National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for automatic plate number

  1. Number

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' , /v-i 2 -i 3 -A, This dow'at consists ~f--~-_,_~~~p.~,::, Number -------of.-&--copies, 1 Series.,-a-,-. ! 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER 1; r-.' L INTRAMURALCORRESPONDENCE i"ks' 3 2.. September 25, 1947 Memo.tor Dr. A. H, Dovdy . From: Dr. H. E, Stokinger Be: Trip Report - Mayvood Chemical Works A trip vas made Nednesday, August 24th vith Messrs. Robert W ilson and George Sprague to the Mayvood Chemical F!orks, Mayvood, New Jersey one of 2 plants in the U.S.A. engaged in the

  2. Horizontal Plate Plate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unknown Title: Horizontal Plate Plate GeospatialDataPresentationForm: vector digital data OnlineLinkage:

  3. AUTOmatic Message PACKing Facility

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    AUTOPACK is a library that provides several useful features for programs using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Features included are: 1. automatic message packing facility 2. management of send and receive requests. 3. management of message buffer memory. 4. determination of the number of anticipated messages from a set of arbitrary sends, and 5. deterministic message delivery for testing purposes.

  4. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael R. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

  5. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  6. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trennel, Anthony J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for (1) automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, (2) automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, (3) manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and (4) automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly.

  7. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  8. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Randy J. (Crete, IL); Meek, John (Downers Grove, IL); Bachta, Robert P. (Chicago, IL); Marianowski, Leonard G. (Mount Prospect, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  9. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1996-04-02

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  10. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry (Elora, CA); Sibbitt, Bruce (Waterloo, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  11. Hot Plate Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hot Plate Station The hot plate station is comprised of four Prazitherm precision hot plates manufactured for resist processing. Each hot plate is sized 350mm x 350mm. They are flat and level, with temperature uniformity of +/- 0.5º. The maximum operating temperature is limited to 200ºC in order to maintain temperature inside the cleanroom. A hood located over the hot plate station ensures evaporated fumes are not released into the cleanroom environment. Each hot plate is controlled through

  12. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Toops, Todd J; Tortorelli, Peter F; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Pihl, Josh A; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Rakowski, Jim; EstevezGenCell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Effort devoted to scale up and demonstration of thin stamped metallic bipolar plates. Overall goal is to demonstrate potential for metallic bipolar plates to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at a cost of less than $5/kW.

  13. Plating Tank Control Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The Plating Tank Control Software is a graphical user interface that controls and records plating process conditions for plating in high aspect ratio channels that require use of low current and long times. The software is written for a Pentium II PC with an 8 channel data acquisition card, and the necessary shunt resistors for measuring currents in the millampere range.

  14. Angular shear plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  15. A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift Correction.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift Correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift Correction. Abstract not provided. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Robinson, David ; Cummings, Aron W. ; Jacobs, Benjamin W. Publication Date: 2013-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1121097 Report Number(s): SAND2013-10105J 483912 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  16. GOLD PLATING PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seegmiller, R.

    1957-08-01

    An improved bath is reported for plating gold on other metals. The composition of the plating bath is as follows: Gold cyanide from about 15 to about 50 grams, potassium cyanide from about 70 to about 125 grams, and sulfonated castor oil from about 0.1 to about 10 cc. The gold plate produced from this bath is smooth, semi-hard, and nonporous.

  17. PLATES WITH OXIDE INSERTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, J.M.; Schumar, J.F.

    1958-06-10

    Planar-type fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors are described, particularly those comprising fuel in the oxide form such as thoria and urania. The fuel assembly consists of a plurality of parallel spaced fuel plate mennbers having their longitudinal side edges attached to two parallel supporting side plates, thereby providing coolant flow channels between the opposite faces of adjacent fuel plates. The fuel plates are comprised of a plurality of longitudinally extending tubular sections connected by web portions, the tubular sections being filled with a plurality of pellets of the fuel material and the pellets being thermally bonded to the inside of the tubular section by lead.

  18. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on nitrided metallic bipolar plates, was given by M. P. Brady of ORNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  19. Turbine vane plate assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiavo Jr., Anthony L.

    2006-01-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes a turbine vane having first and second shrouds with an elongated airfoil extending between. Each end of the airfoil transitions into a shroud at a respective junction. Each of the shrouds has a plurality of cooling passages, and the airfoil has a plurality of cooling passages extending between the first and second shrouds. A substantially flat inner plate and an outer plate are coupled to each of the first and second shrouds so as to form inner and outer plenums. Each inner plenum is defined between at least the junction and the substantially flat inner plate; each outer plenum is defined between at least the substantially flat inner plate and the outer plate. Each inner plenum is in fluid communication with a respective outer plenum through at least one of the cooling passages in the respective shroud.

  20. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  1. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  2. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  3. Request Number:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3023307 Name: Madeleine Brown Organization: nJa Address: --- -------- -------- -- Country: Phone Number: United States Fax Number: n/a E-mail: --- -------- --------_._------ --- Reasonably Describe Records Description: Please send me a copy of the emails and records relating to the decision to allow the underage son of Bill Gates to tour Hanford in June 2010. Please also send the emails and records that justify the Department of Energy to prevent other minors from visiting B Reactor. Optional

  4. Request Number:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1074438 Name: Gayle Cooper Organization: nla Address: _ Country: United States Phone Number: Fax Number: nla E-mail: . ~===--------- Reasonably Describe Records Description: Information pertaining to the Department of Energy's cost estimate for reinstating pension benefit service years to the Enterprise Company (ENCO) employees who are active plan participants in the Hanford Site Pension Plan. This cost estimate was an outcome of the DOE's Worker Town Hall Meetings held on September 17-18, 2009.

  5. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  6. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Ching L. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  7. Microchannel plate streak camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1984-09-28

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (uv to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 keV x-rays.

  8. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  9. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  10. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT); Katz, Murray (Newington, CT); Schroll, Craig R. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  11. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  12. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douthart, Richard J. (Richland, WA); Crowell, Shannon L. (Eltopia, WA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  13. Laser-driven flyer plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for producing high velocity flyer plates involving placing a layer of dielectric material between a first metal foil and a second metal foil. With laser irradiation through an optical substrate, the first metal foil forms a plasma in the area of the irradiation, between the substrate and the solid portion of the first metal foil. When the pressure between the substrate and the foil reaches the stress limit of the dielectric, the dielectric will break away and launch the flyer plate out of the second metal foil. The mass of the flyer plate is controlled, as no portion of the flyer plate is transformed into a plasma.

  14. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stahl, David B.; Paisley, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  15. Laser-driven flyer plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1991-09-10

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing high velocity flyer plates involving placing a layer of dielectric material between a first metal foil and a second metal foil. With laser irradiation through an optical substrate, the first metal foil forms a plasma in the area of the irradiation, between the substrate and the solid portion of the first metal foil. When the pressure between the substrate and the foil reaches the stress limit of the dielectric, the dielectric will break away and launch the flyer plate out of the second metal foil. The mass of the flyer plate is controlled, as no portion of the flyer plate is transformed into a plasma. 2 figures.

  16. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL)

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  17. Micro-channel plate detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  18. Metal vapor arc ion plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertram, L.A.; Fisher, R.W.; Mattox, D.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1986-09-09

    A method and apparatus for ion plating are described. The apparatus uses more negative than a first electrode voltage in a vacuum arc remelt system to attract low energy ions from the anode electrode to the article to be plated. 2 figs.

  19. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  20. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  1. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeballos, E. Cerron; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J. Lamas; Neupane, S.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  2. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  3. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  4. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  5. Automatic Commercial Ice Makers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automatic Commercial Ice Makers Automatic Commercial Ice Makers The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. File Automatic Commercial Ice Makers -- v2.0 More Documents

  6. Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Caldyne Automatics Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    storage product manufacturer; also makes lighting systems based on solar, wind and solar wind hybrid systems. References: Caldyne Automatics Limited1 This article is a stub....

  8. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-05-07

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  9. SPERT Destructive Test - I on Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-05

    SPERT - Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests Destructive Test number 1 On Aluminum, Highly Enriched Plate Type Core. A test studying the behavior of the reactor under destructive conditions on a light water moderated pool-type reactor with a plate-type core.

  10. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald

    2004-09-14

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  11. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  12. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Schneibel, Joachim H. (Knoxville, TN); Pint, Bruce A. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  13. Automatic toilet seat lowering apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerty, Harold G. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    1994-09-06

    A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat. A toilet seat lowering apparatus includes a housing defining an internal cavity for receiving water from the water supply line to the toilet holding tank. A descent delay assembly of the apparatus can include a stationary dam member and a rotating dam member for dividing the internal cavity into an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber and controlling the intake and evacuation of water in a delayed fashion. A descent initiator is activated when the internal cavity is filled with pressurized water and automatically begins the lowering of the toilet seat from its upright position, which lowering is also controlled by the descent delay assembly. In an alternative embodiment, the descent initiator and the descent delay assembly can be combined in a piston linked to the rotating dam member and provided with a water channel for creating a resisting pressure to the advancing piston and thereby slowing the associated descent of the toilet seat.

  14. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  15. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  16. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  17. Ion plated electronic tube device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.

    1983-10-18

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by ion plating techniques. The process is carried out in an automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  18. Electrically induced mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, P.J.

    1987-03-02

    A method of electrically inducing mechanical precompression of ferroelectric plate covered with electrodes utilizes the change in strains of the plate as functions of applied electric field. A first field polarizes and laterally shrinks the entire plate. An outer portion of the electrodes are removed, and an opposite field partially depolarizes and expands the central portion of the plate against the shrunk outer portion. 2 figs.

  19. Apparatus and method for controlling plating uniformity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hachman Jr., John T.; Kelly, James J.; West, Alan C.

    2004-10-12

    The use of an insulating shield for improving the current distribution in an electrochemical plating bath is disclosed. Numerical analysis is used to evaluate the influence of shield shape and position on plating uniformity. Simulation results are compared to experimental data for nickel deposition from a nickel--sulfamate bath. The shield is shown to improve the average current density at a plating surface.

  20. 2014-03-07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-03-07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic ...

  1. A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift Correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Freely Available Matlab Script for Automatic Spatial Drift ...

  2. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  3. Install an Automatic Blowdown Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  5. Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property:NumOfPlants Property:NumProdWells Property:NumRepWells Property:Number of Color Cameras Property:Number of Devices Deployed Property:Number of Plants included in...

  6. The plate is not available in electronic format

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The plate is not available in electronic format. Please email lm.records@lm.doe.gov to request the plate.

  7. NSR Key Number Retrieval

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSR Key Number Retrieval Pease enter key in the box Submit

  8. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  9. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  10. Zirconium Plate Measuring Instrument (ZPMI) Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Davies; J. H. Jackson

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the design of a device intended to measure radiation-induced strain in zirconium plate specimens as a function of neutron fluence.

  11. Distribution plate for recirculating fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-ching; Vidt, Edward J.; Keairns, Dale L.

    1977-01-01

    A distribution plate for a recirculating fluidized bed has a centrally disposed opening and a plurality of apertures adjacent the periphery to eliminate dead spots within the bed.

  12. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.; Jones, D.O.

    2000-05-23

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  13. Image plates as x-ray detectors in plasma physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gales, S.G.; Bentley, C.D.

    2004-10-01

    The performance of image plates based on the photostimulable phosphor BaF(Br,l):Eu{sup 2+} has been investigated and compared with x-ray film. Evaluation of detective quantum efficiency (DQE), sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity was carried out for several types of commercially available image plate, using the Excalibur soft x-ray calibration facility at AWE. Image plate response was found to be linear over a dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude. One type of image plate was found to have a number of advantages for soft x-ray detection, with a measured sensitivity 1 order of magnitude greater than that of Kodak Industrex CX and DEF-5 x-ray film. The DQE of this plate was found to be superior to that of film at low [less than 10{sup 3} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}] and high fluxes [greater than 10{sup 4} photons/(50 {mu}m){sup 2}]. The spatial resolution of image plates, scanned with several models of commercial image plate readers, has been evaluated using a USAF resolution test target. The highest spatial resolution measured is 35 {mu}m. Though this is significantly lower than the resolution possible with film, it is sufficient for many applications. Image plates were fielded in a refractive x-ray lens imaging diagnostic on the 1 TW Helen laser and these results are discussed.

  14. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  15. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  16. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  17. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  18. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  19. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong W. (Western Springs, IL); Wiedermann, Arne H. (Chicago Heights, IL); Ockert, Carl E. (Vienna, VA)

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  20. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  1. Big Numbers | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Big Numbers May 16, 2011 This article has some numbers in it. In principle, numbers are just language, like English or Japanese. Nevertheless, it is true that not everyone is comfortable or facile with numbers and may be turned off by too many of them. To those people, I apologize that this article pays less attention to maximizing the readership than some I do. But sometimes it's just appropriate to indulge one's self, so here goes. When we discuss the performance of some piece of equipment, we

  2. Automatic Thread-Level Parallelization in the Chombo AMR Library

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christen, Matthias; Keen, Noel; Ligocki, Terry; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Van Straalen, Brian; Williams, Samuel

    2011-05-26

    The increasing on-chip parallelism has some substantial implications for HPC applications. Currently, hybrid programming models (typically MPI+OpenMP) are employed for mapping software to the hardware in order to leverage the hardware?s architectural features. In this paper, we present an approach that automatically introduces thread level parallelism into Chombo, a parallel adaptive mesh refinement framework for finite difference type PDE solvers. In Chombo, core algorithms are specified in the ChomboFortran, a macro language extension to F77 that is part of the Chombo framework. This domain-specific language forms an already used target language for an automatic migration of the large number of existing algorithms into a hybrid MPI+OpenMP implementation. It also provides access to the auto-tuning methodology that enables tuning certain aspects of an algorithm to hardware characteristics. Performance measurements are presented for a few of the most relevant kernels with respect to a specific application benchmark using this technique as well as benchmark results for the entire application. The kernel benchmarks show that, using auto-tuning, up to a factor of 11 in performance was gained with 4 threads with respect to the serial reference implementation.

  3. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs.

  4. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs. 2 figs.

  5. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1991-07-09

    A laser driven flyer plate is described where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs.

  6. Fiber optic mounted laser driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a laser driven flyer plate where the flyer plate is deposited directly onto the squared end of an optical fiber. The plasma generated by a laser pulse drives the flyer plate toward a target. In another embodiment, a first metal layer is deposited onto the squared end of an optical fiber, followed by a layer of a dielectric material and a second metal layer. The laser pulse generates a plasma in the first metal layer, but the plasma is kept away from the second metal layer by the dielectric layer until the pressure reaches the point where shearing occurs. 2 figs.

  7. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  8. Characterization of Tri-lab Tantalum Plate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchheit, Thomas E.; Cerreta, Ellen K.; Deibler, Lisa Anne; Chen, Shu-Rong; Michael, Joseph R.

    2014-09-01

    This report provides a detailed characterization Tri-lab Tantalum (Ta) plate jointly purchased from HCStark Inc. by Sandia, Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Data in this report was compiled from series of material and properties characterization experiments carried out at Sandia (SNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) Laboratories through a leveraged effort funded by the C2 campaign. Results include microstructure characterization detailing the crystallographic texture of the material and an increase in grain size near the end of the rolled plate. Mechanical properties evaluations include, compression cylinder, sub-scale tension specimen, micohardness and instrumented indentation testing. The plate was found to have vastly superior uniformity when compare with previously characterized wrought Ta material. Small but measurable variations in microstructure and properties were noted at the end, and at the top and bottom edges of the plate.

  9. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4ornl.pdf More Documents & Publications Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for...

  10. Method for automatically scramming a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Schultz, Richard R.; Terry, William K.

    2005-12-27

    An automatically scramming nuclear reactor system. One embodiment comprises a core having a coolant inlet end and a coolant outlet end. A cooling system operatively associated with the core provides coolant to the coolant inlet end and removes heated coolant from the coolant outlet end, thus maintaining a pressure differential therebetween during a normal operating condition of the nuclear reactor system. A guide tube is positioned within the core with a first end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant inlet end of the core, and a second end of the guide tube in fluid communication with the coolant outlet end of the core. A control element is positioned within the guide tube and is movable therein between upper and lower positions, and automatically falls under the action of gravity to the lower position when the pressure differential drops below a safe pressure differential.

  11. Composite bipolar plate for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Busick, Deanna N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A bipolar separator plate for fuel cells consists of a molded mixture of a vinyl ester resin and graphite powder. The plate serves as a current collector and may contain fluid flow fields for the distribution of reactant gases. The material is inexpensive, electrically conductive, lightweight, strong, corrosion resistant, easily mass produced, and relatively impermeable to hydrogen gas. The addition of certain fiber reinforcements and other additives can improve the properties of the composite material without significantly increasing its overall cost.

  12. Plate Tectonics, Geographical Information System, paleogeography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-05-24

    The PaleoX.framwork is a dynamically linked/loaded framework for Cocoa applications. The primary goal of this library is to standardize several elements used for working with paleogeographic data. This includes objects designed to organize information for tectonic plates, including maps, rotation objects, plate names, and designations. In addition, PaleoX provides object-oriented solutions for handling standard paleogeographic file formats from the PALEOMAP Project.

  13. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  14. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  15. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  16. Automatic detection of sweep-meshable volumes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tautges; Timothy J. (Madison, WI), White; David R. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-05-23

    A method of and software for automatically determining whether a mesh can be generated by sweeping for a representation of a geometric solid comprising: classifying surface mesh schemes for surfaces of the representation locally using surface vertex types; grouping mappable and submappable surfaces of the representation into chains; computing volume edge types for the representation; recursively traversing surfaces of the representation and grouping the surfaces into source, target, and linking surface lists; and checking traversal direction when traversing onto linking surfaces.

  17. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  18. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  19. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  20. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger W. (Farragut, TN); Neff, Wayne A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  1. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.W.; Neff, W.A.

    1992-05-12

    A process is described for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO[sub 3]. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths. 18 figs.

  2. Self-assessing target with automatic feedback

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larkin, Stephen W.; Kramer, Robert L.

    2004-03-02

    A self assessing target with four quadrants and a method of use thereof. Each quadrant containing possible causes for why shots are going into that particular quadrant rather than the center mass of the target. Each possible cause is followed by a solution intended to help the marksman correct the problem causing the marksman to shoot in that particular area. In addition, the self assessing target contains possible causes for general shooting errors and solutions to the causes of the general shooting error. The automatic feedback with instant suggestions and corrections enables the shooter to improve their marksmanship.

  3. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  4. Semi-automatic for ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Li, Y.

    1990-02-13

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improved reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figs.

  5. Semi-automatic for ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, R. Bruce (Ames, IA); Smith, John F. (Ames, IA); Lee, Seung S. (Taejon Ch'ungmam, KR); Li, Yan (Ames, IA)

    1990-02-13

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improved reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  6. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  7. Document Details Document Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Document Details Document Number Date of Document Document Title/Description [Links below to each document] D195066340 Not listed. N/A REVISIONS IN STRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASALT GROUP D196000240 Not listed. N/A EPA DENIAL OF LINER LEACHATE COLLECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS D196005916 Not listed. N/A LATE CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION WITHIN SUBSIDING BASIN SOUTH CENTRAL WASHINGTON D196025993 RHO-BWI-ST-14 N/A SUPRABASALT SEDIMENTS OF COLD CREEK SYNCLINE AREA

  8. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  9. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  10. AUTOMATIC DIFFERENTIATION OF AN EULERIAN HYDROCODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. HENNINGER; A. CARLE; P. MAUDLIN

    2000-11-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is applied to a two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code (hydrocode) to provide gradients that will be used for design optimization and uncertainty analysis. We examine AD in both the forward and adjoint (reverse) mode using Automatic Differentiation of Fortran (ADIFOR, version 3.0). Setup time, accuracy, and run times are described for three problems. The test set consists of a one-dimensional shock-propagation problem, a two-dimensional metal-jet-formation problem and a two-dimensional shell-collapse problem. Setup time for ADIFOR was approximately one month starting from a simplified, fixed-dimension version of the original code. ADIFOR produced accurate (as compared to finite difference) gradients in both modes for all of the problems. These test problems had 17 independent variables. We find that the forward mode is up to 39% slower and the adjoint mode is at least 11% faster than finding the gradient by means of finite differences. Problems of real interest will certainly have more independent variables. The adjoint mode is thus favored since the computational time increases only slightly for additional independent variables.

  11. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  12. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Sprinkler Automatic Shut-Off

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Devices | Department of Energy Sprinkler Automatic Shut-Off Devices Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Sprinkler Automatic Shut-Off Devices The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified sprinkler automatic shut-off devices as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the federal sector, is commercially available, and offers significant water-savings potential. This overview provides agencies with key information to deploy innovative products and systems that may otherwise

  13. System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss085_benedict_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire Vehicle Technologies

  14. Use of automatic vehicle identification techniques for measuring...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is automatic vehicle identification (AVI). The primary objectives of this project were to determine the possible benefits of using AVI systems for monitoring the performance of ...

  15. DSOPilot project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project Automatic receipt of short circuiting indicators Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  16. Beijing Jingyi Century Automatic Equipment Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    beijing Jingyi Century Automatic Equipment Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100079 Product: A Chinese equipment manufacturer provides monosilicon ingot puller and...

  17. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

    1998-01-01

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

  18. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Smith, J.H.

    1998-11-17

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane is disclosed. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed. 15 figs.

  19. Magnetically excited flexural plate wave apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Smith, James H.

    1998-01-01

    A non-piezoelectric flexural plate wave apparatus having meander-line transducers mounted on a non-piezoelectric membrane. A static magnetic field is directed perpendicularly to the conductive legs of the transducers in the plane of the membrane. Single-port, two-port, resonant, non-resonant, eigenmode, and delay-line modes may be employed.

  20. Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neutzler, J.K.

    1998-07-07

    A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

  1. Titanium carbide bipolar plate for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Griffith, Arthur E. (Lynn, MA); Cropley, Cecelia C. (Acton, MA); Kosek, John A. (Danvers, MA)

    2000-07-04

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate is made from titanium carbide for use in an eletrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  2. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pantisano, Frank (411 Linda Ave., Blackwood, NJ 08012); Devine, Scott M. (B7 Fairways Apartments, Blackwood, NJ 08012)

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  3. Automatic identification of abstract online groups

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engel, David W; Gregory, Michelle L; Bell, Eric B; Cowell, Andrew J; Piatt, Andrew W

    2014-04-15

    Online abstract groups, in which members aren't explicitly connected, can be automatically identified by computer-implemented methods. The methods involve harvesting records from social media and extracting content-based and structure-based features from each record. Each record includes a social-media posting and is associated with one or more entities. Each feature is stored on a data storage device and includes a computer-readable representation of an attribute of one or more records. The methods further involve grouping records into record groups according to the features of each record. Further still the methods involve calculating an n-dimensional surface representing each record group and defining an outlier as a record having feature-based distances measured from every n-dimensional surface that exceed a threshold value. Each of the n-dimensional surfaces is described by a footprint that characterizes the respective record group as an online abstract group.

  4. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  5. Fuel cell plates with improved arrangement of process channels for enhanced pressure drop across the plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall Boro, PA); Pierce, Bill L. (Whitehall Boro, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A plate for a fuel cell has an arrangement of ribs defining an improved configuration of process gas channels and slots on a surface of the plate which provide a modified serpentine gas flow pattern across the plate surface. The channels are generally linear and arranged parallel to one another while the spaced slots allow cross channel flow of process gas in a staggered fashion which creates a plurality of generally mini-serpentine flow paths extending transverse to the longitudinal gas flow along the channels. Adjacent pairs of the channels are interconnected to one another in flow communication. Also, a bipolar plate has the aforementioned process gas channel configuration on one surface and another configuration on the opposite surface. In the other configuration, there are not slots and the gas flow channels have a generally serpentine configuration.

  6. Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  7. Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  8. Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  9. Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  10. North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  11. New York Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  12. New York Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  13. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  14. Fuel cell separator plate with bellows-type sealing flanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Louis, George A. (West Hartford, CT)

    1986-08-05

    A fuel cell separator includes a rectangular flat plate having two unitary upper sealing flanges respectively comprising opposite marginal edges of the plate folded upwardly and back on themselves and two lower sealing flanges respectively comprising the other two marginal edges of the plate folded downwardly and back on themselves. Each of the sealing flanges includes a flat wall spaced from the plate and substantially parallel thereto and two accordion-pleated side walls, one of which interconnects the flat wall with the plate and the other of which stops just short of the plate, these side walls affording resilient compressibility to the sealing flange in a directiongenerally normal to the plane of the plate. Four corner members close the ends of the sealing flanges. An additional resiliently compressible reinforcing member may be inserted in the passages formed by each of the sealing flanges with the plate.

  15. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

  16. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Balance of System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:29pm Addthis Complete photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are ...

  17. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic System Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:03pm Addthis The most common photovoltaic (PV) array design uses flat-plate PV modules or panels. These ...

  18. Characterization of second-phase plates in a Gd5Ge3 intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Qing; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    2013-05-16

    Rare-earth compounds based on the stoichiometry R5(SixGe1?x)4 (R = rare-earth elements) exhibit many unusual features, including possessing R5(SixGe1?x)3 thin plates which always precipitate from the matrix despite efforts to suppress their formation. In an effort to better understand the unique relationship between these two intermetallic alloy systems, the bulk microstructure of the compound Gd5Ge3 was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. Surprisingly, SEM examination revealed a series of thin plates present in the Gd5Ge3 matrix similar to what is seen in Gd5Ge4. TEM observation revealed that a role reversal had occurred, with the thin plates possessing the orthorhombic structure and composition of Gd5Ge4. The orientation relationship between Gd5Ge4 thin plates and the Gd5Ge3 matrix was determined to be Graphic the same relationship reported for Gd5Ge3 plates precipitating from a Gd5Ge4 matrix. However, by exchanging the respective roles of the phases as regards matrix vs. precipitate, the total number of precipitation variants seen can be increased from two to six. The persistence with which these two intermetallic systems co-exist is truly unique. However, understanding exactly the kinetic and thermodynamic conditions that lead to their unique relationship is hampered by the high formation temperatures at which the observed reaction occurs.

  19. Fast microchannel plate detector for particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurz, P.; Gubler, L.

    1996-05-01

    In this article we report on the timing capabilities of a new microchannel plate detector we designed and built. The detector assembly has an impedance-matched transition line (50 {Omega} line resistance) from anode to cable connector which is considerably smaller than other, commercially available solutions and at the same time has about four times the active area. The detector was tested with an alpha particle source and excellent time response was achieved. Using 10 {mu}m pore size channel plates, a rise time of 300 ps and a pulse width of 520 ps are obtained. The details of the signal analysis are also given in the article. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings Metallic Bipolar Plates with Composite Coatings Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon mawdsley_anl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office

  1. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgart, Chris W. (Santa Fe, NM); Ciarcia, Christopher A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  2. Internal (Annular) and Compressible External (Flat Plate) Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Correlations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dechant, Lawrence; Smith, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide a discussion regarding the applicability of a family of traditional heat transfer correlation based models for several (unit level) heat transfer problems associated with flight heat transfer estimates and internal flow heat transfer associated with an experimental simulation design (Dobranich 2014). Variability between semi-empirical free-flight models suggests relative differences for heat transfer coefficients on the order of 10%, while the internal annular flow behavior is larger with differences on the order of 20%. We emphasize that these expressions are strictly valid only for the geometries they have been derived for e.g. the fully developed annular flow or simple external flow problems. Though, the application of flat plate skin friction estimate to cylindrical bodies is a traditional procedure to estimate skin friction and heat transfer, an over-prediction bias is often observed using these approximations for missile type bodies. As a correction for this over-estimate trend, we discuss a simple scaling reduction factor for flat plate turbulent skin friction and heat transfer solutions (correlations) applied to blunt bodies of revolution at zero angle of attack. The method estimates the ratio between axisymmetric and 2-d stagnation point heat transfer skin friction and Stanton number solution expressions for sub-turbulent Reynolds numbers %3C1x10 4 . This factor is assumed to also directly influence the flat plate results applied to the cylindrical portion of the flow and the flat plate correlations are modified by

  3. Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Automatic...

  4. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  5. Automatic contact in DYNA3D for vehicle crashworthiness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-15

    This paper presents a new formulation for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. This paper discusses in detail a new four-step automatic contact algorithm. Key aspects of the proposed method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a smoothly varying surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  6. Install and Automatic Blowdown Control System - Steam Tip Sheet #23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Automatic Performance Collection (AutoPerf) | Argonne Leadership...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Vesta - no action will be needed to utilize the library. Executables complied or linked on on these machine will automatically be linked to the AutoPerf library. To disable...

  8. Security Requirements for Classified Automatic Data Processing Systems

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1985-07-10

    To establish and describe the computer security program for classified automatic data processing (ADP) systems at the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. This directive does not cancel another directive. Canceled by DOE N 251.9.

  9. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tracking in low contrast cine-MV images Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images Purpose: To ...

  10. VEE-0043- In the Matter of Greenville Automatic Gas Company

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 11, 1997, Greenville Automatic Gas Company (Greenville) filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE). In its...

  11. Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Automatic Identification and Truncation of Boundary Outlets in Complex Imaging-Derived Biomedical Geometries Fast and accurate reconstruction of imaging-derived geometries and subsequent quality mesh generation for biomedical computation are enabling technologies for

  12. Use of automatic vehicle identification techniques for measuring traffic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    performance and performing incident detection. Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Use of automatic vehicle identification techniques for measuring traffic performance and performing incident detection. Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of automatic vehicle identification techniques for measuring traffic performance and performing incident detection. Final report Traffic performance information is an integral part of traffic control

  13. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  14. C6 plate puncture testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangoethem, Douglas J.; Cordova, Theresa Elena; Reu, Phillip L.

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous scenarios where critical systems could be subject to penetration by projectiles or fixed objects (e.g., collision, natural disaster, act of terrorism, etc.). It is desired to use computational models to examine these scenarios and make risk-informed decisions; however, modeling of material failure is an active area of research, and new models must be validated with experimental data. The purpose of this report is to document the experimental work performed from FY07 through FY08 on the Campaign Six Plate Puncture project. The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data on the puncture and penetration of metal plates for use in model validation. Of particular interest is the PLH failure model also known as the multilinear line segment model. A significant amount of data that will be useful for the verification and validation of computational models of ductile failure were collected during this project were collected and documented herein; however, much more work remains to be performed, collecting additional experimental data that will further the task of model verification.

  15. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, R.S.

    1986-05-02

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  16. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  17. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  18. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A bipolar interconnection plate for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni.sub.3 Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000-30,000 psi, and heated to about 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques.

  19. Adapter plate assembly for adjustable mounting of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An adapter plate and two locking discs are together affixed to an optic table with machine screws or bolts threaded into a fixed array of internally threaded holes provided in the table surface. The adapter plate preferably has two, and preferably parallel, elongated locating slots each freely receiving a portion of one of the locking discs for secure affixation of the adapter plate to the optic table. A plurality of threaded apertures provided in the adapter plate are available to attach optical mounts or other devices onto the adapter plate in an orientation not limited by the disposition of the array of threaded holes in the table surface. An axially aligned but radially offset hole through each locking disc receives a screw that tightens onto the table, such that prior to tightening of the screw the locking disc may rotate and translate within each locating slot of the adapter plate for maximum flexibility of the orientation thereof.

  20. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowingmore » localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.« less

  1. Damage imaging in a laminated composite plate using an air-coupled time reversal mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Bas, P. -Y.; Remillieux, M. C.; Pieczonka, L.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ulrich, T. J.

    2015-11-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of selectively imaging the features of a barely visible impact damage in a laminated composite plate by using an air-coupled time reversal mirror. The mirror consists of a number of piezoelectric transducers affixed to wedges of power law profiles, which act as unconventional matching layers. The transducers are enclosed in a hollow reverberant cavity with an opening to allow progressive emission of the ultrasonic wave field towards the composite plate. The principle of time reversal is used to focus elastic waves at each point of a scanning grid spanning the surface of the plate, thus allowing localized inspection at each of these points. The proposed device and signal processing removes the need to be in direct contact with the plate and reveals the same features as vibrothermography and more features than a C-scan. More importantly, this device can decouple the features of the defect according to their orientation, by selectively focusing vector components of motion into the object, through air. For instance, a delamination can be imaged in one experiment using out-of-plane focusing, whereas a crack can be imaged in a separate experiment using in-plane focusing. As a result, this capability, inherited from the principle of time reversal, cannot be found in conventional air-coupled transducers.

  2. Corrosion Test Cell for Biopolar Plate Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Corrosion Test Cell for Biopolar Plate Materials Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA corrosion test cell for screening candidate bipolar plate materials for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.DescriptionThe corrosion test cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell

  3. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 10 11 8 1990's 8 8 10 11 11 9 202 7 7 9 2000's 9 8 9 9 10 12 11 11 6 3 2010's 3 5 3 3 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Number of Natural Gas

  4. Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27 26 29 2000's 28 28 29 29 29 28 26 27 27 25 2010's 24 24 22 22 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Number of Natural Gas Industrial

  5. Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    S. Kabins, and Jon Leedholm Warren Gretz Mary Anne Dunlap For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manualfor Flat- Plate and...

  6. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge

  7. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  8. Arizona Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 358 344 354 1990's 526 532 532 526 519 530 534 480 514 555 2000's 526 504 488 450 414 425 439 395 383 390 2010's 368 371 379 383 386 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  9. Montana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 435 435 428 1990's 457 452 459 462 453 463 466 462 454 397 2000's 71 73 439 412 593 716 711 693 693 396 2010's 384 381 372 372 369 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  10. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93 98 100 1990's 100 113 114 117 119 120 121 93 93 109 2000's 90 90 96 97 179 192 207 220 189 192 2010's 184 177 177 195 218 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  11. New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 153 295 376 1990's 364 361 344 334 324 332 367 385 389 417 2000's 432 331 437 550 305 397 421 578 5,298 155 2010's 306 362 466 403 326 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016

  12. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 138 148 151 1990's 165 170 171 174 186 189 206 216 404 226 2000's 192 203 223 234 241 239 241 253 271 279 2010's 307 259 260 266 269 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016

  13. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,158 1,152 1,122 1990's 1,135 1,107 1,096 1,066 1,064 359 363 336 325 302 2000's 317 283 54 236 223 223 245 256 243 260 2010's 249 245 248 271 266 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  14. South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 261 267 270 1990's 275 283 319 355 381 396 444 481 464 445 2000's 416 402 533 526 475 542 528 548 598 598 2010's 580 556 574 566 575 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016

  15. Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 551 627 550 1990's 1,508 631 783 345 252 713 923 3,379 3,597 3,625 2000's 3,576 3,535 949 924 312 191 274 278 313 293 2010's 293 286 302 323 328 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release

  16. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 22 21 14 1990's 15 13 18 20 24 23 27 30 36 37 2000's 38 36 38 41 43 41 35 37 35 36 2010's 38 36 38 13 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  17. Delaware Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Delaware Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 241 233 235 1990's 240 243 248 249 252 253 250 265 257 264 2000's 297 316 182 184 186 179 170 185 165 112 2010's 114 129 134 138 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  18. Florida Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 575 552 460 1990's 452 377 388 433 481 515 517 561 574 573 2000's 520 518 451 421 398 432 475 467 449 607 2010's 581 630 507 528 520 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  19. Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 219 132 64 1990's 62 65 66 75 144 167 183 189 203 200 2000's 217 198 194 191 196 195 192 188 199 187 2010's 184 178 179 183 189 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  20. Maine Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Maine Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 73 73 74 1990's 80 81 80 66 89 74 87 81 110 108 2000's 178 233 66 65 69 69 73 76 82 85 2010's 94 102 108 120 126 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring

  1. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 463 208 211 1990's 182 198 159 197 191 192 182 173 217 147 2000's 207 213 184 142 137 145 155 114 109 101 2010's 102 94 97 95 92 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 190 200 230 1990's 284 228 244 194 135 126 170 194 317 314 2000's 308 295 877 179 121 127 133 133 155 130 2010's 120 123 127 132 131 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. A new automatic contact formulation in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in DYNA3D. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but must maintain high reliability and acceptable computational costs. The major features of the proposed new method include automatic identification of potentially contacting surfaces during the initialization phase, a new high-performance contact search procedure, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without ad-hoc rules. Three examples are presented which illustrate the performance of newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  4. Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  5. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Bonde, Wayne L. (Pleasanton, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  6. A new approach to automatic radiation spectrum analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmos, P.; Diaz, J.C.; Perez, J.M.; Aguayo, P.; Bru, A.; Garcia-Belmonte, G.; de Pablos, J.L. ); Gomez, P.; Rodellar, V. )

    1991-08-01

    In this paper the application of adaptive methods to the solution of the automatic radioisotope identification problem using the energy spectrum is described. The identification is carried out by means of neural networks, which allow the use of relatively reduced computational structures, while keeping high pattern recognition capability. In this context, it has been found that one of these simple structures, once adequately trained, is quite suitable to identify a given isotope present in a mixture of elements as well as the relative proportions of each identified substance. Preliminary results are good enough to consider these adaptive structures as powerful and simple tools in the automatic spectrum analysis.

  7. Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings December 23, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know that you can save around 10% a year on your heating and cooling bills by simply turning your thermostat back 10°-15°F for eight hours? Sounds great, but I know when I'm rushing out the door, the last thing on my mind is turning down the thermostat. Luckily, programmable thermostats make it easy to save without much

  8. Automatic image acquisition processor and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, W.J.

    1984-01-16

    A computerized method and point location system apparatus is disclosed for ascertaining the center of a primitive or fundamental object whose shape and approximate location are known. The technique involves obtaining an image of the object, selecting a trial center, and generating a locus of points having a predetermined relationship with the center. Such a locus of points could include a circle. The number of points overlying the object in each quadrant is obtained and the counts of these points per quadrant are compared. From this comparison, error signals are provided to adjust the relative location of the trial center. This is repeated until the trial center overlies the geometric center within the predefined accuracy limits.

  9. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  10. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-05

    To prescribe procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, business instruments. Cancels DOE 1331.2B. Canceled by DOE O 540.1A.

  11. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-27

    The Order prescribes the procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) business instruments. Cancels DOE O 540.1. Canceled by DOE O 540.1B.

  12. Document ID Number: RL-721

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ---------------------------------------------------------- Document ID Number: RL-721 REV 4 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM DOE/CX-00066 I. Project Title: Nesting Bird Deterrent Study at the 241-C Tank Farm CX B3.8, "Outdoor Terrestrial Ecological and Environmental Research" II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions - e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, area/location/number of buildings,

  13. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 53 54,306 55,400 56,822 1990's 56,903 57,265 58,068 57,827 60,320 60,902 62,064 65,919 76,467 64,185 2000's 66,193 65,794 65,788 65,297 65,223 65,294 66,337 65,879 65,313 67,674 2010's 68,163 67,696 67,252 67,136 67,806 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  14. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2 2,313 2,293 2,380 1990's 2,431 2,523 2,509 2,458 2,477 2,491 2,512 2,496 2,464 2,620 2000's 2,792 2,781 2,730 2,743 2,799 2,787 2,735 2,704 2,757 3,057 2010's 3,039 2,988 3,045 3,143 3,244 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  15. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 656 662,217 668,432 683,528 1990's 686,149 700,195 711,043 730,114 744,394 751,890 766,322 781,711 788,464 775,311 2000's 805,689 807,770 806,389 809,754 806,660 809,454 808,801 796,476 792,236 785,005 2010's 778,985 772,892 767,396 765,957 769,418 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 11 11,484 11,649 11,806 1990's 11,921 12,071 12,204 12,359 12,475 12,584 12,732 12,945 13,176 13,409 2000's 13,711 14,002 14,342 14,502 13,999 14,120 14,384 13,408 12,764 13,215 2010's 12,998 13,027 13,133 13,246 13,399 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  17. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 66 67,648 68,612 69,540 1990's 70,808 72,565 74,268 75,842 77,670 79,474 81,348 83,596 86,243 88,924 2000's 91,297 93,896 97,077 100,404 104,360 108,401 112,269 115,500 119,039 120,124 2010's 121,166 121,736 122,983 124,411 126,416 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  18. Arizona Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 46 46,702 46,636 46,776 1990's 47,292 53,982 47,781 47,678 48,568 49,145 49,693 50,115 51,712 53,022 2000's 54,056 54,724 56,260 56,082 56,186 56,572 57,091 57,169 57,586 57,191 2010's 56,676 56,547 56,532 56,585 56,649 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  19. Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 545 567,962 564,195 572,461 1990's 586,866 642,659 604,899 610,337 635,335 661,192 689,597 724,911 764,167 802,469 2000's 846,016 884,789 925,927 957,442 993,885 1,042,662 1,088,574 1,119,266 1,128,264 1,130,047 2010's 1,138,448 1,146,286 1,157,688 1,172,003 1,186,794 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  20. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 60 60,355 61,630 61,848 1990's 61,530 61,731 62,221 62,952 63,821 65,490 67,293 68,413 69,974 71,389 2000's 72,933 71,875 71,530 71,016 70,655 69,990 69,475 69,495 69,144 69,043 2010's 67,987 67,815 68,765 68,791 69,011 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  1. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1 1,410 1,151 1,412 1990's 1,396 1,367 1,319 1,364 1,417 1,366 1,488 1,336 1,300 1,393 2000's 1,414 1,122 1,407 1,269 1,223 1,120 1,120 1,055 1,104 1,025 2010's 1,079 1,133 990 1,020 1,009 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  2. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 475 480,839 485,112 491,110 1990's 488,850 495,148 504,722 513,466 521,176 531,182 539,952 544,460 550,017 554,121 2000's 560,055 552,716 553,192 553,211 554,844 555,861 555,905 557,966 556,746 557,355 2010's 549,970 551,795 549,959 549,764 549,034 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  3. Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 84,636 93,005 92,252 1990's 85,775 88,746 85,873 102,187 92,744 104,453 105,889 107,926 108,832 113,177 2000's 117,993 120,984 122,447 123,006 125,107 120,167 126,713 128,965 242,693 153,826 2010's 144,487 138,225 142,825 144,246 139,556 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  4. Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,626 7,199 13,057 1990's 6,539 5,006 8,723 7,283 8,019 10,447 10,952 11,058 11,245 8,027 2000's 8,794 9,750 9,090 11,272 10,949 12,019 12,456 12,678 36,928 19,208 2010's 12,751 10,721 10,840 11,063 10,946 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld

  5. Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,082,777 1,100,635 1,114,920 1990's 1,118,429 1,127,536 1,137,911 1,155,443 1,179,869 1,180,860 1,188,317 1,204,494 1,212,486 1,232,887 2000's 1,278,781 1,283,008 1,295,952 1,324,715 1,306,142 1,297,508 1,348,848 1,361,470 1,236,480 1,370,353 2010's 1,389,592 1,408,314 1,447,947

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 178,469 185,961 191,474 1990's 195,766 198,890 201,561 204,453 207,629 211,817 214,843 222,726 224,506 227,159 2000's 230,558 225,109 247,818 246,123 246,991 253,415 254,923 253,139 252,382 252,017 2010's 249,309 249,456 249,994 250,994 253,127 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 10,885 11,117 11,452 1990's 11,500 11,446 11,460 11,425 11,308 11,454 11,848 12,233 11,888 14,527 2000's 11,384 11,210 10,468 10,378 10,088 10,049 9,885 9,728 10,563 18,186 2010's 9,332 9,088 8,833 8,497 8,156 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,452,554 2,491,149 2,531,304 1990's 2,573,570 2,609,561 2,640,579 2,677,085 2,717,683 2,767,190 2,812,876 2,859,483 2,903,698 2,949,628 2000's 2,999,737 3,011,205 3,110,743 3,140,021 3,161,370 3,187,583 3,193,920 3,188,152 3,172,623 3,169,026 2010's 3,152,468 3,153,895 3,161,033 3,180,349

  9. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 88,789 90,256 92,916 1990's 95,474 97,388 99,707 93,062 102,857 103,874 105,531 108,686 110,986 114,127 2000's 116,529 119,007 121,751 123,123 125,133 126,310 129,149 128,367 130,847 131,801 2010's 132,163 132,938 134,394 135,557 136,382 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  10. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,585 2,670 2,638 1990's 2,574 2,486 2,515 2,477 2,592 2,531 2,564 2,233 2,188 2,267 2000's 2,025 1,996 2,029 2,074 2,040 1,432 1,257 1,146 1,131 2,039 2010's 2,106 1,770 1,793 1,870 1,878 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  11. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 872,148 894,380 911,001 1990's 946,107 970,941 998,201 1,074,631 1,049,263 1,080,009 1,103,709 1,134,019 1,161,423 1,190,190 2000's 1,222,397 1,249,748 1,282,751 1,308,143 1,338,061 1,364,237 1,401,362 1,401,623 1,413,162 1,423,703 2010's 1,429,681 1,436,063 1,445,824 1,459,134 1,472,663 - = No

  12. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 43,362 44,170 44,253 1990's 43,184 43,693 44,313 45,310 43,803 45,444 46,029 47,311 45,345 47,620 2000's 50,913 51,109 50,468 50,928 54,027 54,936 55,741 56,155 55,291 50,713 2010's 50,537 50,636 50,689 50,153 50,238 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  13. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,312 1,263 1,282 1990's 1,317 1,314 1,327 1,324 1,313 1,298 1,241 1,199 1,165 1,246 2000's 1,199 1,214 1,083 1,161 996 1,205 1,181 1,346 1,132 1,141 2010's 980 982 936 933 943 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  14. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 370,094 372,238 376,353 1990's 382,251 386,264 392,155 398,472 405,312 415,123 418,442 423,397 415,673 426,352 2000's 434,501 438,069 435,146 438,861 445,212 445,856 437,669 445,043 443,025 437,715 2010's 436,840 442,479 442,840 445,589 444,423 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  15. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 96,711 97,939 99,721 1990's 105,164 117,675 125,174 125,571 132,378 130,318 133,445 135,553 135,417 133,464 2000's 133,969 135,968 137,924 140,057 141,258 142,148 143,632 142,965 141,529 140,633 2010's 138,670 138,214 144,906 142,495 143,024 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,832 2,880 3,063 1990's 3,140 3,096 2,989 3,040 3,115 3,033 3,408 3,097 3,151 3,152 2000's 3,094 3,085 2,935 3,115 3,600 3,545 3,548 3,511 3,514 3,573 2010's 3,541 3,307 3,692 3,538 3,497 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,180,546 1,194,985 1,208,523 1990's 1,213,305 1,211,342 1,220,203 1,225,921 1,281,007 1,259,102 1,275,465 1,293,032 1,307,563 1,311,865 2000's 1,324,282 1,326,160 1,340,726 1,343,614 1,346,773 1,348,743 1,353,892 1,354,173 1,352,015 1,348,781 2010's 1,348,549 1,342,920 1,389,910 1,357,740

  18. Montana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 21,382 22,246 22,219 1990's 23,331 23,185 23,610 24,373 25,349 26,329 26,374 27,457 28,065 28,424 2000's 29,215 29,429 30,250 30,814 31,357 31,304 31,817 32,472 33,008 33,731 2010's 34,002 34,305 34,504 34,909 35,205 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 167,883 171,785 171,156 1990's 174,384 177,726 182,641 188,879 194,357 203,435 205,199 209,806 218,851 222,114 2000's 224,784 226,171 229,015 232,839 236,511 240,554 245,883 247,035 253,122 255,472 2010's 257,322 259,046 259,957 262,122 265,849 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  20. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 60,707 61,365 60,377 1990's 60,405 60,947 61,319 60,599 62,045 61,275 61,117 51,661 63,819 53,943 2000's 55,194 55,692 56,560 55,999 57,087 57,389 56,548 55,761 58,160 56,454 2010's 56,246 56,553 56,608 58,005 57,191 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 675 684 702 1990's 712 718 696 718 766 2,432 2,234 11,553 10,673 10,342 2000's 10,161 10,504 9,156 9,022 8,463 7,973 7,697 7,668 11,627 7,863 2010's 7,912 7,955 8,160 8,495 8,791 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  2. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 18,294 18,921 19,924 1990's 20,694 22,124 22,799 23,207 24,521 25,593 26,613 27,629 29,030 30,521 2000's 31,789 32,782 33,877 34,590 35,792 37,093 38,546 40,128 41,098 41,303 2010's 40,801 40,944 41,192 41,710 42,338 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  3. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 213,422 219,981 236,237 1990's 256,119 283,307 295,714 305,099 336,353 364,112 393,783 426,221 458,737 490,029 2000's 520,233 550,850 580,319 610,756 648,551 688,058 726,772 750,570 758,315 760,391 2010's 764,435 772,880 782,759 794,150 808,970 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  4. New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 8,831 9,159 10,237 1990's 10,521 11,088 11,383 11,726 12,240 12,450 12,755 13,225 13,512 13,932 2000's 14,219 15,068 15,130 15,047 15,429 16,266 16,139 16,150 41,332 16,937 2010's 16,645 17,186 17,758 17,298 17,421 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  5. New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) New Hampshire Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 60,078 61,969 64,059 1990's 65,310 67,991 69,356 70,938 72,656 74,232 75,175 77,092 78,786 80,958 2000's 82,813 84,760 87,147 88,170 88,600 94,473 94,600 94,963 67,945 96,924 2010's 95,361 97,400 99,738 98,715 99,146 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  6. North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,236 3,196 3,381 1990's 2,802 3,506 3,119 2,664 3,401 3,652 3,973 5,375 6,228 5,672 2000's 5,288 2,962 3,200 3,101 3,021 2,891 2,701 2,991 2,984 2,384 2010's 2,457 2,468 2,525 2,567 2,596 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  7. North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) North Carolina Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 435,826 472,928 492,821 1990's 520,140 539,321 575,096 607,388 652,307 678,147 699,159 740,013 777,805 815,908 2000's 858,004 891,227 905,816 953,732 948,283 992,906 1,022,430 1,063,871 1,095,362 1,102,001 2010's 1,115,532 1,128,963 1,142,947 1,161,398 1,183,152 - = No Data

  8. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 11,905 12,104 12,454 1990's 12,742 12,082 12,353 12,650 12,944 13,399 13,789 14,099 14,422 15,050 2000's 15,531 15,740 16,093 16,202 16,443 16,518 16,848 17,013 17,284 17,632 2010's 17,823 18,421 19,089 19,855 20,687 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 83,517 84,059 84,643 1990's 85,646 87,880 89,522 91,237 93,398 95,818 97,761 98,326 101,930 104,051 2000's 105,660 106,758 108,716 110,048 112,206 114,152 116,615 118,100 120,056 122,065 2010's 123,585 125,392 130,044 133,975 137,972 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  10. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 213,601 219,257 225,347 1990's 233,075 236,519 237,861 240,684 245,190 250,223 259,663 254,991 258,076 266,102 2000's 269,561 269,327 271,160 271,203 272,445 277,767 270,552 272,555 272,899 270,596 2010's 268,346 268,647 267,793 269,081 269,758 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  11. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,929 8,163 8,356 1990's 8,301 8,479 8,573 8,678 8,655 8,650 8,672 7,779 8,112 8,136 2000's 8,267 8,515 8,111 8,098 7,899 8,328 6,929 6,858 6,806 6,712 2010's 6,571 6,482 6,381 6,554 6,526 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  12. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,648,972 2,678,838 2,714,839 1990's 2,766,912 2,801,716 2,826,713 2,867,959 2,921,536 2,967,375 2,994,891 3,041,948 3,050,960 3,111,108 2000's 3,178,840 3,195,584 3,208,466 3,225,908 3,250,068 3,272,307 3,263,062 3,273,791 3,262,716 3,253,184 2010's 3,240,619 3,236,160 3,244,274 3,271,074 3,283,869 -

  13. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 87,824 86,666 86,172 1990's 85,790 86,744 87,120 88,181 87,494 88,358 89,852 90,284 89,711 80,986 2000's 80,558 79,045 80,029 79,733 79,512 78,726 78,745 93,991 94,247 94,314 2010's 92,430 93,903 94,537 95,385 96,004 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  14. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,772 2,689 2,877 1990's 2,889 2,840 2,859 2,912 2,853 2,845 2,843 2,531 3,295 3,040 2000's 2,821 3,403 3,438 3,367 3,283 2,855 2,811 2,822 2,920 2,618 2010's 2,731 2,733 2,872 2,958 3,063 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  15. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 809,171 805,107 806,875 1990's 814,296 824,172 832,677 842,130 845,448 856,604 866,531 872,454 877,236 867,922 2000's 859,951 868,314 875,338 876,420 875,271 880,403 879,589 920,616 923,650 924,745 2010's 914,869 922,240 927,346 931,981 937,237 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 40,967 41,998 43,997 1990's 47,175 55,374 50,251 51,910 53,700 55,409 57,613 60,419 63,085 65,034 2000's 66,893 68,098 69,150 74,515 71,762 73,520 74,683 80,998 76,868 76,893 2010's 77,370 77,822 78,237 79,276 80,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  17. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 676 1,034 738 1990's 699 787 740 696 765 791 799 704 695 718 2000's 717 821 842 926 907 1,118 1,060 1,136 1,075 1,051 2010's 1,053 1,066 1,076 1,085 1,099 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016

  18. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 280,670 288,066 302,156 1990's 326,177 376,166 354,256 371,151 391,845 411,465 433,638 456,960 477,796 502,000 2000's 523,952 542,799 563,744 625,398 595,495 626,685 647,635 664,455 674,421 675,582 2010's 682,737 688,681 693,507 700,211 707,010 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 166,901 172,615 178,545 1990's 186,772 191,103 193,863 198,299 206,812 209,245 214,340 215,057 216,519 223,732 2000's 228,037 225,911 226,957 227,708 231,051 233,132 231,540 234,597 233,462 233,334 2010's 233,751 233,588 235,049 237,922 239,681 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  20. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,089 6,070 6,023 1990's 6,238 6,344 6,496 6,407 6,388 6,328 6,441 6,492 6,736 7,080 2000's 6,330 6,159 5,880 5,577 5,726 5,577 5,241 4,868 4,772 4,745 2010's 4,624 5,007 5,066 5,024 5,084 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,237,877 2,271,801 2,291,242 1990's 2,311,795 2,333,377 2,363,575 2,386,249 2,393,053 2,413,715 2,431,909 2,452,524 2,493,639 2,486,704 2000's 2,519,794 2,542,724 2,559,024 2,572,584 2,591,458 2,600,574 2,605,782 2,620,755 2,631,340 2,635,886 2010's 2,646,211 2,667,392 2,678,547

  2. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,128 16,096 16,924 1990's 17,765 18,430 18,607 21,178 21,208 21,472 21,664 21,862 22,136 22,254 2000's 22,592 22,815 23,364 23,270 22,994 23,082 23,150 23,007 23,010 22,988 2010's 23,049 23,177 23,359 23,742 23,934 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  3. Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Rhode Island Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 180,656 185,861 190,796 1990's 195,100 196,438 197,926 198,563 200,959 202,947 204,259 212,777 208,208 211,097 2000's 214,474 216,781 219,769 221,141 223,669 224,320 225,027 223,589 224,103 224,846 2010's 225,204 225,828 228,487 231,763 233,786 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  4. South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 35,414 37,075 38,856 1990's 39,904 39,999 40,968 42,191 45,487 47,293 48,650 50,817 52,237 53,436 2000's 54,794 55,257 55,608 55,909 56,049 56,974 57,452 57,544 56,317 55,850 2010's 55,853 55,846 55,908 55,997 56,172 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W

  5. South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,256 1,273 1,307 1990's 1,384 1,400 1,568 1,625 1,928 1,802 1,759 1,764 1,728 1,768 2000's 1,715 1,702 1,563 1,574 1,528 1,535 1,528 1,472 1,426 1,358 2010's 1,325 1,329 1,435 1,452 1,426 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  6. South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) South Carolina Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 302,321 313,831 327,527 1990's 339,486 344,763 357,818 370,411 416,773 412,259 426,088 443,093 460,141 473,799 2000's 489,340 501,161 508,686 516,362 527,008 541,523 554,953 570,213 561,196 565,774 2010's 570,797 576,594 583,633 593,286 604,743 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  7. South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,480 12,438 12,771 1990's 13,443 13,692 14,133 16,523 15,539 16,285 16,880 17,432 17,972 18,453 2000's 19,100 19,378 19,794 20,070 20,457 20,771 21,149 21,502 21,819 22,071 2010's 22,267 22,570 22,955 23,214 23,591 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  8. South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 101,468 102,084 103,538 1990's 105,436 107,846 110,291 128,029 119,544 124,152 127,269 130,307 133,095 136,789 2000's 142,075 144,310 147,356 150,725 148,105 157,457 160,481 163,458 165,694 168,096 2010's 169,838 170,877 173,856 176,204 179,042 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  9. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 77,104 81,159 84,040 1990's 88,753 89,863 91,999 94,860 97,943 101,561 103,867 105,925 109,772 112,978 2000's 115,691 118,561 120,130 131,916 125,042 124,755 126,970 126,324 128,007 127,704 2010's 127,914 128,969 130,139 131,091 131,001 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available;

  10. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,206 2,151 2,555 1990's 2,361 2,369 2,425 2,512 2,440 2,393 2,306 2,382 5,149 2,159 2000's 2,386 2,704 2,657 2,755 2,738 2,498 2,545 2,656 2,650 2,717 2010's 2,702 2,729 2,679 2,581 2,595 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  11. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 534,882 565,856 599,042 1990's 627,031 661,105 696,140 733,363 768,421 804,724 841,232 867,793 905,757 937,896 2000's 969,537 993,363 1,009,225 1,022,628 1,037,429 1,049,307 1,063,328 1,071,756 1,084,102 1,083,573 2010's 1,085,387 1,089,009 1,084,726 1,094,122 1,106,681 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  12. Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,852 4,427 13,383 1990's 13,659 13,770 5,481 5,823 5,222 9,043 8,796 5,339 5,318 5,655 2000's 11,613 10,047 9,143 9,015 9,359 9,136 8,664 11,063 5,568 8,581 2010's 8,779 8,713 8,953 8,525 8,406 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  13. Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 31,329 32,637 32,966 1990's 34,697 35,627 36,145 37,816 39,183 40,101 40,107 40,689 42,054 43,861 2000's 47,201 47,477 50,202 51,063 51,503 55,174 55,821 57,741 59,502 60,781 2010's 61,976 62,885 63,383 64,114 65,134 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  14. Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 414,020 418,569 432,377 1990's 453,023 455,649 467,664 484,438 503,583 523,622 562,343 567,786 588,364 609,603 2000's 641,111 657,728 660,677 678,833 701,255 743,761 754,554 778,644 794,880 810,442 2010's 821,525 830,219 840,687 854,389 869,052 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,447 2,698 2,768 1990's 2,949 3,154 3,198 3,314 3,512 3,649 3,790 3,928 4,034 4,219 2000's 4,316 4,416 4,516 4,602 4,684 4,781 4,861 4,925 4,980 5,085 2010's 5,137 5,256 5,535 5,441 5,589 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  16. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,553 16,616 16,920 1990's 18,300 19,879 20,468 21,553 22,546 23,523 24,383 25,539 26,664 27,931 2000's 28,532 29,463 30,108 30,856 31,971 33,015 34,081 34,937 35,929 37,242 2010's 38,047 38,839 39,917 41,152 42,231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  17. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 54,071 54,892 61,012 1990's 63,751 67,997 69,629 70,161 72,188 74,690 77,284 78,986 77,220 80,500 2000's 84,646 84,839 86,328 87,202 87,919 90,577 91,481 93,015 94,219 95,704 2010's 95,401 96,086 96,503 97,499 98,741 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  18. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 877 895 895 1990's 929 1,156 1,101 2,706 2,740 2,812 2,822 2,391 2,469 2,984 2000's 1,749 1,261 1,526 1,517 1,217 1,402 1,256 1,271 1,205 1,126 2010's 1,059 1,103 1,132 1,132 1,123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  19. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 550,318 573,731 601,906 1990's 622,883 651,203 664,500 690,061 721,495 753,003 789,985 812,866 847,938 893,887 2000's 907,855 941,582 982,521 996,564 1,029,389 1,066,302 1,085,509 1,101,863 1,113,016 1,124,717 2010's 1,133,103 1,145,049 1,155,636 1,170,161 1,183,894 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  20. Washington Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Washington Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 51,365 56,487 55,231 1990's 58,148 60,887 63,391 65,810 68,118 70,781 73,708 75,550 77,770 80,995 2000's 83,189 84,628 85,286 87,082 93,559 92,417 93,628 95,615 97,799 98,965 2010's 99,231 99,674 100,038 100,939 101,730 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  1. Washington Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Washington Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,355 3,564 3,365 1990's 3,428 3,495 3,490 3,448 3,586 3,544 3,587 3,748 3,848 4,040 2000's 4,007 3,898 3,928 3,775 3,992 3,489 3,428 3,630 3,483 3,428 2010's 3,372 3,353 3,338 3,320 3,355 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  2. Washington Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Washington Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 392,469 413,008 425,624 1990's 458,013 492,189 528,913 565,475 604,315 638,603 673,357 702,701 737,208 779,104 2000's 813,319 841,617 861,943 895,800 926,510 966,199 997,728 1,025,171 1,047,319 1,059,239 2010's 1,067,979 1,079,277 1,088,762 1,102,318 1,118,193 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  3. California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 413 404,507 407,435 410,231 1990's 415,073 421,278 412,467 411,648 411,140 411,535 408,294 406,803 588,224 416,791 2000's 413,003 416,036 420,690 431,795 432,367 434,899 442,052 446,267 447,160 441,806 2010's 439,572 440,990 442,708 444,342 443,115 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  4. California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 31 44,764 44,680 46,243 1990's 46,048 44,865 40,528 42,748 38,750 38,457 36,613 35,830 36,235 36,435 2000's 35,391 34,893 33,725 34,617 41,487 40,226 38,637 39,134 39,591 38,746 2010's 38,006 37,575 37,686 37,996 37,548 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  5. California Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,626 7,904,858 8,113,034 8,313,776 1990's 8,497,848 8,634,774 8,680,613 8,726,187 8,790,733 8,865,541 8,969,308 9,060,473 9,181,928 9,331,206 2000's 9,370,797 9,603,122 9,726,642 9,803,311 9,957,412 10,124,433 10,329,224 10,439,220 10,515,162 10,510,950 2010's 10,542,584 10,625,190 10,681,916

  6. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 108 109,770 110,769 112,004 1990's 112,661 113,945 114,898 115,924 115,994 118,502 121,221 123,580 125,178 129,041 2000's 131,613 134,393 136,489 138,621 138,543 137,513 139,746 141,420 144,719 145,624 2010's 145,460 145,837 145,960 150,145 150,235 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1 896 923 976 1990's 1,018 1,074 1,108 1,032 1,176 1,528 2,099 2,923 3,349 4,727 2000's 4,994 4,729 4,337 4,054 4,175 4,318 4,472 4,592 4,816 5,084 2010's 6,232 6,529 6,906 7,293 7,823 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  8. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 925 942,571 955,810 970,512 1990's 983,592 1,002,154 1,022,542 1,044,699 1,073,308 1,108,899 1,147,743 1,183,978 1,223,433 1,265,032 2000's 1,315,619 1,365,413 1,412,923 1,453,974 1,496,876 1,524,813 1,558,911 1,583,945 1,606,602 1,622,434 2010's 1,634,587 1,645,716 1,659,808 1,672,312 1,690,581 -

  9. Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2 2,709 2,818 2,908 1990's 3,061 2,921 2,923 2,952 3,754 3,705 3,435 3,459 3,441 3,465 2000's 3,683 3,881 3,716 3,625 3,470 3,437 3,393 3,317 3,196 3,138 2010's 3,063 3,062 3,148 4,454 4,217 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  10. Delaware Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Delaware Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6 6,180 6,566 7,074 1990's 7,485 7,895 8,173 8,409 8,721 9,133 9,518 9,807 10,081 10,441 2000's 9,639 11,075 11,463 11,682 11,921 12,070 12,345 12,576 12,703 12,839 2010's 12,861 12,931 12,997 13,163 13,352 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  11. Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 81 82,829 84,328 86,428 1990's 88,894 91,467 94,027 96,914 100,431 103,531 106,548 109,400 112,507 115,961 2000's 117,845 122,829 126,418 129,870 133,197 137,115 141,276 145,010 147,541 149,006 2010's 150,458 152,005 153,307 155,627 158,502 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  12. Florida Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 41 42,376 43,178 43,802 1990's 43,674 45,012 45,123 47,344 47,851 46,459 47,578 48,251 46,778 50,052 2000's 50,888 53,118 53,794 55,121 55,324 55,479 55,259 57,320 58,125 59,549 2010's 60,854 61,582 63,477 64,772 67,460 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  13. Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 442 444,848 446,690 452,544 1990's 457,648 467,221 471,863 484,816 497,777 512,365 521,674 532,790 542,770 556,628 2000's 571,972 590,221 603,690 617,373 639,014 656,069 673,122 682,996 679,265 674,090 2010's 675,551 679,199 686,994 694,210 703,535 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  14. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Georgia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 94 98,809 102,277 106,690 1990's 108,295 109,659 111,423 114,889 117,980 120,122 123,200 123,367 126,050 225,020 2000's 128,275 130,373 128,233 129,867 128,923 128,389 127,843 127,832 126,804 127,347 2010's 124,759 123,454 121,243 126,060 122,573 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Georgia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3 3,034 3,144 3,079 1990's 3,153 3,124 3,186 3,302 3,277 3,261 3,310 3,310 3,262 5,580 2000's 3,294 3,330 3,219 3,326 3,161 3,543 3,053 2,913 2,890 2,254 2010's 2,174 2,184 2,112 2,242 2,481 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  16. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,190 1,237,201 1,275,128 1,308,972 1990's 1,334,935 1,363,723 1,396,860 1,430,626 1,460,141 1,495,992 1,538,458 1,553,948 1,659,730 1,732,865 2000's 1,680,749 1,737,850 1,735,063 1,747,017 1,752,346 1,773,121 1,726,239 1,793,650 1,791,256 1,744,934 2010's 1,740,587 1,740,006 1,739,543 1,805,425

  17. Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,896 2,852 2,842 1990's 2,837 2,786 2,793 3,222 2,805 2,825 2,823 2,783 2,761 2,763 2000's 2,768 2,777 2,781 2,804 2,578 2,572 2,548 2,547 2,540 2,535 2010's 2,551 2,560 2,545 2,627 2,789 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  18. Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 28,502 28,761 28,970 1990's 29,137 29,701 29,805 29,984 30,614 30,492 31,017 30,990 30,918 30,708 2000's 30,751 30,794 30,731 30,473 26,255 26,219 25,982 25,899 25,632 25,466 2010's 25,389 25,305 25,184 26,374 28,919 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 17,482 18,454 18,813 1990's 19,452 20,328 21,145 21,989 22,999 24,150 25,271 26,436 27,697 28,923 2000's 30,018 30,789 31,547 32,274 33,104 33,362 33,625 33,767 37,320 38,245 2010's 38,506 38,912 39,202 39,722 40,229 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  20. Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 104,824 111,532 113,898 1990's 113,954 126,282 136,121 148,582 162,971 175,320 187,756 200,165 213,786 227,807 2000's 240,399 251,004 261,219 274,481 288,380 301,357 316,915 323,114 336,191 342,277 2010's 346,602 350,871 353,963 359,889 367,394 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  1. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 241,367 278,473 252,791 1990's 257,851 261,107 263,988 268,104 262,308 264,756 265,007 268,841 271,585 274,919 2000's 279,179 278,506 279,838 281,877 273,967 276,763 300,606 296,465 298,418 294,226 2010's 291,395 293,213 297,523 282,743 294,391 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  2. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 19,460 20,015 25,161 1990's 25,991 26,489 27,178 27,807 25,788 25,929 29,493 28,472 28,063 27,605 2000's 27,348 27,421 27,477 26,698 29,187 29,887 26,109 24,000 23,737 23,857 2010's 25,043 23,722 23,390 23,804 23,829 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  3. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,170,364 3,180,199 3,248,117 1990's 3,287,091 3,320,285 3,354,679 3,388,983 3,418,052 3,452,975 3,494,545 3,521,707 3,556,736 3,594,071 2000's 3,631,762 3,670,693 3,688,281 3,702,308 3,754,132 3,975,961 3,812,121 3,845,441 3,869,308 3,839,438 2010's 3,842,206 3,855,942 3,878,806 3,838,120

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 116,571 119,458 122,803 1990's 124,919 128,223 129,973 131,925 134,336 137,162 139,097 140,515 141,307 145,631 2000's 148,411 148,830 150,092 151,586 151,943 159,649 154,322 155,885 157,223 155,615 2010's 156,557 161,293 158,213 158,965 159,596 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  5. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,250,476 1,275,401 1,306,747 1990's 1,327,772 1,358,640 1,377,023 1,402,770 1,438,483 1,463,640 1,489,647 1,509,142 1,531,914 1,570,253 2000's 1,604,456 1,613,373 1,657,640 1,644,715 1,588,738 1,707,195 1,661,186 1,677,857 1,678,158 1,662,663 2010's 1,669,026 1,707,148 1,673,132 1,681,841 1,693,267

  6. Iowa Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Iowa Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 80,797 81,294 82,549 1990's 83,047 84,387 85,325 86,452 86,918 88,585 89,663 90,643 91,300 92,306 2000's 93,836 95,485 96,496 96,712 97,274 97,767 97,823 97,979 98,144 98,416 2010's 98,396 98,541 99,113 99,017 99,182 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  7. Iowa Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Iowa Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,033 1,937 1,895 1990's 1,883 1,866 1,835 1,903 1,957 1,957 2,066 1,839 1,862 1,797 2000's 1,831 1,830 1,855 1,791 1,746 1,744 1,670 1,651 1,652 1,626 2010's 1,528 1,465 1,469 1,491 1,572 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  8. Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 690,532 689,655 701,687 1990's 706,842 716,088 729,081 740,722 750,678 760,848 771,109 780,746 790,162 799,015 2000's 812,323 818,313 824,218 832,230 839,415 850,095 858,915 865,553 872,980 875,781 2010's 879,713 883,733 892,123 895,414 900,420 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  9. Kansas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 82,934 83,810 85,143 1990's 85,539 86,874 86,840 87,735 86,457 88,163 89,168 85,018 89,654 86,003 2000's 87,007 86,592 87,397 88,030 86,640 85,634 85,686 85,376 84,703 84,715 2010's 84,446 84,874 84,673 84,969 85,867 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  10. Kansas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4,440 4,314 4,366 1990's 4,357 3,445 3,296 4,369 3,560 3,079 2,988 7,014 10,706 5,861 2000's 8,833 9,341 9,891 9,295 8,955 8,300 8,152 8,327 8,098 7,793 2010's 7,664 7,954 7,970 7,877 7,429 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  11. Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 725,676 733,101 731,792 1990's 747,081 753,839 762,545 777,658 773,357 797,524 804,213 811,975 841,843 824,803 2000's 833,662 836,486 843,353 850,464 855,272 856,761 862,203 858,304 853,125 855,454 2010's 853,842 854,730 854,800 858,572 861,092 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  12. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 63,024 63,971 65,041 1990's 67,086 68,461 69,466 71,998 73,562 74,521 76,079 77,693 80,147 80,283 2000's 81,588 81,795 82,757 84,110 84,493 85,243 85,236 85,210 84,985 83,862 2010's 84,707 84,977 85,129 85,999 85,318 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  13. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,391 1,436 1,443 1990's 1,544 1,587 1,608 1,585 1,621 1,630 1,633 1,698 1,864 1,813 2000's 1,801 1,701 1,785 1,695 1,672 1,698 1,658 1,599 1,585 1,715 2010's 1,742 1,705 1,720 1,767 1,780 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  14. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 596,320 606,106 614,058 1990's 624,477 633,942 644,281 654,664 668,774 685,481 696,989 713,509 726,960 735,371 2000's 744,816 749,106 756,234 763,290 767,022 770,080 770,171 771,047 753,531 754,761 2010's 758,129 759,584 757,790 761,575 760,131 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 67,382 66,472 64,114 1990's 62,770 61,574 61,030 62,055 62,184 62,930 62,101 62,270 63,029 62,911 2000's 62,710 62,241 62,247 63,512 60,580 58,409 57,097 57,127 57,066 58,396 2010's 58,562 58,749 63,381 59,147 58,611 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to

  16. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,617 1,503 1,531 1990's 1,504 1,469 1,452 1,592 1,737 1,383 1,444 1,406 1,380 1,397 2000's 1,318 1,440 1,357 1,291 1,460 1,086 962 945 988 954 2010's 942 920 963 916 883 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  17. Maine Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Maine Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,435 3,731 3,986 1990's 4,250 4,455 4,838 4,979 5,297 5,819 6,414 6,606 6,662 6,582 2000's 6,954 6,936 7,375 7,517 7,687 8,178 8,168 8,334 8,491 8,815 2010's 9,084 9,681 10,179 11,415 11,810 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  18. Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 12,134 11,933 11,902 1990's 12,000 12,424 13,766 13,880 14,104 14,917 14,982 15,221 15,646 15,247 2000's 17,111 17,302 17,921 18,385 18,707 18,633 18,824 18,921 19,571 20,806 2010's 21,142 22,461 23,555 24,765 27,047 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  19. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 51,252 53,045 54,740 1990's 55,576 61,878 62,858 63,767 64,698 66,094 69,991 69,056 67,850 69,301 2000's 70,671 70,691 71,824 72,076 72,809 73,780 74,584 74,856 75,053 75,771 2010's 75,192 75,788 75,799 77,117 77,846 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  20. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,222 5,397 5,570 1990's 5,646 520 514 496 516 481 430 479 1,472 536 2000's 329 795 1,434 1,361 1,354 1,325 1,340 1,333 1,225 1,234 2010's 1,255 1,226 1,163 1,173 1,179 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  1. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 755,294 760,754 767,219 1990's 774,707 782,373 894,677 807,204 824,137 841,772 871,012 890,195 901,455 939,029 2000's 941,384 959,772 978,319 987,863 1,009,455 1,024,955 1,040,941 1,053,948 1,057,521 1,067,807 2010's 1,071,566 1,077,168 1,078,978 1,099,272 1,101,292 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  2. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 31,283 33,192 33,880 1990's 32,785 32,755 33,289 33,611 33,756 36,144 33,837 33,970 35,362 35,483 2000's 41,949 35,607 35,016 35,160 34,932 36,635 34,748 34,161 34,275 34,044 2010's 34,063 34,041 34,078 34,283 34,339 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 351,024 349,765 349,347 1990's 349,673 350,489 352,463 352,997 352,929 353,629 358,049 362,432 359,783 362,292 2000's 360,471 363,126 361,171 359,919 358,027 374,301 353,292 347,433 347,368 343,837 2010's 344,131 342,069 340,256 340,102 338,652 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  4. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 96,760 99,157 102,492 1990's 106,043 109,616 112,761 115,961 119,788 125,539 129,146 131,238 134,651 135,829 2000's 140,370 144,050 149,774 150,128 151,907 155,109 159,074 160,614 163,026 163,843 2010's 164,173 165,002 165,657 166,845 167,901 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  5. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,411 7,218 7,307 1990's 7,154 7,194 7,396 7,979 7,342 6,454 5,861 8,346 9,158 9,756 2000's 9,630 9,864 9,648 10,138 10,190 8,484 5,707 5,999 5,969 6,396 2010's 6,413 6,376 6,581 6,677 7,000 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  6. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,054,347 1,072,585 1,097,514 1990's 1,123,557 1,151,939 1,182,834 1,220,500 1,253,333 1,291,424 1,324,570 1,361,348 1,390,068 1,426,909 2000's 1,458,959 1,484,536 1,514,700 1,541,455 1,569,719 1,592,621 1,611,772 1,632,200 1,646,644 1,656,614 2010's 1,663,583 1,671,834 1,681,001 1,692,891

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 15,342 15,093 14,012 1990's 13,767 14,931 15,064 15,315 15,348 15,580 17,036 15,907 16,171 16,317 2000's 16,366 16,027 16,170 17,164 17,490 17,904 18,016 18,062 19,286 19,843 2010's 19,977 20,146 20,387 20,617 20,894 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  8. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 113,175 112,126 113,129 1990's 113,598 113,463 114,793 116,027 117,385 119,544 131,910 125,740 127,324 127,750 2000's 129,274 129,897 133,445 135,441 137,434 140,013 142,385 143,644 152,439 153,062 2010's 153,852 155,181 157,226 158,889 160,896 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  9. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, John B. (Huntsville, AL)

    1994-01-01

    Perforated plates (10) having very small holes (14) with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a "wire drawing" process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er.sub.3 Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans (20) containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array (53) with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er.sub.3 Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations (38, 42), one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed.

  10. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  11. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with

  12. Automatic Transformation of MPI Programs to Asynchronous, Graph-Driven Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baden, Scott B; Weare, John H; Bylaska, Eric J

    2013-04-30

    The goals of this project are to develop new, scalable, high-fidelity algorithms for atomic-level simulations and program transformations that automatically restructure existing applications, enabling them to scale forward to Petascale systems and beyond. The techniques enable legacy MPI application code to exploit greater parallelism though increased latency hiding and improved workload assignment. The techniques were successfully demonstrated on high-end scalable systems located at DOE laboratories. Besides the automatic MPI program transformations efforts, the project also developed several new scalable algorithms for ab-initio molecular dynamics, including new massively parallel algorithms for hybrid DFT and new parallel in time algorithms for molecular dynamics and ab-initio molecular dynamics. These algorithms were shown to scale to very large number of cores, and they were designed to work in the latency hiding framework developed in this project. The effectiveness of the developments was enhanced by the direct application to real grand challenge simulation problems covering a wide range of technologically important applications, time scales and accuracies. These included the simulation of the electronic structure of mineral/fluid interfaces, the very accurate simulation of chemical reactions in microsolvated environments, and the simulation of chemical behavior in very large enzyme reactions.

  13. Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

  14. Efficient gas sensitivity in mixed bismuth ferrite micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waghmare, Shivaji D.; Jadhav, Vijaykumar V.; Gore, Shaym K.; Yoon, Seog-Joon; Ambade, Swapnil B.; Lokhande, B.J.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Micro (cubes) structure embedded in nano (plates) of bismuth ferrite was prepared by a chemical method. ? These structures were characterized by XRD and SEM. ? LPG, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 4} gases were exposed. ? Properties related to gas sensors were measured and reported. -- Abstract: Mixed micro (cubes) and nano (plates) structures of bismuth ferrite (BFO) have been synthesized by a simple and cost-effective wet-chemical method. Structural, morphological and phase confirmation characteristics are measured using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. The digital FE-SEM photo-images of BFO sample confirmed an incubation of discrete micro-cubes into thin and regularly placed large number of nano-plates. The bismuth ferrite, with mixed structures, films show considerable performance when used in liquefied petroleum (LPG), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and ammonium (NH{sub 3}) gas sensors application. Different chemical entities in LPG have made it more efficient with higher sensitivity, recovery and response times compared to CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. Furthermore, effect of palladium surface treatment on the gas sensitivity and the charge transfer resistances of BFO mixed structures is investigated and reported.

  15. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions | Department of Energy 0: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions Historically, manual transmissions have delivered better fuel economy than automatic transmissions. However, improvements in the efficiency of automatic transmissions have closed that gap in recent years. Improved designs

  16. ILC TARGET WHEEL RIM FRAGMENT/GUARD PLATE IMPACT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagler, L

    2008-07-17

    A positron source component is needed for the International Linear Collider Project. The leading design concept for this source is a rotating titanium alloy wheel whose spokes rotate through an intense localized magnetic field. The system is composed of an electric motor, flexible motor/drive-shaft coupling, stainless steel drive-shaft, two Plumber's Block tapered roller bearings, a titanium alloy target wheel, and electromagnet. Surrounding the target wheel and magnet is a steel frame with steel guarding plates intended to contain shrapnel in case of catastrophic wheel failure. Figure 1 is a layout of this system (guard plates not shown for clarity). This report documents the FEA analyses that were performed at LLNL to help determine, on a preliminary basis, the required guard plate thickness for three potential plate steels.

  17. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, Erhard T. (5423 Vista Sandia, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  18. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  19. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the extended plate and beam (EP&B), is for use above grade in residential buildings. ... The EP&B wall design signifcantly increases insulation value, reduces framing factors, and ...

  20. A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable Molybdenum Inserts The copper pole shields for the neutral beam lines that have been in service at DIII-D have...

  1. Method and apparatus for enhancing microchannel plate data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining centroid channel locations is disclosed for use in a system activated by one or more multichannel plates (16,18) and including a linear diode array (24) providing channels of information 1, 2, . . . , n, . . . , N containing signal amplitudes A.sub.n. A source of analog A.sub.n signals (40), and a source of digital clock signals n (48), are provided. Non-zero A.sub.n values are detected in a discriminator (42). A digital signal representing p, the value of n immediately preceding that whereat A.sub.n takes its first non-zero value, is generated in a scaler (50). The analog A.sub.n signals are converted to digital in an analog to digital converter (44). The digital A.sub.n signals are added to produce a digital .SIGMA.A.sub.n signal in a full adder (46). Digital 1, 2, . . . , m signals representing the number of non-zero A.sub.n are produced by a discriminator pulse counter (52). Digital signals representing 1 A.sub.p+ 1, 2 A.sub.p+2, . . . , m A.sub.p+m are produced by pairwise multiplication in multiplier (54). These signals are added in multiplier summer (56) to produce a digital .SIGMA.nA.sub.n -p.SIGMA.A.sub.n signal. This signal is divided by the digital .SIGMA.A.sub.n signal in divider (58) to provide a digital (.SIGMA.nA.sub.n /.SIGMA.A.sub.n) -p signal. Finally, this last signal is added to the digital p signal in an offset summer (60) to provide .SIGMA.nA.sub.n /.SIGMA.A.sub.n, the centroid channel locations.

  2. Method and apparatus for enhancing microchannel plate data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoe, R.S.

    1983-10-24

    A method and apparatus for determining centroid channel locations are disclosed for use in a system activated by one or more multichannel plates and including a linear diode array providing channels of information 1, 2, ...,n, ..., N containing signal amplitudes A/sub n/. A source of analog A/sub n/ signals, and a source of digital clock signals n, are provided. Non-zero A/sub n/ values are detected in a discriminator. A digital signal representing p, the value of n immediately preceding that whereat A/sub n/ takes its first non-zero value, is generated in a scaler. The analog A/sub n/ signals are converted to digital in an analog to digital converter. The digital A/sub n/ signals are added to produce a digital ..sigma..A/sub n/ signal in a full adder. Digital 1, 2, ..., m signals representing the number of non-zero A/sub n/ are produced by a discriminator pulse counter. Digital signals representing 1 A/sub p+1/, 2 A/sub p+2/, ..., m A/sub p+m/ are produced by pairwise multiplication in multiplier. These signal are added in multiplier summer to produce a digital ..sigma..nA/sub n/ - p..sigma..A/sub n/ signal. This signal is divided by the digital ..sigma..A/sub n/ signal in divider to provide a digital (..sigma..nA/sub n//..sigma..A/sub n/) -p signal. Finally, this last signal is added to the digital p signal in an offset summer to provide ..sigma..nA/sub n//..sigma..A/sub n/, the centroid channel locations.

  3. Assigning unique identification numbers to new user accounts and groups in a computing environment with multiple registries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRobertis, Christopher V. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Lu, Yantian T. (Round Rock, TX)

    2010-02-23

    A method, system, and program storage device for creating a new user account or user group with a unique identification number in a computing environment having multiple user registries is provided. In response to receiving a command to create a new user account or user group, an operating system of a clustered computing environment automatically checks multiple registries configured for the operating system to determine whether a candidate identification number for the new user account or user group has been assigned already to one or more existing user accounts or groups, respectively. The operating system automatically assigns the candidate identification number to the new user account or user group created in a target user registry if the checking indicates that the candidate identification number has not been assigned already to any of the existing user accounts or user groups, respectively.

  4. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH); Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH)

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  5. Automatic anatomically selective image enhancement in digital chest radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezan, M.I. ); Minerbo, G.N. ); Schaetzing, R. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors develop a technique for automatic anatomically selective enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the desire to simultaneously meet the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm and a set of rules are applied to the image histogram to determine automatically a gray-level threshold between the lung field and mediastinum. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and/or unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band or black-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter which varies asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast.

  6. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type Automatic Manual 1980 17.1 18.2 1981 18.4 20.1 1982 20.2 22.2 1983 21.0 23.0 1984 20.8 22.5 1985 21.3 22.9 1986 21.3 22.8 1987 20.9 22.2 1988 20.9 22.0 1989 20.7 22.0 ...

  7. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and extended barrel plates (and therefore submodules) being an issue, with the result that standard submodules are fully exchangeable between the two types of module.

  8. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, K.C.

    1993-08-24

    Apparatus is described for gripping a plate-type tensile specimen having generally T-shaped end regions in a dynamic tension fatigue testing apparatus comprising an annular housing having an open-ended elongated cavity therein, a plurality of hydraulic piston means supported by the housing in a spaced array about the cavity, and a specimen-supporting plate means overlying the piston means at one end of the elongated cavity and displaceable by said piston means in a longitudinal direction with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cavity, said apparatus for gripping a flat plate-type tensile specimen comprising: a pair of elongated pull rods each having oppositely disposed first and second end regions; a pair of mounting means carried by said plate means with each mounting means for pivotally attaching the first end region of each of said pull rods in a central region of said plate means for supporting said pair of elongated pull rods in a side-by-side relationship along a common longitudinal centerline within said cavity; recess means in the second end region of each of said pull rods in adjacently disposed surface regions thereof with said recess means facing one another and each adapted to receive one side of one of the generally T-shaped end regions of the plate-type tensile specimen; and load-bearing means positionable in each of said recess means and adapted to bear against a shoulder on each side of the generally T-shaped end region of the plate-type tensile specimen when a tensile loading is applied thereon.

  9. Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Conghua

    2013-05-30

    Bipolar plate is an important component in fuel cell stacks and accounts for more than 75% of stack weight and volume. The technology development of metal bipolar plates can effectively reduce the fuel cells stack weight and volume over 50%. The challenge is the metal plate corrosion protection at low cost for the broad commercial applications. This project is aimed to develop innovative technological solutions to overcome the corrosion barrier of low cost metal plates. The feasibility of has been demonstrated and patented (US Patent 7,309,540). The plan is to further reduce the cost, and scale up the technology. The project is built on three pillars: 1) robust experimental evidence demonstrating the feasibility of our technology, 2) a team that consists of industrial leaders in fuel cell stack application, design, and manufactures; 3) a low-risk, significant-milestone driven program that proves the feasibility of meeting program objectives The implementation of this project will reduce the fuel cell stack metal bipolar separator plate cost which accounts 15-21% of the overall stack cost. It will contribute to the market adoption of fuel cell technologies. In addition, this corrosion protection technology can be used similar energy devices, such as batteries and electrolyzers. Therefore, the success of the project will be benefit in broad markets.

  10. Laser-Based Characterization of Nuclear Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2013-07-01

    Ensuring the integrity of fuel-clad and clad-clad bonding in nuclear fuels is important for safe reactor operation and assessment of fuel performance, yet the measurement of bond strengths in actual fuels has proved challenging. The laser shockwave technique (LST) originally developed to characterize structural adhesion in composites is being employed to characterize interface strength in a new type of plate fuel being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large-amplitude acoustic waves and is well suited for application to both fresh and irradiated nuclear-fuel plates. This paper will report on initial characterization results obtained from fresh fuel plates manufactured by different processes, including hot isostatic pressing, friction stir welding, and hot rolling.

  11. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perton, M.; Levesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M. [National Research Council Canada, 75 de Mortagne Blvd, Boucherville, Quebec, J4B 6Y4 (Canada); Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2013-01-25

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  12. Laser Shockwave Technique For Characterization Of Nuclear Fuel Plate Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Barry H. Rabin; Mathieu Perton; Daniel Lvesque; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Martin Lord

    2012-07-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  13. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  14. Low temperature type new TMCP steel plate for LPG carriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Bessyo, Kiyoshi; Arimochi, Kazushige; Yajima, Hiroshi; Tada, Masuo; Sakai, Daisuke

    1994-12-31

    New Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) steel plate for LPG carriers of completely liquefied type was developed with non-nickel chemistry. The new steel plate has a capability to arrest a long running brittle crack at {minus}46 C (which is the design temperature of the liquefied LPG tanks). A high heat-input one-pass welding can be applied to this steel despite its nickel-less chemistry. These capabilities were enabled by microalloying technology with low aluminum-medium nitrogen-boron, as well as by the advanced Thermo-Mechanical Control Process. This paper describes the new concept of utilizing the trace elements and the evaluation test results as the steel plate for the LPG tank and hull, especially from the standpoints of the fracture safe reliability at high heat input welding and from that of the shop workability.

  15. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  16. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTI’s analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a “Best Case Scenario” for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this “Best Case Scenario” including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

  17. Recessed impingement insert metering plate for gas turbine nozzles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Itzel, Gary Michael (218 Quail Ridge Dr., Greenville, SC 29680); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (7006 Kevin La., Schenectady, NY 12303)

    2002-01-01

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second diametrically opposed, perforated side walls. A metering plate having at least one opening defined therethrough for coolant flow is mounted to the side walls to generally transverse a longitudinal axis of the insert, and is disposed downstream from said inlet end. The metering plate improves flow distribution while reducing ballooning stresses within the insert and allowing for a more flexible insert attachment.

  18. Plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using porous nickel plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maeda, T.; Higuchi, T.

    2011-09-15

    Hydrogen atomic pair ions, i.e., H{sup +} and H{sup -} ions, are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a porous nickel plate. Positive ions in a hydrogen plasma generated by dc arc discharge are irradiated to the porous plate, and pair ions are produced from the back of the irradiation plane. It becomes clear that the production quantity of pair ions mainly depends on the irradiation current of positive ions and the irradiation energy affects the production efficiency of H{sup -} ions.

  19. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  20. Cold plate with combined inclined impingement and ribbed channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-12-22

    Heat transfer devices and methods for making the same that include a first enclosure having at least one inlet port; a second enclosure having a bottom plate and one or more dividing walls to establish channels, at least one internal surface of each channel having rib structures to create turbulence in a fluid flow; and a jet plate connecting the first enclosure and the second enclosure having impinging jets that convey fluid from the first enclosure to the channels, said impinging jets being set at an angular deviation from normal to cause local acceleration of fluid and to increase a local heat transfer rate.

  1. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  2. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C. (Juno Beach, FL); Zabriskie, Jr., John E. (Port St. Lucie, FL); Neutzler, Jay K. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Fuchs, Michel (Boynton Beach, FL); Gustafson, Robert C. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  3. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Stuart J (Richland, WA); Cowley,; Wendy E (Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L (Richland, WA); Cramer, Nicholas O (Richland, WA)

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  4. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; /DESY

    2009-05-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  5. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  6. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (?2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ?2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the original plan fluence map as the starting stage reduced OAR dose at the mid-dose region, but increased the monitor units by 17%. Differences of only 2cc or less in OAR V50%/V70Gy/V76Gy were observed between 100 and 50 iterations.Conclusions: It is feasible to perform automatic online reoptimization in ?2 min using a clinical treatment planning system. Selecting optimal sets of input parameters is the key to achieving high quality reoptimized plans, and should be based on the individual patient's daily anatomy, delivery efficiency, and time allowed for plan adaptation.

  7. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, Donald C. (Cupertino, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  8. Automatic Blocking Of QR and LU Factorizations for Locality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; You, H; Seymour, K; Dongarra, J

    2004-03-26

    QR and LU factorizations for dense matrices are important linear algebra computations that are widely used in scientific applications. To efficiently perform these computations on modern computers, the factorization algorithms need to be blocked when operating on large matrices to effectively exploit the deep cache hierarchy prevalent in today's computer memory systems. Because both QR (based on Householder transformations) and LU factorization algorithms contain complex loop structures, few compilers can fully automate the blocking of these algorithms. Though linear algebra libraries such as LAPACK provides manually blocked implementations of these algorithms, by automatically generating blocked versions of the computations, more benefit can be gained such as automatic adaptation of different blocking strategies. This paper demonstrates how to apply an aggressive loop transformation technique, dependence hoisting, to produce efficient blockings for both QR and LU with partial pivoting. We present different blocking strategies that can be generated by our optimizer and compare the performance of auto-blocked versions with manually tuned versions in LAPACK, both using reference BLAS, ATLAS BLAS and native BLAS specially tuned for the underlying machine architectures.

  9. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  10. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  11. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  12. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  13. Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

    2005-12-22

    On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

  14. 2014-03-07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ice Makers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-03-07 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers, as issued by the Assistant Secretary on

  15. The use of computed radiography plates to determine light and radiation field coincidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerns, James R.; Anand, Aman

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Photo-stimulable phosphor computed radiography (CR) has characteristics that allow the output to be manipulated by both radiation and optical light. The authors have developed a method that uses these characteristics to carry out radiation field and light field coincidence quality assurance on linear accelerators.Methods: CR detectors from Kodak were used outside their cassettes to measure both radiation and light field edges from a Varian linear accelerator. The CR detector was first exposed to a radiation field and then to a slightly smaller light field. The light impinged on the detector's latent image, removing to an extent the portion exposed to the light field. The detector was then digitally scanned. A MATLAB-based algorithm was developed to automatically analyze the images and determine the edges of the light and radiation fields, the vector between the field centers, and the crosshair center. Radiographic film was also used as a control to confirm the radiation field size.Results: Analysis showed a high degree of repeatability with the proposed method. Results between the proposed method and radiographic film showed excellent agreement of the radiation field. The effect of varying monitor units and light exposure time was tested and found to be very small. Radiation and light field sizes were determined with an uncertainty of less than 1 mm, and light and crosshair centers were determined within 0.1 mm.Conclusions: A new method was developed to digitally determine the radiation and light field size using CR photo-stimulable phosphor plates. The method is quick and reproducible, allowing for the streamlined and robust assessment of light and radiation field coincidence, with no observer interpretation needed.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: System for Automatically Maintaining Pressure in a Commercial Truck Tire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Goodyear at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a system for automatically...

  17. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cancer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Purpose: ...

  18. California's Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements for Clean Diesel Exhaust California's Efforts for Advancing Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements for Clean Diesel...

  19. Identification of Export Control Classification Number - ITER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Identification of Export Control Classification Number - ITER (April 2012) As the "Shipper of Record" please provide the appropriate Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) for...

  20. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formorehigh resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.less

  1. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  2. Automatic Microaneurysm Detection and Characterization Through Digital Color Fundus Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Charles; Veras, Rodrigo; Ramalho, Geraldo; Medeiros, Fatima; Ushizima, Daniela

    2008-08-29

    Ocular fundus images can provide information about retinal, ophthalmic, and even systemic diseases such as diabetes. Microaneurysms (MAs) are the earliest sign of Diabetic Retinopathy, a frequently observed complication in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Robust detection of MAs in digital color fundus images is critical in the development of automated screening systems for this kind of disease. Automatic grading of these images is being considered by health boards so that the human grading task is reduced. In this paper we describe segmentation and the feature extraction methods for candidate MAs detection.We show that the candidate MAs detected with the methodology have been successfully classified by a MLP neural network (correct classification of 84percent).

  3. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  4. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  5. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  6. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.

    1999-11-09

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  7. Corrosion of packaged cadmium plated electrical control units from paint vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brough, L.A.

    1987-08-01

    One of the most widely used methods of controlling the degradation of steel is the application of paint. It is relatively easy to accomplish and very economical. Painted steel is used successfully for many applications, including industrial equipment with electrical enclosures. Unless the proper paint and application procedures are selected, corrosion problems may develop directly from the paint, as the following incident will illustrate. A few years ago, a large electrical control enclosure (30 x 72 x 18 in. (76 x 183 x 46 cm)) was supplied to a customer with the control wiring and hardware mounted inside, which included a number of cadmium plated components. The enclosure had been painted inside with a fast drying, vinyl alkyd white enamel shortly before assembly. Since it was known that the completed unit would probably be stored at the customer's plant site for some time before installation, elaborate procedures were followed to retard or prevent degradation of any part of the system.

  8. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  9. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  10. Diamond Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plates Create Nanostructures through Pressure, Not Chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  11. CHICO2 - A pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CHICO2 - A pixelated parallel-plate avalanche counter CHICO2 is an upgrade version of CHICO (Compact Heavy Ion COunter) with improved position resolution. CHICO was designed specifically for Gammasphere as auxiliary detector for the charged-particle detection. The design and fabrication work were carried out at University of Rochester under NSF funding. A total of 26 Gammasphere/CHICO experiments were successfully fielded between 1996 and 2008 using various experimental techniques such as the

  12. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  13. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400...

  14. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassano, Luca; Cesarini, Daniel; Avvenuti, Marco

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Mbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  15. Automatic Beam Path Analysis of Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubel, Oliver; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,; Weber, Gunther H.; Ushizima, Daniela M.; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Bethel, E. Wes

    2009-10-19

    Numerical simulations of laser wakefield particle accelerators play a key role in the understanding of the complex acceleration process and in the design of expensive experimental facilities. As the size and complexity of simulation output grows, an increasingly acute challenge is the practical need for computational techniques that aid in scientific knowledge discovery. To that end, we present a set of data-understanding algorithms that work in concert in a pipeline fashion to automatically locate and analyze high energy particle bunches undergoing acceleration in very large simulation datasets. These techniques work cooperatively by first identifying features of interest in individual timesteps, then integrating features across timesteps, and based on the information derived perform analysis of temporally dynamic features. This combination of techniques supports accurate detection of particle beams enabling a deeper level of scientific understanding of physical phenomena than hasbeen possible before. By combining efficient data analysis algorithms and state-of-the-art data management we enable high-performance analysis of extremely large particle datasets in 3D. We demonstrate the usefulness of our methods for a variety of 2D and 3D datasets and discuss the performance of our analysis pipeline.

  16. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  17. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Roy I. (9214 Abbey La., Ypsilanti, MI 48198); Patil, Prabhakar B. (10294 W. Outer Dr., Detroit, MI 48223)

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  18. Automatic design of 3-D fixtures and assembly pallets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brost, R.C.; Peters, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents an implemented algorithm that automatically designs fixtures and assembly pallets to hold three-dimensional parts. All fixtures generated by the algorithm employ round side locators, a side clamp, and cylindrical supports; depending on the value of an input-control flag, the fixture may also include swing-arm top clamps. Using these modular elements, the algorithm designs fixtures that rigidly constrain and locate a part, obey task constraints, are robust to part-shape variations, are easy to load, and are economical to produce. For the class of fixtures that are considered, the algorithm is guaranteed to find the global optimum design that satisfies these and other pragmatic conditions. The authors present the results of the algorithm applied to several practical manufacturing problems. For these complex problems, the algorithm typically returns initial high-quality fixture designs in less than a minute, and identifies the global optimum design in just over an hour. The algorithm is also capable of solving difficult design problems where a single fixture is desired that can hold either of two parts.

  19. Automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jostlein, Hans (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine determines the accuracy of a coordinate measuring machine having at least one servo drive. The apparatus comprises a first and second gauge ball connected by a telescoping rigid member. The rigid member includes a switch such that inward radial movement of the second gauge ball relative to the first gauge ball causes activation of the switch. The first gauge ball is secured in a first magnetic socket assembly in order to maintain the first gauge ball at a fixed location with respect to the coordinate measuring machine. A second magnetic socket assembly secures the second gauge ball to the arm or probe holder of the coordinate measuring machine. The second gauge ball is then directed by the coordinate measuring machine to move radially inward from a point just beyond the length of the ball bar until the switch is activated. Upon switch activation, the position of the coordinate measuring machine is determined and compared to known ball bar length such that the accuracy of the coordinate measuring machine can be determined.

  20. Automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jostlein, H.

    1997-07-15

    An automatic ball bar for a coordinate measuring machine determines the accuracy of a coordinate measuring machine having at least one servo drive. The apparatus comprises a first and second gauge ball connected by a telescoping rigid member. The rigid member includes a switch such that inward radial movement of the second gauge ball relative to the first gauge ball causes activation of the switch. The first gauge ball is secured in a first magnetic socket assembly in order to maintain the first gauge ball at a fixed location with respect to the coordinate measuring machine. A second magnetic socket assembly secures the second gauge ball to the arm or probe holder of the coordinate measuring machine. The second gauge ball is then directed by the coordinate measuring machine to move radially inward from a point just beyond the length of the ball bar until the switch is activated. Upon switch activation, the position of the coordinate measuring machine is determined and compared to known ball bar length such that the accuracy of the coordinate measuring machine can be determined. 5 figs.

  1. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Stephens, Albert E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  2. Automatic thermocouple positioner for use in vacuum furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, D.K.; Stephens, A.E.

    1980-06-06

    The invention is a simple and reliable mechanical arrangement for automatically positioning a thermocouple-carrying rod in a vacuum-furnace assembly of the kind including a casing, a furnace mounted in the casing, and a charge-containing crucible mounted in the furnace for vertical movement between a lower (loading) position and a raised (charge-melting) position. In a preferred embodiment, a welded-diaphragm metal bellows is mounted above the furnace, the upper end of the bellows being fixed against movement and the lower end of the bellows being affixed to support means for a thermocouple-carrying rod which is vertically oriented and extends freely through the furnace lid toward the mouth of the crucible. The support means and rod are mounted for relative vertical movement. Before pumpdown of the furnace, the differential pressure acting on the bellows causes it to contract and lift the thermocouple rod to a position where it will not be contacted by the crucible charge when the crucible is elevated to its raised position. During pumpdown, the bellows expands downward, lowering the thermocouple rod and its support. The bellows expands downward beyond a point where downward movement of the thermocouple rod is arrested by contact with the crucible charge and to a point where the upper end of the thermocouple extends well above the thermocouple support. During subsequent melting of the charge, the thermocouple sinks into the melt to provide an accurate measurement of melt temperatures.

  3. Wave-plate structures, power selective optical filter devices, and optical systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (San Ramon, CA)

    2012-07-03

    In an embodiment, an optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes first and second substantially zero-order, zero-wave plates arranged in series with and oriented at an angle relative to each other. The first and second zero-wave plates are configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. Each zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  4. Evaluation of Automatic Atlas-Based Lymph Node Segmentation for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapleford, Liza J.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Perkins, Charles; Edelman, Scott; Davis, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation (LNS) improves efficiency and decreases inter-observer variability while maintaining accuracy. Methods and Materials: Five physicians with head-and-neck IMRT experience used computed tomography (CT) data from 5 patients to create bilateral neck clinical target volumes covering specified nodal levels. A second contour set was automatically generated using a commercially available atlas. Physicians modified the automatic contours to make them acceptable for treatment planning. To assess contour variability, the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to take collections of contours and calculate a probabilistic estimate of the 'true' segmentation. Differences between the manual, automatic, and automatic-modified (AM) contours were analyzed using multiple metrics. Results: Compared with the 'true' segmentation created from manual contours, the automatic contours had a high degree of accuracy, with sensitivity, Dice similarity coefficient, and mean/max surface disagreement values comparable to the average manual contour (86%, 76%, 3.3/17.4 mm automatic vs. 73%, 79%, 2.8/17 mm manual). The AM group was more consistent than the manual group for multiple metrics, most notably reducing the range of contour volume (106-430 mL manual vs. 176-347 mL AM) and percent false positivity (1-37% manual vs. 1-7% AM). Average contouring time savings with the automatic segmentation was 11.5 min per patient, a 35% reduction. Conclusions: Using the STAPLE algorithm to generate 'true' contours from multiple physician contours, we demonstrated that, in comparison with manual segmentation, atlas-based automatic LNS for head-and-neck cancer is accurate, efficient, and reduces interobserver variability.

  5. Impact on thin steel plates by tumbling projectiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Goldsmith, W.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental, analytical, and numerical investigation into the effects of tumbling projectiles on the impact response of thin 4130 steel target plates was performed. Deformation patterns and failure phenomena as well as the final velocities and trajectories of the projectiles are correlated with initial conditions such as the initial velocity and impact angle (or yaw angle with a zero oblique angle) of the projectile and plate thickness. In the experiments, tumbling motion of the projectiles was induced by impact of a portion of the front face of the projectile with the edge of a massive block placed along the trajectory. Cylinders with a diameter of 12.7 mm, a length of 38.1 mm, and a hardness of R{sub c} 54 were fired at velocities from 400 m/s - 800 m/s. The forward speed of the projectile after tumbling production ranged from 300 m/s-700 m/s. Rotational speeds ranged from 0 rad/s - 3000 rad/s and concomitant impact angles varied from 0{degrees} to 60{degrees}. These parameters were determined from high speed photographic records. The targets were 1.6 mm and 3.2 mm thick. An analytical model developed for thin aluminum target plates was employed in the present study. The model divides the penetration process into three stages: (1) plugging; (2) hole enlargement; and (3) frontal petaling. The processes are quantified using energy dissipation descriptions of the various deformation mechanisms. Numerical simulations of the penetration processes were performed by employment of the program DYNA3D, a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element code. The material of the target was modeled as elasto-plastic with failure, while the projectile was assumed to be undeformable. The failure criterion of the target is based on the ultimate tensile strain.

  6. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    2011-12-26

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  7. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurau, Vladimir (Miami, FL); Barbir, Frano (Palm Beach Gardens, FL); Neutzler, Jay K. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  8. Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Real-time automatic fiducial marker tracking in low contrast cine-MV images Purpose: To develop a real-time automatic method for tracking implanted radiographic markers in low-contrast cine-MV patient images used in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: Intrafraction motion tracking using radiotherapy beam-line MV images have

  9. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  10. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  11. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  12. Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  13. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  15. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  16. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  17. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  18. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    number concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle number concentration The total number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  20. Calculating Atomic Number Densities for Uranium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    Provides method to calculate atomic number densities of selected uranium compounds and hydrogenous moderators for use in nuclear criticality safety analyses at gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment facilities.

  1. OMB Control Number: 1910-5165

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damages assessed under Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act: Page 1 OMB Control Number: 1910-5165 Expires: 04302015 SEMI-ANNUAL DAVIS-BACON ENFORCEMENT REPORT...

  2. Automatic CT simulation optimization for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hua Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Gay, Hiram; Michalski, Jeff M.; Mutic, Sasa; Yu, Lifeng; Anastasio, Mark A.; Low, Daniel A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: In radiation therapy, x-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation protocol specifications should be driven by the treatment planning requirements in lieu of duplicating diagnostic CT screening protocols. The purpose of this study was to develop a general strategy that allows for automatically, prospectively, and objectively determining the optimal patient-specific CT simulation protocols based on radiation-therapy goals, namely, maintenance of contouring quality and integrity while minimizing patient CT simulation dose. Methods: The authors proposed a general prediction strategy that provides automatic optimal CT simulation protocol selection as a function of patient size and treatment planning task. The optimal protocol is the one that delivers the minimum dose required to provide a CT simulation scan that yields accurate contours. Accurate treatment plans depend on accurate contours in order to conform the dose to actual tumor and normal organ positions. An image quality index, defined to characterize how simulation scan quality affects contour delineation, was developed and used to benchmark the contouring accuracy and treatment plan quality within the predication strategy. A clinical workflow was developed to select the optimal CT simulation protocols incorporating patient size, target delineation, and radiation dose efficiency. An experimental study using an anthropomorphic pelvis phantom with added-bolus layers was used to demonstrate how the proposed prediction strategy could be implemented and how the optimal CT simulation protocols could be selected for prostate cancer patients based on patient size and treatment planning task. Clinical IMRT prostate treatment plans for seven CT scans with varied image quality indices were separately optimized and compared to verify the trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage. Results: Based on the phantom study, the optimal image quality index for accurate manual prostate contouring was 4.4. The optimal tube potentials for patient sizes of 38, 43, 48, 53, and 58 cm were 120, 140, 140, 140, and 140 kVp, respectively, and the corresponding minimum CTDIvol for achieving the optimal image quality index 4.4 were 9.8, 32.2, 100.9, 241.4, and 274.1 mGy, respectively. For patients with lateral sizes of 43–58 cm, 120-kVp scan protocols yielded up to 165% greater radiation dose relative to 140-kVp protocols, and 140-kVp protocols always yielded a greater image quality index compared to the same dose-level 120-kVp protocols. The trace of target and organ dosimetry coverage and the γ passing rates of seven IMRT dose distribution pairs indicated the feasibility of the proposed image quality index for the predication strategy. Conclusions: A general strategy to predict the optimal CT simulation protocols in a flexible and quantitative way was developed that takes into account patient size, treatment planning task, and radiation dose. The experimental study indicated that the optimal CT simulation protocol and the corresponding radiation dose varied significantly for different patient sizes, contouring accuracy, and radiation treatment planning tasks.

  3. SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, Eric Wesley; Griffin, F. P.

    1999-10-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is a best-estimate analysis tool for performing nuclear reactor severe accident simulations. This report describes the justification, theory, implementation, and testing of a new modeling capability which will refine the analysis of the movement of molten material from the core region to the vessel lower head. As molten material moves from the core region through the core support structures it may encounter conditions which will cause it to freeze in the region of the lower core plate, delaying its arrival to the vessel head. The timing of this arrival is significant to reactor safety, because during the time span for material relocation to the lower head, the core may be experiencing steam-limited oxidation. The time at which hot material arrives in a coolant-filled lower vessel head, thereby significantly increasing the steam flow rate through the core region, becomes significant to the progression and timing of a severe accident. This report is a revision of a report INEEL/EXT-00707, entitled "Preliminary Design Report for SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model".

  4. SCDAP/RELAP5 lower core plate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coryell, E.W.; Griffin, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is a best-estimate analysis tool for performing nuclear reactor severe accident simulations. This report describes the justification, theory, implementation, and testing of a new modeling capability which will refine the analysis of the movement of molten material from the core region to the vessel lower head. As molten material moves from the core region through the core support structures it may encounter conditions which will cause it to freeze in the region of the lower core plate, delaying its arrival to the vessel head. The timing of this arrival is significant to reactor safety, because during the time span for material relocation to the lower head, the core may be experiencing steam-limited oxidation. The time at which hot material arrives in a coolant-filled lower vessel head, thereby significantly increasing the steam flow rate through the core region, becomes significant to the progression and timing of a severe accident. This report is a revision of a report INEEL/EXT-00707, entitled ``Preliminary Design Report for SCDAP/RELAP5 Lower Core Plate Model''.

  5. Automatic Energy Calibration of Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-09-19

    The software provides automatic method for calibrating the energy scale of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and scintillation gamma-ray spectrometers, using natural background radiation as the source of calibration gamma rays. In field gamma-ray spectroscopy, radioactive check sources may not be available; temperature changes can shift detector electronic gain and scintillator light output; and a user’s experience and training may not include gamma-ray energy calibration. Hence, an automated method of calibrating the spectrometer using natural background wouldmore » simplify its operation, especially by technician-level users, and by enhancing spectroscopic data quality, it would reduce false detections. Following a typically one-minute count of background gamma-rays, the measured spectrum is searched for gamma-ray peaks, producing a list of peak centroids, in channels1. Next, the ratio algorithm attempts to match the peak centroids found in the search to a user-supplied list of calibration gamma-ray energies. Finally, if three or more calibration energies have been matched to peaks, the energy equation parameters are determined by a least-squares fit2, and the spectrum has been energy-calibrated. The ratio algorithm rests on the repeatable but irregular spacing of the background gammaray energies—together they form a unique set of ratios, when normalized to the highest energy calibration gamma ray; so too, the corresponding peak centroids in the spectrum. The algorithm matches energy ratios to peak centroid ratios, to determine which peak matches a given calibration energy.« less

  6. Closed loop computer control for an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determined from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  7. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    In an automotive vehicle having an automatic transmission that driveably connects a power source to the driving wheels, a method to control the application of hydraulic pressure to a clutch, whose engagement produces an upshift and whose disengagement produces a downshift, the speed of the power source, and the output torque of the transmission. The transmission output shaft torque and the power source speed are the controlled variables. The commanded power source torque and commanded hydraulic pressure supplied to the clutch are the control variables. A mathematical model is formulated that describes the kinematics and dynamics of the powertrain before, during and after a gear shift. The model represents the operating characteristics of each component and the structural arrangement of the components within the transmission being controlled. Next, a close loop feedback control is developed to determine the proper control law or compensation strategy to achieve an acceptably smooth gear ratio change, one in which the output torque disturbance is kept to a minimum and the duration of the shift is minimized. Then a computer algorithm simulating the shift dynamics employing the mathematical model is used to study the effects of changes in the values of the parameters established from a closed loop control of the clutch hydraulic and the power source torque on the shift quality. This computer simulation is used also to establish possible shift control strategies. The shift strategies determine from the prior step are reduced to an algorithm executed by a computer to control the operation of the power source and the transmission.

  8. Fuel cell plates with skewed process channels for uniform distribution of stack compression load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Greensburg, PA); Woodle, Boyd M. (North Huntingdon Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An electrochemical fuel cell includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, an electrolyte matrix sandwiched between electrodes, and a pair of plates above and below the electrodes. The plate above the electrodes has a lower surface with a first group of process gas flow channels formed thereon and the plate below the electrodes has an upper surface with a second group of process gas flow channels formed thereon. The channels of each group extend generally parallel to one another. The improvement comprises the process gas flow channels on the lower surface of the plate above the anode electrode and the process gas flow channels on the upper surface of the plate below the cathode electrode being skewed in opposite directions such that contact areas of the surfaces of the plates through the electrodes are formed in crisscross arrangements. Also, the plates have at least one groove in areas of the surfaces thereof where the channels are absent for holding process gas and increasing electrochemical activity of the fuel cell. The groove in each plate surface intersects with the process channels therein. Also, the opposite surfaces of a bipolar plate for a fuel cell contain first and second arrangements of process gas flow channels in the respective surfaces which are skewed the same amount in opposite directions relative to the longitudinal centerline of the plate.

  9. Webinar: Energy Conservation Standards for Automatic Commercial Ice Makers; Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is conducting a public meeting and webinar for the notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for automatic commercial ice makers. For more information, please visit the...

  10. Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Semi-automatic delineation using weighted CT-MRI registered images for radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer Purpose: To develop a delineation tool that refines physician-drawn contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) in nasopharynx cancer, using combined pixel value

  11. Low Mach Number Models in Computational Astrophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ann Almgren Low Mach Number Models in Computational Astrophysics February 4, 2014 Ann Almgren. Berkeley Lab Downloads Almgren-nug2014.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file Low Mach Number Models in Computational Astrophysics - Ann Almgren, Berkeley Lab Last edited: 2016-02-01 08:06:52

  12. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M. J.; Taylor, J. D.; McCormick, R. L.

    2004-09-01

    In this report, we present a compilation of reported cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. The compiled database contains cetane values for 299 pure compounds, including 156 hydrocarbons and 143 oxygenates. Cetane number is a relative ranking of fuels based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition. The cetane number is typically measured either in a combustion bomb or in a single-cylinder research engine. This report includes cetane values from several different measurement techniques - each of which has associated uncertainties. Additionally, many of the reported values are determined by measuring blending cetane numbers, which introduces significant error. In many cases, the measurement technique is not reported nor is there any discussion about the purity of the compounds. Nonetheless, the data in this report represent the best pure compound cetane number values available from the literature as of August 2004.

  13. Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew ); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. ); Occhionero, M. )

    2010-01-07

    Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plates effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

  14. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL); Mawdsley, Jennifer R. (Woodridge, IL); Niyogi, Suhas (Woodridge, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL); Cruse, Terry (Lisle, IL); Santos, Lilia (Lombard, IL)

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  15. Motion-induced radiation in a cavity with conducting and permeable plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, MirFaez

    2007-05-15

    We consider a conducting and a permeable plate immersed in the vacuum of a scalar field. We calculate the photon production rate when two plates at a distance H oscillate with a frequency {omega}{sub p}. For H{omega}{sub p}/({pi}c)<2, the angular spectrum and photon production rates are significantly different from those of a conventional cavity with two conducting or two permeable plates.

  16. Fission rate measurements in fuel plate type assembly reactor cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The methods, materials and equipment have been developed to allow extensive and precise measurement of fission rate distributions in water moderated, U-Al fuel plate assembly type reactor cores. Fission rate monitors are accurately positioned in the reactor core, the reactor is operated at a low power for a short time, the fission rate monitors are counted with detectors incorporating automated sample changers and the measurements are converted to fission rate distributions. These measured fission rate distributions have been successfully used as baseline information related to the operation of test and experimental reactors with respect to fission power and distribution, fuel loading and fission experiments for approximately twenty years at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). 7 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  18. Current conducting end plate of fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly has a current conducting end plate with a conductive body formed integrally with isolating material. The conductive body has a first surface, a second surface opposite the first surface, and an electrical connector. The first surface has an exposed portion for conducting current between a working section of the fuel cell assembly and the electrical connector. The isolating material is positioned on at least a portion of the second surface. The conductive body can have support passage(s) extending therethrough for receiving structural member(s) of the fuel cell assembly. Isolating material can electrically isolate the conductive body from the structural member(s). The conductive body can have service passage(s) extending therethrough for servicing one or more fluids for the fuel cell assembly. Isolating material can chemically isolate the one or more fluids from the conductive body. The isolating material can also electrically isolate the conductive body from the one or more fluids.

  19. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Kenneth C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens having dogbone- or T-shaped end sections without introducing bending stresses in the specimens during the application of a dynamic tensile loading on the specimens is described. A pair of elongated pull rods disposed in a side-by-side relationship are used to grip the shoulders on each T-shaped end section. The pull rods are pivotally attached to a piston-displaceable, disk-shaped member so as to be longitudinally movable with respect to one another effecting the self-alignment thereof with the shoulders on the T-shaped end sections of the specimen to compensate for shoulders being located in different longitudinal positions.

  20. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuman, B.; Honig, J.; Hackel, L.; Dane, C.B.; Dixit, S.

    1998-10-27

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating. 3 figs.

  1. Collimator application for microchannel plate image intensifier resolution improvement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Stanley W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-02-27

    A collimator is included in a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI). Collimators can be useful in improving resolution of MCPIs by eliminating the scattered electron problem and by limiting the transverse energy of electrons reaching the screen. Due to its optical absorption, a collimator will also increase the extinction ratio of an intensifier by approximately an order of magnitude. Additionally, the smooth surface of the collimator will permit a higher focusing field to be employed in the MCP-to-collimator region than is currently permitted in the MCP-to-screen region by the relatively rough and fragile aluminum layer covering the screen. Coating the MCP and collimator surfaces with aluminum oxide appears to permit additional significant increases in the field strength, resulting in better resolution.

  2. Phase plate technology for laser marking of magnetic discs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuman, Bill (Livermore, CA); Honig, John (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Dixit, Shamasundar (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An advanced design for a phase plate enables the distribution of spots in arbitrarily shaped patterns with very high uniformity and with a continuously or near-continuously varying phase pattern. A continuous phase pattern eliminates large phase jumps typically expected in a grating that provides arbitrary shapes. Large phase jumps increase scattered light outside of the desired pattern, reduce efficiency and can make the grating difficult to manufacture. When manufacturing capabilities preclude producing a fully continuous grating, the present design can be easily adapted to minimize manufacturing errors and maintain high efficiencies. This continuous grating is significantly more efficient than previously described Dammann gratings, offers much more flexibility in generating spot patterns and is easier to manufacture and replicate than a multi-level phase grating.

  3. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  4. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumpelt, M. Gorelov, A. M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian metallurgical industry) and supplied to the partner for tests in a stack of fuel cells. A feasibility study on the cost of the Russian material for a BSP is to be done on Tasks 1, 2 in case the annual order makes up 400,000 sheets. The goal of Task 3 of the project is to research on possible implementation of cermet compositions on the basis of LiAlO{sub 2}, TiN, B{sub 4}C, ceramics with Ni and Ni-Mo binders. BaCeO{sub 3} conductive ceramics with metal binders of Ni, Ni-Cr etc. were also planned to be studied. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of samples is to be made and passed to FCE for tests. The goal of Task 4 of the Project is development of a new alloy or alloys with a ceramic coating that will have upgraded corrosion stability in operation within a SOFC. A new alloy was to be worked out by the way of modification of compositions of industrial alloys. Ceramic coatings are to be applied onto ferrite steel produced serially by iron and steel industry of Russia as sheet iron.

  5. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  6. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP ...

  7. Identification of Export Control Classification Number - ITER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Identification of Export Control Classification Number - ITER (April 2012) As the "Shipper of Record" please provide the appropriate Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) for the products (equipment, components and/or materials) and if applicable the nonproprietary associated installation/maintenance documentation that will be shipped from the United States to the ITER International Organization in Cadarache, France or to ITER Members worldwide on behalf of the Company. In rare

  8. Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly Volume 1, Number 4

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1, Number 4 * February 2012 Message from the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Stockpile Stewardship, Chris Deeney Defense Programs Stockpile Stewardship in Action Volume 1, Number 4 Inside this Issue 2 Applying Advanced Simulation Models to Neutron Tube Ion Extraction 3 Advanced Optical Cavities for Subcritical and Hydrodynamic Experiments 5 Progress Toward Ignition on the National Ignition Facility 7 Commissioning URSA Minor: The First LTD-Based Accelerator for Radiography 8 Publication

  9. EVALUATION OF U10MO FUEL PLATE IRRADIATION BEHAVIOR VIA NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel J. Miller; Hakan Ozaltun

    2012-11-01

    This article analyzes dimensional changes due to irradiation of monolithic plate-type nuclear fuel and compares results with finite element analysis of the plates during fabrication and irradiation. Monolithic fuel plates tested in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab (INL) are being used to benchmark proposed fuel performance for several high power research reactors. Post-irradiation metallographic images of plates sectioned at the midpoint were analyzed to determine dimensional changes of the fuel and the cladding response. A constitutive model of the fabrication process and irradiation behavior of the tested plates was developed using the general purpose commercial finite element analysis package, Abaqus. Using calculated burn-up profiles of irradiated plates to model the power distribution and including irradiation behaviors such as swelling and irradiation enhanced creep, model simulations allow analysis of plate parameters that are either impossible or infeasible in an experimental setting. The development and progression of fabrication induced stress concentrations at the plate edges was of primary interest, as these locations have a unique stress profile during irradiation. Additionally, comparison between 2D and 3D models was performed to optimize analysis methodology. In particular, the ability of 2D and 3D models account for out of plane stresses which result in 3-dimensional creep behavior that is a product of these components. Results show that assumptions made in 2D models for the out-of-plane stresses and strains cannot capture the 3-dimensional physics accurately and thus 2D approximations are not computationally accurate. Stress-strain fields are dependent on plate geometry and irradiation conditions, thus, if stress based criteria is used to predict plate behavior (as opposed to material impurities, fine micro-structural defects, or sharp power gradients), unique 3D finite element formulation for each plate is required.

  10. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai (Pao-Shan Shiang, TW); Jang, Jyh-Shing (Framingham, MA); Fu, Chi-Yung (San Francisco, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n-1)'th layer and an n'th layer of the network. Each j'th node in each k'th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y.sub.k,j according to the function ##EQU1## where N.sub.k-1 is the number of nodes in layer k-1, i indexes the nodes of layer k-1 and all the w.sub.k,i,j are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n'th layer are given by w.sub.n,i,j =w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,p.sbsb.n). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P.sub.n is less than the number of nodes N.sub.n-1 in layer n-1. w.sub.n,j (i,p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w.sub.n,j (i, p.sub.n,j,1, . . . , p.sub.n,j,Pn) include ##EQU2##

  11. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  12. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  13. Simultaneous velocity interferometry and electronic streak photography of laser-launched plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-launched, miniature, pseudo-one-dimensional flyer plates are evaluated by three distinct optical techniques that may be incorporated into an optical diagnostic system to give a complete understanding of the plate performance. These techniques are: velocity interferometry, streak photography, and pulsed laser stereo photography. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Probing lepton number violation on three frontiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deppisch, Frank F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-30

    Neutrinoless double beta decay constitutes the main probe for lepton number violation at low energies, motivated by the expected Majorana nature of the light but massive neutrinos. On the other hand, the theoretical interpretation of the (non-)observation of this process is not straightforward as the Majorana neutrinos can destructively interfere in their contribution and many other New Physics mechanisms can additionally mediate the process. We here highlight the potential of combining neutrinoless double beta decay with searches for Tritium decay, cosmological observations and LHC physics to improve the quantitative insight into the neutrino properties and to unravel potential sources of lepton number violation.

  15. Battling bird flu by the numbers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Battling bird flu by the numbers Battling bird flu by the numbers Lab theorists have developed a mathematical tool that could help health experts and crisis managers determine in real time whether an emerging infectious disease such as avian influenza H5N1 is poised to spread globally. May 27, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience,

  16. WIPP Documents - All documents by number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Note: Documents that do not have document numbers are not included in this listing. Large file size alert This symbol means the document may be a large file size. All documents by number Common document prefixes DOE/CAO DOE/TRU DOE/CBFO DOE/WIPP DOE/EA NM DOE/EIS Other DOE/CAO Back to top DOE/CAO 95-1095, Oct. 1995 Remote Handled Transuranic Waste Study This study was conducted to satisfy the requirements defined by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act and considered by DOE to be a prudent exercise in

  17. Intelligent system for automatic feature detection and selection or identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, C.T.; Shiang, P.S.; Jang, J.S.; Fu, C.Y.

    1997-09-02

    A neural network uses a fuzzy membership function, the parameters of which are adaptive during the training process, to parameterize the interconnection weights between an (n{minus}1)`th layer and an n`th layer of the network. Each j`th node in each k`th layer of the network except the input layer produces its output value y{sub k,j} according to the function shown in Equation 1 where N{sub k{minus}1} is the number of nodes in layer k{minus}1, i indexes the nodes of layer k{minus}1 and all the w{sub k,i,j} are interconnection weights. The interconnection weights to all nodes j in the n`th layer are given by w{sub n,i,j}=w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},p{sub n}). The apparatus is trained by setting values for at least one of the parameters p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn. Preferably the number of parameters P{sub n} is less than the number of nodes N{sub n{minus}1} in layer n{minus}1. W{sub n,j} (i,p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) can be convex in i, and it can be bell-shaped. Sample functions for w{sub n,j} (i, p{sub n,j,1}, . . . , p{sub n,j},Pn) include Equation 2, shown in the patent. 8 figs.

  18. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, John C. (Fort Collins, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A method of welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads.

  19. Simultaneous laser cutting and welding of metal foil to edge of a plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-19

    A method is described for welding an ultra-thin foil to the edge of a thicker sheet to form a vacuum insulation panel comprising the steps of providing an ultra-thin foil having a thickness less than 0.002, providing a top plate having an edge and a bottom plate having an edge, clamping the foil to the edge of the plate wherein the clamps act as heat sinks to distribute heat through the foil, providing a laser, moving the laser relative to the foil and the plate edges to form overlapping weld beads to weld the foil to the plate edges while simultaneously cutting the foil along the weld line formed by the overlapping beads. 7 figs.

  20. Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #850: December 8, 2014 Automatic Transmissions have closed the Fuel Economy Gap with Manual Transmissions

  1. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Gimnez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  2. Pennsylvania Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 618 606 604 540 627 666 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 4,745 4,624 5,007 5,066 5,024 5,084 1987-2014...

  3. The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G. T.; James, R. A.; Ghiorso, A.

    1948-00-00

    Two isotopes of the element with atomic number 96 have been produced by the helium-ion bombardment of plutonium. The name curium, symbol Cm, is proposed for element 96. The chemical experiments indicate that the most stable oxidation state of curium is the III state.

  4. Washington Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    059,239 1,067,979 1,079,277 1,088,762 1,102,318 1,118,193 1987-2014 Sales 1,067,979 1,079,277 1,088,762 1,102,318 1,118,193 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 98,965 99,231...

  5. Minnesota Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,436,063 1,445,824 1,459,134 1,472,663 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 131,801 132,163 132,938 134,394 135,557 136,382 1987-2014 Sales 131,986 132,697 134,165 135,235...

  6. West Virginia Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    343,837 344,131 342,069 340,256 340,102 338,652 1987-2014 Sales 344,125 342,063 340,251 340,098 338,649 1997-2014 Transported 6 6 5 4 3 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers...

  7. Connecticut Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    489,349 490,185 494,970 504,138 513,492 522,658 1986-2014 Sales 489,380 494,065 503,241 512,110 521,460 1997-2014 Transported 805 905 897 1,382 1,198 1997-2014 Commercial Number of...

  8. North Carolina Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ,102,001 1,115,532 1,128,963 1,142,947 1,161,398 1,183,152 1987-2014 Sales 1,115,532 1,128,963 1,142,947 1,161,398 1,183,152 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 113,630...

  9. Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C...

  10. Maine Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    20,806 21,142 22,461 23,555 24,765 27,047 1987-2014 Sales 21,141 22,461 23,555 24,765 27,047 1997-2014 Transported 1 0 0 0 0 2010-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 8,815 9,084...

  11. South Dakota Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    173,856 176,204 179,042 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 22,071 22,267 22,570 22,955 23,214 23,591 1987-2014 Sales 22,028 22,332 22,716 22,947 23,330 1998-2014...

  12. An automatic contact algorithm in DYNA3D for impact problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

    1993-07-23

    This paper presents a new approach for the automatic definition and treatment of mechanical contact in explicit nonlinear finite element analysis. Automatic contact offers the benefits of significantly reduced model construction time and fewer opportunities for user error, but faces significant challenges in reliability and computational costs. Key aspects of the proposed new method include automatic identification of adjacent and opposite surfaces in the global search phase, and the use of a well-defined surface normal which allows a consistent treatment of shell intersection and corner contact conditions without a ad-hoc rules. The paper concludes with three examples which illustrate the performance of the newly proposed algorithm in the public DYNA3D code.

  13. Successful development and application of high performance plate steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    New high performance plate steels (HPPS) are developed in reaction to customer requirements and the availability of essential steelmaking facilities. In this decade significant improvements to steelmaking equipment has made possible the development and production of a variety of new HPPS. Four case studies are presented reviewing the key metallurgical needs and the innovative steel processing that was required. These applications include: (1) Hydrogen Induced Cracking Resistant A516 C-Mn pressure vessel steel with ultra low sulfur and controlled carbon equivalent levels, (2) Temper Embrittlement Resistant A387 Cr-Mo alloy steels for high temperature pressure vessels with low phosphorus, J Factor and sulfur levels with high toughness, (3) formable, weldable, 400HB abrasion resistant alloy steels, which are produced with extra low sulfur levels, reduced carbon and carbon equivalent levels and rigorous heat treatment controls, and (4) weldable, high strength structural steels with low carbon levels, based on Cu-Ni precipitation hardening and A710. Future opportunities for HPPS will result with the installation of additional new steelmaking facilities.

  14. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  15. Rhode Island Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    24,846 225,204 225,828 228,487 231,763 233,786 1987-2014 Sales 225,204 225,828 228,487 231,763 233,786 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 22,988 23,049 23,177 23,359 23,742 23,934 1987-2014 Sales 21,507 21,421 21,442 21,731 21,947 1998-2014 Transported 1,542 1,756 1,917 2,011 1,987 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 467 454 468 432 490 551 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 260 249 245 248 271 266 1987-2014 Sales 57 53 56 62 62 1998-2014 Transported 192

  16. South Carolina Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    565,774 570,797 576,594 583,633 593,286 604,743 1987-2014 Sales 570,797 576,594 583,633 593,286 604,743 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 55,850 55,853 55,846 55,908 55,997 56,172 1987-2014 Sales 55,776 55,760 55,815 55,902 56,074 1998-2014 Transported 77 86 93 95 98 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 393 432 396 383 426 452 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,358 1,325 1,329 1,435 1,452 1,426 1987-2014 Sales 1,139 1,137 1,215 1,223 1,199 1998-2014

  17. Tennessee Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ,083,573 1,085,387 1,089,009 1,084,726 1,094,122 1,106,681 1987-2014 Sales 1,085,387 1,089,009 1,084,726 1,094,122 1,106,681 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 127,704 127,914 128,969 130,139 131,091 131,001 1987-2014 Sales 127,806 128,866 130,035 130,989 130,905 1998-2014 Transported 108 103 104 102 96 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 406 439 404 345 411 438 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 2,717 2,702 2,729 2,679 2,581 2,595 1987-2014 Sales 2,340

  18. Texas Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4,248,613 4,288,495 4,326,156 4,370,057 4,424,103 4,469,282 1987-2014 Sales 4,287,929 4,326,076 4,369,990 4,424,037 4,469,220 1997-2014 Transported 566 80 67 66 62 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 313,384 312,277 314,041 314,811 314,036 317,217 1987-2014 Sales 310,842 312,164 312,574 311,493 313,971 1998-2014 Transported 1,435 1,877 2,237 2,543 3,246 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 534 605 587 512 553 583 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 8,581

  19. Kentucky Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    754,761 758,129 759,584 757,790 761,575 760,131 1987-2014 Sales 728,940 730,602 730,184 736,011 735,486 1997-2014 Transported 29,189 28,982 27,606 25,564 24,645 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 83,862 84,707 84,977 85,129 85,999 85,318 1987-2014 Sales 80,541 80,392 80,644 81,579 81,026 1998-2014 Transported 4,166 4,585 4,485 4,420 4,292 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 423 435 407 361 435 469 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,715 1,742 1,705 1,720

  20. Louisiana Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    889,570 893,400 897,513 963,688 901,635 899,378 1987-2014 Sales 893,400 897,513 963,688 901,635 899,378 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 58,396 58,562 58,749 63,381 59,147 58,611 1987-2014 Sales 58,501 58,685 63,256 58,985 58,438 1998-2014 Transported 61 64 125 162 173 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 405 461 441 415 488 532 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 954 942 920 963 916 883 1987-2014 Sales 586 573 628 570 546

  1. Maryland Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    067,807 1,071,566 1,077,168 1,078,978 1,099,272 1,101,292 1987-2014 Sales 923,870 892,844 867,627 852,555 858,352 1997-2014 Transported 147,696 184,324 211,351 246,717 242,940 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 75,771 75,192 75,788 75,799 77,117 77,846 1987-2014 Sales 54,966 53,778 52,383 52,763 53,961 1998-2014 Transported 20,226 22,010 23,416 24,354 23,885 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 912 898 891 846 923 961 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers

  2. Mississippi Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    437,715 436,840 442,479 442,840 445,589 444,423 1987-2014 Sales 436,840 439,511 440,171 442,974 444,423 1997-2014 Transported 0 2,968 2,669 2,615 0 2010-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 50,713 50,537 50,636 50,689 50,153 50,238 1987-2014 Sales 50,503 50,273 50,360 49,829 50,197 1998-2014 Transported 34 363 329 324 41 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 377 419 400 352 388 442 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,141 980 982 936 933 943 1987-2014 Sales 860 853

  3. Missouri Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    348,781 1,348,549 1,342,920 1,389,910 1,357,740 1,363,286 1987-2014 Sales 1,348,549 1,342,920 1,389,910 1,357,740 1,363,286 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 2010-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 140,633 138,670 138,214 144,906 142,495 143,024 1987-2014 Sales 137,342 136,843 143,487 141,047 141,477 1998-2014 Transported 1,328 1,371 1,419 1,448 1,547 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 437 441 451 378 453 510 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 3,573 3,541 3,307

  4. Montana Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    255,472 257,322 259,046 259,957 262,122 265,849 1987-2014 Sales 256,841 258,579 259,484 261,637 265,323 1997-2014 Transported 481 467 473 485 526 2005-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 33,731 34,002 34,305 34,504 34,909 35,205 1987-2014 Sales 33,652 33,939 33,967 34,305 34,558 1998-2014 Transported 350 366 537 604 647 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 699 602 651 557 601 612 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 396 384 381 372 372 369 1987-2014 Sales 312 304

  5. Utah Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    810,442 821,525 830,219 840,687 854,389 869,052 1987-2014 Sales 821,525 830,219 840,687 854,389 869,052 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 60,781 61,976 62,885 63,383 64,114 65,134 1987-2014 Sales 61,929 62,831 63,298 63,960 64,931 1998-2014 Transported 47 54 85 154 203 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 609 621 643 558 646 586 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 293 293 286 302 323 328 1987-2014 Sales 205 189 189 187 178 1998-2014 Transported 88 97 113

  6. Vermont Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    37,242 38,047 38,839 39,917 41,152 42,231 1987-2014 Sales 38,047 38,839 39,917 41,152 42,231 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 5,085 5,137 5,256 5,535 5,441 5,589 1987-2014 Sales 5,137 5,256 5,535 5,441 5,589 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 488 464 472 418 873 864 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 36 38 36 38 13 13 1987-2014 Sales 37 35 38 13 13 1998-2014 Transported 1 1 0 0 0 1999-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 80,290

  7. Virginia Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,124,717 1,133,103 1,145,049 1,155,636 1,170,161 1,183,894 1987-2014 Sales 1,076,080 1,081,581 1,088,340 1,102,646 1,114,224 1997-2014 Transported 57,023 63,468 67,296 67,515 69,670 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 95,704 95,401 96,086 96,503 97,499 98,741 1987-2014 Sales 85,521 85,522 85,595 86,618 87,470 1998-2014 Transported 9,880 10,564 10,908 10,881 11,271 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 707 722 669 624 699 731 1967-2014 Industrial Number of

  8. Washington Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    059,239 1,067,979 1,079,277 1,088,762 1,102,318 1,118,193 1987-2014 Sales 1,067,979 1,079,277 1,088,762 1,102,318 1,118,193 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 98,965 99,231 99,674 100,038 100,939 101,730 1987-2014 Sales 99,166 99,584 99,930 100,819 101,606 1998-2014 Transported 65 90 108 120 124 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 563 517 567 534 553 535 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 3,428 3,372 3,353 3,338 3,320 3,355 1987-2014 Sales 3,056 3,031

  9. Wisconsin Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    656,614 1,663,583 1,671,834 1,681,001 1,692,891 1,705,907 1987-2014 Sales 1,663,583 1,671,834 1,681,001 1,692,891 1,705,907 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 163,843 164,173 165,002 165,657 166,845 167,901 1987-2014 Sales 163,060 163,905 164,575 165,718 166,750 1998-2014 Transported 1,113 1,097 1,082 1,127 1,151 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 558 501 528 465 596 637 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 6,396 6,413 6,376

  10. Wyoming Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    153,062 153,852 155,181 157,226 158,889 160,896 1987-2014 Sales 117,735 118,433 118,691 117,948 118,396 1997-2014 Transported 36,117 36,748 38,535 40,941 42,500 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 19,843 19,977 20,146 20,387 20,617 20,894 1987-2014 Sales 14,319 14,292 14,187 14,221 14,452 1998-2014 Transported 5,658 5,854 6,200 6,396 6,442 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 523 558 580 514 583 583 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 130 120 123 127 132 131

  11. Nebraska Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    512,551 510,776 514,481 515,338 527,397 522,408 1987-2014 Sales 442,413 446,652 447,617 459,712 454,725 1997-2014 Transported 68,363 67,829 67,721 67,685 67,683 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 56,454 56,246 56,553 56,608 58,005 57,191 1987-2014 Sales 40,348 40,881 41,074 42,400 41,467 1998-2014 Transported 15,898 15,672 15,534 15,605 15,724 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 563 569 568 468 555 567 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 7,863 7,912 7,955

  12. Nevada Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    760,391 764,435 772,880 782,759 794,150 808,970 1987-2014 Sales 764,435 772,880 782,759 794,150 808,970 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 41,303 40,801 40,944 41,192 41,710 42,338 1987-2014 Sales 40,655 40,786 41,023 41,536 42,163 1998-2014 Transported 146 158 169 174 175 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 715 722 751 704 748 687 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 192 184 177 177 195 218 1987-2014 Sales 152 147 146 162 183 1998-2014 Transported 32 30 31

  13. New Hampshire Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    96,924 95,361 97,400 99,738 98,715 99,146 1987-2014 Sales 95,360 97,400 99,738 98,715 99,146 1997-2014 Transported 1 0 0 0 0 2010-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 16,937 16,645 17,186 17,758 17,298 17,421 1987-2014 Sales 15,004 15,198 15,429 14,685 14,527 1998-2014 Transported 1,641 1,988 2,329 2,613 2,894 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 587 505 517 458 532 540 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 155 306 362 466 403 326 1987-2014 Sales 31 25 30 35 45

  14. New Mexico Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    560,479 559,852 570,637 561,713 572,224 614,313 1987-2014 Sales 559,825 570,592 561,652 572,146 614,231 1997-2014 Transported 27 45 61 78 82 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 48,846 48,757 49,406 48,914 50,163 55,689 1987-2014 Sales 45,679 46,104 45,298 46,348 51,772 1998-2014 Transported 3,078 3,302 3,616 3,815 3,917 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 506 516 507 509 534 461 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 471 438 360 121 123 116 1987-2014 Sales 390

  15. North Dakota Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    22,065 123,585 125,392 130,044 133,975 137,972 1987-2014 Sales 123,585 125,392 130,044 133,975 137,972 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 17,632 17,823 18,421 19,089 19,855 20,687 1987-2014 Sales 17,745 18,347 19,021 19,788 20,623 1998-2014 Transported 78 74 68 67 64 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 623 578 596 543 667 677 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 279 307 259 260 266 269 1987-2014 Sales 255 204 206 211 210

  16. Oklahoma Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    924,745 914,869 922,240 927,346 931,981 937,237 1987-2014 Sales 914,869 922,240 927,346 931,981 937,237 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 94,314 92,430 93,903 94,537 95,385 96,004 1987-2014 Sales 88,217 89,573 90,097 90,861 91,402 1998-2014 Transported 4,213 4,330 4,440 4,524 4,602 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 439 452 430 382 464 489 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 2,618 2,731 2,733 2,872 2,958 3,063 1987-2014

  17. Oregon Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    675,582 682,737 688,681 693,507 700,211 707,010 1987-2014 Sales 682,737 688,681 693,507 700,211 707,010 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 76,893 77,370 77,822 78,237 79,276 80,480 1987-2014 Sales 77,351 77,793 78,197 79,227 80,422 1998-2014 Transported 19 29 40 49 58 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 387 352 390 368 386 353 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,051 1,053 1,066 1,076 1,085 1,099 1987-2014 Sales 821 828 817 821 839 1998-2014 Transported

  18. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  19. Colorado Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ,622,434 1,634,587 1,645,716 1,659,808 1,672,312 1,690,581 1986-2014 Sales 1,634,582 1,645,711 1,659,803 1,672,307 1,690,576 1997-2014 Transported 5 5 5 5 5 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 145,624 145,460 145,837 145,960 150,145 150,235 1986-2014 Sales 145,236 145,557 145,563 149,826 149,921 1998-2014 Transported 224 280 397 319 314 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 429 396 383 355 392 386 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 5,084 6,232 6,529 6,906

  20. Delaware Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9,006 150,458 152,005 153,307 155,627 158,502 1986-2014 Sales 150,458 152,005 153,307 155,627 158,502 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 12,839 12,861 12,931 12,997 13,163 13,352 1986-2014 Sales 12,706 12,656 12,644 12,777 12,902 1998-2014 Transported 155 275 353 386 450 1999-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 910 948 810 772 849 890 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 112 114 129 134 138 141 1987-2014 Sales 40 35 29 28 28 1998-2014 Transported 74 94 105 110

  1. Florida Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    674,090 675,551 679,199 686,994 694,210 703,535 1986-2014 Sales 661,768 664,564 672,133 679,191 687,766 1997-2014 Transported 13,783 14,635 14,861 15,019 15,769 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 59,549 60,854 61,582 63,477 64,772 67,460 1986-2014 Sales 41,750 41,068 41,102 40,434 41,303 1998-2014 Transported 19,104 20,514 22,375 24,338 26,157 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 846 888 869 861 926 929 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 607 581 630 507 528

  2. Georgia Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,744,934 1,740,587 1,740,006 1,739,543 1,805,425 1,755,847 1986-2014 Sales 321,290 321,515 319,179 377,652 315,562 1997-2014 Transported 1,419,297 1,418,491 1,420,364 1,427,773 1,440,285 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 127,347 124,759 123,454 121,243 126,060 122,573 1986-2014 Sales 32,318 32,162 31,755 36,556 31,845 1998-2014 Transported 92,441 91,292 89,488 89,504 90,728 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 421 482 458 428 454 482 1967-2014 Industrial Number

  3. Hawaii Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    25,466 25,389 25,305 25,184 26,374 28,919 1987-2014 Sales 25,389 25,305 25,184 26,374 28,919 1998-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 2,535 2,551 2,560 2,545 2,627 2,789 1987-2014 Sales 2,551 2,560 2,545 2,627 2,789 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 691 697 691 727 713 692 1980-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 25 24 24 22 22 23 1997-2014 Sales 24 24 22 22 23 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 13,753 14,111 15,087 16,126 17,635 17,

  4. Idaho Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    42,277 346,602 350,871 353,963 359,889 367,394 1987-2014 Sales 346,602 350,871 353,963 359,889 367,394 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 38,245 38,506 38,912 39,202 39,722 40,229 1987-2014 Sales 38,468 38,872 39,160 39,681 40,188 1998-2014 Transported 38 40 42 41 41 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 412 390 433 404 465 422 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 187 184 178 179 183 189 1987-2014 Sales 108 103 105 109 115 1998-2014 Transported 76 75 74 74 74

  5. Iowa Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    875,781 879,713 883,733 892,123 895,414 900,420 1987-2014 Sales 879,713 883,733 892,123 895,414 900,420 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 98,416 98,396 98,541 99,113 99,017 99,182 1987-2014 Sales 96,996 97,075 97,580 97,334 97,409 1998-2014 Transported 1,400 1,466 1,533 1,683 1,773 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 576 525 526 442 572 579 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,626 1,528 1,465 1,469 1,491 1,572 1987-2014 Sales 1,161 1,110 1,042 1,074 1,135

  6. Kansas Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    855,454 853,842 854,730 854,800 858,572 861,092 1987-2014 Sales 853,842 854,730 854,779 858,546 861,066 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 21 26 26 2004-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 84,715 84,446 84,874 84,673 84,969 85,867 1987-2014 Sales 78,310 78,559 78,230 78,441 79,231 1998-2014 Transported 6,136 6,315 6,443 6,528 6,636 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 384 377 378 301 391 425 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 7,793 7,664 7,954 7,970 7,877 7,429 1987-2014

  7. Alabama Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    785,005 778,985 772,892 767,396 765,957 769,418 1986-2014 Sales 778,985 772,892 767,396 765,957 769,418 1997-2014 Transported 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 67,674 68,163 67,696 67,252 67,136 67,806 1986-2014 Sales 68,017 67,561 67,117 67,006 67,677 1998-2014 Transported 146 135 135 130 129 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 359 397 371 320 377 406 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 3,057 3,039 2,988 3,045 3,143 3,244 1986-2014 Sales 2,758

  8. Alaska Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    120,124 121,166 121,736 122,983 124,411 126,416 1986-2014 Sales 121,166 121,736 122,983 124,411 126,416 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 13,215 12,998 13,027 13,133 13,246 13,399 1986-2014 Sales 12,673 12,724 13,072 13,184 13,336 1998-2014 Transported 325 303 61 62 63 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 1,258 1,225 1,489 1,515 1,411 1,338 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 3 3 5 3 3 1 1987-2014 Sales 2 2 3 2 1 1998-2014 Transported 1 3 0 1 0 1998-2014

  9. Arizona Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ,130,047 1,138,448 1,146,286 1,157,688 1,172,003 1,186,794 1986-2014 Sales 1,138,448 1,146,280 1,157,682 1,171,997 1,186,788 1997-2014 Transported 0 6 6 6 6 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 57,191 56,676 56,547 56,532 56,585 56,649 1986-2014 Sales 56,510 56,349 56,252 56,270 56,331 1998-2014 Transported 166 198 280 315 318 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 563 564 577 558 581 538 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 390 368 371 379 383 386 1987-2014

  10. Arkansas Number of Natural Gas Consumers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    557,355 549,970 551,795 549,959 549,764 549,034 1986-2014 Sales 549,970 551,795 549,959 549,764 549,034 1997-2014 Commercial Number of Consumers 69,043 67,987 67,815 68,765 68,791 69,011 1986-2014 Sales 67,676 67,454 68,151 68,127 68,291 1998-2014 Transported 311 361 614 664 720 1998-2014 Average Consumption per Consumer (Thousand Cubic Ft.) 527 592 590 603 692 734 1967-2014 Industrial Number of Consumers 1,025 1,079 1,133 990 1,020 1,009 1986-2014 Sales 580 554 523 513 531 1998-2014 Transported

  11. Volume, Number of Shipments Surpass Goals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shatters records in first year of accelerated shipping effort October 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory shatters records in first year of accelerated shipping effort Volume, Number of Shipments Surpass Goals LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO, October 3, 2012-In the first year of an effort to accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Los Alamos National Laboratory shattered its own record with 59 more shipments than planned, and became one of the largest

  12. Low Mach Number Models in Computational Astrophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In memoriam: Michael Welcome 1957 - 2014 RIP Almgren CCSE Low Mach Number Models in Computational Astrophysics Ann Almgren Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory NUG 2014: NERSC@40 February 4, 2014 Collaborators: John Bell, Chris Malone, Andy Nonaka, Stan Woosley, Michael Zingale Almgren CCSE Introduction We often associate astrophysics with explosive phenomena: novae supernovae gamma-ray bursts X-ray bursts Type Ia Supernovae Largest

  13. Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    372 Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 181 / Wednesday, September 18, 2013 / Notices Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 10,128. Abstract: Enrollment in the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Student Aid Internet Gateway (SAIG) allows eligible entities to securely exchange Title IV, Higher Education Act (HEA) assistance programs data electronically with the Department of Education processors. Organizations establish Destination Point Administrators (DPAs) to transmit, receive, view and update

  14. Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly, Volume 2, Number 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1 * May 2012 Message from the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Stockpile Stewardship, Chris Deeney Defense Programs Stockpile Stewardship in Action Volume 2, Number 1 Inside this Issue 2 LANL and ANL Complete Groundbreaking Shock Experiments at the Advanced Photon Source 3 Characterization of Activity-Size-Distribution of Nuclear Fallout 5 Modeling Mix in High-Energy-Density Plasma 6 Quality Input for Microscopic Fission Theory 8 Fiber Reinforced Composites Under Pressure: A Case Study in

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (Number

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Elements) Acquifers Capacity (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 49 2000's 49 39 38 43 43 44 44 43 43 43 2010's 43 43 44 47 46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016 Referring Pages: Number of

  16. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D. L.; Luo, S. N.; Swift, D. C.; Loomis, E.; Johnson, R.; Greenfield, S.; Peralta, P.; Koskelo, A.; Tonks, D.

    2007-12-12

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of {>=}500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to {>=}500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented.

  17. Laser/matter interactions by laser-launched plates and direct laser shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, Dennis L.; Swift, D. C.; Kopp, R. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Munson, C. P.; Letzring, S. A.; Niemczura, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    Explosives, gas guns, laser-launched flyer plates, and direct laser-irradiation can be used to generate shocks and high-stress in materials. Each method has a unique diameter and thickness of shock that can be generated. In past years, small laboratory lasers have been used to launch flyer plates 2 - 200-pm thick to terminal velocities 0.1 to 5 k d s . Over the past few years we have been using our TRIDENT laser facility (1kJ in 0.2 to 2ps) to accelerate larger diameter (8 mm) and thicker (0.1 - 1.5 mm) flyer plates. These larger diameters and thicker one-dimensional plates more closely compliment traditional experimental methods such as gas guns. The 8-mm diameter and 1-mm thick flyer plates can impart shocks in metals for constitutive dynamic property measurements. The versatility of laser-driven plates permits spatial and temporal profiles of the flyer plate impact on sample targets. LASNEX models and parameters of the laser drive can be used to optimize optical coupling efficiency. The flyer plate launch, acceleration, terminal velocity, and, depending on the experiment, flyer plate impact on to target materials are recorded using point-interferometry (VISAR), and line-imaging interferometry. These high speed optical and laser experimental methods will be described along with ancillary methods, and material data. Constitutive properties of bulk materials, rate effects, and grain size and/or orientation have been studied for several metals including copper, beryllium, gold, and some alloys.

  18. Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

    2000-03-01

    This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

  19. Method and apparatus for actively controlling a micro-scale flexural plate wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dohner, Jeffrey L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An actively controlled flexural plate wave device provides a micro-scale pump. A method of actively controlling a flexural plate wave device produces traveling waves in the device by coordinating the interaction of a magnetic field with actively controlled currents. An actively-controlled flexural plate wave device can be placed in a fluid channel and adapted for use as a micro-scale fluid pump to cool or drive micro-scale systems, for example, micro-chips, micro-electrical-mechanical devices, micro-fluid circuits, or micro-scale chemical analysis devices.

  20. Disruption Analysis and Response Implicattions of Passive Plates for the NSTX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhu Zhai, Peter Titus, Art Brooks, and Ron Hatcher

    2012-08-27

    The NSTX upgrade project requires analysis qualifications of existing vacuum vessel and passive stabilizing plates for increased plasma performance. Vertical stability is critically dependent on the passive conducting structure that surrounds the plasma. In this paper, the passive conducting structure is analyzed for the upgrade condition during plasma disruption to ensure the level of stress in the stabilizing plates and the fastener is within its design limits. The counter-bore of the passive plates for bolting is evaluated in details and counter-bore bushing is redesigned to prevent shear failure during disruptions as a result of high pulling and pushing forces, particularly for support at the corner bolts