that the measured levels have a very high frequency stability, and are especially robust to electric fields. The apparatus has allowed measurements of the states to an accuracy of 8.0MHz. The new measurements are analysed by extracting the modified Rydberg-Ritz series parameters.

  11. Absolute spin calibration of an electron spin polarimeter by spin-resolved photoemission from the Au(111) surface states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacho, Cephise M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Photon Science Department, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Vlaic, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Malvestuto, Marco; Ressel, Barbara [Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Seddon, Elaine A. [Photon Science Department, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we report the absolute characterization of a spin polarimeter by measuring the Sherman function with high precision. These results have been obtained from the analysis of the spin and angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Au(111) surface states. The measurements have been performed with a 250 kHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire amplified laser system combined with a high energy-, angle-, and spin-resolving time-of-flight electron spectrometer.

  12. Constraining the absolute neutrino mass scale and Majorana CP violating phases by future neutrinoless double beta decay experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Nunokawa; W. J. C. Teves; R. Zukanovich Funchal

    2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Assuming that neutrinos are Majorana particles, in a three generation framework, current and future neutrino oscillation experiments can determine six out of the nine parameters which fully describe the structure of the neutrino mass matrix. We try to clarify the interplay among the remaining parameters, the absolute neutrino mass scale and two CP violating Majorana phases, and how they can be accessed by future neutrinoless double beta ($0\

  13. Theoretical full power correction factors as related to changes in ambient temperature, pressure and absolute humidity for aircraft turbine engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael, Michel Antoun

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, PRESSURF. AND ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES (August 1969) Michael Antoun Raphael B. S. (Mechanical Engineering) Texas A&M University Directed by: Professor Stanley H, Lowy ABSTRACT Power losses in aircraft gas... rated at standard atmospheric conditions (i. e, ambient temperature 69 F 3'Fend atmospheric pressure 29. 92 in. Hg. dry) . Obviously this same turbine will not be exposed to such standard conditions; therefore we have a change in power directly...

  14. Detection of multimode spatial correlation in PDC and application to the absolute calibration of a CCD camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ruo-Berchera, Ivano

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a new method based on the spatial entanglement for the absolute calibration of analog detector. The idea consists on measuring the sub-shot-noise intensity correlation between two branches of parametric down conversion, containing many pairwise correlated spatial modes. We calibrate a scientific CCD camera and a preliminary evaluation of the statistical uncertainty indicates the metrological interest of the method.

  15. Detection of multimode spatial correlation in PDC and application to the absolute calibration of a CCD camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giorgio Brida; Ivo Pietro Degiovanni; Marco Genovese; Maria Luisa Rastello; Ivano Ruo-Berchera

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a new method based on the spatial entanglement for the absolute calibration of analog detector. The idea consists on measuring the sub-shot-noise intensity correlation between two branches of parametric down conversion, containing many pairwise correlated spatial modes. We calibrate a scientific CCD camera and a preliminary evaluation of the statistical uncertainty indicates the metrological interest of the method.

  16. spaceheat_percent2001.pdf

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25, 2012302Q),1996 Total pera.5a.8a.Space

  17. spaceheat_percent2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. Appliances by Climate Zone,8,1996and Methane2a.6a.Space

  18. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dvid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  19. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  1. Comparison of analytical methods for percent phosphorous determination in electroless nickel plate. [UCC-ND alkalimetric method; UCC-ND Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method; ASTM-E39 gravimetric method; development colorimetric method; independent colorimetric method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, W.W.; Sullivan, H.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroless nicke-plate characteristics are substantially influenced by percent phosphorous concentrations. Available ASTM analytical methods are designed for phosphorous concentrations of less than one percent compared to the 4.0 to 20.0% concentrations common in electroless nickel plate. A variety of analytical adaptations are applied through the industry resulting in poor data continuity. This paper presents a statistical comparison of five analytical methods and recommends accurate and precise procedures for use in percent phosphorous determinations in electroless nickel plate. 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky"

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"

  7. Absolute measurement of thermal noise in a resonant short-range force experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Yan; E. A. Housworth; H. O. Meyer; G. Visser; E. Weisman; J. C. Long

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Planar, double-torsional oscillators are especially suitable for short-range macroscopic force search experiments, since they can be operated at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. As a study of this limit, we report a measurement of the noise kinetic energy of a polycrystalline tungsten oscillator in thermal equilibrium at room temperature. The fluctuations of the oscillator in a high-Q torsional mode with a resonance frequency near 1 kHz are detected with capacitive transducers coupled to a sensitive differential amplifier. The electronic processing is calibrated by means of a known electrostatic force and input from a finite element model. The measured average kinetic energy is in agreement with the expected value of 1/2 kT.

  8. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  9. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  10. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  11. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  12. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  13. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  14. A wearable system that learns a kinematic model and finds structure in everyday manipulation by using absolute orientation sensors and a camera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, Charles C. (Charles Clark), 1972-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents Duo, the first wearable system to autonomously learn a kinematic model of the wearer via body-mounted absolute orientation sensors and a head-mounted camera. With Duo, we demonstrate the significant ...

  15. Measurements of absolute delayed neutron yield and group constants in the fast fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 237}Np

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, D.J.; Brunson, G.; Sanchez, R.; Butterfield, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The delayed neutron activity resulting from the fast induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 237}Np has been studied. The six-group decay constants, relative abundances, and absolute yield of delayed neutrons from fast fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 237}Np were measured using the Godiva IV fast assembly at the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The absolute yield measured for {sup 235}U was 0.0163 {+-} 0.0008 neutron/fission. This value compares very well with the well-established Keepin absolute yield of 0.0165 {+-} 0.0005. The absolute yield value measured for {sup 237}Np was 0.0126 {+-} 0.0007. The measured delayed neutron parameters for {sup 235}U are corroborated with period (e-folding time) versus reactivity calculations.

  16. Would you like an absolutely free prescription for reduced risk of numerous diseases and increased energy, happiness and life expectancy that requires no trips to the store or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Would you like an absolutely free prescription for reduced risk of numerous diseases and increased energy, happiness and life expectancy that requires no trips to the store or special equipment? What

  17. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  18. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  19. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  20. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  1. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  2. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  3. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  4. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  5. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  7. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  8. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  9. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill ( ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"West

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,Jersey"RhodeVirginia"WestArizona"

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011,

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013, 2012,

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013, 2012,District of

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013, 2012,District

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013,

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013,Hawaii"

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector", 2013,Hawaii"Idaho"

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector",

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector",Indiana"

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado" "Sector",Indiana"Iowa"

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky" "Sector", 2013, 2012,

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky" "Sector", 2013,

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky" "Sector",

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky" "Sector",Maryland"

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky"Michigan" "Sector",

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky"Michigan"

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011,Colorado"Kentucky"Michigan"Mississippi"

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008,

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009,

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011,

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011,Jersey"

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012,

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013, 2012,Carolina"

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013,

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013,Ohio" "Sector",

  19. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013,Ohio"

  20. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector", 2013,Ohio"Oregon"

  1. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",

  2. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",Rhode Island"

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",Rhode Island"Carolina"

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",Rhode

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",RhodeTennessee"

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana" "Sector",RhodeTennessee"Texas"

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013, 2012, 2011,

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013, 2012,

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013,

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013,West Virginia"

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013,West

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012,Montana"Utah" "Sector", 2013,WestWyoming"

  14. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".9..1.1..3.3.1.2.2.

  15. Table N8.3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity

  16. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  17. A ROBUST ABSOLUTE DETECTION EFFICIENCY CALIBRATION METHOD UTILIZING BETA/GAMMA COINCIDENCE SIGNATURES AND ISOTOPICALLY PURIFIED NEUTRON ACTIVATED RADIOXENON ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to calibrate the absolute efficiency of gas cell radiations detectors have utilized a number of methodologies which allow adequate calibration but are time consuming and prone to a host of difficult-to-determine uncertainties. A method that extrapolates the total source strength from the measured beta and gamma gated beta coincidence signal was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. It has become clear that it is possible to achieve more consistent results across a range of isotopes and a range of activities using this method. Even more compelling is the ease with which this process can be used on routine samples to determine the total activity present in the detector. Additionally, recent advances in the generation of isotopically pure radioxenon samples of Xe-131m, Xe-133, and Xe-135 have allowed these measurement techniques to achieve much better results than would have been possible before when using mixed isotopic radioxenon source. This paper will discuss the beta/gamma absolute detection efficiency technique that utilizes several of the beta-gamma decay signatures to more precisely determine the beta and gamma efficiencies. It will than compare these results with other methods using pure sources of Xe-133, Xe-131m, and Xe-135 and a Xe-133/Xe-133m mix.

  18. Dynamical masses, absolute radii and 3D orbits of the triply eclipsing star HD 181068 from Kepler photometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borkovits, Tams; Kiss, Lszl L; Kirly, Amanda; Forgcs-Dajka, Emese; Br, Imre Barna; Bedding, Timothy R; Bryson, Stephen T; Huber, Daniel; Szab, Rbert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HD 181068 is the brighter of the two known triply eclipsing hierarchical triple stars in the Kepler field. It has been continuously observed for more than 2 years with the Kepler space telescope. Of the nine quarters of the data, three have been obtained in short-cadence mode, that is one point per 58.9 s. Here we analyse this unique dataset to determine absolute physical parameters (most importantly the masses and radii) and full orbital configuration using a sophisticated novel approach. We measure eclipse timing variations (ETVs), which are then combined with the single-lined radial velocity measurements to yield masses in a manner equivalent to double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have also developed a new light curve synthesis code that is used to model the triple, mutual eclipses and the effects of the changing tidal field on the stellar surface and the relativistic Doppler-beaming. By combining the stellar masses from the ETV study with the simultaneous light curve analysis we determine the absolute...

  19. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  20. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.